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Subject: talk.politics.tibet: FAQ [1/1]

This article was archived around: 16 Oct 1997 12:36:25 -0600

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Archive-name: tibet-faq Posting-frequency: monthly Last-modified: 12 Oct 1997 Version: 4.40
This FAQ was created for the Usenet newsgroup talk.politics.tibet and addresses various issues that are discussed in that newsgroup on a recurring basis. Also included are the addresses of various organizations that deal with Tibet and a guide to the additional sources of information that are available, both on the Internet and in print. The maintainers of this FAQ are: Peter Kauffner (Peter.Kauffner@bearsden.org) Nima Dorjee (tibet@acs.ucalgary.ca) Suggestions for improvement should be sent to (Peter.Kauffner@bearsden.org). The e-mail addresses for the mailing list Tibet-L, given in question E3, have been updated for this edition. ----TABLE OF CONTENTS---- Introduction A1) What are the meanings of specialized words used on TPT (glossary)? Historical Issues B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)? B2) What were the roles of the Dalai and Panchen Lamas in Tibetan history? B3) Did slavery exist in old Tibet? B4) Was human sacrifice practiced in old Tibet? B5) What is the historical basis of the Chinese claim to Tibet? B6) What was Tibet's status during China's Qing dynasty (1644-1912)? B7) What was Tibet's status immediately prior to China's 1950-51 invasion? Human Rights C1) Are Tibetan women being forced to have abortions? C2) How are Tibetan political prisoners treated? C3) How many Tibetans have died as a result of the Chinese occupation? Statistical Issues D1) What is the total population of Tibet? D2) How many ethnic Chinese live in Tibet (population transfer)? D3) What are Tibet's economic statistics? Further Information E1) What World-Wide Web sites have further information about Tibet? E2) Where do I find information concerning travel to Tibet? E3) What Tibet-oriented mailing lists can I subscribe to? E4) What are the addresses of some organizations that deal with Tibet? E5) What books about Tibet would you recommend? F0) Sources Section A: INTRODUCTION A1) What are the meanings of specialized words used on TPT (glossary)? The following is a glossary of words related to Tibet. When the pronunciation of a word differs from what one might expect from the standard spelling, a phonetic spelling is given between slash marks (//). Words in all CAPITAL letters have glossary entries of their own. The tonal indicators for Tibetan are as follows: 1 -- high; 2 -- low; 3 -- falling; and 4 -- middle. For Chinese (Mandarin), the tonal indicators are: 1 -- level; 2 -- high rising; 3 -- low rising; and 4 -- falling. AMBAN -- A representative of the QING emperor who resided in the territory of a tributary state or dependency. The Qing mission in Lhasa was usually headed by two Ambans of equal status. The mission was established in 1728 and lasted until 1912. AMDO /ahm'doh'/ -- The Tibetan name for a region located northeast of Lhasa. It includes the bulk of QINGHAI province, as well as the Kanlho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province. Along with KHAM and U-TSANG, it is one of Tibet's three historic regions. Each of these regions speaks its own distinctive dialect of Tibetan. BOD [Tibetan /puh3/] -- The Tibetan word for TIBET. The word Bod may be derived from BON. BODPA [Tibetan /puh4ba4/] -- The Tibetan word for "Tibetan," both as a noun and as an adjective. BON [Tibetan /puhm2/] -- Tibet's pre-Buddhist, animist religion. Cf. NYINGMAPA CCP -- Chinese Communist Party. The ruling party of China since 1949. (The Chinese government prefers "CPC" -- Communist Party of China.) COMMISSION OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES -- TGIE's legislative branch. The Tibetan exile community has held CPD elections every three years since 1960. DALAI LAMA [Tibetan /ta1le4 la1ma4/] -- Tibet's most renown line of incarnate LAMAs. The Dalai Lamas reigned as kings of Tibet from 1642 until 1959. The current Dalai Lama has lived in exile since 1959. See question B2. DL -- DALAI LAMA GELUGPA /ge'luk'pa'/ -- The dominate Buddhist sect in Tibet and Mongolia. The literal translation of Gelugpa is "model of virtue." The sect was founded by the Tibetan monk Tsongkhapa in the 15th century and is also known as the Yellow Hat sect. Cf. RED HAT. HAN /han4/ -- The Chinese word for an ethnic Chinese. More precisely, a Han is someone whose primary or ancestral language is Chinese (_Han4yu3_) and who does not belong to any of China's various other officially recognized ethnic groups. KAGYUPA -- Tibet's third largest monastic order. The name means "transmitted word." The Kagyupa order consists of several sub-orders, including Karma Kagyupa, widely practiced in both Tibet and Sikkim, and Dukpa Kagyupa, the dominate faith of Bhutan. Cf. KARMAPA. KARMAPA -- A line of incarnate LAMAs whose traditional residence is at Tsurphu Monastery near Lhasa. The Karmapa heads the Karma KAGYUPA order and is also known as the Black Hat Lama. The 16th Karmapa died in Chicago in 1981. A successor was enthroned at Tsurphu in 1993, although some Karma Kagyupa members still support a rival candidate. KASHAG [Tibetan /ka1shaa3/] -- A group of four men appointed by the Dalai Lama to supervise day to day government administration. The group is often referred to as Tibet's cabinet. In 1992, TGIE's constitution was amended to make the Kashag responsible to the COMMISSION OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES. KHAM -- A region of eastern Tibet. Western Kham is now in TAR (q.v.) while eastern Kham is in China's Sichuan (Szechwan) province. KMT -- Kuomintang [Chinese /gwo2min2dang3/] The ruling party of China from 1928 to 1949. The ruling party of Taiwan since 1949. It is also known as the Nationalist Party. LAMA [Tibetan /la1ma4/] -- The literal translation of this Tibetan word is "superior one." The word has several meanings, but is most commonly used to refer to incarnate lamas or TULKU. Other Buddhist spiritual teachers may be referred to as root lamas. Cf. YOGIN. LHASA [Tibetan /lhe1sa4/] -- The capital and largest city in Tibet with a population of 170,000. Lhasa is a shortened form of _lha sacha_, which means "god's place." LOSAR -- Tibetan new year. The next Losar will be on February 27, 1998. By the Tibetan calendar, it is currently 2124, the year of the fire ox. Cf. MONLAM CHENMO. MCMAHON LINE -- The boundary for the eastern section of the frontier between Tibet and India. It runs from the eastern end of Bhutan to the great bend in the Brahmaputra River. British and Tibetan negotiators agreed to this boundary in a conference held in Simla, India in 1914. The line is named for Sir Henry McMahon, the head of the British negotiating team. Although China claims territory south the McMahon Line, it has generally respected the line in practice. MANCHU -- a people who lived in what is now northeastern China for many centuries. Until 1636, they were known as the Jurchen. From 1644 to 1912, China was ruled by emperors of Manchu ancestry. Cf. QING. MONLAM CHENMO -- The "great prayer festival," which begins three days after LOSAR and continues for ten days. China currently prohibits the public celebration of Monlam and other Buddhist holidays in Tibet. NYINGMAPA -- "The old order," Tibet's second largest monastic order. Nyingmapa priests are not usually required to be celibate. The sect's rituals include many elements that were derived from BON. PANCHEN LAMA [Tibetan /pen1jeen4 la1ma4/] -- A title used by the head LAMA of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse. His spiritual authority is second only to that of the DALAI LAMA within the GELUGPA sect. See question B2. PAP -- People's Armed Police. A paramilitary force created in 1983 to patrol border areas and to guard government buildings. It was used extensively to suppress demonstrations in Lhasa between 1987 and 1991. Cf. PSB. PLA -- People's Liberation Army. The official name of the Chinese armed forces since 1949. The PLA is a combined service and includes ground, air, and naval units. PRC -- People's Republic of China. China's official long form name since 1949. PSB -- Public Security Bureau. China's principle agency for enforcing criminal law, i.e. the regular police. Cf. PAP. QING /ching1/ -- A dynasty of MANCHU origin which was founded in 1636 and ruled China from 1644 to 1912. QINGHAI /ching1hi3/ -- A Chinese province created in 1928 to administer the bulk of Tibet's AMDO region. In 1992, the population of Qinghai was estimated to be 4.61 million, [Fiske94] of whom 58 percent were ethnic Chinese, 20 percent were ethnic Tibetan, and 14 percent were Hui (Chinese Muslim). The ethnic Chinese population is concentrated in the vicinity of Xining, the capital. All six of the province's rural prefectures are classified as "Tibetan autonomous." Qinghai can also be referred to as Kokonor, the region's Mongolian name. RANG-BTSAN /rang2dsen4/ -- The Tibetan word for "independence" or "self- government." RED HAT -- Any of various Tibetan monastic orders established prior to the 15th century when the GELUGPA order was founded. The three largest Red Hat sects, in order of membership, are: NYINGMAPA, KAGYUPA, and Sakyapa. The Tibetan term corresponding to Red Hat (_Zhvamar_) refers only to the followers of the Sharmapa, a TULKU of the Karma Kagyupa sub-order. ROC -- Republic of China, China's official long form name from 1911 to 1949. Although the ROC government has ruled only Taiwan since 1949, it still claims to be the legitimate government of all China, including Tibet. SELF-DETERMINATION -- The determining by a people of the form their government shall have, without reference to the wishes any other people. The Charter of the United Nations calls for, "respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples." A 1961 U.N. General Assembly resolution describes Tibetans as a people entitled to the right of self-determination. SERF -- A peasant bound to perform feudal obligations for a lord. In 1959, about 60 percent of Tibet's population were legally classified as serfs. (In Tibetan, serfs are known as _miser_ or "yellow people"). [Grunfeld1] The basic difference between a serf and a tenant farmer is that a serf pays rent and taxes in the form of labor, as opposed to money. TAR -- Tibet Autonomous Region. China created TAR in 1965 to administer the Tibetan regions of U-TSANG and western KHAM. Despite its name, the TAR government does not in fact enjoy any significant degree of autonomy. The region's top policymaker is CCP Secretary Chen Kuiyuan, an ethnic Chinese appointed by Beijing. TASHI DELEK -- A common Tibetan greeting. TGIE -- Tibetan government-in-exile. See question B2. TI -- Tibetan independence. TI can also stand for "Taiwan independence." TIBET -- The Tibetan government-in-exile refers to the entire Tibetan Plateau as "Tibet." But the word can also be used to refer to TAR (q.v.) only, thus excluding QINGHAI and eastern KHAM. "Tibet" is a word used in various European languages and was derived from the Arabic _Tubbat_, which was in turn derived from the Chinese TUFAN. [Partridge66] TPT -- talk.politics.tibet. The Usenet newsgroup for which this document is the FAQ. TSAMPA -- roasted barley flour, a staple of the Tibetan diet. Various Tibetan celebrations, such as LOSAR, are marked by tossing tsampa into the air. TSHONGDU -- Old Tibet's national assembly, established in the 1860s. It included the heads of major government departments as well as representatives from the larger monasteries. Decisions were made by consensus. Cf. COMMISSION OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES TUFAN /tu3fan1/ -- A Chinese name for Tibet used during the Tang dynasty (618-907). The second syllable of Tufan was traditionally pronounced /bo/ and is probably a corruption of BOD. [Giles1] TULKU [Tibetan /drue1ue1ku4/] -- A person who is considered to be the reincarnation of a great spiritual teacher. The preferred translation of tulku is "incarnate LAMA." An older, less accurate, translation is "living Buddha." The Dalai and Panchen Lamas are Tibet's best-known tulku. U-TSANG /oh'tsong'/ -- The Tibetan name for central Tibet, now included in TAR (q.v.). XIZANG /she1tsong4/ -- The modern Chinese name for Tibet. The word is derived from U-TSANG and has been in use since the 18th century. [Kolmas67] The literal translation of Xizang is "western storehouse" or "western storeroom," not "western treasure house" as is sometimes claimed. [Giles2] YOGIN -- A spiritual teacher who is not bound by monastic vows. Section B: HISTORICAL ISSUES B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)? Year Description of Event 416 BC Nyatri Tsenpo founds a dynasty in Yarlung valley, according to legend 602 AD Tibet is unified under King Namri Songtsen of the Yarlung dynasty 641 King Songtsen Gampo marries Princess Wencheng of China, his 2nd wife 670 Tibet conquers Amdo, Tarim Basin; prolonged warfare with China begins 747 King Trisong Detsen invites Padmasambhava, yogin of Swat, to Tibet 763 Tibet captures Changan, capital of Tang China; tribute paid to Tibet 779 Samye, Tibet's 1st monastery, built by Trisong Detsen & Padmasambhava 792 Exponents of Indian Buddhism prevail in debate with Chinese at Samye 821 Tibet signs its last peace treaty with Tang China: "Tibetans shall be happy in Tibet and Chinese shall be happy in China." [Walt1] 842 King Langdarma murdered by a monk; Tibet splits into several states 1040 Birth of Milarepa, 2nd hierarch of Kagyupa order and a renown poet 1073 Founding of Sakya, the first monastery of the Sakyapa monastic order 1206 An assembly names Genghis Khan first ruler of a unified Mongol nation 1227 Mongols destroy Xixia, a Tibetan-speaking kingdom of northwest China 1247 Sakya Pandita submits to Godan Khan; beginning of the first priest/ patron relationship between a Tibetan lama and a Mongol khan 1261 Tibet is reunited with Sakya Pandita, Grand Lama of Sakya, as king 1279 Final defeat of Song by Mongols; Mongol conquest of China complete 1350 Changchub Gyaltsen defeats Sakya and founds the secular Sitya dynasty 1368 China regains its independence from the Mongols under Ming dynasty 1409 Ganden, 1st Gelugpa monastery, built by monastic reformer Tsongkhapa 1435-81 In prolonged warfare, Karmapa supporters gain control of Sitya court 1578 Gelugpa leader gets the title of Dalai ("Ocean") from Altan Khan 1635 Sitya dynasty is overthrown by the ruler of Tibet's Tsang province 1640 Gushri Khan, leader of Khoshut Mongols, invades and conquers Tibet 1642 Gushri Khan enthrones the 5th Dalai Lama as temporal ruler of Tibet 1644 Manchu overthrow Ming, conquer China, and establish the Qing dynasty 1653 "Great Fifth" Dalai Lama meets Qing Emperor Shunzhi near Beijing 1682 Fifth Dalai Lama dies; regent conceals death for the next 14 years 1716-21 Italian Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri studies and teaches in Lhasa 1717 Dzungar Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa; 5th DL's tomb looted 1720 Dzungars driven out; Qing forces install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th DL 1721 The position of Amban is created by a 13-point Qing decree on Tibet 1724 A Chinese territorial government is created for Qinghai (Amdo) 1750 Ambans murder regent; rioters kill Ambans; Qing troops sent to Tibet 1792 Qing troops enter Tibet to drive out Gorkha (Nepalese) invaders 29-point Qing decree prescribes "golden urn" lottery for picking DL and PL, bans visits by non-Chinese, and increases Ambans' powers 1854-56 Nepal defeats Tibet; peace treaty requires that Tibet pay tribute 1876 China agrees to provide passports for a British mission to Tibet 1885 Tibet turns back British mission, rejects Chinese-granted passports 1893 China and Britain agree to regulations on trade between India & Tibet 1894 Tibetans build a wall north of Dromo to prevent trade with India The 13th Dalai Lama takes control of the Tibetan government at age 18 1904 British troops under Colonel Younghusband enter Tibet & occupy Lhasa A treaty signed which required Tibet to pay an indemnity to Britain 1906 The 1904 Anglo-Tibetan treaty is "confirmed" in Anglo-Chinese treaty 1907 "Suzerainty of China over Thibet" recognized in Anglo-Russian treaty 1910-12 Qing troops occupy Tibet, shoot at unarmed crowds on entering Lhasa 1912 Last Qing emperor abdicates; Republic of China claims Mongolia,Tibet 1913 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation" Mongolia and Tibet recognize each other in a treaty signed in Urga 1914 Britain and Tibet agree to McMahon Line in a treaty signed in Simla 1917-18 Tibet defeats Chinese forces in Kham, recovers Chamdo (lost in 1910) 1921 Britain recognizes Tibet's "autonomy under Chinese suzerainty" 1924 At a KMT congress, Sun Yat-sen calls for "self-determination of all national minorities in China" within a "united Chinese republic" 1924-25 Pressure from monks causes DL to dismiss his British-trained officers 1928 Chiang Kai-shek defeats northern warlords, reunites China under KMT 1930-33 China captures Derge in Kham in first Sino-Tibetan clash since 1918 1933 Truce ends China/Tibet fighting; the 13th Dalai Lama dies at age 58 1934 Reting Rimpoche named regent; China permitted to open Lhasa mission 1940 The five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama 1941 Unable to keep celibacy vow, Reting is replaced as regent by Taktra 1942 U.S. army officer goes to Lhasa to present a letter for DL from FDR 1944 U.S. military aircraft crash lands near Samye; crew escorted to India 1945 Newly opened English-language school is closed after monks protest 1947 ex-Regent Reting attempts to kill Regent Taktra with a package bomb Reting dies while under house arrest; he was apparently poisoned British mission in Lhasa is transferred to a newly independent India 1947-49 Tibetan Trade Mission travels to India, China, U.S., and Britain; mission meets with British Prime Minister Clement R. Attlee 1949 People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chinese Communist Party PRC recognizes Mongolia, announces its intention to "liberate" Tibet 1950 Red China invades Tibet; Tibetan army destroyed in battle at Chamdo 1951 17-point agreement between China and Tibet; Chinese occupy Lhasa 1955 Tibetans in Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) begin revolt against Chinese rule 1956 Dalai Lama visits India for 2,500th anniversary of the Buddha's birth The United States begins to arm the Tibetan resistance via CIA 1959 DL flees to India; 87,000 Tibetans die in anti-Chinese revolt [Walt2] 1960 International Commission of Jurists: "acts of genocide [have] been committed...to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group." [ICJ1] 1960-62 Tibet experiences its first famine as grain is requisitioned by PLA 1962 China-India War: China advances beyond McMahon Line, then withdraws 1962-75 TAR's peasants are herded into communes by collectivization campaign 1963 DL approves a democratic constitution for the Tibetan exile community 1964 The Panchen Lama is arrested after calling for Tibetan independence 1965 China sets up Tibet Autonomous Region in U-Tsang and western Kham 1966 The United States America recognizes China's sovereignty over Tibet 1966-69 Cultural Revolution: Red Guards vandalize temples, attack "four olds" 1969-71 Tibet is put under PLA military rule in order to suppress Red Guards 1971 The United States cuts off military aid to the Tibetan resistance 1974 Nepal forces the Tibetan resistance to abandon its base in Mustang Sikkim votes overwhelmingly to join India; Ladakh opened to tourists 1976 The first permanent ethnic Chinese settlers arrive in TAR [Donnet94] 1977 Resistance burns 100 PLA vehicles in last major military operation 1978 Visitors find 8 temples left in TAR, down from 2,700 in 1959 [Far95] 1979 Tibet is opened to non-Chinese tourism for the first time since 1963 1979-80 China allows a series of three delegations from DL to visit Tibet 1980 CCP leader Hu Yaobang visits Lhasa; he promises to "relax" controls and "restore the Tibetan economy to its pre-1959 level."[Strauss] "Responsibility system" distributes collectivized land to individuals 1982 Writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn calls CCP regime in Tibet "more brutal and inhuman than any other communist regime in the world."[Walt3] 1985 Bomb defused in Lhasa during the TAR 20th anniversary celebration 1987 Police fire on a massive pro-independence demonstration in Lhasa 1988 Qiao Shi, politburo member and internal security chief, visits Tibet and vows to "adopt a policy of merciless repression." [Asia90] Speaking in Strasbourg, France, the Dalai Lama elaborates on his 1987 "five point" proposal for Tibetan self-government within China. 1989 Police kill 80-150 in Lhasa's bloodiest riots in 30 years[Schwartz94] Martial law imposed in Lhasa; Dalai Lama receives Nobel Peace Prize 1990 China lifts martial law in Lhasa 13 months after imposing it The Voice of America initiates a Tibetan-language broadcast service 1992 Chen Kuiyuan named CCP leader for Tibet, calls for a purge of those who "act as internal agents of the Dalai Lama clique."[Kristof93] Over 30,000 visitors arrive in TAR's "Golden Year of Tibetan Tourism" 1991 1,000 Tibetan refugees, chosen by lottery, are admitted to the U.S. 1993 Residents of Lhasa protest for independence, against inflation and the charging of fees for formally free medical services [Kaye93] 1994 Potala, former residence of the DL, is restored at a cost of $9 mln. 1995 A report on Chinese human rights violations, including one case where a Tibetan nun was beaten to death, is narrowly rejected by the UN DL recognizes six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as 11th Panchen Lama China denounces the Dalai Lama's choice of Panchen Lama as a "fraud," selects rival candidate Gyaincain Norbu by golden urn process Tibet's worst snowstorm in a century leaves more than 50 dead 1996 Earthquake in Lijang rates 7.0 on the Richter scale and kills 200 The U.S.-funded Radio Free Asia begins broadcasting on shortwave Bomb explodes near government offices in Lhasa on Christmas day; a 1 million yuan ($120,000) reward is offered to solve crime DL takes steps to limit Shugden worship in Tibetan exile community 1997 Three monks close to DL are murdered; Shugden supporters suspected Dalai Lama visits Taiwan and meets with ROC President Lee Teng-hui Several major movies on Tibet, including _Kundun_ are released B2) What were the roles of the Dalai and Panchen Lamas in Tibetan history? The Dalai Lama was traditionally considered supreme in both temporal and spiritual matters while the Panchen Lama was traditionally considered supreme in spiritual matters. A contradiction is therefore created when the two lamas disagree, a recurring problem in Tibetan history. Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, was born to a Tibetan peasant family in Qinghai in 1935. He was discovered at the age of two by a search party of high-ranking monks who gave him various traditional tests and concluded that he was the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama (1876-1933). He was proclaimed 14th Dalai Lama in 1939 by the Tshongdu, Tibet's national assembly. When the Chinese occupied Tibet in 1951, the Dalai Lama at first attempted to cooperate with the new rulers. But concern for his personal safety sparked an anti-Chinese revolt in 1959. He then fled to India, crossing the border just ahead of pursuing Chinese troops. He now heads a government-in-exile which administers Tibetan refugee camps and has its headquarters in Dharamsala, India. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and has met with U.S. presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton. His autobiography, entitled _Freedom in Exile_ (1990), is banned in Tibet. "Panchen" is a traditional title of the abbot of Tashilhunpo and means "great scholar." In the 17th century, the "great fifth" Dalai Lama (1617- 1682) declared that his tutor, the fourth abbot of Tashilhunpo (1570-1662), would reincarnate. Although the three earlier abbots did not reincarnated, they are usually counted as the first three Panchen Lamas. As a result of a dispute between the Tibetan government and the Tashilhunpo Monastery over tax arrears, the 9th Panchen Lama (1883-1937) fled to Mongolia in 1923. He died fourteen years later at Jyekundo in Qinghai, still an exile. His officers (_labrang_) chose as 10th Panchen Lama (1938-89) a boy born in Qinghai. At the insistence of China, the Tibetan government confirmed this choice in 1951. The Panchen Lama was then brought to Tibet by a Chinese military escort and enthroned. In 1962, the Panchen Lama sent a "70,000 character letter" to the CCP Central Committee in which he accused China of pursuing a policy aimed at "genocide and elimination of religion." In a 1964 sermon delivered to an enormous crowd in Lhasa, the Panchen Lama hailed the Dalai Lama's leadership and declared that, "Tibet will soon regain her independence." [Dhondup78] In response, the Chinese accused the Panchen Lama of "counterrevolutionary crimes." He was then arrested, imprisoned, and tortured. He was released in 1978, married an ethnic Chinese, and moved to a large house near the center of Beijing. As a vice chair of the National People's Congress, China's national assembly, he often appeared on Chinese television. He died in 1989 of a heart attack, according to reports in the Chinese media. [Southerland89] In 1995, the Dalai Lama recognized the six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as the 11th Panchen Lama. China denounced this choice as a "fraud" and instead recognized Gyaincain Norbu, the six-year-old son of a security officer. B3) Did slavery exist in old Tibet? The following account was written by Sir Charles Bell, who was the British administrator for Chumbi Valley in 1904-05. At that time, Chumbi Valley was under British occupation pending payment by Tibet of an indemnity which resulted from the Younghusband Expedition of 1904. Slaves were sometimes stolen, when small children, from their parents. Or the father and mother, being too poor to support their child, would sell it to a man, who paid them _sho-ring_, "price of mother's milk," brought up the child and kept it, or sold it, as a slave. These children come mostly from south-eastern Tibet and the territories of the wild tribes who dwell between Tibet and Assam. [Bell24] Although the CCP cites slavery as a justification for liquidating the Dalai Lama's government, the practice was by no means confined to Tibet. It is estimated that in 1930 there were about 4 million child slaves in China proper (Cantonese: _mui1jai_). [Meltzer93] B4) Was human sacrifice practiced in old Tibet? The Chinese Communists put a great deal of emphasis on the ritual use of human body parts in Tibetan Buddhism, especially with regard to human skulls and thigh-bones. It is implied that these body parts were obtained by human sacrifice -- an idea firmly rejected by scholars of Tibetan culture. Another version of the human sacrifice charge is that Tibetans would commonly, "bury living boys beneath important buildings or images, so that they would `stand forever.'" It appears that this version is also uncollaborated by independent scholarship. Perhaps this claim has it's origin in the occasional Tibetan practice of burying bodies in the walls of houses. Human sacrifice was a part of pre-Buddhist Tibetan tradition and there are reports which suggest that it was occasionally practiced in more recent times. [Grunfeld2], [Epstein83] B5) What is the historical basis of the Chinese claim to Tibet? Here is how the Chinese Communist magazine _Beijing Review_ explains it: From ancient times, the Mongolians had been one of China's nationalities. In the 13th century, their power expanded rapidly. Genghis Khan united the tribes under a centralized Khanate in 1206. The outcome was a unified country [China] and the formation of the Yuan Dynasty in 1271. In the process, the Mongol Khanates peacefully incorporated Tibet in 1247 after defeating the Western Xia [1227] and the Jin [1234]. With a unified China, the Yuan Dynasty contributed greatly to the political, economic and cultural development of the nation's various nationalities -- in strict contrast to the feuding that had gone on since the late years of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). To argue that the Mongolians' campaign to unify China was fundamentally the imposition of rule by a foreign power is wrong because it misses the basic point of Chinese history that China is a multi-national country. Whether it was the Mongolians, the Manchus (who founded the Qing Dynasty [1644- 1912], or any other peoples, it has always been a case of one Chinese nationality replacing another. It is completely out of the question to claim that the Mongolians or the Manchus were outsiders who conquered China. [BR-F89] The Dalai Lama's view is as follows: During the Vth Dalai Lama's time [1617-1682], I think it was quite evident the we were a separate sovereign nation with no problems. The VIth Dalai Lama [1683-1706] was spiritually pre-eminent, but politically, he was weak and disinterested. He could not follow the Vth Dalai Lama's path. This was a great failure. So, then the Chinese influence increased. During this time, the Tibetans showed quite a deal of respect to the Chinese. But even during these times, the Tibetans never regarded Tibet as a part of China. All the documents were very clear that China, Mongolia and Tibet were all separate countries. Because the Chinese emperor was powerful and influential, the small nations accepted the Chinese power or influence. You cannot use the previous invasion as evidence that Tibet belongs to China. In the Tibetan mind, regardless of who was in power, whether it was the Manchus, the Mongols or the Chinese, the east of Tibet was simply referred to as China. In the Tibetan mind, India and China were treated the same; two separate countries. [Gyatso89] B6) What was Tibet's status during China's Qing dynasty (1644-1912)? The Tibetan view of their relationship with the Qing Empire was expressed by the 13th Dalai Lama in his 1913 proclamation of independence: "The relationship between Tibet and [imperial] China was that of priest and patron and was not based on the subordination of one to the other." [Walt4] Subordination was, however, an integral part of the Chinese view of international affairs. In traditional Chinese legal doctrine, the emperor was a universal ruler. Any territory that was not under direct imperial administration was considered to be either tributary or rebellious. In the official records of the Qing dynasty, _Da Qing Lichao Shilu_, various countries with a wide variety relationships with the Qing Empire are listed as vassal states (_shu2guo2_), including Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Britain, and even the Papacy. [Walt5] In Qing documents written during the early years of the dynasty, Tibet is referred to as a _guo2_ (nation). [Brunnert12] This suggests a status equivalent to that of, say, Korea or Vietnam. In later years, however, Tibet was referred to as a _bu4_ (dependency), a term that was also applied to Mongolia. [Walt6] In reaction to a British military expedition to Lhasa in 1904, the Qing government asserted, for the first time, a claim of sovereignty over Tibet. [Walt7] An atlas published in Shanghai in 1910 helped publicized this new territorial claim. [Atlas10] In contrast, a popular Chinese atlas first published in 1879 has a map of the Qing Empire which shows Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan, and China proper, but not Tibet. [Yang75] While the Qing (or Manchu) Empire is often referred to as "China," it was in fact a multi-national dynastic state. Muslims, Mongols, Manchus, Koreans, and ethnic Chinese (Han) were each governed on a separate basis and no attempt was made to create a common nationality or citizenship. Since 1911, however, the Chinese government has based its legitimacy on ethnic Chinese nationalism. B7) What was Tibet's status immediately prior to China's 1950-51 invasion? The International Commission of Jurists, a Geneva-based human rights organization, issued a report in 1960 which examined the legal status of the Tibetan government: The view of the COMMITTEE was that Tibet was at the very least a _de facto_ independent State when the Agreement on Peaceful Measures in Tibet was signed in [23 May] 1951, and the repudiation of this agreement by the Tibetan Government in [20 June] 1959 was found to be fully justified....In 1950, there was a people and a territory, and a government which functioned in that territory, conducting its own domestic affairs free from any outside authority. From 1913-1950 foreign relations of Tibet were conducted exclusively by the Government of Tibet and countries with whom Tibet had practice as an independent State. [ICJ2] Tibet was accorded differing degrees of recognition by various governments. Mongolia, for example, explicitly recognized Tibet's independence in a 1913 "Treaty of Friendship and Alliance" which was signed by representatives of both nations in Urga, Mongolia. [Walt8] Nepal's 1949 application for U.N. membership lists Tibet as a country that Nepal had full diplomatic relations with. [Walt9] The chief Nepalese diplomat in Lhasa held the title _vakil_ ("ambassador") up until 1962. [Savada93] In 1943, the British embassy in Washington told the U.S. State Department that, "Tibet is a separate country in full enjoyment of local autonomy, entitled to exchange diplomatic representatives with other powers." [Walt10] In a note presented to Chinese Foreign Minister T. V. Song a few months later, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden described Tibet as, "an autonomous State under the suzerainty of China" which "enjoyed de facto independence." [Goldstein89] The U.S. State Department issued the following public statement in December, 1950: The United States, which was one of the early supporters of the principle of self-determination of peoples, believes that the Tibetan people has the same inherent right as any other to have the determining voice in its political destiny....[T]he United States Government recognizes the de facto autonomy that Tibet has exercised since the fall of the Manchu Dynasty [1912], and particularly since the Simla Conference. [Walt11] Chinese President Yuan Shikai issued the following order in 1912: Now that the Five Races [i.e. ethnic Chinese, Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans, and Muslims/Turkestanis] are joined in democratic union, the lands comprised within the confines of Mongolia, Tibet and Turkestan all become a part of the territory of the Republic of China. [Walt12] The CCP drew up a proposed constitution for China in 1931 which stated that "national minorities," including Tibetans, "may either join the Union of Chinese Soviets or secede from it." [Grunfeld3] By 1949, however, a CCP- controlled Radio Beijing was expressing quite a different view: The Tibetan people are an indivisible part of the Chinese people. Any aggressor who fails to recognize this point will "crack his skull against the mailed fist of the PLA." [Walt13] Section C: HUMAN RIGHTS C1) Are Tibetan women being forced to have abortions? The following account is from _Sky Burial_ (1993) by Blake Kerr. Kerr is an American physician who visited Tibet in 1987. I spoke with a Tibetan nurse named Chimi who had worked for three years at Lhasa's People's Hospital. She explained to me China's family-planning policy for urban Tibetans.... "If a woman has a second child," she continued, "the child will have rights. But this is discouraged. Sterilization is done automatically on many women delivering their second child at Chinese hospitals. "Having a third child is strongly discouraged. An illegal child has no ration card for the monthly allotment of Tibetan dietary staples at government stores: seven kilos of _tsampa_, one-half kilo yak butter, and cooking oil. Without a ration card a child cannot go to school, do organized work, travel, or own property.... My stomach felt queasy as Chimi described how "unauthorized" pregnancies were routinely terminated with lethal injections. Chimi said that she herself had given hundreds of these injections....[Kerr93] C2) How are Tibetan political prisoners treated? The following quote is from a 1988 news story that appeared in _The Washington Post_. It is based on the statements of two former prisoners arrested on March 5, 1988 during a large pro-independence demonstration. Both former prisoners were held at the Gutsa detention center near Lhasa. [The released lay prisoner] said that interrogators beat seven monks from one monastery, and then stuffed all seven into a small confined water channel. The guards then "stomped all over their bodies," he said. "They beat us with whatever was at their disposal, including wash basins and mugs," he said. "They kicked us and used pistol butts and ...wooden sticks on us." The released prisoner said that interrogators used electric cattle prods as an instrument of torture. Some prisoners also underwent the "Chinese rope torture," he said. "I saw people hanging from ropes tied to their arms behind their backs, suspended with their feet off the ground. Two of the people I saw had their shoulders dislocated by the rope. Many became unconscious as a result." Both former prisoners said that those who were treated most harshly in the prisons were Tibetan nuns. Most of the imprisoned nuns have been released from prison but were said to be reluctant to talk about the experience. The most brutal of the guards were said to be Tibetans, not Chinese. [Southerland88] A recent Amnesty International report includes a list 628 Tibetans who spent at least some time in prison during the period 1992-94 as result of their political beliefs. [Strib95] The 10th Panchen Lama gave the following account of human rights conditions in Tibet in a 1987 speech delivered in Beijing: In 1959 there were rebellions in Tibet.... People were arrested and jailed indiscriminately. There were no interrogations. On sight Tibetans were taken to jail and beaten. Things like this are still common in Tibet.... If there was a film made on all the atrocities perpetrated in Qinghai province, it would shock the viewers. In Golok area, many people were killed and their dead bodies were rolled down the hill into a big ditch. The soldiers told the family members and relatives of the dead people that they should all celebrate since the rebels had been wiped out. They were even forced to dance on the dead bodies. Soon after, they were also massacred with machine guns. They were all buried there.... In Amdo and Kham, people were subjected unspeakable atrocities. People were shot in groups of ten or twenty. I know that it is not good to speak about these things. But such actions have left deep wounds in the minds of the people. [Donnet94] C3) How many Tibetans have died as a result of the Chinese occupation? The following table was made up by the Bureau of Information of the Tibetan government-in-exile: TIBETAN DEATHS UNDER CHINESE OCCUPATION (through 1988) CAUSE OF DEATH U-Tsang Kham Amdo Total --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tortured in prison 93,560 64,877 14,784 173,221 Executed 28,267 32,266 96,225 156,758 Killed in fighting 143,253 240,410 49,042 432,705 Starved to death 131,072 89,916 121,982 342,970 Suicide 3,375 3,952 1,675 9,002 "Struggled" to death 27,951 48,840 15,940 97,731 TOTAL 427,478 480,361 299,648 1,207,387 Source: [Info94] Section D: STATISTICAL ISSUES D1) What is the total population of Tibet? Tibetan Population (in millions) Year All Ethnic Tibetans Central Tibet (TAR) Source --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1268 1.0 -- [Goldstein81] 1737 0.316 (monks) 0.127 (lay families) [Rockhill91] 1900 1.0 -- [McEvedy78] 1953 2.776 1.274 [Banister87] 1964 2.501 1.251 [Banister87] 1982 3.870 1.892 [Banister87] 1990 4.593 2.196 [BR-D90], [BR-N90] 1995 -- 2.389 [Reuter96] The figure for 1268 is an estimate made by American scholar Melvyn Goldstein on the basis of a Mongol census taken during that year. The figures for 1737, 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990 are Chinese census results. The 1995 figure is an estimate produced by China's State Statistical Bureau. The SSB's report on the 1990 census estimates that Tibet had a population of about 1.05 million in 1951. This suggests that the 1953 census result is now regarded as an overcount. D2) How many ethnic Chinese live in Tibet (population transfer)? The view of the Tibetan government-in-exile is provided by its Department of Information and International Relations: Despite the lack of exact figures, and despite Chinese denials, the evidence points to a deliberate and long-standing population transfer policy. The policy is carried out largely with the help of Government incentive programs for Chinese from various Chinese provinces to relocate in Tibet. Higher wages, special housing, business and pension benefits are but some of the incentives provided. China's fourth population census in 1990 put the Chinese population (including a small number of Mongols) in the Tibetan provinces of Kham and Amdo at 4,927,369. However, it is said that there is at least one unregistered Chinese against every two registered ones. The actual Chinese population, both registered and unregistered, in these areas should be about 7.5 million. In the recent years, China is reported to have stepped up the transfer of its population to the "TAR" also. [Info93] Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) states that, "The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies." In the previous quote, the word "Tibet" is used to refer to the entire Tibetan Plateau. In contrast, the quote below, from a 1994 _Washington Post_ news article, uses the word to refer to TAR only, a much smaller area. Accurate figures for the ethnic breakdown of Tibet's population are difficult to obtain and are disputed by Chinese officials and the Tibetan exile community. Many Western analysts say the exile community's figures are highly exaggerated. Of Tibet's population of about 2.2 million, there are an estimated 66,000 ethnic Chinese with permanent residence status, according to Chinese officials. Not included are another 40,000 Chinese entrepreneurs who are part of an unofficial "floating population" and between 40,000 and 65,000 soldiers and paramilitary police, putting the total Chinese population in Tibet at no more than 8 percent... In Lhasa, about 50 percent of the population of 150,000 is now Chinese, longtime residents and Western analysts say. [Sun94] A 1995 report by the Free Tibet Campaign estimated TAR's "total non- Tibetan population to be between 250,000 and 300,000, not including small groups of peoples indigenous to the region." The report also concluded that, For all the Chinese defined Tibetan autonomous areas (including the TAR) we estimate the total non-Tibetan population to be between 2.5 to 3 million; figures based on Chinese statistics from 1990 claimed the non-Tibetan total population to be 1.5 million; figures based on Chinese statistics from 1990 claimed the total Tibetan population for all the Tibetan autonomous areas to be 4.34 million. [Free95] D3) What are Tibet's economic statistics? Tibet (TAR) China (PRC) USA --------------------------------------------------------------------- Per capita GDP in U.S. dollars (1993) 242 462 24,700 Average annual growth in real income (1985-91) 5.5 8.1 0.8 Telephone main lines per 100 population (1992) 0.01 1 56 Percentage of adults who are literate (1990) 56 74 97 Percentage of adults who are high school grads (1990) 2.12 8.04 77.6 Percentage of adults who are college grads (1990) 0.57 1.42 21.3 Sources: [Bennett95], [Fiske94], [Overholt93], [US Census94], [World94], [Poston92] Section D: FURTHER INFORMATION E1) What World-Wide Web sites have further information about Tibet? Tibet Online Resource Gathering http://www.tibet.org/ The top source for Tibet-related information on the Internet. Channel #Tibet's Homepage http://www.callamer.com/~urgen/tibet/ DharmaNet Electronic Files Archive http://www.dharmanet.org An online Buddhist library maintained by DharmaNet International. Free Tibet Home Page http://www.manymedia.com/tibet/index.html This site maintains a list of Tibetan support organizations and their programs; articles with suggestions for action you can undertake to help Tibetans; and a Tibetan reading and resource list. Home Page of Tibet http://omni.cc.purdue.edu/~wtv/tibet/Welcome.html This site includes an outline of Tibet's history from a pro-Chinese point of view. IHEP/China (US mirror site) http://solar.rtd.utk.edu/~china/tour/tb.html This site is maintained by the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing. International Campaign for Tibet http://www.peacenet.org/ict Magic of Tibet http://www.magicoftibet.com Multimedia site with Tibetan music http://park.org/Tibet Shugden Supporters Community http://www.he.net/~shugden Snow Lion Web Site http://www.well.com/user/snowlion/ A catalog of books on Tibet available from Snow Lion Publications. Students for a Free Tibet http://cs.oberlin.edu/~djacobs/tibet talk.pol.tibet FAQ http://www.manymedia.com/tibet/TibetResourcesPolFAQ.html An indexed version of this document. Tibetan language radio broadcasts http://www.twics.co.jp/~tsgjp/tibrad.html Tibetan Studies WWW Virtual Library text http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVL-TibetanStudies.html images http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/TibPages/Map/tibetmaps.html images http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/TibPages/Art/tibetart.html These URLs are part of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library maintained by the COOMBS Computing Unit of Australian National University, Canberra. They provide web links to 116 facilities worldwide with Tibet- related information. Tibet Current Affairs http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/TibPages/Current/tin-bulletins.html An on-line archive of current affairs analyses and news bulletins maintained by the London-based Tibet Information Network. World Tibet Network News http://www.omtanken.se/sve_tib/wtnn.htm alternate site http://www.iem.pw.edu.pl/PSPT/wtn.html E2) Where do I find information concerning travel to Tibet? FAQs on travelling to Tibet can be found at the following URLs: http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/TibPages/Travel/travel-faq.html http://www-students.unisg.ch/~pgeiser/tibet/index.htm Campaign Free Tibet, listed under question E4, offers several fact sheets on travelling to Tibet. These are available by either e-mail or by postal mail. E3) What Tibet-oriented mailing lists can I subscribe to? World Tibet Network News is a weekly electronic newsletter which contains news and comment about Tibet from a variety of viewpoints. To subscribe, e-mail a request to (listserv@vm1.mcgill.ca). In the body of the message, type "SUB WTN-L [your name]". For example: SUB WTN-L Jane Q. User To cancel your subscription, send a message with command, "SIGNOFF WTN-L" to (listserv@vm1.mcgill.ca). WTN is also available from a Web site listed in question E1. Tibet-L is a mailing list for discussing issues related to Tibet. According to the description provided by Conrad Richter (tibet@RICHTERS.COM), owner of the list, "News and views, comments and questions are welcome on topics such as tours of lamas, conferences, exhibitions, and seminars too. Particularly welcome are submissions on political developments in Tibet." To subscribe, send a request to (LISTSERV@listserv.indiana.edu). In the body of the message, type "SUBSCRIBE TIBET-L [your name]". Send articles to be posted on the list to (TIBET-L@listserv.indiana.edu). To cancel your subscription, send the command "SIGNOFF TIBET-L" to (LISTSERV@listserv.indiana.edu). Tibetan-Studies-L is a mailing list maintained by the Australian National University "for exchange of scholarly and factual information dealing with Tibet." To subscribe, send a e-mail to (majordomo@coombs.anu.edu.au) with the message "SUBSCRIBE Tibetan-Studies-L [your e-mail address]". E4) What are the addresses of some organizations that deal with Tibet? AUSTRALIA Office of Tibet 3 Weld Street, Yarralumla, Canberra ACT, 2600 Tel.: (61-6) 285-4046 and (61-6) 282-4306 Fax: (61-6) 282-4301 [The Australian office of the Tibetan government-in-exile.] CANADA Canada-Tibet Committee 4675 Coolbrook, Montreal, Quebec H3X 2K7 Tel.: (1-514)-487-0665 Fax: (1-514)-487-7825 E-mail: (tibet@richters.com) [CTC is a cross-Canada network dedicated to fighting human rights abuses in Tibet and advancing the Tibetan people's right to independence. It is currently raising funds to improve Internet access for Tibetans living in India. CTC also publishes World Tibet Network News. (See question E3).] INDIA Bureau of His Holiness the Dalai Lama 10 Ring Road, Lajpat Nagar IV, New Delhi 110024 Tel.: (91-11) 647-3386 Fax: (91-11) 646-1914 [The Dalai Lama can be e-mailed at the Tibetan Computer Resource Center (tcrc@cta.unv.ernet.in). Use "TO: His Holiness" as the subject.] Department of Information and International Relations Central Tibetan Administration, Gangchen Kyishong, Dharamasala 176 215 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA International Campaign for Tibet 1825 K St. NW Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20006 Tel.: (1-202) 785-1515 Fax: (1-202) 785-4343 E-mail: (ict@igc.apc.org) [The ICT has produced a tourist map entitled "On This Spot: An Unconventional Map and Guide to Lhasa," which includes "uncensored stories behind Lhasa's tourist sites." The mail order cost is $6.95. The ICT also publishes _Tibet Press Watch_, a bi-monthly magazine for ICT members. Membership costs $25 a year. ICT has a Web site listed under question E1.] Office of Tibet 241 E 32nd St., New York, NY 10016 Tel.: (1-212) 213-5010 Fax: (1-212) 779-9245 E-mail: (otny@igc.apc.org) [The North American office of the Tibetan government-in-exile.] Students for a Free Tibet 241 E 32nd St., New York, NY 10016 Tel.: (1-212) 213-5011 Fax: (1-212) 779-9245 E-mail: (ustcsft@igc.apc.org) Tibetan Review, Potala Publications 241 East 32nd St., New York, NY 10016 [_Tibetan Review_ is published monthly in New Delhi by Tibetans. A subscription costs $20 a year.] UNITED KINGDOM Free Tibet Campaign (formerly Tibet Support Group UK) 9 Islington Green, London N1 2XH Tel.: (44-171) 359 7573 Fax: (44-171) 354 1026 E-mail: tibetsupport@gn.apc.org http://www.freetibet.org Independent Tibet Network (formally Campaign Free Tibet) 30 Hollingbourne Gardens, Ealing, London W13 Tel.: (44-181) 998-8368 Office of Tibet Tibet House, 1 Culworth Street, London NW8 7AF Tel.: (44-171) 722-5378 Fax: (44-171) 722-0362 [The British office of the Tibetan government-in-exile. Its has a web site at http://www.gn.apc.org/tibetlondon] Tibet Information Network City Cloisters, 188-196 Old St., London EC1 9FR, United Kingdom Tel.: (44-171) 814-9011 Fax: (44-171) 814-9015 E-mail: (tin@gn.apc.org) [Independent news gathering and distribution service] E5) What books about Tibet would you recommend? Avedon, John F. _In Exile From the Land of Snows_, New York, 1984, xii + 383 pages. An account of Tibet's recent history from the perspective of the Tibetan exile community. Epstein, Israel. _Tibet Transformed_, Beijing, 1983, 566 pages. Beijing's view of matters Tibetan. Feigon, Lee. _Demystifying Tibet: Unlocking the Secrets of the Land of Snows_, Chicago, 1996, xi + 242 pages. A general survey of Tibetan history. Goldstein, Melvyn C. _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: the Demise of the Lamaist State_, Berkeley, 1989, xxv + 898 pages. A nonpartisan, authoritative account by the foremost scholar of modern Tibetan history. Harrer, Heinrich. _Seven Years in Tibet_, New York, 1953, xiii + 288 pages. A classic tale of travel and adventure, told by an Austrian mountain climber who became a tutor to the Dalai Lama. Recently released as a major motion picture. Richardson, Hugh Edward. _Tibet and Its History_, Boulder, 1984, 327 pages. A British view of Tibet's history, now in its second revised edition. Richardson was head of the British/Indian mission in Lhasa in 1936-40 and 1946-50. Walt van Praag, Michael C. van. _The Status of Tibet: History, Rights and Prospects in International Law_, Boulder, 1987, xxiv + 381 pages. Makes a thoroughly documented legal case for Tibet's status as an independent nation. Section F: SOURCES [Atlas10] _Atlas of China = Ta-Ch'ing Ti-kuo Ch'uan-t'u_, Shanghai, 1910, map I. [Asia90] Asia Watch Committee. _Merciless Repression: Human Rights Abuses in Tibet_, New York, 1990, p. 1. A UPI report said that this remark was made in a meeting with TAR local administrators in July 1988. [Banister87] Banister, Judith. _China's Changing Population_, Stanford, 1987, pp. 322-23. [Bell24] Bell, Charles, _Tibet: Past and Present_, Oxford, 1924, pp. 78-79. [Bennett95] Bennett, Gary M. _China Facts & Figures Annual: 1995_, Gulf Breeze, 1995, p. 134. [BR-D90] "Population of China's Ethnic Nationalities," _Beijing Review_, Beijing, 24 Dec 1990, p. 34. [BR-F89] "`Tibetan Independence' -- Fact or Fiction?" _Beijing Review_, Beijing, 13 Feb 1989, pp. 25-30. [BR-N90] "Tibetan Population Outgrows Average," _Beijing Review_, Beijing, 26 Nov 1990, p. 10. [Brunnert12] Brunnert, H. S. and Hagelstrom, V.V. _Present Day Political Organization of China_, Shanghai, 1912. p. 467. This example is from a 1694 decree issued by the Kangxi emperor. [Dhondup78] Dhondup, K., "Panchen Lama, the Enigmatic Tibetan," _Tibetan Review_, Feb-March 1978, pp. 13-17. [Donnet94] Donnet, Pierre-Antoine. _Tibet: Survival in Question_, London and New Jersey, 1994, pp. 234, 236, 244. [Epstein83] Epstein, Israel. _Tibet Transformed_, Beijing, 1983, pp. 140-141. [Far95] "High Stakes," _Far East Economic Review_, Hongkong, 22 June 1995. [Fiske94] Fiske, John D., _China Facts & Figures Annual: 1994_, Gulf Breeze, 1994, pp. 88, 260, 293, 296. [Free95] Free Tibet Campaign. _New Majority Chinese Population Transfer into Tibet_, London, 1995. [Giles1] Giles, Herbert A. _A Chinese English Dictionary_, London, 1912, pp. 415, 1496. [Giles2] Ibid. pp. 504, 1434-35. [Goldstein81] Goldstein, Melvyn C. "New Perspectives on Tibetan Fertility and Population Decline," _American Ethnologist_, Washington, Nov 1981, pp. 721-38. [Goldstein89] Goldstein, Melvyn C. _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State_, Berkeley, 1989, p. 401. [Grunfeld1] Grunfeld, Tom A. _The Making of Modern Tibet_, London, 1987, pp. 11, 13, 237n77. [Grunfeld2] Ibid. pp. 27-28. [Grunfeld3] Ibid. p. 228. [Gyatso89] Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV. _Tibet, China and the World: A Compilation of Interviews_, Dharamsala, 1989, p. 31. [ICJ1] International Commission of Jurists, Legal Inquiry Committee on Tibet. _Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic_, Geneva, 1960, p. 3. [ICJ2] Ibid. pp. 5-6. [Info93] Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration. _Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts_, Dharamasala, 1993. [Info94] Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration. _Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts_, Dharamasala, 1994, p. 54. [Kaye93] Kaye, Lincoln. "Raging Inflation: Lhasa Price Protest Escalates into Anti-Chinese Riot," _Far Eastern Economic Review_, Hongkong, 3 Jun 1993, p. 13. [Kerr93] Kerr, Blake. _Sky Burial: An Eyewitness Account of China's Brutal Crackdown in Tibet_, Chicago, 1993, pp. 163-64. [Kolmas67] Kolmas, Josef. _Tibet and Imperial China: A Survey of Sino- Tibetan Relations up to the End of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912_, Canberra, 1967, pp. 27-28. [Kristof93] Kristof, Nicholas D. "Communist Party Chief Calls for a Purge in Tibet," _The New York Times_, New York, 14 Feb 1993, p. 11. [Meltzer93] Meltzer, Milton, _Slavery: A World History_, New York, 1993, Vol. II, p. 258. [McEvedy78] McEvedy, Colin, and Jones, Richard. _The Atlas of World Population History_, London, 1978, pp. 168-169. [Overholt93] Overholt, William H. _The Rise of China: How Economic Reform is Creating a New Superpower_, New York, 1993, pp. 103, 105. [Partridge66] Partridge, Eric. _Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English_, New York, 1966, p. 719. [Poston92] Poston, Dudley L. Jr. and Yaukey, David. _The Population of Modern China_, New York, 1992, overleaf. [Reuter96] Reuter wire service report, March 19, 1996. [Rockhill91] Rockhill, W. Woodville. "Tibet from Chinese Sources," _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland_, Cambridge, 1891, p. 13. [Savada93] Savada, Andrea M. _Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies_, Washington, 1993, p. 186. [Southerland88] Southerland, Daniel. "Tibetan Tells of Torture: Monk Says Chinese Abuse Prisoners in the Region," _The Washington Post_, Washington, 6 Sept 1988, p. A23:1. [Southerland89] Southerland, Daniel. "The Panchen Lama, Religious Leader in Tibet, Dies 50," _The Washington Post_, Washington, 30 Jan 1988, p. D4:1. [Strauss] Strauss, Robert. _Tibet -- A Travel Survival Kit_, Berkeley, 1992, pp. 18-19. [Strib95] "Report: Hundreds Jailed, Tortured in Tibet," _Minneapolis Star-Tribune_, 30 May 1995, p. 4A. [Sun94] Sun, Lena H. "Ethnic Animosities Reborn as Chinese Traders Flood Tibet," _The Washington Post_, Washington, 15 Sept 1994, p. A27:1. [Schwartz94] Schwartz, Ronald D. _Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the Tibetan Uprising_, New York, 1994, pp. 160-61. [US Census94] U.S. Bureau of the Census. _Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994_, Washington, 1994, tables 696, 1375. [Walt1] Walt van Praag, Michael C. van. _The Status of Tibet: History, Rights and Prospects in International Law_, Boulder, 1987, pp. 287-288. [Walt2] Ibid. p. 163. Captured PLA documents are cited as the source of the claim that 87,000 Tibetans died in the 1959 revolt. [Walt3] Ibid. p. 196. The quote is from a speech Solzhenitsyn made in Tokyo. [Walt4] Ibid. p. 318. [Walt5] Ibid. p. 112. [Walt6] Ibid. p. 36. This example is from a telegram sent by the Qing Foreign Ministry to the Ambans in Lhasa in 1904. [Walt7] Ibid. p. 37. [Walt8] Ibid. p. 228n20. [Walt9] Ibid. pp. 139-40. [Walt10] Ibid. p. 79. [Walt11] Ibid. p. 146. [Walt12] Ibid. p. 51. [Walt13] Ibid. p. 89. [World94] _World Almanac and Book of Facts: 1995_, New York, 1994, p. 833. [Yang75] Yang Shou-ching. _Li Tai Yu Ti Yen Ko T`u_, Taipei, 1975, Vol 1, pp. 13-71. This atlas was originally published in 1879 as _Li Tai Yu Ti Yen Ko Hsien Yao Tu_. Peter Kauffner Copyright 1994-1997 Minneapolis, Minnesota "There are many great nations on this earth who have achieved unprecedented wealth and might, but there is only one nation which is dedicated to the well- being of humanity and that is the religious land of Tibet, which cherishes a joint spiritual and temporal system." -- letter drafted by the Tibetan National Assembly, 1946 --************ Message Separator(32294016) ************--