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Subject: INN FAQ Part 8/9: Appendix A: Norman's install guide

This article was archived around: 9 Dec 1997 03:25:50 +0100

All FAQs in Directory: usenet/software/inn-faq
All FAQs posted in: news.software.nntp, news.software.b
Source: Usenet Version

Posted-By: post_faq 2.10 Archive-name: usenet/software/inn-faq/part8 Last Changed: $Date: 1996/01/30 21:44:45 $ $Revision: 2.3 $
Part 8 of 9 INN FAQ Part 1: General and questions from people that don't (yet) run INN INN FAQ Part 2: Specific notes for specific operating systems INN FAQ Part 3: Reasons why INN isn't starting INN FAQ Part 4: The debugging tutorial (setup of feeds etc.) INN FAQ Part 5: Other error messages and what they mean INN FAQ Part 6: Day-to-day operation and changes to the system INN FAQ Part 7: Problems with INN already running INN FAQ Part 8: Appendix A: Norman's install guide INN FAQ Part 9: Appendix B: Configurations for certain systems This is a separate guide for installing INN addressed to UNIX and System Administration novices. It is written for installation of INN 1.4 on a Sun SPARCstation running SunOS 4.1.x with some additional comments for Solaris 2.x. This guide is maintained by Norman J. Pieniazek (norman@giardia.pdb.cdc.gov). Please send updates and corrections to him. This guide is composed of following parts: I. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS II. INSTALLATION OF INN 1.4 III. UPGRADING FROM INN 1.3 TO INN 1.4 IV. MAINTENANCE OF INN V. INSTALLATION OF XVNEWS, A SUN OPENWINDOWS NEWSREADER I. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 1. INN will not install nor run on Sun SPARCstation under plain Solaris 1.1 or 2.x unless you install some additional software packages and utilities (fortunately, they are free). Also, your machine's IP number (of the news server) has to be entered in a Domain Name Service database (DNS) to be resolvable. Ask your Network Administrator about DNS or read the O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. book: "DNS and BIND" by Paul Albitz & Cricket Liu, ISBN 1-56592-010-4. Further, test the resolver on your machine by pinging a hostname not entered in your /etc/hosts file. For example, type: "ping ftp.uu.net" The response should be: "ftp.uu.net is alive". If you get: "unknown host ftp.uu.net", consult the O'Reilly's book. (Solaris 2.x - the most common problem with DNS results from not switching on DNS support. Check the line "hosts:" in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file. It should read: "hosts: files dns"). 2. Be sure to su to root before performing tasks outlined below. Next, check if you have a directory /usr/local and about 90 Mb of space in the partition where this directory is located. Create directories: /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/lib and /usr/local/man if you do not have them. Add /usr/local/bin to your path and /usr/local/man to your MANPATH. On Solaris 2.x, create /opt/local tree and make a symbolic link from /usr ("ln -s /opt/local /usr/local"). 3. INN uses gnu versions of grep, awk and sed. Moreover, it is recommended to compile INN with the gnu versions of make and the gnu gcc compiler instead of the Sun's Solaris 1.x unbundled cc compiler. (C compiler is not included with Solaris 2.x. The cc in /usr/ucb is bad. Be sure to remove it from path.) If you don't have the gnu software package, create a directory /usr/local/gnu, cd to this directory and ftp to prep.ai.mit.edu ( Go to directory /pub/gnu and get the newest version of the following programs: bison bison-x.x.tar.gz flex flex-x.x.x.tar.gz gawk gawk-x.x.x.tar.gz gcc gcc-x.x.x.tar.gz grep grep-x.x.tar.gz gzip gzip-x.x.x.tar (Note: no .gz) make make-x.x.tar.gz patch patch-x.x.tar.gz perl perl-x.x.tar.gz sed sed-x.x.tar.gz tar tar-x.x.x.tar.gz texinfo texinfo-x.x.tar.gz Installation of these programs is not complicated, and is really beneficial both for Solaris 1.x and Solaris 2.x users. After you complete the installation, check if older versions of these programs are not present somewhere in your path. Delete or rename these old versions. Solaris 2.x: First, after connecting through ftp to prep.ai.mit.edu, cd to directory: /pub/gnu/sparc-sun-solaris2 and get the file INSTALL.gcc. Follow the instructions for installing binaries for gcc and gzip (installed in /opt/gnu). Next, follow the instructions for Solaris 1.1, but read the doc file for gcc-x.x.x. To avoid problems, rename /usr/ucb/cc to something else, or remove it from path. Make a symbolic link in the /opt/gnu/bin directory from gcc to cc. When you finish the installation, the new utilities will be installed in the /usr/local tree. Delete and remove from path the /opt/gnu tree. As the binaries you downloaded are pretty old, it is advisable to start with the new gcc and to compile all the gnu utilities with this new gcc. NOTE: it makes no difference, if you install gnu stuff in /opt/gnu or in /usr/local. The installation scripts for gnu utilities default to the /usr/local directory tree, so I find it simple to use this path. Whatever you do, be sure to have the gnu utilities in your path before /usr/bin and /usr/ccs/bin. Solaris 2.x: be sure to include /usr/ccs/bin and /usr/ccs/lib in your path. Important utilities (e.g. - ar, cpp) are located there. Please note, that the /usr/ccs stuff is only installed, when you do a full install of Solaris. If you do not have e.g. - /usr/ccs/bin/ar, re-install Solaris 2.x! a. Start with gzip. In /usr/local/gnu type: "tar xvf gzip-x.x.x.tar". A directory gzip-x.x.x will be created. Change to this directory and type: "sh ./configure". Next, edit the Makefile with the vi editor and change the line starting with "CC" to read: "CC = cc". Then, type: "make". Compilation should complete without errors. Finally, type: "make install" to complete installation of gzip, gunzip, and other utilities in /usr/local/bin. b. Compile and install texinfo - info, makeinfo, the GNU hypertext system. Makeinfo is needed for error-free installation of many GNU programs and utilities. In /usr/local/gnu type: "gunzip texinfo-x.x.tar.gz". Next, type: "tar xvf texinfo-x.x.tar". A directory texinfo-x.x will be created. Cd to this directory and type: "sh ./configure". Next, edit the Makefile as described above for gzip. Now, type: "make" and ignore any non-fatal errors. Finally, type: "make install". With newer versions of texinfo, you will get a lot of messages about "emacs", "*.elc", and "*.el" files. Just ignore these messages. c. Installation of the gnu version of tar is beneficial. You will be able to use "tar -Zxvf <file name>.tar.Z" or "tar -zxvf <file name>.tar.gz" to uncompress and untar files in one step. Uncompress, compile and install tar as above. Be sure that /usr/local/bin is the first directory in your path. d. Uncompress, compile and install gnu make. Follow the steps described for texinfo. Gnu make will install in /usr/local/bin. To disable Sun's make, cd to /usr/bin (/usr/ccs/bin for Solaris 2.x) and type: "mv make make.sun". e. Compile and install bison following the procedure described for texinfo. f. Uncompress gcc. Cd to /usr/local/gnu/gcc-x.x.x and type: sh ./configure Next type: make This step will take about 17 minutes to complete. Ignore warnings reported for insn-emit.c. Next, type: make stage1 Ignore reported non-fatal errors. Next, type: make CC="stage1/xgcc -Bstage1/" CFLAGS="-g -O" This step will take about 19 minutes to complete. Next, type: make stage2 Ignore reported non-fatal errors. Next, type: make CC="stage2/xgcc -Bstage2/" CFLAGS="-g -O" In this step, which lasts about 13 minutes, you will make the final stage 3 compiler. Now type: "make compare". No errors should be reported here. Finally, type: make install CC="stage2/xgcc -Bstage2/" CFLAGS="-g\ -O" (NOTE: backslash "\" is used in this FAQ to break the line for formatting purposes. You can use the backslash for the same purpose in a command line. Please read Sun documentation, if you need more information.) to install the gcc compiler. It is advisable to recompile patch, gzip, texinfo, make and bison with gcc. It will be a good test for proper gcc functionality. g. Uncompress gawk. Cd to directory gawk-x.x.x and type: sh ./configure sunos41 (for Solaris 2.x: sh ./configure solaris2.cc) Next type: "make". When gawk will compile, type: make install Finally, disable Sun's awk by typing: mv /usr/bin/awk /usr/bin/awk_sun and create a link to gawk for awk by typing: ln -s /usr/local/bin/gawk /usr/bin/awk h. Uncompress grep. Cd to directory grep-x.x and type: ./configure Next type: "make" and "make install". Grep will also be installed in /usr/local/bin as fgrep and egrep. Finally, as some programs expect to find grep, egrep and fgrep in /usr/bin, disable Sun's grep and create appropriate links, just like described for awk. INN expects to find a program "egnugrep" in /usr/local/bin. Create it by typing: cp /usr/local/bin/egrep /usr/local/bin/egnugrep i. Uncompress sed and patch. Compile and install these utilities following the instructions for grep. j. INN comes with some scripts written in the perl language. Uncompress perl, cd to directory perl-x.xxx and type: sh ./Configure and hit Return for default answers to all questions. Next, type: "make depend", then "make". Now type: make test to check, if perl works without errors. Finally, type: make install to complete installation of perl. Solaris 2.x: answer "none" for -I/usr/ucbinclude and add libraries: -lm -lnsl -lsocket II. INSTALLATION OF INN 1.4 1. As root, create directories: /usr/local/inn1.4 (this will be your $inn directory) and /usr/local/news. (Solaris 2.x, you have to create a user "news", good choice is UID=6, GID=13, home directory=/var/spool/news, shell /bin/csh, no password - account is locked, * in password field in /etc/shadow. Be sure, to create a new group in /etc/group "news" with GID=13.) 2. Cd to $inn. Get the newest version of inn from: ftp.uu.net ( This file is in the directory: /networking/news/nntp/inn. As for all binary files, please remember to set the file type in ftp to binary. 3. From the same source and directory get the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files: faq-inn-1.Z faq-inn-2.Z faq-inn-3.Z faq-inn-4.Z (this file) faq-nov.Z and any other files that may contain patches or information. 4. To uncompress the FAQ files type: "uncompress faq-*.Z. Print the FAQs and read them before proceeding further. 6. In $inn type (with gnu tar): "tar -Zxvf innx.x.tar.Z This will extract inn files for compilation. 7. Change directory to $inn/config, and type: cp config.dist config.data chmod 644 config.data Now use the vi editor to edit config.data. You should select gcc as the compiler by changing the line that starts with "CC" to read "CC gcc". Many lines in config.data define the location of various files and directories. It's OK to leave defaults, but check if you have ample space in the directory where the articles will be stored (/var/spool). More information on where INN expects to find certain files is in: $inn/samples/innshellvars. If necessary, edit the config.data and innshellvars to reflect your configuration. Please make sure that specified directories and utilities exist on your system. 8. Change directory to $inn. Type: "make world". Now type: cat */lint (Solaris 2.x - there is not lint included with Solaris 2.x. One way to get Solaris 2.x version of lint suggested to me, is to get a 30 day trial package of the SunPro C compiler from Sun. However, lint is not really needed, except for testing new code. You can make a symbolic link from /bin/echo to lint.) lint will give you a list of compiler warnings and errors. In addition, "make" creates in this step a file: "$inn/Install.ms". Print it by typing: nroff -ms Install.ms | lpr Install.ms is a manual for installation of INN written by Rich Salz, the author of INN. There is a lot of important and interesting information in his manual. 9. If you got no fatal errors from make, go to the $inn/site directory and type: "make all". 10. There are some scripts and control files listed in inn-faqs and Install.ms that may be modified at this point. For most installations, the default settings are OK. 11. Now cd to $inn and type: "make install" to complete basic installation of INN. 12. To finish installation of INN, run the BUILD script in the $inn directory by typing "sh BUILD". This script will ask a series of configuration questions that are easy to answer. Please note that if your have "history.*" files in your /usr/local/news directory from a previous or failed installation of INN, the BUILD script will not complete. Rename them to "old.history.*" and re-run the BUILD script. 13. You need a site that will feed news to you. This will depend on your geographic location and organization. Ask a System Administrator of a site close to you for hints. 14. Ftp to your newsfeeding site and get the "active" file from there. Place this file in your /usr/local/news directory and edit it to your taste. Remember to include the "control" and "junk" newsgroups. Also, you have to edit the following files in /usr/local/news: newsfeeds, hosts.nntp, nnrp.access, inn.conf. Be careful with editing the "active" file with vi or textedit. A common error is to leave a blank line at the top. This error causes INN to crash with the message: "ME bad_active". Depending on your setup, you will get this message in the syslog or on the console. 15. To check for syntax errors in INN control files, file ownership, permissions and other things type: /usr/local/bin/perl /usr/local/news/bin/inncheck and correct any errors reported by inncheck. If your paths are set, it is sufficient to change to the /usr/local/news/bin directory and type: "perl ./inncheck" or "./inncheck". 16. Look at the file "rc.news" in /usr/local/etc. It's advisable to enable the innwatch utility. Innwatch will throttle the newsserver when your disk will get full and prevent crashes. Change the line starting with "DOINNWATCH" to read "DOINNWATCH=true". (Solaris 2.x: edit the innwatch.ctl file and replace df with /usr/ucb/df. Default Solaris 2.x /usr/sbin/df doesn't understand the -i option.) Now type: "sh /usr/local/etc/rc.news" and look in /var/log/syslog for errors. Also, type: ps -aux| grep news and check, if the innd process owner is news. On Solaris 2.x, the syntax is a bit different: ps -fu news 17. In /etc/aliases create an entry: "usenet: <you, or root>". Next type: "/usr/ucb/newaliases" to inform the sendmail program that the aliases file has changed. If you are running YP (NIS) on your network, you may optionally add the "usenet" alias to your YP aliases file. If the machine you are installing INN on is the YP master and the file "/etc/aliases" is the source of the YP aliases map, you should type: "cd /var/yp" followed by "make". Reboot and restart innd (see #16). 18. To get daily reports on the newsserver activity from the "news.daily" script and to enable the "expire" utility type: "/bin/crontab -e news" and insert the following line: 40 23 * * * /usr/local/news/bin/news.daily delayrm or, if you are using overchan (in newsfeeds): 40 23 * * * /usr/local/news/bin/news.daily delayrm\ expireover 19. To set-up complete logging of the server activities and have them ready for a report by the "news.daily" script, you have to edit your /etc/syslog.conf file. Insert at the end of this file the content of the syslog.conf file written by Rich Salz. This file is in: $inn/syslog. Please check, if you have the directories and files mentioned in Rich's syslog.conf. 20. Run tests from your machine to the server (to your machine at telnet port 119). See inn-faqs for details. 21. After completing these test, be sure to delete the entry for your machine from the hosts.nntp file. If you will not do it, your machine will be treated as a "feeder" and not as a "reader". 22. Set posting. a. Edit the /usr/local/news/newsfeeds file and add: <alias for your feed>/<full address of feed>\ :*\ (for all local postings) :Tf,Wnm: (standard entry) b. Edit /usr/local/news/nntpsend.ctl file and add: <alias for your feed>:<full address of feed>::\ -T1800 -t300 c. Type: "/bin/crontab -e news" and insert a line: 0,10,20,30,40,50 * * * *\ /usr/local/news/bin/nntpsend d. Run inncheck (see #15). e. Post to misc.test and include "reply" in the Subject line, automatic responses will be mailed to usenet (see #17) within a few minutes. 23. To start innd automatically at bootup, include at the end of your rc.local the following lines: # # Start INN news service - Internet News Daemon (innd) # if [ -f /usr/local/etc/rc.news ]; then /usr/local/etc/rc.news; echo "Starting INN news service" fi (In Solaris 2.x there is no rc.local. If you want to start INN automatically, you should create a script in /etc/rc2.d). NOTE: Please send me your solutions for boot time starting and shutdown closing of INN on Solaris! 24. Watch the news.daily reports in your mail for any additional errors. To run the news.daily script at any time manually, first su from root to "news" and type: "/usr/local/news/news.daily". A mail to "usenet" should arrive within a couple of minutes and may report important configuration problems. III. UPGRADING FROM INN 1.3 TO INN 1.4 1. Stop the server. Type: ctlinnd shutdown "upgrade" 2. Create a directory /usr/local/inn1.4, this will be your $inn directory. cd to $inn. Next, ftp to ftp.uu.net, cd to directory: /networking/news/nntp/inn and get the following files: inn1.4sec.tar.Z faq-inn-1.Z faq-inn-2.Z faq-inn-3.Z faq-inn-4.Z (this file) faq-nov.Z Uncompress and print the FAQs. Next, type (with gnu tar): tar -Zxvf inn1.4sec.tar.Z Print the README file. To print the Install file, type: "make Install.ms" followed by: nroff -ms Install.ms | lpr 3. Now, cd to $inn/config and type the following commands: make subst cp config.dist config.data ./subst -f {OLDFILE} config.data where {OLDFILE} is the location of config.data in your INN 1.3 directory. Be sure to check, if in your old config.data the "CC" line reads "CC gcc". Ignore warnings about new lines. Next, type: make sedtest No errors should be reported here. Now, cd to $inn and type this series of commands: make quiet cd ../lib make libinn.a lint cd ../frontends make all cd ../innd make all cd ../nnrpd make all cd ../backends make all cd ../expire make all cd ../site make all cd .. make update 4. Restart innd. IV. MAINTENANCE OF INN 1. Adding new groups - see also Part IV, Section 3.b,: a. Type: "ctlinnd pause 'edit active'" b. Edit the active file. The format is: groupname himark lomark flag. Set himark to 0000000000 and lomark to 0000000001. For detailed description of flags, read the man page for active. Editing the active file by hand is easy, but will not update the information in that file active.times that some newsreaders require to trace new newsgroups. Using ctlinnd command "newgroup" takes care of this problem (see below). Editing the active file with an editor has one drawback - the file active.times is not automatically updated. This creates problems for some newsreader (Trumpet being one of them) that use this file to alert users to new groups. Using ctlinnd command "newgroup" (see Part IV.3.b) corrects this problem. c. Run inncheck (see #11) to check the new active file for errors. d. Type: "ctlinnd reload active 'new active'". e. Type: "ctlinnd go 'edit active'". 2. New groups are sometimes added automatically through a control message. A mail message to usenet will alert to such an automatic change to the active file. If you do not want to subscribe to a particular news group, change directory to /usr/local/news and type: ctlinnd rmgroup <group name> 3. Sometimes, a mail message will arrive for usenet with a checkgroups file. Remove header, save the body of the message in: /usr/local/news/bin/control/news_control/news_control_ todaysdate cd to that directory and type: ../docheckgroups <news_control_todaysdate >todaysdate_pre Read the output file (todaysdate_pre) and carry out all the instructions that you think pertain to your situation. Read the man pages for "active" and "ctlinnd" for more info. To implement the changes, you will have to change to the directory: /usr/local/news and: a. remove a discontinued group: type: "ctlinnd rmgroup <group name>" b. add a group: type: "ctlinnd newgroup <group name> flag <creator name>" c. mark a group correctly: type: "ctlinnd changegroup <group name> flag" Run inncheck and repeat the docheckgroups command from the /usr/local/bin/control/news_control directory by typing: ../docheckgroups <news_control_todaysdate >todaysdate_after Correct any reported problems. Also, you may have to edit the /usr/local/news/newsgroups file to reflect any changes you introduced. 4. Read the reports mailed to usenet (you) by the news.daily script. Most errors are reported here and should be easy to fix. 5. Subscribe to and read the following newsgroups: news.software.nntp news.software.readers 6. IMPORTANT!!! Never run fsck on the drive where the /spool/news files are located while running INN. Innd has a lot of active disk I/O going on and you could corrupt your drive. Use ctlinnd to throttle, pause, or shutdown innd first - see the manual page for ctlinnd. V. INSTALLATION OF XVNEWS, A SUN OPENWINDOWS NEWSREADER 1. Create a directory /usr/local/xvnews and cd to this directory. 2. Ftp to ftp.twi.tudelft.nl and get the file xvnews.tar.gz from directory /pub/news. 3. Ungzip and untar xvnews. With gnu tar type: tar -zxvf xvnews.tar.gz 4. Use your vi editor and edit the file xvnews.h You will need to enter your settings for: DOMAIN (on my machine: "pdb.cdc.gov") ORGANIZATION (on my machine: "Centers for Disease Control Atlanta, GA, USA") NNTPSERVER (on my machine: "giardia.pdb.cdc.gov") Preferred method is to override these defaults by specifying environment variables DOMAIN, ORGANIZATION, and NNTPSERVER in your .cshrc or .profile files (see the xvnews man page). In this way, you will be able to change default settings quickly. 5. Compile xvnews by typing: "make -f Makefile.dist" This command will show you, how to enter defaults for your operating system (e.g. - "sunos5" for Solaris 2.x, "sunos4" for SunOS 4.1.x). I get some compilations warnings on my system, but the program runs OK. Copy xvnews to /usr/local/bin and xvnews.man to directory: /usr/local/man/man1 as xvnews.1. -- See <a href="http://www.netbsd.org">NetBSD</a> for a multiplatform OS What would you call a BBS run by a mom? A "mother board".