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Subject: Quarterly ASCII posting of SCO UnixWare 7 FAQ

This article was archived around: 20 Jul 2002 02:11:44 -0000

All FAQs in Directory: unix-faq/unixware
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Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: unix-faq/unixware/qt-faq Posting-Frequency: quarterly Version: 2.0.8a Last-modified: 1999/11/01 URL: http://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scouw7faq/faq.pl Maintainer: Boyd Lynn Gerber <gerberb@zenez.com> Disclaimer: Approval for *.answers is based on form, not content.
The latest version of the UnixWare 7 Faq is available from a few places. The size is about 180 KB for the text version. Web http://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scouw7faq/faq.pl Searchable html version. Ftp 63.194.213.179 port 710 /pub/Uw7Faq/ Anon, various formats. (pdf, ps dostext, unixtext) Current home. SCO UnixWare 7 FAQ ASCII. UnixWare 7 FAQ Version 2.08 by Matthew Schalit mschalit@pacbell.net 12 Jul 2001 0. Intro 1. General Information 2. User Related Information 3. Media, Filesystems, and Disks 4. The Network 5. System Administration 6. Security 8. Third Party Software 9. Useful Shell Commands 10. Migrating from OpenServer 5 to UnixWare 7 0. Intro 0.1 WWWWW&H. 0.2 Copyright & Disclaimer 0.3 Where do I get a copy of this Faq? 0.4 May I translate the Faq? 0.5 May I host, maintain, or eradicate it? 1. General Information 1.1 What's a node? What's a host? 1.2 What's a nodename? What's a hostname? 1.3 What's a Domain Name? 1.4 What's a Fully Qualified Domain Name? 1.5 Something doesn't work. How do I fix it? 1.6 What does 'OLSS' stand for? 1.7 What's a disk, disc, or diskette? 1.8 What's a program? What's a process? 1.9 What commands are used to install software? 1.10 How do I add a package on a disk? 1.11 How do I add a group of packages on a disk? 1.12 How do I add a package that's on a Skunkware disc or a Uw7 disc? 1.13 What are the names of the Uw7 devices in /dev? 1.14 What is stdin? What is stdout? What is stderr? 1.15 Why am I suddenly getting not privileged or no permissions errors? 1.16 How do I access DOS diskettes? 1.17 What are some really neat things about Uw7? 1.18 What's the Webtop? 1.19 What's Visionfs? 1.20 What's a sticky bit? 1.21 Who's logged into my Uw7 host? 1.22 What processes are being run by user foobar? 1.23 How do I boot a Uw7 computer? 1.24 How do I turn off a Uw7 computer or just reboot it? 1.25 How do I boot into single user mode? 1.26 What's an inode? 1.27 What's a hard link? 1.28 What's a symbolic link? 1.29 How many users are licensed on my Uw7 host? 1.30 What's a router? What's a route? What's a default route? 1.31 What's a hop? 1.32 What's ISL? 1.33 What's an ACL? 1.34 What are the minimum system requirements for Uw711? 1.35 Where do I get the two install diskettes and the HBA diskette? 1.36 In what order do I insert my HBA diskettes, one came from a 3rd party? 1.37 How do I list the installed software on the system? 1.38 How do I check and repair the installed software? 1.39 What's a MB? What's a Mb? What's a KB and a Kb? 1.40 How do I convert decimal numbers to binary numbers? 1.41 How do I convert binary to decimal? 1.42 Are the any Y2K or 2-digit vs. 4-digit year issues? 1.43 What are my biggest problems with Uw7? 1.44 How do I document my Uw7 System? (HW, SW...) 1.45 What about programming in UnixWare 7? 1.46 How do I migrate from OpenServer 5.0.x to UnixWare 7.1.1? 1.47 How do I get my IDE cdrom recognized during ISL? 1.48 SCO's been sold to Caldera, what will happen to UnixWare 7? 1.49 When will Open Unix 8 be released? 1.50 What is the LKP that will be in Open Unix 8? 2. User Related Information 2.1 What shell am I using? 2.2 How do I display Yurtle's user ID (UID) or group ID (GID)? 2.3 What's a really good shell that gives me useful commands? 2.4 Where are my users's home directories on UnixWare7? 2.5 What is User Equivalence and why is it important? 2.6 What do the permissions -rw-r--r do? How about drwxr-xr-x ? 2.7 How do I use Korn shell command recall (history)? 2.8 How do I use Korn shell filename and directory name completion? 2.9 Can I display 132 columns on my terminal screen instead of 80? 2.10 How do I change the color of the terminal font or background? 2.11 How do I do an ls -l on a directory - not it's contents? 2.12 Why do I want to use 'less' ? 2.13 How do I impress changes made to my .profile on my environment? 2.14 How do I spell check this Faq? 2.15 How can I tell if an ftp download is still working? 2.16 How do I issue complex commands to an ftp server, like ls -lF ? 2.17 How do I copy and paste in the KDE from an eterm to another app? 2.18 How do I display my current working directory at a ksh prompt? 2.19 How do I display my current working directory at a bash prompt? 2.20 How do I type accented charaters in vi, Messenger, or Kedit? 2.21 What are the different ways to print documents? 2.22 How do I use ghostscript to format documents for an Epson 800? 2.23 How do I use VisionFS to print to a Windows shared printer? 3. Media, Filesystems, and Disks 3.1 What's a partition? 3.2 What's a slice? 3.3 What's a filesystem? 3.4 What's an inode? 3.5 What does HBA stand for? 3.6 Can an HBA have more than one bus? 3.7 What is the lun number? 3.8 If a computer has two SCSI cards, which is c0 and which is c1? 3.9 What are the names of the disks, like /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s0 ? 3.10 What is the device name of the diskette drive? 3.11 How do I write files to a diskette and list them? 3.12 How do I format a 1.44 MB floppy? 3.13 How do I create a filesystem on a floppy? 3.14 How do I mount a floppy and view its contents? 3.15 How do I access the disc in my cd-rom drive? 3.16 What might a guru type when mounting a disc? 3.17 Can I burn a cdr in UnixWare 7.1.0? 3.18 What is the tape drive called? 3.19 What is a good tape drive to use with Uw7? 3.20 What are some of the tape commands I want to know? 3.21 What are the various filesystem types on Uw7? 3.22 What's the maximum filesystem size? 3.23 What's the maximum file size? 3.24 What's the logical block size? 3.25 Is there still that 64k inode limit by default? 3.26 How do I mount the filesystem on a disk, disc, or diskette? 3.27 Why would mounting fail? 3.28 Why would unmounting fail? 3.29 How do I list the disk geometry like Cylinders, Heads, Bytes/Sector? 3.30 How do list my partition and slice layout? Is there a divvy? 3.31 How do I convert sectors to MB? 3.32 How do I add a 2nd or 3rd disk drive to my system? 3.33 How do I partition a hard drive? 3.34 How do I create a slice in a partition? 3.35 How do I create a filesystem in a slice? 3.36 How do I use quotas on a vxfs filesystem in Uw7? 3.37 How do I fsck the root filesystem? 3.38 How do I enable Large File Support (for file sizes up to 1TB)? 3.39 Why aren't my new SCSI devices recognized after I install them? 3.40 Why isn't my Yamaha 4416S recognized after I install it? 3.41 How do I institute ACL's on a Uw7 system? 3.42 How do I superformat a diskette in Uw7? 3.43 Why doesn't my tape drive work with cpio, tar, and ArcServe? 3.44 How do I add additional swap space? 3.45 Why do all the files on a mounted CD-ROM have ';1' at the end? 3.46 How do I make an exact duplicate of an audio cd? 3.47 What are a good set of options to backup /home to cdr? 3.48 Do the memfs filesystems, /tmp and /var/tmp, use 50MB of RAM? 3.49 How do I convert the memfs filesystems to regular vxfs ones? 4. The Network 4.1 Do I need a nic in my Uw7 box? 4.2 What is a good brand of nic to use in Uw7? 4.3 How do I list my IP and MAC addresses for all configured nics? 4.4 How do I list my routing table? 4.5 How do I add a default route? Is it permanent? 4.6 What is a Virtual Domain? 4.7 How do I add an IP alias? Is it permanent? 4.8 Suddenly the network is slow, why? 4.9 Is there a firewall program for Uw7? 4.10 What is a TCP Wrapper? 4.11 What is a Packet Filter? 4.12 Why can't root ftp into Uw7? 4.13 What are the idiosyncrasies with the DNS Server Manager? 4.14 Why does logging into the CDE freeze for minutes, then restart? 4.15 What are network services? 4.16 What network services, that run by default, don't I need? 4.17 Why can't I see computers on another subnet with Visionfs? 4.18 Can I synchronize my computer's clock with the correct time? 4.19 How do I use ntpdate? 4.20 How do I use xntpd? 4.21 Where is my domain name stored in the root filesystem? 4.22 Is DHCP possible with Uw7? 4.23 What are good IP addresses to use for my private LAN? 4.24 How do I setup Uw7 as a router for two subnets? 4.25 What is a good modem for Uw7? 4.26 How do I set up an outgoing ppp connection? 4.27 How do I set up an incoming ppp connection? 4.28 How do I set up bidirectional PPP? 4.29 I want to disable a particular daemon, how is this done? 4.30 How do I apply changes made to /etc/inet/inetd.conf? 4.31 How do I apply changes made to /etc/inet/config? 4.32 How do I boot an ftp user who is logged in? 4.33 How do I catch someone trying to port scan my Uw7 host? 4.34 What web servers are running or not on Uw7 after ISL? 4.35 Why can't I access the Webtop, my Netscape server, or Netscape Admin? 4.36 How do I configure remote Netscape administration? 4.37 What is the login:pass for Netscape Admin? I can't log in. 4.38 What do I need to watch out for with ns-admin.conf? 4.39 How do I do NAT or DNAT or IP Masquerading on Uw7? 4.40 Why do I see a 'Disk not sane' error when booting off emergency disks? 4.41 Can I speed up DNS resolution on my SOHO network? 4.42 How do I set up well tuned cacheing DNS server? 5. System Administration 5.1 What do I want to watch out for, right after ISL? 5.2 What do I want to set up, right after ISL? 5.3 In what order do I install all those PTFs? 5.4 What logs do I want to follow? 5.5 Where are errors recorded? 5.6 Do I like Uw7? Is it helpful? Is it harsh upon my reality? 5.7 A program that was running has crashed and is locked up, why? 5.8 What are the keys I press to kill a foreground process? 5.9 How do I find and kill a background process? 5.10 What are the various 'kill' command arguments? 5.11 What are the Security Profiles and their password restrictions? 5.12 What are the restrictions on login names? 5.13 What's a umask? What's the default umask? 5.14 What's an environment? What's a .profile or .cshrc? 5.15 Where are all the possible places to set the environment? 5.16 Where do I change the default account aspects, like the login shell? 5.17 How do I reuse a UID after deleting the original user? 5.18 What are the advantages of command line 'userdel?' 5.19 What are the advantages of command line 'usermod?' 5.20 Where do I change the default password restrictions, such as length? 5.21 How do I record unsuccessful login attempts? 5.22 How do I lock an account? How do I unlock an account? 5.23 How do I control process priority in Uw7, with nice? 5.24 What's good to know about cron in Uw7? 5.25 How do I monitor the amount of space left on my drives? 5.26 How do I determine disk usage by user? 5.27 How do I locate and remove 'core' files? 5.28 What is the DCU? What do I need to know about it? 5.29 How do I spool a package rather than install it? 5.30 How do I change the resolution / colors on my video card? 5.31 Will you describe the boot process please? 5.32 What is the default run level for Uw7? How do I set it? 5.33 What does 'Can't load stage3' mean? 5.34 What can I do at the boot: prompt? 5.35 Where do I set autoboot time, after which the system goes multiuser? 5.36 How do I boot unix.old? 5.37 How do I make a change to the /etc/inittab file? 5.38 Why does my system hang during startup or during shutdown? 5.39 How do I rebuild the kernel? 5.30 How do I rebuild the MBR or MBB? 5.41 How do I rebuild the boot slice? 5.42 How do I figure what process caused a core dump, such as core.242? 5.43 What are the important tunable parameters I might adjust like MAXUP? 5.44 How do I stop the X desktop or the CDE from running? 5.45 How do I send a pop-up message to the Windows machines on my LAN? 5.46 How do I change the message I see at the login prompt? 5.47 How do I get the character terminals to blank the screen? 5.48 How do I load XFree86 instead of XSco? 5.49 How do I disable tty's on UnixWare 7? 5.50 How do I check which PTF patches are installed? 6. Security 6.1 What are the system security features? 6.2 What are permissions? 6.3 What are Tcp Wrappers and Packet Filters? 6.4 What are privileges? 6.5 What are the alternatives to su? A user needs a privilege. 6.6 How do I use tfadmin, adminuser, and adminrole, instead of su? 6.7 What are some gaping security risks I need to patch immediately? 6.8 I'm not sure if I should apply a Uw7 security patch, what do I do? 6.9 How do I check which SSE security patches are installed? 8. Third Party Software 8.1 openssl 8.2 ssh2 - openssh2 8.3 Star Office 8.4 Where do I find a piece of software call "xxxxxxxxxxx" for Uw7.1.0? 8.5 Lonetar, Backup Edge, Backup Professional 8.6 What is on the OLSS, aka Skunkware? 8.7 How do I enable 128-bit encryption with Netscape programs? 8.8 Wordperfect 8 8.9 How do I install the KDE? Is it any good? 8.10 Where is Kermit for UnixWare 7? 8.11 Pine-4.33 8.12 Alladin Ghostscript gs7.00 8.13 Gnu-make-3.79.1 8.14 binuitils-2.11 8.15 gmp-3.1.1 8.16 libtool-1.4 8.17 m4-1.4p 8.18 dejagnu-1.4 8.19 autoconf-2.50 8.20 gcc-3.00 8.21 gnu-tar-1.13 8.22 bzip2-1.0.1 8.23 gdbm-1.8.0 8.24 flex-2.5.4a 8.25 zlib-1.1.3 8.26 perl-5.6.0 9. Useful Shell Commands 9.1 How do I search in every file for a string like "See foo?" 9.2 How do I find the largest files and directories? 9.3 How do I find the largest files? 9.4 How do I determine the number of free inodes? 9.5 How do I find the user who is using files in a filesystem and thus preventing it from being unmounted? 10. Migrating from OpenServer 5 to UnixWare 7 10.1 SCO Migration Tools 10.2 SETUID bit _________________________________ | | |0. Intro | |_________________________________| 0.1 WWWWW&H? 2 Jul 2001 ----------------------------------------- Who - Matthew Schalit, mschalit@pacbell.net, Age 34. B.S. in Physics UCSB, UnixWare 7 ACE. Contribs Boyd Gerber, Roberto Zini, Jim Van Verth, Robert Lipe Hops, mitrich, zigazou, James Richardson, tangent. What - This is a compilation of newsgroup questions from the Usenet newsgroups comp.unix.unixware.misc, and comp.unix.sco.misc, that deal with the Santa Cruz Operation UnixWare 7 operating system (SCO Uw7). Where - California When - This was originally posted to c.u.u.m. on 18 Oct 1999. This is the 11th revision. Why - I was inspired to write this when I saw a goodly Linux guy posting how there was no Faq but that Linux had a bunch. How - I publish the original straight text so that it's portable, and Boyd Gerber handles the Web site version and the real time user contribution program. Recent changes are dated 2 Jul 2001. They include notes on migrating from OpenSerger 5 to Uw7 and a bunch of additions about third party software, like gnu binutils, gtar, ssh, and building a development platform. 0.2 Copyright & Disclaimer 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- These bits have been posted to a newsgroup and as such are free. Due to their nature, you may use them as you see fit. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Faq for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted. It'd be an honor. Matthew Schalit makes no representations about the suitability of this Faq for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty. 0.3 Where do I get a copy of this Faq? 18 Jan 2001 ---------------------------------------- The Faq can be found at it's home, in text, pdf, or postscript. Ftp: ftp://63.194.213.179:710/pub/ Web: http://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scouw7faq/faq.pl Email: mschalit@pacbell.net The faq is in HTML on the Web site. My ftp site details: Port - 710 Login - anonymous Pass - valid email Or send me some email and the file type. Boyd has a version of this that you can use with the FAQ-O-Matic on your site. To get the FAQ-O-Matic version, go to: ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/FAQ/Download/ The files you need are as follows: SCO-uw7faq.tar.gz FAQ-OMatic-2.711.tar.gz README Looking through my logs, occasionally I see folks getting stopped at my firewall because they attempt to ftp to the usual port 21. My ftp server is running on port 710. So please use that if you ftp. In my ftp logfile, occasionally I see folks getting their download denied because their ftp client sent an invalid PORT command that used an ip address like 192.168.1.10. That address fails because it is in the rfc1918 private lan range, and as such, is not routable. The ftp server can't get the data to you if there's no route for the data, so the server gives up and doesn't try. In that case, I recommend you try passive ftp, the Netscape default, or ftp -p 63.194.213.179 710 You are welcome to laugh in the face of my ftp server and enjoy, instead, the most excellent web version hosted by Boyd Gerber. 0.4 May I translate this Faq? 8 Jun 2001 ---------------------------------------- The UnixWare community and I would appreciate any translations. Send me some email [mschalit@pacbell.net] and I'll put a copy on my ftp site. So far it's been translated into Turkish, and Slavic, and Portugese, though I haven't heard back from those folks. 0.5 May I host, maintain, or eradicate it? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- You certainly may. I'm easily bought, and I like beer. Pizza's good too. _________________________________ | | |1. General Information | |_________________________________|=========================================== 1.1 What's a node? What's a host? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Node and host are synonyms for 'computer.' A node can also refer to a device file like /dev/rdsk/f03ht, your 1.44 MB diskette. 1.2 What's a nodename? What's a hostname? 3 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A nodename or a hostname is a computer's name. Computers are given names these days, so that they can be easily distinguished from one another in a network environment. A nodename is a single word, eight characters or less, in lower case, that begins with a letter. For the name to be compatible with uucp, keep the name seven characters or less. Common names for people's computers are types of trees, countries, and names of their favorite Sci-Fi characters. eg. the hosts used in some SCO documents: tortola redwood luke sales1 1.3 What's a Domain Name? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A domain name is the name that a group of computers all share. We are familiar with common domain names like: sco.com ibm.com pacbell.net sco.co.uk A domain name is the human-friendly representation of the network address of a group of computers. 1.4 What's a Fully Qualified Domain Name? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A FQDN is the complete name for a computer that specifies it on a network. It consists of the nodename + domain name: tortola.sco.com uw7doc.sco.com www.sco.com luke.mydomain.net www.deepspace.ucsb.edu A FQDN is the human-friendly representation of the IP address for a host on a network. 1.5 Something doesn't work. How do I fix it? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- There are the man pages, which contain the directions for each command and some important files, too. Use the 'man' or 'apropos' command to look for a command or subject respectively: man grep apropos security Use the scohelp search engine on the UnixWare host to search for a word or words. If the host is down, use scohelp from SCO: http://localhost:457/ <-- For the UnixWare host. http://uw7doc.sco.com/ <-- Similar, but at SCO, and updated My two favorite places for information: http://www.dejanews.com/ http://www.sco.com/ta/ The first is a Usenet search engine, and the latter is the SCO Technical Article home page where you can search the SCO database for your issue. Lately, the TA's have been greatly enhanced by the additions of many issues. Definitely take a look at the good work done there. The Usenet newsgroups that you will want to focus on are: comp.unix.unixware.misc comp.unix.sco.misc There is an excellent Uw7 book recently published: Henriksen G. & M., _UnixWare 7 System Administration_, MacMillan Technical Publishing, USA, 1998. There are excellent web sites by other good people at: http://www.aplawrence.com/ http://www.cruzio.com/~jeffl/sco/index.html 1.6 What does 'OLSS' stand for? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Open License Software Supplement was the name for Skunkware, at the time of the 7.1.0 distribution. It's now Skunkware, again, which is a collection of unsupported software written by the Unix community, compiled and packaged for Unixware by a team led by Ron Record. For a list of the programs that were contained on the OLSS that shipped with Uw7.1.1, see section 8.4. 1.7 What's a disk, disc, or diskette? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- A disk refers to a hard disk. A disc refers to a cd-rom. A diskette refers to a floppy. 1.8 What's a program? What's a process? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A program is a file that is stored on a physical piece of media that can be run to perform a series of tasks. A process is what you call that program when it is loaded into and running in memory. 1.9 What commands are used to install software? 19 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- Software in Uw7 is usually bundled into an installable archive called a package. In Uw7, packages are added, viewed, modified, and deleted with variations of the following commands. See also the next question. pkgadd pkginfo pkgrm 1.10 How do I add a package on a disk? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- To add a package named '/tmp/myapp.pkg' do the following: cd /tmp pkgadd -d `pwd`/myapp.pkg It is preferable to add a package utilizing the `pwd` command, because sometimes we're deep in a directory tree, and it's easier to let the shell complete that path name rather than type pkgadd -d /home/yurtle/apps/uw7/skunk/squid/squid2.2/squid-2.2STABLE2.pkg 1.11 How do I add a group of packages on a disk? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Let's say you have a bunch of OLSS packages that you downloaded and stored in /dload/olss/*.pkg, then you can do the following: cd /dload/olss find `pwd` -name "*pkg" -ok pkgadd -d {} \; where find <-- the command searches your mounted filesystems `pwd` <-- is evaluated as your current path -name <-- tell find that your looking for a specific file(s) "*pkg" <-- called splat pkg. -ok <-- pipe those complete pathnames to the next command if and only if the user presses the 'y' key after each found file is displayed to stdout. pkgadd -d <-- that's the package adding command -d <-- tells pkgadd that the next arg will be the path to the pkg {} <-- this is where find inserts the path it found one at a time \; <-- Escaped semi means end of the line. 1.12 How do I add a package that's on a Skunkware disc or a Uw7 disc? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- To add the package named 'less' from the first cd-rom drive: pkgadd -d cdrom1 less You can also install a bunch of apps from a disc, as in: pkgadd -d cdrom1 less gs xpm glibs gv xpdf top pine 1.13 What are the names of the UnixWare7 devices (like disk, tape, etc...) 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- UnixWare comes with two neat commands called, 'getdev' and 'devattr' which are often used one after the other: getdev | less devattr -v diskette1 1.44 Floppy Raw character device for formatting /dev/rdsk/f03ht /dev/rfd0 1.44 Floppy Block device for mounting, taring, etc. /dev/dsk/f03ht /dev/fd0 Tape: /dev/rmt/ctape1 1st scsi drive. Harddisk: /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s0 only sometimes... See also: Section (3), Media, Filesystems, and Disks. 1.14 What is stdin? What is stdout? What is stderr? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- They're called file descriptors. stdin, standard in, refers to the data stream that is going into a process, which is, by default, taken from the keyboard. But the data characters can be taken from a file, instead, and that's an example of redirecting standard input from a file. stdout, standard out, refers to the data stream that is coming from a running process. By default, stdout is directed to your screen. Commands like 'ls' and 'cat' display their output to stdout. stderr, standard error, refers to the data stream of error messages being generated by a process. The registration nag displays itself to stderr, which is usually the console, ctrl-alt-esc. Often stderr is sent to the same place that stdout is directed to. stdin, stdout and stderr can all be redirected. How to implement this is dependent on your shell. Example of redirection with the Bourne shell. < /pub/phonelist *Would be a stdin redirect > /tmp/printout *Would be a stdout redirect 2> /tmp/errorfile *Would be a stderr redirect > /dev/null *Would be stdout sent to the null device pkgchk -n base 2>&1 > /tmp/printout *Would be a stdout redirect to /tmp/printout, and a stderr redirect to stdout's destination 1.15 Why am I suddenly getting not privileged or no permissions errors? 22 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- When something drastic occurs, such as the restoring of critical files, the securities privilege database can get corrupted. Symptoms could be that a user tries to ping and they will see: UX:ping: ERROR: socket: permission denied Check it with: /sbin/initprivs If running that returns anything at all, then fix it immediately with /etc/security/tools/setpriv -x (This happened to me on the 24th, two days after I made this and checked it. As I recall, a BP backup had recently hung, hmmmm. 1.16 How do I access DOS diskettes? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- In Uw7.1.x, the old DOS utilities have been replaced with the mtools programs located on Skunkware, so that SCO will not have to pay royalties to Microsoft. We now have: mdir mcopy mdel mmd mformat Beware mtools 3.9.1, though, it has a nasty bug that appears when you deal with larger diskettes. See the mini-HOWTO I wrote at ftp://63.194.213.179:710/pub/ 1.17 What are some really neat things about Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- UnixWare 7.1.1 was bundled with two outstanding applications in my opinion, that make it more useful than some Os's. The Webtop and Visionfs open doors like no other programs I have ever seen (except a web browser, of course). UnixWare's 'more' lets you scroll up line by line. UnixWare's wu-ftpd lets users compress and/or tar archives on the fly of uncompressed / untar'ed files or directories. NSC, Non-Stop Clusters, institute high availability and failover to identical Uw7 hosts in a cluster, so that you can share the load to a group of servers and have redundancy at the same time. SCO merged it's server division with Caldera, a lead supplier of Linux, and UnixWare7 will shortly introduce a concurrently running Linux kernel beside your Uw7 kernel. Dual OS's running transparently. Shortly, we may see NAT for Uw7. I have heard it is being tested. 1.18 What is the Webtop? 18 Sept 2000 ---------------------------------------- The Webtop is a scaled down version of Tarentella! I'll explain... The Webtop lets you run an application on Uw7 but display it to any Netscape w/Java browser anywhere in the world. This redirection of display and keyboard control is what used to be accomplished with an X-Server running on a PC. Then the X-based application running on Uw7 would be displayed on the PC using the PC X-Server. Disadvantage == $$. Disadvantage == Installing X-Server on all PC's Disadvantage == Limited to X-Applications. Also, redirection of display and keyboard control is being done by telnet for terminal based programs, and in a more specialized way with products such as Facet-Win. Now with the Webtop, Advantage == Low $$, almost every computer has Netscape. Webtop is free. Advantage == No configuration needed on the PC side if Netscape is already running with Java enabled. Advantage == Simple as heck for users. They just type the URL: http://myhost/webtop/ <-- 'myhost' is the Uw7 FQDN. and they are presented with a Login screen. Advantage == Can be seen on any computer with Netscape, not just PC's. Advantage == Can be administered from anywhere in the world. Advantage == Root can use the scoadmin managers through the webtop. Advantage == Runs many type of programs like X-apps, Terminal apps, etc. 1.19 What is Visionfs? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Visionfs is a program that runs on the Uw7 host and lets Windows users do file and print sharing with the Unix host. Windows users will see the Unix computer in their Network Neighborhood. Visionfs is currently version 3.1. SCO updated the print capabilities in this version, and it is rumored to be as easy to print from Unix to Windows now, as it has been from Windows to Unix. 1.20 What's a sticky bit? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- A sticky bit is one of the permissions that can be set on a directory. Most people are familiar with read and write permissions already. drwxrwxrwx <-- A directory that any user can list, create/delete files in, or access. When the sticky bit is set on a directory, it means that anyone can create files in the directory but users can only delete files they own. drwxrwxrwt <-- Here the sticky bit is set. The temp directory has the sticky bit set on it. To set the sticky bit on a directory called /foo as shown above, enter the command: chmod 1777 /foo There's also the possibility that the x bit will not be set for "others," as in drwxrwxrw-, and the sticky bit perms for that setup would then be drwxrwxrwT. 1.21 Who is logged into my Uw7 host? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- You can use the 'who -Hu' command. You can also forcibly logout a user by looking for the pid of the shell they have logged into. The pid is listed in the right most column. Issue a kill -2 <pid>, or a kill -9 <pid> if needed. 1.22 What processes are being run by user foobar? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- You can use the 'ps -u foobar' command. 1.23 How do I boot a Uw7 computer? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- When you turn on the power, you will see a UnixWare 7 splash screen after your computer POST's. There is a 5 second delay and then it will autoboot into multiuser mode. If for some reason you are presented with a boot: prompt, you can type go and hit Enter. 1.24 How do I turn off a Uw7 computer or just reboot it? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- As root, from the / directory enter: shutdown -g0 -y -i0 <-- To shut it off shutdown -g0 -y -i6 <-- To reboot it both commands wait for zero seconds before beginning the shutdown, and both commands require no further 'yes' responses. 1.25 How do I boot into single user mode? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Turn on the computer or reboot it, and when you see the splash screen, press the space bar. At the boot: prompt, type: initstate=1 go Boot: is not sensitive to case. You can abbreviate commands with enough letters to be unique. So b will work for boot, g for go. You can get some limited help with a ? at the boot: prompt. Do not attempt to do an 'init 1' or 'shutdown -i1' from multiuser mode. This barely works, and you will get many errors. Do not attempt to go to multiuser mode from single user mode. To get to multiuser mode from single user mode, reboot! If you don't, you will most likely have a crippled system. 1.26 What's an inode? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- An inode is a data structure that contains information about a file. Inodes point to files in a filesystem, just as a Table of Contents point to chapters in a book. Inodes are referred to by numbers starting from 2. Each filesystem has one unique set of inodes. Each file has an inode assigned to it when it is created. There has been historically a limit of 64K inodes per filesystem, and we had to watch out that we didn't create too many files, thus run out of inodes. The inode (information node) contains the following data: * mode - d,l,c,b (Directory, Link, Device Files) * link count - the number of hard links to the file * owner - * group - * size in bytes - * time stamps - mtime, ctime, atime * data block addresses - Pointers to the real data 1.27 What's a hard link? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A hard link is an additional name for a file. When a user creates a hard link, an inode number / name pair is entered into the target directory, and that inode is the same number as the original inode. Thus both names have the same inode number. Hard links can not cross filesystem boundaries (filesystems have different inode tables). Hard links can't link directories. 1.28 What's a symbolic link? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A symlink is sometimes called a soft link and is another way to provide multiple names for the same file. A symlink can cross filesystem boundaries and can link directories. Physically, when a user creates a symlink, a new file entry is created in the target directory, and that file's inode contains pointers to the original file's data block addresses. 1.29 How many users are licensed on my Uw7 host? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- You can run the uname -l command. 1.30 What's a router? What's a route? What's a default route? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Router: A router is a network device that is used to connect two different networks together. The difference in the networks can be as trivial as that they are on different subnets, or complex as in connecting and translating a DSL line to a local LAN, for example. A router can be a separate device as in a Cisco router or a router can be a computer with 2 network cards. A firewall is a router that only allows specific traffic to pass between networks. Static Route: When a computer on network A needs to talk to a computer on network B, the data passes back and forth through the router, using it as the connection between the networks. The path that the data takes from network A to B through the router is called a route. For computers on A to talk to B, they need to have a static route entered in their Operating System's routing table. In the routing table, a static route is listed as the IP address of the router. This says to the host on A, use the router as the static route to get traffic to any host listed on network B. Default Route: If there is no static route from A to B, then the system will fall back onto the default route to get data out to an unknown IP network. Because our computers are generally attached to only one subnet, and because there is usually a router on that subnet to connect that subnet to the rest of the world, the host in this case always uses the same route to get its data out. That route is what we want to use as the default route. 1.31 What's a hop? 11 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- When we speak of the number of hops that it takes for data to get from computer A to computer B, we are referring to the number of routers that the data passes through to get there. 1.32 What's ISL? 13 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- ISL stands for Initial System Load, which is what we call it when you install your OS. 1.33 What an ACL? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- ACL stands for Access Control List, and an ACL is a list of permissions that correspond to a file the same way UID:GID and rwxr-xr-- do. The ACL permissions are an extension of the usual permissions on a file. ACL's give us a way to let specific users access files, users who would not otherwise have access. See also the ACL question(s) in the System Administration section. When there is an an active ACL list for a file, then ls -l will show a (+) sign after the permissions bit, i.e.: -rwxr-xr-x+ ACL's can be used to let two different groups have access to a file, or they can be used on a more specific per user basis. ACL's can also be put onto a directory, and then new files will inherit the default ACL's. UNFORTUNATELY SCO HAS SHIPPED 7.0.1, 7.1.0, AND 7.1.1 WITH BROKEN DEFAULT DIRECTORY ACL's. Files don't inherit the proper permissions. Here's to their fixing it soon. Cheers! My guess is it's a slap at Sun, who invented ACL's. 1.34 What are the minimum system requirements for Uw711? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- 32 MB RAM, 486DX, mouse, SVGA, floppy, cd-rom or nic to install, and a 1.2 GB hard drive (500MB for small footprint server). That would be rather meager, though; so try to use at least a Pentium with 64 MB ram. *** Please be sure to use supported hardware that is listed at *** http://www.sco.com/chwp/ 1.35 Where do I get the two install diskettes and the HBA diskette? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Normally those diskettes were packaged with the Uw7 media kit that you got. When they are lost or corrupted, you can recreate them from images that are on your Uw7 Install Disc #1. Those images are stored on the disc in /info/images/Boot_ima.1 /info/images/Boot_ima.2 /info/images/Hba_imag To make a diskette from one of those images, choose one way: A) Use a Uw7 machine, cd to the /info/images directory and: format -E /dev/rfd0 dd if=<image> of=/dev/rfd0 bs=512k I patiently run an exhaustive verify on all my diskette formats, but that's just me. B) Use the program rawrite2 which is available on the net. Run this in a DOS window somewhere distasteful: rawrite2 -f d:\info\images\Boot_ima.1 -d A: C) Use the floppycp program, available on the net, for DOS or Win. 1.36 In what order do I insert my HBA diskettes, one came from a 3rd party? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- When you are given an HBA diskette for Uw7 from a third party hardware vendor like DPT or Mylex, you will insert that diskette first and insert the SCO supplied HBA diskette last, during the ISL process. The install process will use the first installed driver, if there were two installed. 1.37 How do I list the installed software on the system? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- You can use the pkginfo command as in: pkginfo | less pkginfo -l <pkgname like nsfast or gcc> pkginfo | grep skunk pkginfo | grep patch pkginfo | grep sse 1.38 How do I check and repair the installed software? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- People are tempted to use the pkgchk -n command to check if there are any errors in the installed packages. This is ok. But it is NOT ok whatsoever to use pkgchk -f to fix things up. The Uw7 Release 7.1 Getting Started Guide specifically states, on p. 65, 'It is typical to see a number of errors when running this command (pkgchk or pkgchk -n), due to the number of and interaction between the various packages on your system. You should make a note of any errors you find, but do not attempt to fix these errors with pkgchk -f. This command is currently not supported and may cause your system to fail or not reboot. There is no current workaround.' I like to run: pkgchk -n base 2>&1 > /tmp/pout Less the pout file and fix what's wrong. Post to c.u.u.m with questions if you have troubles. 1.39 What's a MB? What's a Mb? What's a KB and a Kb? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Definitions Conversion Factors ----------- ------------------ MB - Megabyte 1 MB = 1024 KB Mb - Megabit KB - Kilobyte 1 KB = 1024 B kb - Kilobit B - byte 1 B = 8 b b - bit 512 B = 1 block 1.40 How do I convert decimal numbers to binary numbers? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- To convert decimal to binary, draw yourself the following chart, and I'll convert 184 to binary: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 <-- two to this power 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 <-- equals the number below it To convert 184, I think to myself: * 184 has at least a 128 in it, so I put a one in the 128's column. 1 * 184-128 = 56 , which is less that 64, so there are no 64's. Put a 0 in the 64's columns and a one in the 32's instead. 1 0 1 * 56-32 = 24, so I need a 16 and an 8 to make 24, no 4's, 2's, or 1's. 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 So 184 = 10111000. I hope that wasn't too confusing. 1.41 How do I convert binary to decimal? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- To convert binary back to decimal, draw the usual chart: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Then, to convert 11011011, for instance, write it below the columns, 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 which looks like: 128 + 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 219 1.42 Are the any Y2K or 2-digit vs. 4-digit year issues? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- For UnixWare 7.1.1, you need: ptf7651a, part of set71101. Everyone should probably check out the SCO y2k download page at: http://www.sco.com/support/y2klist.html 1.43 What are my biggest problems with Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- Well, they fixed them all(most) :) Thanks. There was one leftover from a year ago, though, ACL's. I also found a long time ago #2 that I failed to mention, but it's really got me rolling my eyeballs this week :-0 1) Default Directory ACL's have been broken since 7.0.0. 2) 'man' is so broken it's not even funny. MANPATH. ORDER. Eherrmm. How is searches, I'm convinced, would make a whole episode for the Church Lady, because it's possessed. 1.44 How do I document my UW 7 System? (HW, SW...) 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- There are a number of ways to view and/or create a text file of your UnixWare 7 hardware configuration, but there's no dmesg. 1. In November 2000, Sco released TLS712, sysinfo. Sysinfo(1M) gives the most comprehensive way to list your entire Unixware setup, in both text or html, and it includes these other commands, among others: A. The resmgr(1M) command outputs your hardware configuration (DCU) information: /sbin/resmgr > /tmp/hw B. The prtconf(1M) command prints system memory and peripheral configuration. /usr/sbin/prtconf C. The sdiconfig(1M) command queries the storage device interface subsystem to determine which disk, tape and scsi controllers are present. To list the controllers and the attached devices, use the command: /sbin/sdiconfig -l 1.45 What about programming in UnixWare 7? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- The SCO Programmer's FAQ http://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scoprogfaq/faq.pl tries to answer these questions for both OpenServer 5 and UnixWare 7. There are also a few tips scattered in the descriptions of third party software in Section (8). 1.46 How do I migrate from OpenServer 5.0.x to UnixWare 7.1.1? 8 Jun 2001 -------------------------------------- Please see the complete coverage in Section 10, Migrating from OpenServer 5 to UnixWare 7. 1.47 How do I get my IDE cdrom recognized during ISL? 8 Jun 2001 -------------------------------------- Some people want to install Uw7 from IDE cdrom, rather than from a network, tape, or SCSI cdrom. To do so, we load drivers from two HBA diskettes and set the cdrom as secondary master if it's alone on it's controller. Loading drivers from an HBA diskette is similar to how DOS users load atapi.sys and mscdex.exe for DOS. Adding drivers lets the OS access the device. In Uw7, there's no error if you don't load the right driver. What will happen is no cdrom will be listed to install from. Some IDE cdroms need a newer driver that's not on the Uw7.1.1 HBA diskette that came in the media kit. Check ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/drivers/UW711/storage/ for the latest HBA diskettes. Get both. Create the two diskettes. Follow these guidelines to get your IDE crom recognized during ISL. 1) Set the ide cdrom as the secondary master if it's alone on it's controller. 2) Otherwise set it as the slave to a master hard drive. 3) During ISL, when asked for HBA diskettes: * load the ide_hba_711a diskette first. * load the hba_711a diskette last. (SCSI cdroms are handled by the SCSI host adapter they are connected to, which also gets a driver from the HBA diskette) 1.48 SCO's been sold to Caldera, what will happen to UnixWare 7? 8 Jun 2001 ------------------------------ The SCO Sever Division was sold to Caldera, http://www.caldera.com/ and they have said that UnixWare 7.1.2 will be released by Caldera as Open Unix 8.0.0. That's the future and it sounds interesting. 1.49 When will Open Unix 8 be released? 12 Jul 2001 ------------------------------ Open Unix 8 was released on July 2, 2001. 1.50 What's the LKP that'll be in Open Unix 8? 8 Jun 2001 ------------------------------ One of the main features of Caldera Open Unix 8 will be the LKP, which stands for Linux Kernel Personality. It is going to be a modern Linux Kernel running simultaneously with the UnixWare kernel allowing us to run both Unix and Linux software on the same box, seemlessly and effortlessly :-) _________________________________ | | | 2. User Related Information | |_________________________________|=========================================== 2.1 What shell am I using? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'ps' command: ps 2.2 How do I display Yurtle's user ID (UID) or group ID (GID)? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'id' command to display all the UID and all the groups: id yurtle 2.3 What is a really good shell that gives me useful commands? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- People enjoy the Korn Shell, ksh, for everyday use. It gives the user the ability to do command recall and filename completion. The default root shell is the Bourne shell, sh, which is considered more secure because it does not have command line history, but is limited and rather old. Bash is the Borne Again Shell, a newer version of the Bourne Shell which is well liked also. 2.4 Where are my users's home directories on UnixWare7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The home directories are all in '/home' which is often created as slice number 4 on the first disk drive: /home is mounted on /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 Yurtle's home directory would be /home/yurtle for instance. Norton's home directory would be /home/norton for instance. When logged in as norton, these are equivalent: ~/ /home/norton/ $HOME/ 2.5 What is User Equivalence and why is it important? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- User equivalence exists on a network when the following occurs on _all_ computers on that network: a given user has the same username, UID, and password a given user belongs to the same groups a given group has the same GID This enables all users to have transparent access no matter what terminal they sit down at. It also enables users to utilize commands such as 'rlogin.' 2.6 What do the permissions -rw-r--r do? How about drwxr-xr-x ? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Permissions control whether users can list, create, delete, access, read, modify, or run a file. Definitions are as follows: Directory Perms File Perms ----------------- ------------ r = ls the directory r = cat a file w = create / delete files in the dir. w = modify file with vi x = access the directory x = execute a file To answer the question, the first example lets the owner read and write to the file, and everyone else can only read it (excluding root). In the second example, the directory is set up so that the owner of the directory can list files in the directory, create/delete them, and access the directory. Everyone else, except root, can only list the files and access the directory. Note that DELETING a file depends on the directory w permission and the directory's owner/group, NOT on the file's w permission! List permissions with the 'ls -l' command. Permission numerical equivalents: read = 4 write = 2 execute = 1 You add the numerical equivalents together, eg on files: 644 755 111 / | \ / | \ / | \ rw-r--r-- rwxr-xr-x --x--x--x 2.7 How do I use Korn shell command recall (history)? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Hops ---------------------------------------- <Esc> k then use your h,j,k,l vi type commands What you've typed can be recalled again on the command line so that you can just press 'Enter' to re-execute the command. Commands can then be edited, too. Just use your vi skills. __ Details __ The history of commands is kept in the user's directory as $HOME/.history. First the user needs to log in using the Korn shell, which is the default shell for new users. The user's $HOME/.profile needs to contain the lines: EDITOR=vi export EDITOR Make those changes, then make them happen by running your .profile: . ~/.profile Go ahead and type a few harmless commands like 'cal' and 'banner hello' to prime your history file; then you are ready to use it. When you want to work with a command in your history, press the 'Esc' key once. This puts you into a single line vi editor, in command mode, that has opened your history file. To cycle up or down through the commands in your history, use the 'j' and 'k' keys just as you would in vi. When you find the command you want, press Enter. Because you are using a single line vi, you can use all the usual vi commands to move about and alter the command as needed. Things to try are the search '/' keystroke in order to search through your history for the command you are looking for and the 'w' or 'b' keystrokes. ============= The equivalent for emacs style editing is set -o emacs or EDITOR=emacs export EDITOR or ksh invocation as ksh -o emacs The playback and editing keys are then the normal movement sequences ^P, ^N, ^B, ^F, ^A, ^E. ==================== Use of Arrow keys can be enabled in ksh88 and previous with the following set in your ~/.profile # fn keys for ansi terminal or xterm alias __A='^P' # UpArr alias __B='^N' # DwnArr alias __C='^F' # RghtArr alias __D='^B' # LftArr alias __H='^A' # Home ( The ^x form here is the real control character) --------------- for ksh93 and later the above will not work instead you need: # test for ksh93 - (dropped ERRNO) set keybinding handling [[ ${ERRNO:-unset} == "unset" ]] && { alias array='typeset -A' typeset -A KeyTable trap 'eval "${KeyTable[${.sh.edchar}]}"' KEYBD function keybind # key [action] { typeset key=$(print -f "%q" "$2") case $# in 2) KeyTable[$1]=' .sh.edchar=${.sh.edmode}'"$key" ;; 1) unset KeyTable[$1] ;; *) print -u2 "Usage $0 key [action]" return 2 # usage errors return 2 by default ;; esac } keybind $'\t' $'\E\E' # Tab -> file/cmd completion keybind $'\E[A' $'\020' # up keybind $'\E[B' $'\016' # down keybind $'\E[C' $'\006' # right keybind $'\E[D' $'\002' # left keybind $'\E[H' $'\001' # beginning of line 'Home' keybind $'\E[Y' $'\005' # 'End' of line ============= 2.8 How do I use Korn shell filename and directory name completion? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Hops ---------------------------------------- The Korn shell can be used to help someone type out the long name of a file or directory. Often we give gzipped archives such a long descriptive name that it takes too long to type the whole thing. To use name completion, use the Korn or Bash shell with the EDITOR variable set to 'vi' as described in (2.7). Then start typing something like cd /opt/net then press: 'Esc' '\' The keystrokes Esc, then \ will complete the name net to netscape if net contains enough characters to uniquely identify the only possible name as 'netscape.' If there are two or more files or directories that start with net, then nothing will change on your screen. ================= For emacs mode the equivalent character sequence is Esc Esc. That can be mapped to the more convenient TAB key with the trap and keybind function listed in the section on command line history recall and playback and the following binding in ~/.profile keybind $'\t' $'\E\E' # Tab -> file/cmd completion ================= 2.9 Can I display 132 columns on my terminal screen instead of 80? 5 Nov 1999 ---------------------------------------- This is still not possible in a regular terminal screen like vt04. It is possible, though, to do on the CDE in a dtterm by clicking on Options --> Window Size --> 132 columns. 2.10 How do I change the color of the terminal font or background? 22 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'setcolor' command. I like to leave the default white on black for regular characters and change the inverse, as in: setcolor -r yellow red This looks good to me when I pipe things to 'less.' 2.11 How do I ls -l a directory but not its whole contents? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- When you try to ls -l /tmp to see what the permissions are on /tmp, the command lists the contents of /tmp instead. To stop that, type: ls -ld /tmp You can remember the -d as standing for 'directory.' 2.12 Why do I want to use 'less' ? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- Less is an excellent program that can be pkgadd'd off the OLSS disc. Less is more. Less has the following excellent aspects: * Less can scroll up and down line by line * Less can scroll horizontally, left and right * Less can be configured to not wrap long lines (ps -ef !!) * Less uses all the usual vi commands like h, j, k, l, and /. * Less can tail a growing log file just like tail -f does. * Less will highlight text strings found using /. * Less lets you edit what you see, just press v to go to vi. To get the most out of less, I like to do the following in my .profile: setcolor -r yellow red LESS=MS export LESS This sets the highlight colors, and exports the -M and -S arguments to less which makes less put file %'s at the bottom of the screen and makes less not wrap long lines (scroll right with the arrow key). 2.13 How do I impress changes made to my .profile on my environment? 15 Oct 1999 ----------------------------------------- You can type the command . $HOME/.profile using the . with a space after it causes the file to be run. 2.14 How do I spell check this Faq? 12 Feb 2001 ---------------------------------------- Skunkware's got an excellent spell checker called ispell. It's interactive and has the '?' command for help. pkgadd -d cdrom1 ispell ispell -M -b -S -L4 -B uw7faq where -M Display menu of commands at the bottom of the screen -b Make a backup copy of the file uw7faq -S Sort the list of suggestions by probable correctness -L4 Print four lines of context around the misspelled word -B Attempt to catch run together words like redwoodforrest uw7faq The filename to be checked 2.15 How can I tell if an ftp download is still working? 26 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------- The ftp client program has a useful feature called hash, which when turned on, prints a bunch of #####, 1 for each 1KB downloading. Just issue the 'hash' command at the ftp prompt, the same way that you issue the 'bin' command. 2.16 How do I issue complex commands to an ftp server, like ls -lF? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- The ftp client program lets you issue complex argument lists within quotation marks, as in: ftp> ls "-l ptf*" The trick is just to quote everything after the first command, I think, so that the shell doesn't interpret them. It only took me 10 years of ftp'ing to learn that one :) 2.17 How do I copy and paste in the KDE from an eterm to another app? 6 May 2001 -------------------------------------- Use your left mouse button to select text. It's copied automatically. Paste with a middle-click (or chord-click). I'm able to paste into Netscape's email, even though alt+v doesn't work and Edit|Paste is stippled out. 2.18 How do I display my current working directory at a ksh prompt? 4 Feb 2001 -------------------------------------- People like to see their hostname and working directory in their prompt, like: Yoda:/var/tmp>$ This can be easily done in ksh by editing your .profile. Change the PS1 line or create it to read: PS1='Yoda:$PWD\>\$' but use your own hostname, rather than Yoda. Be sure to surround the PS1 definition in single quotes, or it won't update when you change directories. 2.19 How do I display my current working directory at a bash prompt? 4 Feb 2001 -------------------------------------- You can have bash display your hostname and working directory at the prompt in this form: yoda:/var/tmp>$ by changing the PS1 line or creating in your .profile to read: PS1='\h:$PWD>\$' The defninition must be in single quotes, or it won't update the prompt when you change directories. If you like to see your hostname capitalized like I do, then hardcode it into your .profile like this: PS1='Yoda:$PWD>\$' 2.20 How do I type accented charaters in vi, Messenger, or Kedit? 28 Jun 2001 -------------------------------------- Uw7 supports compose keys and dead keys in X. Quickly: In Kedit... --------------------------------------------------------- The compose key is ^T Press the compose key(s) ctrl+shift+t Release. Now Press c/ Synopsis: ---------- <Compose key> <character> <accent> Examples: press these keys and see what they create -------------------------------------------------------- ^Te' ^Ta* ^TY= ^Tae ^T?? e^T^2 are the w00t w00t. I've had success with Kedit, Netscape Messenger, and in an Eterm. So vi is no problem. It doesn't work in an xterm, though, nor does it work on a regular tty, as far as I can figure. Detail --------- a) You need your locale to be en_US-ISO8859-1 or similar, not C. The locales that end in 8859-1 or similar support accented characters. Use these commands to show the locale for a logged in user and to set the locale on a per-user basis: /bin/locale scoadmin acc To set the locale system wide, edit /etc/default/locale. b) Once your locale is set, log in and startx. c) Boot up Netscape Navigator and bookmark the mapchan file that's used to tranlate keystrokes: file:/usr/lib/mapchan/ISO8859-1/ISO8859-1 If nor using 8859-1, choose the file that matches what you've chosen. d) The important section (it's big): compose 0x14 # Compose character (^T) ' ' ' ' 0240 # NBSP '"' ' ' 0xa8 # umlaut accent '\'' ' ' 0xb4 # acute accent '+' '+' '#' # number sign 'A' 'A' '@' # commercial at '(' '(' '[' # opening bracket '/' '/' '\\' # backslash '/' '<' '\\' # backslash ')' ')' ']' # closing bracket '^' ' ' '^' # circumflex accent '>' ' ' '^' # circumflex accent '`' ' ' '`' # grave accent '(' '-' '{' # opening brace '/' '^' '|' # vertical line 'L' 'V' '|' # vertical line 'l' 'v' '|' # vertical line ')' '-' '}' # closing brace '~' ' ' '~' # tilde '-' ' ' '~' # tilde '!' '!' 0241 # inverted ! 'c' '/' 0242 # cent sign 'C' '/' 0242 # cent sign 'c' '|' 0242 # cent sign 'C' '|' 0242 # cent sign ... The good stuff starts down there with the inverted ! statement. Any line where the third field is in 0222 style notation is an accented character when created with the compose key and the first two characters. e) The compose key is listed above. Once you press it, Uw7 knows the next two keystrokes are meant to compose the character and an accent. Compose character: ^T But take care! That's not ctrl + t, that's ctrl + shift + t You need to press and hold each key until they are all pressed, in the order listed, then release them all. If you accidentially get dyslexic and press shift+ctrl+t, you're out of luck. You can change your compose key. To do so, change the line that says: compose 0x14 # Compose character (^T) to read some other hex value, and that's it. Very tidy. f) Let's make a cent sign, and an inverted exclamation. Open up Netscape Messenger and compose new mail. Click in the body area and type a few keys and spaces, then: 1) Press this: ^T 2) see this: nothing, cursor doesn't move 3) Press this: c 4) see this: nothing, cursor waits for 2nd character 5) Press this: / 6) see this: 1) Press this: ^T!! 2) see this: That's about it. Notes: ----------- In Windows, you compose the cent sign by engaging your NUMLOCK key, then _holding down_ the ALT key while pressing 0162 on the keypad: ALT 0162 When you relase the ALT key, the accented character will appear. Windows uses the synopsis: <ALT> <4 digit decimal value> where the decimal value is similar to 0064 0164 0283 Win see also: http://www.ramsch.org/martin/uni/fmi-hp/iso8859-1.html Win see also: 2.21 What are the different ways to print documents? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- You can print to nearly every printer on the planet by dumping straight ascii text to the printer. They will print it in Courier 10pt font, usually. You can print a graphics rich, color document, by converting it to postscript (ps) and then sending that ps file directly to a printer that understands ps. Most top of the line HP laserjets understand ps. Most inkjets don't, unless you pay the extra $200 to get the license and upload the code to the printer rom. You can print a graphics rich, color document, to a printer that uses a complex escape (ESC) code language and that has a driver written for it in the program ghostscript (gs). Most printers satisfy these requirements. So gs comes in very handy when printing to printers attached to the Unix box, a Windows box, or to a print-server (like an HP JetDirect 300x attached to your ethernet). 2.22 How do I use ghostscript to format documents for an Epson 800? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- The Epson Stylus Color 850 is similar to the other Epson InkJet printers that were sold like crazy in 1999 and 2000: Epson 400 Epson 600 Epson 800 Epson 850 Epson 1440 They all do 1440x720 dpi color, on all different paper stocks. The better ones just do it faster. They can't do ps by default, and they are Windows printers basically. So we need to use gs to format the print job with the proper ESC sequences to activate the options we see in the windows printer properties page. The Epson Stylus Color line of printers is supported in gs by the uniprint driver. You can learn how to compile gs7.00 in Section 8.12, Alladin Ghostscript. You can see what printer drivers are compiled into your gs by using the command: gs -h You can read up on this topic in the gs-7.00 source docs: file:/home/matthew/Dev/gs7.00/doc/Devices.htm That's a really important file. There's a upp file for any Epson Stylus 800, high-res, 720x720, called: stc800p.upp Here's the command I'd use to create a printable version of tiger.ps, gs @stc800p.upp -sOutputFile=/var/tmp/printout tiger.ps -c quit 2.23 How do I use VisionFS to print to a Windows shared printer? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- The trick to setting up VisionFS is to read the PDF file that they tuck away in this path: file:/usr/vision/bin/pctools/en_US/docs/vfsintro.pdf Here's the nuts and bolts of the subject. When you have a WindowsNT or Win2K computer with a shared printer attached to it, if you have an account on that computer and rights to print on it, then you're set on the Windows side. As root, it's helpful if you make a symlink to the visionfs program in /usr/local/bin so that your users don't have to modify all their paths. # ln -s /usr/vision/bin/visionfs /usr/local/bin/visionfs Then get the list of shared printers on the NT host "luke." Print to one of them: $ visionfs print //luke --user matthew Password for matthew? ********** P2D2 <Active> 0 jobs EPSON800 <Active> 0 jobs $ visionfs print //luke/P2D2 /var/tmp/printout --user matthew Password for matthew? *********** Your print job is ### Summary: gs @stc800p.upp -sOutputFile=/var/tmp/printout tiger.ps -c quit Summary: visionfs print //luke --user matthew Summary: visionfs print //luke/P2D2 /var/tmp/printout --user matthew There's a way to make a unix printer that you can just lp the file to and skip the visionfs print command. That's in the manual. ____________________________________ | | | 3. Media, Filesystems, and Disks | |____________________________________| 3.1 What's a partition? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A disk can be subdivided into one to four continuous sections called partitions. In reality, Unixware7 likes to use only one Unix partition per disk, but the others can be raw for database use. Inside a partition are slices (or just raw space as I mentioned). 3.2 What's a slice? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A slice is a subdivision of a partition. There can be from zero to 184 slices in a partition. Inside a slice is a filesystem. 3.3 What's a filesystem? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- A filesystem is a data structure (sort of like an array) that contains a superblock, an inode list, and data blocks. This data structure is used to provide the operating system access to files and data. The data blocks hold the actual file data, and the inodes keep track of things like permissions and where the actual data is. 3.4 What's an inode? 14 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- An inode is also a data structure that holds the important information about a file that we see when we do an ls -l, like: Mode -- (filetype / permissions) Link count -- the number of hard links to a file The owner's UID The file's GID The size in bytes The atime, mtime, ctime -- file modification times The addresses of the data blocks that hold the file. In some cases there are no data block addresses and only major and minor numbers as is the case with device files in /dev. For each and every file there exists at least one inode. 3.5 What does HBA stand for? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- HBA stands for Host Bus Adapter. 3.6 Can an HBA have more than one bus? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- Yes, a dual channel SCSI adapter like the AHA3940 is an example if two scsi buses. 3.7 What is the lun number? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- Lun stands for Logical Unit Number. Some SCSI devices have slaves with them, eg. the Iomega Beta 44. The primary controller is logical unit zero and the slaves start with one and continue for each device. This drawing may help SCSI HBA-----------SCSI ID 5-|--Lun 0 Primary CDROM drive | |--Lun 1 Slave CDROM drive | |-- .... | |--Lun 7 Slave CDROM drive | |----SCSI ID 6----Lun 0 Primary CDROM | |--... -----SCSI ID 0----... Every SCSI Device can have 8 lun numbers from 0-7 3.8 If a computer has two SCSI cards, which is c0 and which is c1? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- UnixWare starts with IO address. For example a mixture of IDE and SCSI would be as follows: IDE Primary Controller would be c0. IDE Secondary Controller would bd c1. SCSI Controller would be c2. Usually SCSI controllers are chosen the same way they are listed as the BIOS loads. You may be able to modify this behavior in your SCSI BIOS. Contact your SCSI HBA manufacturer for more information. 3.9 What are the names of the disks, like /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s0 ? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The hard disks are named in subdirectories of /dev: /dev/dsk block devices for mounting, mdir, tar, and dd. /dev/rdsk raw character devices for format The hard disks are always named starting with c#b#t#d# then either an s# or p# making either of the following for raw devices: /dev/rdsk/c#b#t#d#s# /dev/rdsk/c#b#t#d#p# You can remember this because it Can't Be That Difficult --> c_b_t_d. Use the s# designation when you're referring to a slice and the p# designation when you are referring to a partition. You can use s0 to refer to the entire partition (when using prtvtoc). You can use p0 to refer to the entire disk. The # in s# is HEX ! Be sure to use hex when referring to slices higher than 9, as in c0b0t0d0sc for the 12th slice (a=10, b=11, c=12, d=13, e=14, f=15). The c, b, t, and d stand for: c# is the controller number (like c0 or c1 for each HBA or IDE controller) b# is the bus number of the HBA. This is usually 0, as in b0. t# is the scsi id. t# for IDE is 0=primary, 1=slave. d# is the lun number (also usually 0 as in d0). On a small system without raid and only one Adaptec scsi HBA, the c, b, and d, don't change, and you use the different scsi id's (t#) to refer to each different drive, as in: /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0s0 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s0 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t13d0s0 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t3d0s0 3.10 What is the device name of the diskette drive? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The first 1.44 floppy drive is usually referenced as /dev/dsk/f03ht <--- These are equivalent and are /dev/fd0 <--- for mounting, tar, dd /dev/rdsk/f03ht <--- These are equivalent and are /dev/rfd0 <--- for formatting Diskettes are referenced by device files in /dev/dsk/* <-- Block devices (diskettes with filesystems) /dev/rdsk/* <-- Raw devices (diskettes made with tar or cpio) /dev/dsk/f03ht <-- First 1.44 MB block diskette /dev/dsk/f13ht <-- Second 1.44 MB block diskette /dev/rdsk/f03ht <-- First 1.44 MB raw diskette /dev/rdsk/f13ht <-- Second 1.44 MB raw diskette /dev/dsk/f05ht <-- First 1.2 MB block diskette /dev/rdsk/f05ht <-- First 1.2 MB raw diskette /dev/rdsk/f15ht <-- Second 1.2 MB raw diskette The specific device file to use depends on the density and size of the diskette and drive. The device file name consists of: f0 or f1 <-- The first or second drive respectively 3h <-- 3.5" high density (1.44 MB) 5h <-- 5.25" high density (1.2 MB) t <-- The t specifies the entire disk There are other diskette device identifiers like 3c, 3e, 3d, 5d, which can be found in the man 7 fd. In theory, /dev/[r]f03ct refers to 1.68 MB and 1.722 MB diskettes. 3.11 How do I write files to a diskette and list them? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- One method is format the floppy, create a vxfs filesystem on it, mount the floppy, copy the files to the mount directory, then ls that directory. Another method is to format the floppy, then use tar to write the files to the floppy. Use tar again to list the files. A disadvantage of tar is that you can't use wildcards (*) when extracting files. Tar on Uw7 can back up empty directories, unlike that in OS5. A very good method of writing files to diskettes is to format the floppy, then use cpio. Finally, you can take a DOS format a floppy and mcopy the files to it, then list them with mdir. 3.12 How do I format a 1.44 MB floppy? Sept 19 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the format command on the raw diskette: format -V /dev/rdsk/f03ht <-- First 1.44 MB floppy and verify. or use the following for an exhaustive verify: format -E /dev/rdsk/f03ht <-- I use -E for assurance, because it write verifies every sector. It's worth a few minutes. 3.13 How do I create a filesystem on a floppy? Sept 19 1999 ---------------------------------------- First format the floppy with an exhaustive verify, as this is the only surefire way to root out bad sectors. Then use the 'mkfs' command: mkfs -F vxfs /dev/fd0 2880 which will create a vxfs filesystem on the first floppy drive with a size of 2880 512-byte blocks (1.44 MB). 3.14 How do I mount a floppy and view the contents? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Mount the floppy with the 'mount' command, then list the contents using the 'ls' command: mount -F vxfs /dev/fd0 /mnt or mount -F dosfs /dev/fd0 /mnt then ls -l /mnt If the floppy doesn't have a filesystem on it, or the mount point directory doesn't exist, then the mount will fail. Be absolutely sure to umount the diskette before you remove it from its drive. 3.15 How do I access the disc in my cd-rom drive? Sept 22 1999 ---------------------------------------- The disc has a filesystem on it, which is called a 'cdfs' filesystem in Uw7, and it needs to be mounted to be accessed: mount -r -F cdfs /dev/cdrom/cdrom1 /mnt where; mount <-- The command needs to be run by by a privileged user. -r <-- Specifies read only. -F cdfs <-- Describes the filesystem type as 'cdfs' /dev/... <-- Specifies the first cdrom drive (a block device). /mnt <-- The directory to which the disc is mounted. It must exist before running the 'mount' command. 3.16 What might a guru type when mounting a disc? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- One can use the '-o <option_args>' argument to the mount command to do useful things like disallowing SUID, setting r-xr--r--, and converting caps to lower-case, as in: mount -r -F cdfs -o nosuid,dperm=544,nameconv=l /dev/cdrom/cdrom1 /mnt One would probably alias that command in their .profile so as to make it easily available to ksh, or bash, as in: alias mcd1=" ... " where the '...' should be replace by the whole command seven lines above. From the mount(1M) page, 'The CDROM media may or may not have values set for items such as the User ID (UID), Group ID (GID), permissions, etc. If a value is not recorded on the CDROM, a default value is assigned by the software. The default value is either taken from the /etc/conf/pack.d/cdfs/space.c file, or from the value specified with the -o option of the mount command.' 'mkisofs,' part of the cdtools on Skunkware, properly writes the permissions when creating the ISO image. 3.17 Can I burn a cdr in UnixWare 7.1.x? 8 Jun 2001 ---------------------------------------- Cdtools enables you to burn both cdr's and cdrw's. I found the latest version, which what 1.10, off the net and compiled it because burning cd's is tricky. I'd like to limit the environmental disaster of coasters, if you know what I mean. The file sco_notes.txt contains the method to burn a cd. It's here, and I'll try to cover the important parts: http://www.sco.com/skunkware/cdrecord/SCO-NOTES.html You'll want to run the following command as root, once you have cdtools installed: cdrecord -scanbus That let me see that my scsibus,target,lun for my cdrw was 0,4,0. 0,4,0 4) 'PLEXTOR ' 'CDR PX820T' '1.08' Removable CD-ROM 1) You don't need an /etc/default/cdrecord file. It's doesn't work right anyway. 2) Let's say you downloaded the Caldera Workstation 3.1 iso image. Cd to the directory it's in. 3) cdrecord -v dev=0,4,0 speed=8 workstation-3.1.iso - or - cdrecord -v dev=0,4,0 speed=8 -dao workstation-3.1.iso 4) mount -r -F cdfs /dev/cdrom/cdrom1 /mnt Here's how to create your own iso image of the files in a directory and how to burn it in DAO mode, as an ISO9660 Data Mode 1 disc, without Joliet nor RockRidge extensions: 2) Copy all the files that you want to a temporary directory called /home/tmp/cdi and arrange the files the way you want them on the final cdr that you are going to burn. 3) # cd /home/tmp/cdi 4) # mkisofs -L -l -v -r -V mydisc -o /home/tmp/out.img . 5) # cdrecord -v dev=0,4,0 speed=8 -dao /home/tmp/out.img 6) # mount -r -F cdfs /dev/cdrom/cdrom1 /mnt That worked well for me. (1) The default file doesn't work. If you make a valid one and only use it rather than specifying a dev=, then you'll burn coasters. (2) is self-explanatory. (3) cdrecord needs to run as root, or else you need to set up the SUID and SGID and permissions stuff. (4) Change to the correct directory. (5) It is necessary to make an ISO filesystem image of all your files, and the flags are important, and so is the '.' which is just like the relative pathname notation in cpio. I got the args from the SCO_NOTES.html file included in the archive. The -V mydisc is what labels the cdrom "MYDISC". (6) Burn the cd now. (7) I'd eject, then insert and mount the cd. If you want to do a simulated burn, then add the -dummy flag to the cdrecord command line. 3.18 What is the tape drive called? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The tape drive device files are in /dev/rmt/* The first device on each list is the easiest to remember, but all devices in a column are equivalent. In this scsi setup, the tape device is at scsi id=2. Rew/Non-Ret Non-Rew/Non-Ret Rew/Ret Non-Rew/Ret ctape1 ntape1 rtape1 nrtape1 c0s0 c0s0n c0s0r c0s0nr c0b0t2l0 c0b0t2l0n c0b0t2l0r c0b0t2l0nr Unload after op utape1 c0b0t2l0u Use a device like ctape2 if you have a second drive. 3.19 What is a good tape drive to use with Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Any scsi tape drive should be functional, with some devices offering newer options like fast positioning to index marks, etc. Hewlett Packard DAT drives used to be well liked, but now many people in the ng's are recommending Sony DLT's, which will greatly increase your backup speeds with simultaneous write and verify. 3.20 What are some of the tape commands I want to know? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- The tapecntl command is used to manipulate the tape device directly. Some commands will not work on all tape drives as each tape drive supports slightly different subsets of all the potential scsi tape commands. Common tapecntl commands are: tapecntl -r - Reset the tape drive tapecntl -w - Rewind the tape. tapecntl -u - Eject the tape. tapecntl -C - List the hardware compression setting tapecntl -c 3 - Enable all hardware compression tapecntl -c 0 - Disable all hardware compression tapecntl -v - Set the drive to read/write in variable block lengths tapecntl -f 512 - Set the drive back to r/w in 512 byte block lengths! The default tape i/o block length for r/w is fixed at 512 bytes. The default tape device that all the above commands refer to is ntape1. To use one of these commands like reset, I would type: tapecntl -r /dev/rmt/ntape1 3.21 What are the various filesystem types on Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ Uw7 is based around the Vxfs filesystem. It also supports: dosfs - For DOS. cdfs - For cdrom's, both Rockridge and High Sierra/ISO9660 bfs - For the boot file system nfs - As in Sun's NFS. nucfs - Netware for Unix s5 - For HBA installation diskettes and OSR5 3.22 What's the maximum filesystem size? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ The maximum vxfs filesystem size is 1 TB. 3.23 What's the maximum file size? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ The maximum vxfs file size is 1 TB. 3.24 What's the logical block size? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ The logical block size is set during ISL when creating the filesystem. In the sco docs, it's defined as "the size of the blocks that the kernel uses to read and write data."(1) It can be set to 1024, 2048, 4096, or 8192 bytes. The default is 1024. This logical block size is not what we usually think of as a block, which we say is 512 bytes, historically. ________ 1. http://localhost:457/FS_admin/_Choosing_a_Logical_Block_Size.html 3.25 Is there still that 64k inode limit by default? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ There is no 64K inode limit on a vxfs filesystem by default, beginning with Uw7.1.0. 3.26 How do I mount the filesystem on a disk, disc, or diskette? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ A filesystem must be mounted before it can be used. Here are the commands that one can use to mount various media: Disk: mount -F vxfs /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 /home Disc: mount -r -F cdfs /dev/cdrom/cdrom1 /mnt Diskette: mount -F vxfs /dev/fd0 /mnt mount -F dosfs /dev/fd0 /mnt The examples refer to the first floppy drive, first cdrom, and to mounting the Home filesystem. We use the block devices, /dev/dsk/*, for mounting filesystems. 3.27 Why would mounting fail? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ An attempt to mount a filesystem will fail if the directory to which you are mounting does not exist, or if that directory contains files that are in use, or if you refer to the filesystem as the wrong type. Only a privileged user can use the mount command. 3.28 Why would unmounting fail? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ A filesystem will not unmount if someone is using the filesystem, which includes having cd'd into the filesystem and leaving that terminal in that directory, and when a user is using a file as in vi. Only a privileged user can use the mount command. See the section in this faq about fuser to clear the umount lock. 3.29 How do I list the disk geometry like Cylinders, Heads, Bytes/Sector? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------ The disk geometry is very important to understand so that one can successfully partition and slice their hard drives. The disk geometry is different with each system, and can be changed with a setting in your scsi host adapter Bois called "Enable BIOS translation for DOS drives over 1GB." To list your geometry, type the command: prtvtoc -p /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 where you will need to use the correct target id, etc., and be sure that you specify s0 as the slice so that you refer to the entire partition. I used to say that you could use the partsize command also, but it doesn't tell you the correct values the way prtvtoc does. This is especially true if you have BIOS translation enabled. 3.30 How do I list my partition and slice layout? Is there a divvy? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ For partitions, use fdisk. For slices use prtvtoc. There may be a nifty program like divvy in the future, but, for now, use the following command to list the slice layout to a file in /tmp: prtvtoc -f /tmp/mytoc If you do a cat /tmp/mytoc, you will see something like the following, where; SLICE is the slice number in decimal, TAG designates whether it is a root, boot, swap, home, or .... slice FLAG field defines whether the slice is valid, read-only, and/or unmountable (that field is similar to the permissions field 644 or 755 in that it contains numbers that are added START and SIZE fields refer to the sector that the slice begins on and the number of sectors that the slice occupies, respectively. #SLICE TAG FLAGS START SIZE 0 0x5 0x201 63 16305912 1 0x2 0x200 1076355 6152895 2 0x3 0x201 642600 433755 3 0x0 0x0 0 0 4 0xb 0x200 7229250 8787555 5 0x0 0x0 0 0 6 0xc 0x201 64260 578340 7 0x1 0x201 63 34 8 0xd 0x201 97 15968 9 0x0 0x0 0 0 10 0x9 0x200 16065 48195 11 0x0 0x0 0 0 12 0x0 0x0 0 0 13 0x0 0x0 0 0 14 0x0 0x0 0 0 15 0xf 0x201 16016805 16065 An important slice to look at is slice 4, the home slice, because you will use it as a perfect template for creating your own slices, when you need to. The 0xb and 0x200 are what I'm referring to. 3.31 How do I convert sectors to MB? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------ First you need to do a 'prtvtoc' on the hard drive, so that you can determine the bytes/sector. On my IBM hard drive, 1 sector = 512 Bytes. You can multiply this by 1, twice, as in: 1 sect. 1024 Bytes 1024 KB --------- x ---------- x --------- = 2048 sect./ MB 512 Bytes 1 KB 1 MB Using the beauty of cross-multiplication, we can see that Bytes cancels Bytes, KB cancels KB, and we are left with sectors/MB. So on my system, to convert sectors to MB, I would divide the number of sectors by 2048 sect./MB. 3.32 How do I add a 2nd or 3rd disk drive to my system? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ It is fairly straightforward to add another drive to a UnixWare system, thanks to the command 'diskadd.' You don't need to do anything to the system before you install the drive. After shutting down, installing the drive with the correct termination, and jumpering it for the correct scsi id and auto-spinup, you can restore power and run your HBA BIOS setup program to match your HBA to your drive capabilities (on an Adaptec scsi HBA like a 2940UW, you would press CTRL-A during POST). Then boot into multiuser mode. As root, run: diskadd c0b0t1d0 to add the disk. Use the right c#b#t#d# for your setup. The diskadd program will take you through: fdisk -- Is invoked to allow you to create a partition disksetup -- Is run which helps you to do the following: * Surface Analysis * Create the VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) * Write the bad track and bad sector table to the drive * Create the layout of slices on the new drive (up to 13 of them) * Use mkfs to make filesystems * Creates the lost+found directories automatically in any filesystem. * Creates the mount point directories. * Mounts the filesystems. * Updates the vfstab file. The 'disksetup' program walks you through all the steps via a simple series of questions. It is well written and works smoothly. You will need to know how many MB you want each slice to be, and what they will be called, and that's about it. ********************* Some caveats: 1) UnixWare uses a slice representation like c0b0t0d0xx for almost everything that needs a drive named. 2) That naming has no partition information in it !! So you can't specify what partition you mean when you type c0b0t0d0s4 to refer to a slice. 3) The only way for UnixWare to know what partition contains slice 4, is for it to mark that partition active. 4) Thus you can only use one partition for filesystems on each hard drive. And that one partition needs to be active for the system to know where to go. The only exception is when you use a whole additional partition for one filesystem and no slices (call it /dev/dsk/c#b#t#d#p# <-- no s). 5) In the active Unix partition, you can have 183 slices. Diskadd only helps you create up to 13. Any additional slices need to be hand created. On the 2nd drive with scsi id=1, the slices would be 1 through b8 (because slices are listed in hex): /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s1 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s2 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s3 ... /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0sb6 /dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0sb7 <--- Slice #'s are in hex, b7 = 183. I couldn't get 184 to work; so for now, I'll claim 183. 6) The situation where you would have more than one partition on another drive is where you need a raw partition for Database storage or you are using the trick of one filesystem taking up a whole partition with no slices in it. 3.33 How do I partition a hard drive? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------ It is not very common to partition a hard drive with UnixWare, because of the caveats listed in (3.29). If you find yourself needing to add a partition for some raw space or for dedication of the entire partition to a filesystem (odd), go ahead and use 'fdisk.' Reboot and remake your emergency boot and root disks. 3.34 How do I create a slice in a partition? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------ People add a slice if they want to make another filesystem or add additional swap space. Most slices were created the easy way, during ISL or when you added a drive and ran diskadd. If you need more than 13 slices or you just postponed adding them until later, you'll want to do the following: 1) Choose a drive with an active UW partition with free space in it. 2) Print the VTOC to a temp file called mytoc. 3) Look at mytoc and determine what slice number to use. 4) Determine from mytoc where to start your new slice. 5) Determine using math how many sectors to use... The Magic Multiplier. 6) Edit and save mytoc with the new slice #, TAG, FLAG, START, and SIZE. 7) Impress mytoc back onto the partition as the new VTOC. 8) Reboot if you changed the root disk drive or if you added a slice above number 15. After that is done, the slice is ready for a filesystem and mounting. Here is an in-depth example of the above procedure: 1) I'll choose the partition that is on my first hard drive because it has some free space on it and it has an easy to follow example slice (/home). That means scsi id 0. 2) prtvtoc -f /tmp/mytoc /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 3) less /tmp/mytoc The output is shown below. Slice 5 is empty. I'll use 5. #SLICE TAG FLAGS START SIZE 0 0x5 0x201 63 16305912 1 0x2 0x200 1076355 6152895 2 0x3 0x201 642600 433755 3 0x0 0x0 0 0 4 0xb 0x200 7229250 8787555 5 0x0 0x0 0 0 6 0xc 0x201 64260 578340 7 0x1 0x201 63 34 8 0xd 0x201 97 15968 9 0x0 0x0 0 0 10 0x9 0x200 16065 48195 11 0x0 0x0 0 0 12 0x0 0x0 0 0 13 0x0 0x0 0 0 14 0x0 0x0 0 0 15 0xf 0x201 16016805 16065 4) To determine where to start, you need to look and see where the last slice ends because the unallocated space begins at then end of the last slice. A cylinder begins at the end of the last slice. From the above output, I can see slice 0, the whole partition, starts at 63 and is 16305912 sectors long. It is important to realize that: (start sector) + (number of sectors) = (beginning sector of empty space). For example, a hypothetical slice that starts at sector 0 and is 10 sectors long. Then: ( 0 ) + ( 10 ) = 10 which means that the slice takes up sectors 0-9, and sector 10 is where the free space starts. Back to the real chart, we see: (63) + (16305912) = (16305975) which tells me that the drive ends on 16305975. Now I look for the last slice which is the slice with the highest start number, 15 in this case. Below is a listing of slice 15 again: #SLICE TAG FLAGS START SIZE 15 0xf 0x201 16016805 16065 I want to start at the beginning of the unallocated space. The formula says: 16016805 + 16065 = 16032870 So the answer to this section is: The START sector = 16032870. 5) How many sectors to use.... The Magic Multiplier. I've determined where to start the slice in part (4), and that sector is on a cylinder boundary. I also want it to end on a cylinder boundary. So I need to determine about how many sectors I have to play with, and then calculate how many I need to make my slice end on a cylinder boundary. I do a quick prtvtoc as described in question (3.25): #TYPE HEADS CYLS SECS SECSZ 4 255 1115 63 512 So now I am armed with the data that a track is 63 sectors around, and a cylinder is 255 tracks high. That's 255 tracks that are 63 sectors around or (255 x 63)=16065 sectors. That's the Magic Multiplier...: 16065. There are 16065 sectors in a cylinder. The sector size of my new slice needs to be a multiple of 16065. Every START listed in the table is an even multiple of 16065. By using the Magic Multiplier this way, we assure ourselves that our slices start at the beginning of a cylinder and end at the end of a cylinder. In this example, I subtract to get the amount of space available: 16305975 Partition ends on this sector. - 16032870 New slice starts on this sect. ------------- = 273105 I have this much unalloc'd space to play with. Doing a little multiplying I see that, if I try a few multiples of the Magic Multiplier: 14 * 16065 = 224910 15 * 16065 = 240975 16 * 16065 = 257040 17 * 16065 = 273105 I'll choose the second one. My answer is then: SECZ = 240975 6) So far I've decided: TAG = 0x4 from man edvtoc 0x4 means user filesystem FLAG = 0x200 from man edvtoc 0x200 means valid to use SLICE = 5 from Step (3) START = 16032870 from Step (4) SECSZ = 240975 from Step (5) The edited file looks like this: /tmp/mytoc +--------------------------------------------- |#SLICE TAG FLAGS START SIZE | 0 0x5 0x201 63 16305912 | 1 0x2 0x200 1076355 6152895 | 2 0x3 0x201 642600 433755 | 3 0x0 0x0 0 0 | 4 0xb 0x200 7229250 8787555 | 5 0x4 0x200 16032870 240975 | 6 0xc 0x201 64260 578340 | 7 0x1 0x201 63 34 | 8 0xd 0x201 97 15968 | 9 0x0 0x0 0 0 |10 0x9 0x200 16065 48195 |11 0x0 0x0 0 0 |12 0x0 0x0 0 0 |13 0x0 0x0 0 0 |14 0x0 0x0 0 0 |15 0xf 0x201 16016805 16065 | 7) Now impress this on the drive with 'edvtoc' as in: edvtoc -f /tmp/mytoc /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 We are done. Slice #5 is created as.... /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s5. No need to reboot because the device node for slice 5 exists already. 3.35 How do I create a filesystem in a slice? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------ Now that we have a slice, we need a filesystem on it. To do this we'll use the 'mkfs' command twice: once to list the mkfs command used to create /home and once to create a vxfs filesystem on the new slice. 1) mkfs -m /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 > /tmp/doit This command is used to list the mkfs command that was used to create /home. We'll use this because it is almost identical to the command that we need to make our vxfs filesystem. This is the output of the command: mkfs -F vxfs -o ninode=unlimited,bsize=1024,version=4, \ inosize=256,logsize=1024,nolargefiles /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 8787554 where I have used a \ to denote that the mkfs command was one long line. Now vi doit and change it to specify our new slice, then execute it as follows. 2) vi /tmp/doit as follows to add a vxfs filesystem to slice 5 that we created in Question (3.34): /tmp/doit ______________________________________________________________________ | mkfs -F vxfs -o ninode=unlimited,bsize=1024,version=4,inosize=256, \ | logsize=1024,nolargefiles /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s5 272790 | In this file I changed the last two "words." Save the file. 3) Use your new 'doit' file to create the filesystem: # sh /tmp/doit Now there is a filesystem on our new slice. To complete the whole process, we want to create a mount point directory like /home2, and then go into Scoadmin Filesystem to let the system know about the mount configuration and to let it update /etc/vfstab so that we can simply type: mount /home2 instead of the whole c0b0t0d0s5 stuff, anytime we want to mount it. 3.36 How do I use quotas on a vxfs filesystem in Uw7? 7 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------- Quotas allow you to set limits on how much space is allotted to each user. These limits work on vxfs filesystems and can be hard or soft. They can limit the user by KB or by the number of files created. Here is a cookbook method to create a quota on the /home filesystem so that Yurtle is limited to 200 MB and/or 1000 files in her home directory, /home/yurtle: A. Log in as root B. touch /home/quotas <-- only if the file doesn't exist. C. edquota -F vxfs yurtle In this file, change the line so that it says: blocks soft=180000 hard=200000, inodes soft=900 hard=1000 D. quotaon -F vxfs /home To see a report of the quota usage on a filesystem type the following: repquota -F vxfs /home 3.37 How do I fsck the root filesystem? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- You can't fsck the root filesystem manually. Don't believe anyone that tells you otherwise. The root filesystem knows when it should be fsck'd and will do it on its own at boot time if and only if it needs it. Though I had a thought just now that you may be able to fake it and mark the root filesystem as dirty, then reboot. You can fsck other slices, though, when they are unmounted. To fsck /home, you can do the following: 1) Warn users and get them all to log off. 2) fuser -uc /home <-- list files in use in /home 3) fuser -u /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 <-- same as above (-c is tight) 3) fuser -k /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 <-- kill user proc's using files. 4) umount /home <-- unmount /home 5) fsck -F vxfs -ofull /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 3.38 How do enable Large File Support (for file sizes up to 1TB)? 5 Nov 1999 -------------------------------------- To enable large file support on a filesystem you must either: A. Create a filesystem with the mkfs command and list largefile support as one the options. B. Or use the fsadm command on a filesystem that already exists, fsadm -o largefiles /data <--- /data is a mounted FS. Then set the ulimit to unlimited as in: ulimit -f unlimited which can also be done permanently by setting the SFSZLIM and HFZSLIM to 0x7FFFFFFF with the Scoadmin System Tuner in the Process Limit Parameters section and relinking. 3.39 Why aren't my new scsi devices recognized after I install them? 18 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- Scsi devices that are added to the system, when the power is off, will be recognized during POST by your scsi hba. Be sure to enter the hba config program so that your hba settings match your device's capabilities. Then you can boot to single user mode (only for the sake of speed) and run sdiconfig -l to get a listing of your devices which looks similar to: 0:0,7,0: HBA : (adsb,1) Adaptec PCI SCSI 0,0,0: DISK : IBM DRVS09V 0140 0,1,0: DISK : IBM DDRS-34560D DC1B 0,2,0: TAPE : HP HP35480A T603 0,3,0: CDROM : PLEXTOR CD-ROM PX-40TS 1.00 If all of your devices are not listed, but were found by the hba during POST, then you may need to check scsi id's and termination. Be sure that you have inserted the cable with Pin 1 matching the red stripe on the cable, and try to use the best cables you can. After pulling on cables and bending them, they can fail. Also, be sure your hba BIOS is the most recent version. 3.40 Why isn't my Yamaha 4416S recognized after I install it? 18 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- The Yamaha 4416S cd-writer/rewriter, known as the 4x4x16, doesn't like to run at scsi ID 5 or 6. For that matter, it doesn't like 7 either. I've had devices mysteriously vanish and reappear on the 68 and 50-pin chains when the 4416 is at id 5 or 6. Try switching to id 3 or something. Also, be sure your hba BIOS is the most recent version. There is good thread on Usenet about the 4416s being "intermittently detected." 3.41 How do I institute ACL's on a Uw7 system? 28 April 2001 -------------------------------------- ACL's can be created, deleted, or modified by root or by the owner of a file. Use various forms of the commands: getacl setacl Below are two examples of using ACL's: Ex.1) Simple -- /usr/local/man directories ---------------------------------------------------------------- * All your skunkware man pages get installed into /usr/local/man/man1 ... /usr/local/man/man8 But they need to be converted and _written_ to the /usr/local/man/cat1 ... cat8 directories before thay can be displayed properly. But writing to the cat1 ... cat8 directoires is not allowed by the permissions on those directories -rwxr-xr-x root sys cat1 -rwxr-xr-x root sys cat2 ... -rwxr-xr-x root sys cat8 when you're logged in as your normal username. * This can be fixed by adding write permissions with ACL's for certain users (yourself). If you set this up, then you won't get those nagging "wrong display" errors. # cd /usr/local/man # getacl cat1 # setacl -r -m u:matthew:rwx cat1 # ls -l # getacl cat1 That'll do it. Now just replace the cat1 by cat* to set this on all the cat directories. Ex.2) Detailed -- Adding ACL's for a user and a groups ------------------------------------------------------------------ * We'll be adding 'r--' permissions on a file for two entities, the group 'graphics' and the user 'sysop': * We'll add these permissions because the file is called /home/data/turt/logo, and the relevant permissions are: drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys Oct 20 21:00 data drwxrwx--- 2 root turtles Oct 22 21:20 turt -rw-rw---- 1 yurtle turtles Oct 20 22:00 logo and from the permissions, we can see that sysop and the graphics group can't read nor access the turt directory, nor can they read the actual file, logo. Thus we'll have to add acl's for both turt and logo, to give sysop and graphics read access all the way down the path. It's very important to be sure that the perms are correct for each directory and file in the path. * Here are the before and after ACL's, then we'll discuss how to do it: Before ACL's After ACL's ------------------------------- -------------------------------------- # file: logo # file: turt # file: logo # file: turt # owner: yurtle # owner: root # owner: yurtle # owner: root # group: turtles # group: turtles # group: turtles # group: turtles user::rw- user::rwx user::rw- user::rwx group::rw- group::rwx user:sysop:r-- user:sysop:r-x class:rw- class:rwx group::rw- group::rwx other:--- other:--- group:graphics:r-- group:graphics:r-x class:rw- class:rwx other:--- other:--- * As root or Yurtle, cd into /home/data/ * You can list the ACL with getacl turt * You set the ACL with --> setacl -m u:sysop:r-x turt setacl -m g:graphics:r-x turt * Then cd /home/data/turt --> setacl -m u:sysop:r-- logo setacl -m u:graphics:r-- logo Default Directory ACL's *********************** Let's say that you get tired of adding r-- permissions for sysop to all the files in the directory turt, and you want to set a default ACL entry on that directory. Well, too bad. It's broken. It's been broken since 7.0.0. Here's how to add a default ACL entry, should it ever work: * As root, cd in /home/data * Set the ACL on the directory: setacl -m d:u:sysop:r-- turt 3.42 How do I superformat a diskette in Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 --------------------------------------- As of this version, I can't get this to work on Uw7. There is a device for reading and writing to a 1.68MB floppy if you have formatted it first on another OS, /dev/[r]dsk/f03ct (man 7 fd). You can use DOS fdformat (written in 1991). Reboot into MS-DOS mode, run FREAD (loads a TSR) FDFORMAT A: F168 (or F144, or F163, or F172) The standard way to format a floppy is to use 80 tracks and 18 sectors per track, but for DOS format diskettes, Microsoft reserved 3 sectors of every track for undelete information. This space can be used for your data. You can increase the size of your DOS diskette from 1440K to 1680K. The concept, again, is to use 21 sectors per track, instead of only 18 sectors per track, though the data will be interleaved, which makes accessing them a bit slower. 3.43 Why doesn't my tape drive work with cpio, tar, and ArcServe? 25 Oct 1999 --------------------------------------- ArcServe has a quirk where is takes over exclusive control of the tape drive when it is installed. Other commands like cpio and tar will not work with your tape drive until you type, as root, astop This stops the ArcServe daemon and returns tape control to the system. When you are finished using the tape, go ahead and type astart to return control to ArcServe. On a side note, most people prefer a 'super-tar' program from a third party vendor for their backup needs. 3.44 How do I add additional swap space? 18 Dec 2000 --------------------------------------- There are two ways to add some swap space to your computer: 1) add another swap slice, the same size, on a different drive. 2) or add a file and dedicate it to swap. The latter idea is mediocre at best. The following example will describe adding a swap slice. Issues to note: ---------------- * The kernel will distribute the usage of multiple swaps on different drives in a stripe style, if the swaps are identical size. * It doesn't fill them sequentially or wait for busy drives. * So we strive for identical sized swap slices. * If the slice can't be identical in size, then larger. * We can always make the swaps identical size in /etc/swaptab (in blocks). * Adding a slice was discussed in Section (3.30). Here we go: --- Adding a swap slice --- There are two ways: A) When you installed the drive with diskadd then prtvtoc/edvtoc. This is kludgey, because the disksetup slice adding program is not coded to specifically deal with swap slices. B) After the disk is installed, add a swap slice just like you would add any other slice, except swap has a 0x3 tag. I'll describe this way, so as to augment (3.30). See that section if you need to recall how to add a slice, in general. Given: A Uw711 system with two scsi hard drives on the same controller, labeled with id 0, and id 12. Both drives have one Uw7 partition that is active. I know that disk2 slice 180 is free, so I'll use that: (It's probably better to use the lower numbers and work your way up, but I'd like to illustrate a slice number above 16 and issues like hex names and device nodes). Solution: 1) Determine the exact size and specifications of the swap slice on disk1 that we'll duplicate on disk2. prtvtoc -p /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 prtvtoc -f /tmp/mytoc /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 cat /tmp/mytoc | grep 0x3 I know that the TAG for a swap slice is 0x3. So I can grep /tmp/mytoc for that TAG which shows, with my added titles, that: SLICE TAG FLAG START SECSZ 2 0x3 0x201 642600 433755 I see that I'm trying to add a swap slice that's 433755 sectors. From the prtvtoc -p I see that disk1 has 1115C, 255H, 63S/T, 512B/S. A bit of math (255 * 63) tells me that the Magic Number for a disk1 cylinder is 16065 sectors. Now (433755 / 16065) = 27 cylinders. And I can calculate that (433755 * 512) = 222082560 bytes. So from all this I gather my requirements: A) My new swap slice SLICE = 180. B) My new swap slice TAG = 0x3 C) My new swap slice FLAG = 0x201 D) My new swap slice START is yet to be determined. E) My new swap slice SECSZ would like to be = 433755 F) My new swap slice cylinders would like to be = 27. 2) Examine disk 2 and see if I can create that layout. The big issue I'll face is my disk geometries may be different. I am trying to have all swaps the identical size and have all swaps start and end on cylinder boundaries. Here is a head to head comparison of the output of the following commands on the two slices: prtvtoc -p /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 prtvtoc -p /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0s0 Cyl Heads Sec/Trk Bytes/Sec Magic Number 1115 255 63 512 16065 8748 64 32 512 2048 Check out the different Magic Numbers (sector size of a cylinder). I can't make both swaps the same number of bytes if the second swap slice is to end on a cylinder boundary. I will get around this by making the new swap slice at least as large as the first swap slice, in sectors that means >= 433755. Then I'll make them exactly the same number of blocks in /etc/swaptab. In this area of administration, 1 sector = 1 block = 512 bytes. (2048 * 212) = 434176 sectors = SECSZ <-- Answer. 3) Now I'll create the second swap slice. This involves the procedure outlined in Section (3.30) above. I'll follow that procedure but use the values I calculated in this Section, instead: To summarize, i. prtvtoc -f /tmp/swaptoc /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0s0 ii. vi /tmp/swaptoc. iii. My new swap slice - SLICE = 180 iv. My new swap slice - TAG = 0x3 v. My new swap slice - FLAG = 0x201 vi. I see that I can start on START = 821248 vii. I showed that my - SECSZ = 434176 viii. Add slice 180 to swaptoc using values from iii, iv, v, vi, vii. ix. Save /tmp/swaptoc and exit vi. x. edvtoc -f /tmp/swaptoc /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0s0 4) The second swap slice is created and now I add it to the list of devices that swap uses, by adding the block device to the /etc/swaptab file and making the exact same block size as the original. I used slice 180 on drive 2, and that looks like: Raw device /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 Block Device /dev/dsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 so /etc/swaptab looks like: +---------------------------------------------------------------- | #swapname offset(in blocks) size(in blocks) | /dev/swap 0 - | /dev/dsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 0 433755 | 5) Reboot. Here I thought I was done without a reboot if I just entered swap -c to load the /etc/swaptab file, but I got a Device not found error. Low and behold, the raw and block devices for the second disk slice 180 were not created after I did the edvtoc. My first instinct was to make the device nodes by hand with mknod, so I did.... mknod /dev/rdsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 c 7679 436 mknod /dev/dsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 b 7679 436 Wrong again! The devices were made fine, but swap -c still said Device not found. A bit more reading of man vtoc told me that the device nodes for slices 1-15 are created, but 16-183 are not, unless the slice exists. This is all done at boot time, so I concluded I needed a reboot :-/. I rm'd the two device nodes I had created, rebooted, and everything worked perfectly. swap -l lists the new swap path dev swaplo blocks free /dev/swap 7679,2 0 433752 433752 /dev/dsk/c0b0t12d0sb4 7679,436 0 433752 433752 3.45 Why do all the files on a mounted CD-ROM have ';1' at the end? 18 Dec 2000 contribs mitrich@kes.kc.ru --------------------------------------- That means that CD was recorded using JOLIET filesystem. You need to invoke SCO Admin, then Filesystem Manager. Then point to the CD-ROM mount entry, select Mount-> Modify Mount Config->Advanced Options-> Filename Conversion-> Suppress version and (;). From the command line it will be like this: mount -F cdfs -o\ dsearch=x,nmconv=m,dperm=0555,fperm=0555,ro \ /dev/cdrom/cxbxtxlx /CD-ROM_1 So it is better to use a script or alias for mounting. 3.46 How do I make an exact duplicate of an audio cd? 12 Jul 2001 ---------------------------------- Cdrtools-1.10 has all the programs you'll need to rip cd's in UnixWare 7. To do this, you can follow a method similar to this one, which uses a Plextor 8 speed cdr. Plextor cdr is called ==> dev=0,4,0 To rip --> # mkdir tracks To rip --> # cd tracks To rip --> # cdda2wav -v255 -D0,4,0 -B -Owav To rip --> # cdrecord -v dev=0,4,0 speed=8 -dao -useinfo *.wav 3.47 What are a good set of options to backup /home to cdr? 12 Jul 2001 ---------------------------------- The trick is to choose a set of options to the mkisofs command that will preserve the filenames, the perms, and as much original inode information as possible. The following are good. I use 'em, and I haven't discovered any problems yet. sco_notes version ==> mkisofs -l -L -r -v -V home1 -o iso.img . altered version ==> mkisofs -R -U -v -V home1 -o iso.img . -U force untranslated filenames (includes all the following!) -allow-lowercase lowercase chars ok in filenames -allow-multidot multiple dots ok in filenames -d don't add a trailing . to filenames -l allow 31 char filenames -L filenames can begin with a . -N omit version numbers in filenames -no-iso-translate do not translate # and ~ in filenames -relaxed-filenames all 7-bit chars are allowed in filenames -R engage Rockridge extensions with SUSP extensions. -v verbose -V home1 this lables the disk home1. -o iso.img this puts the output in a file called iso.img . the last period tells it where to start. 3.48 Do the memfs filesystems, /tmp and /var/tmp, use 50MB of RAM? 12 Jul 2001 --------------------------------------- The memfs filesystems are not exactly like ramdisks that reserve a section of ram. Memfs uses ram dynamically. If the directories are empty, the ram is not used. The memfs filesystems on UnixWare 7 default to 10 MB for /tmp and 40 MB for /var/tmp, which is not used when the directories are empty. 3.49 How do I convert the memfs filesystems to regular vxfs ones? 12 Jul 2001 --------------------------------------- All you have to do is umount /tmp and /var/tmp in order for them to become to regular subdirectories of root again. Use the umount command to do that. To make it permanent, umount the memfs filesystems and remove their entries from /etc/vfstab using vi. You can't use the Scoadmin Filesystem Manager to do any memfs operations, so do all that from the command line. The SCO Docs for UnixWare 7 state that a memfs /tmp is required for their emergency repair to work. _______________________________ | | |4. The Network | |_______________________________| 4.1 Do I need a nic in my Uw7 box? 18 Dec 2000 contribs zigazou@libertysurf.fr ---------------------------------------- From postings in the c.u.u.m newsgroup and some personal experience, Uw7 expects to be on a network. A system without a network card will function erratically. The contributor stated, 'Deferring the installation of the NIC is possible during UnixWare 7 installation. But you have to keep in mind that "ns-admin" will not correctly setup its files if it is installed before the NIC. It is the origin of the dot problem in ns-admin.conf, because domain name would have not been set as NIC was not yet installed. Reinstalling the package as stated after the NIC installation corrects the problem.' 4.2 What is a good brand of nic to use in Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Any brand of NIC that's tested and certified by SCO will be listed on the Compatible Hardware Page: http://www.sco.com/chwp/ Only use hardware that's listed! People are not always successful who focus on a supported chipset, rather than a supported nic from a brand name vendor. 4.3 How do I list my IP and MAC addresses for all configured nics? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'ifconfig -a' command to see a good deal about net0, net1, etc. You can also find the Media Access Control (MAC) address with: ndstat arp -a cat /etc/inet/macaddr It is useful to poke around with ndstat to understand how you can modify your MAC address if you are doing fail-over tasks. To get the MAC addresses of all the NICS on your subnet: * You can enable replies to broadcast pings on all the Uw7 hosts. * You can then ping your subnet's broadcast address. * All the Uw7 nics will respond. * Run an 'arp -a' and all the NICS + MAC's + IP's will be listed. To use 'inconfig' to enable response to broadcast pings, you will want to direct each host to reply to icmp activity: inconfig arpt_keep 1200 inconfig icmp_reply_broadcast 1 This will make arp keep it's data in it's cache for 1200 sec, and direct the nics to reply as described. 4.4 How do I list my routing table? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'netstat -rn' command to see the table using IP addresses. Use the 'netstat -r' command to see the table using host and network names. 4.5 How do I add a default route? Is it permanent? 3 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'route' command again, for systems with standard netmasks like 255.0.0.0, or 255.255.0.0, or 255.255.255.0 as in: route add default 10.1.1.254 If you have a more creative netmask, you will need to use more arguments to your route command to specify that. The default route will not stay around after a reboot. To make a route 'permanent' you will need to 'add' it at every reboot. This is as simple as the route add command above. Modify line 4a in your /etc/inet/config: original config file +----------------------- | ... | #4a:/usr/sbin/route::n::add default router_placeholder: | ... | modified config file +----------------------- | ... | 4a:/usr/sbin/route::y::add default 10.1.1.254: | ... | After adding a default route, be sure that your /etc/resolv.conf properly points to any new DNS. 4.6 What is a Virtual Domain? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A Virtual Domain is created when you add an 2nd IP address to one nic. You can configure your machine so that it provides email, FTP, and web services for several different domains... just add more IP aliases. Then configure the services to use with the virtual domain. 4.7 How do I add an IP alias? Is it permanent? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'ifconfig' command to add or remove an alias: ifconfig net0 alias 10.1.1.100 ifconfig net0 -alias 10.1.1.100 You can test your new alias with the 'ping' command. If you have put the alias on a different subnet than the real address of the nic, then you will need to configure a route for one network to talk to the other virtual network. With an alias, you can keep your old IP address functional, if ever you change yours. An alias is not permanent. You can make it stay, though, by creating an rc.2 shell script, S70ipalias. Here's mine, which logs to the syslog. -------------------- begin /etc/rc2.d/S70ipalias ---------------------- #!/bin/sh #====================== # File: /etc/rc2.d/S70ipalias # Auth: M.Schalit # Desc: Sets up aliases for net0, # and logs them to the syslog. # # Usage: S70ipalias <start|stop> # Date: 26 Nov 2000 #======================= usage() { echo "Usage: $0 <start|stop>\n" } # Set up a few variables. Fill in ALIAS1, and make NUN1 say # net0 or net1 or whatever nic you're putting the alias on. # The nic gets the alias, ALIAS1. # The NUN1 variable stands for Network Unit Number 1. ALIAS1=10.240.68.94 NUN1=net0 IP1=`/usr/sbin/ifconfig $NUN1 | grep "inet " | cut -d" " -f2` case "$1" in start) /bin/logger S70ipalias: initializing. if [ "$NUN1" -a "$ALIAS1" -a "$IP1" ] then /usr/sbin/ifconfig $NUN1 alias $ALIAS1 IPA1=`/usr/sbin/ifconfig $NUN1 | grep "alias" | \ cut -d" " -f3` /bin/logger S70ipalias: ${NUN1},$IP1 has the alias $IPA1 fi ;; stop) /usr/sbin/ifconfig $NUN1 \-alias ;; *) usage ;; esac exit 0 ----------------------------- End S70ipalias ------------------------ 4.8 Suddenly the network is slow, why? 9 Oct 1999 ---------------------------------------- This is a common job interview question. There are many possibilities: A) There is a runaway process hogging cpu slices... use ps -ef. B) If the slow-down happens at the same time, look for machinery being run nearby the network or server at that time. C) Check netstat -i for ierrs or oerrs that are increasing. D) Check other netstat outputs for suspicious results. E) Is your filesystem out of free space, ram, or swap? F) Can you put a packet sniffer on the cable? G) Who had access to the server, and what was recently changed? H) Mismatched nics and hubs. Try to use all 3com, or Intel, etc. I) A nic is getting confused trying to do auto-negotiation. Boot to DOS and run the NIC's configuration utility to force the nic to the proper speed (10Mbps or 100Mbps) and the proper duplex (hubs use half, only switches and routers use full). J) Start swapping cables and hardware with known functioning ones. 4.9 Is there a firewall program for Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- There is no firewall application per se for Uw7. SCO training manuals state the following: 'A firewall is not a simple switch that you select on or off. Instead, it is a series of components that you can use to build your security system, like adding bricks in a wall.' 'A properly configured Uw7 system can accomplish (being a firewall). To achieve this, the system should be: * Set up as the connection between networks * Configured with security features such as TCP wrappers, packet filters, and proxy servers. * Running minimal services and have as few accounts as possible to reduce the risk of penetration.' People get defeated when attempting to use Uw7 as a firewall because it can not do NAT (network address translation). As of Dec, 2000, NAT for Uw7 is rumored to be under testing, though I heard that in May. When it gets here, that'll be great. Often people want to setup a private LAN connected to the Internet via one registered IP address. This needs NAT to do completely. Proxy servers help, but are limited to doing web and ftp, and need proxy capable clients. NAT doesn't have these limitations. If your ISP provides you with a block of IP addresses, then you can use proxy arp to make a Uw7 system that's a transparent, packet filtering firewall bridge. People enjoy using Linux for NAT/firewall. Other excellent alternatives include the GnatBox (www.gnatbox.com) and the Linux Router Project (www.linuxrouter.org). I use the LRP. For an excellent firewall reference, please see the O'Reilly book, _Building Internet Firewalls_. You may wish to create the following: ISP <--> LRP -- Internal Protected Network \ DMZ Web,Ftp,DNS,Mail Servers 4.10 What's a TCP Wrapper? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- There are many services that run on Uw7 such as ftpd, and telnetd. TCP wrappers are programs that 'wrap' around these services and only allow permitted traffic to flow to them. The allowing and denial of access is controlled by /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. TCP wrappers are enabled by default and set to allow all. They are enabled/disabled in /etc/inet/inetd.conf. Server daemon programs that can use tcp wrappers are often named in.ftpd, in.telnetd, in.rlogind, etc. . . . 4.11 What is a Packet Filter? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- A packet filter is a set of rules that control the movement of data in and out of your ethernet cards. What's being checked are packets between the Network and Internet layers of the TCP protocol stack. As such, packet filters can restrict which packets are allowed to enter or exit through a nic. Packet filters are not enabled by default, and can be created using the Scoadmin Packet Filter Manager. _______ Boyd said _______ The graphical manager is not perfect, you sometimes have to manually fiddle with the filters in: /etc/pf.d/IP See also the man page pushfilter(1M) Don't try this under 7.0.1 or 7.1 without all the patches. The systems corrupts its control files and renders the whole TCP/IP framework useless. Unless you have some experience in these control files there only way to get the TCP back is a reinstall. _________________________ 4.12 Why can't root ftp into Uw7? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Root is denied ftp access by default, as a security consideration. To enable root to ftp, remove 'root' from the file /etc/ftpusers, and be sure that root's login shell is not commented out in the file /etc/shells. 4.13 What are the idiosyncrasies with the DNS Server Manager? 18 Dec 2000 contribs James Richardson ---------------------------------------- If you start it and exit it without creating any DNS servers, it will still automatically create a 'caching only' nameserver. That's a feature. The DNS server manager GUI was recently updated with a ptf. It's tight now. It has a nice feature to update you db.cache file, which is the list of root servers in /etc/inet/named.d/. _____ James said _____ It seems to add extra ;; in files when a zone is transfered. You'll see errors in the startup log, and just delete the extra ; 4.14 Why does logging into the CDE freeze for minutes, then restart? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- This is often the result of a misconfigured DNS or /etc/resolv.conf. Be sure to have the proper nameservers listed, and check nslookup to be sure you get the correct results returned from DNS. Try a bogus name like 'bogus' at the nslookup prompt. If the command hangs, then you have a problem with DNS. Your system can also hang if your default route is down and your first nameserver listed in /etc/resolv.conf is on the next subnet. 4.15 What are network services? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A Uw7 system runs many programs in the background that are designed to respond to and communicate with a user's program. This is called the server/client model. We refer to a server process as a service, which waits for communication on one or more ports. People are familiar with such services as ftp, and telnet. These are offered by the corresponding processes ftpd, telnetd, and httpd on ports 21, 23, and 80. These services are mapped out in a text file called /etc/services. 4.16 What network services, that run by default, don't I need? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Many people do not need to run routed on their small LAN, especially if they have their default route and other routes statically entered. There are a lot of legacy daemons like finger, talk, ntalk, and systat. You just have to have a close look. Running old daemons is a sure-fire way to leave your network open. Telnetd and ftpd are problems! For instance, UnixWare 7.1.1 ships with wu-ftpd 2.4.2academ. There's no end the the CERT alerts about old versions of wu-ftpd, older that 2.6.0 being root compromised. Plus, wu-ftpd is enabled by default. 4.17 Why can't I see computers on another subnet with Visionfs? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Visionfs uses NetBIOS names for name to IP address resolution, but NetBIOS broadcasts don't cross routers. A solution is to edit: /etc/lmhosts c:\windows\lmhosts c:\winnt\system32\drivers\etc\lmhosts or put a Visionfs host on each subnet. 4.18 Can I synchronize my computer's clocks with the correct time? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- There are extremely accurate time-keeping systems called atomic clocks that keep the world's time exact. You can access this exact time if you have a link to your ISP up, by running the simple program 'ntpdate.' If you want to set up a more elaborate time synch system, like a time server to synch all your workstations to, then use 'xntpd.' 4.19 How do I use ntpdate? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Ntpdate is not a service but a one-shot program that uses the default route (usually to your ISP) to communicate with the time servers you specify. The atomic clocks are called Stratum 1 servers, and should not be used. They communicate, in turn, with high powered and reliable, computer time servers called Stratum 2 servers, which are polled by many people who run Stratum 3 servers. We often poll Stratum 2 and 3 servers. Good time servers can be found at: http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html An example 'ntpdate' command that I have aliased is: ntpdate tock.cs.unlv.edu clock.psu.edu clock.tricity.wsu.edu ns.scruz.net ntp.cox.smu.edu which is typed all on one line. At least four time serves are used which increases the accuracy of the time returned. 4.20 How do I use xntpd? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- First some general concepts. Xntpd is running by default because an (empty) ntp.conf exists. Xntpd is started from an entry in /etc/inet/config. Xntpd which implements the Network Time Protocol (NTP) is not trivial, and there is a newsgroup called comp.protocols.time.ntp where this topic is discussed in detail. You can interact with an xntpd daemon by using the xntpdc command. The further away in network hops a time server is from an atomic clock, the less reliable it is. This reliability is called the server's stratum. Stratum 1 == Atomic clocks. Please don't use these. Stratum 2 == Secondary servers. Stratum 3 == Uw7 local clocks default to 3 but should be set to 10 !!! Stratum 5 == A good level for your local ntp server. Stratum 10 = The proper level for clients and their local clock. For every 100 hosts on your intranet, you should configure one ntp client to poll two stratum 2 servers (in case one is down). Then configure all the other hosts to poll your freshly synchronized, local time server. xntpd-mini-HOWTO: ----------------- A) Determine which Secondary servers to poll from the list at http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html B) Add appropriate entries to /etc/inet/ntp.conf by using the scoadmin Client Manager --> Add a Client --> NTP client. Here there is a bug. You will need to tab and click around on the different entries before the scoadmin tcl script will allow your cursor into the IP address field. Now you can enter the names of the two time servers you chose in step (A). Then enter 127.127.1.0 which is your local clock (RTC) address. Click ok and exit the Client Manager. Configuring like this through the Client Manager is what enables the client side of xntpd and the server side also. Exit the Client Manager. C) Edit your new /etc/inet/ntp.conf file: original /etc/inet/ntp.conf +----------------------------------------- | broadcastclient no | server 128.xxx.xxx.97 | server 192.xxx.xxx.41 | server 127.127.1.0 | driftfile /etc/inet/ntp.drift | modified /etc/inet/ntp.conf +----------------------------------------- | broadcastclient no | server 128.xxx.xxx.97 | server 192.xxx.xxx.41 | server 127.127.1.0 | fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 5 | driftfile /etc/inet/ntp.drift | You can see that the fudge line was added to set the stratum of the local time server. Let's call that local time server ns1.local.com. To configure the other 99 hosts on your network to use ns1, then you would do the same A, B, C procedure above, but only use the ns1.local.com and 127.127.1.0 addresses. Fudge the 99 hosts to stratum 10. Observe the effects of xntpd in /var/adm/syslog. You'll want to be sure that your default route is brought up in /etc/inet/config, because then it is established before xntpd tries to use it. If you want to debug the daemon, observe its status, or modify a setting while it's running, you can use xntpdc. 4.21 Where is my domain name stored in the root filesystem? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- You can search every local file for the domain name string using the find command along with xargs for speed: find / -type f | xargs fgrep -l "domain" > /tmp/p.out Xargs is a command line program that groups a bunch of fgreps and processes them all at once instead of one at a time. 4.22 Is DHCP possible with Uw7? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Uw7 has both dhcp client and server capabilities. In the cusm ng, people are frowning upon using DHCP as it is an inelegant tool. There are better ways to set up your network and distribute a working name to address resolution system. 4.23 What are good IP addresses to use for my private LAN? 18 Dec 2000 contribs tangent ---------------------------------------- The following information is taken from rfc1918, a Request For comments by Y. Rekhter, et. al., which obsoleted the older rfc1597. Read this document on the web at: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1918.html 'The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private intranets: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix) 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix) Use one of those ranges. I could go on forever about networks, ip addresses and netmasks, and tangent started to, but this is just meant to be a quick list of what the numbers are. I don't like remembering 172.16, 172.31, or whatever. _____ tangent's comments here on subnetting and netmasks are on file at http://www.zenez.com/cgi-bin/scouw7faq 4.24 How do I setup Uw7 as a router for two subnets? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- This is accomplished with two NIC's in the Uw7 host, configured with IP addresses on the two subnets. The procedure looks like this: A. Install the 2nd nic in the case. B. Boot off a DOS disk and run the nic config utility C. Add the 2nd card with a good nodename like myhost1. D. Give the card the right IP on the new subnet. E. Click advanced to set ipsendredirects and ipforwarding. Be sure to run each NIC's configuration utility which is usually a DOS application in order to fix the card's irq and address if it is an ISA card. You might want to fix the speed and duplex also. Then with one card already configured as myhost.mydom.net, use 'netcfg' to configure the other card and enter its name as myhost1. Enter the appropriate IP address and be sure to select Advanced Options so that you can check the box Use As Router? Yes. That sets ipforwarding and ipsendredirects to deal with proxy arp, After saving and exiting, the scoadmin network will add entries in your /etc/hosts and your DNS A record file db.mydom.net (if it exists). Then you should be able to go to the hosts on each subnet and add the route to the other subnet. 4.25 What is a good modem for Uw7? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- An external modem is the way to go. Many people are happy with Sportsters, Zoom 56Ks, Multitech, etc... Don't use an internal modem. It may work, but poorly. Don't use an internal PCI modem. It will never work. You'll want to apply set71101. 4.26 How do I set up an outgoing PPP connection? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- This is most easily accomplished via the gui scoadmin ppp. Given: Zoom external on COM1 for a dialout PPP to my ISP. My IP: Assigned at login ISP IP: Assigned at login ISP DNS: 206.xxx.yyy.12 ISP DNS: 206.www.zzz.12 I am going to start by installing the modem and configuring the serial port it is connected to, then configuring the PPP link with the PPP Connection Wizard.... 1) Log in as root to the CDE and start the scoadmin Network Config Manager. Select View --> WAN. If you had no modems installed, your window will show no devices. 2) Select Hardware --> Add new WAN device --> Modem. This starts the modem manager. 3) Select Modem --> Add --> Manual Configuration. ( I could have used Auto, because the Zoom 56K is detectable). 4) Select your modem manufacturer and model. I'll use Zoom V.34X, because almost every Zoom script is identical, and this as good as any. Select the term/00m port that is what we call COM1. Then click the Configure Port... button, before you click OK. 5) This button takes you into the Serial Configuration Manager. Port Type = COM1 Modem Configure Port = Outgoing Only Speed = Auto Then ok to exit. Then ok to exit again. Then Host --> Exit. Back in the Network Configuration Manager, Go ahead and exit it also, 6) Testing the Modem: Now work at a terminal prompt. * Set the correct UID:GID on the serial port to uucp:uucp chown uucp:uucp /dev/term/00m * Directly connect to the modem with cu: cu -l /dev/term/00m You should enter the connection screen and see a message. You may see an AT. Type AT and press Enter, and you will see an OK or 0. If you don't, type ATE1 and Enter, and then AT again. That E1 turns echo on, which you need to see the data, but you don't need for PPP, that's why it's off. You could always just try an ATZ, then AT. Don't worry about about the state you leave it in. * Test that link to see if you get a dial tone: ATDT You will hear it after typing that. * Type ~. and Enter to disconnect. If any of the modem aspects don't work, then you'll need to troubleshoot your modem and phone line, which is beyond the scope of this Faq. Fix that before you go on. The SCO doc's contain good modem troubleshooting help. 7) Now with a working modem, restart the Scoadmin Network Configuration Manager again to build the PPP link. Choose View --> WAN and then select Software --> Configure PPP... Then choose View --> Bundles screen. Then Wizard --> Add. Then Outgoing, Start. 8) In the Outgoing : Bundle window, setup the following: Provider bundle name: earthlink Remote System: epop-sr Telephone: 2334492 then Add How to Connect: Use pppattach then Next. 9) Outgoing : PPP Authentication Authentication Protocol: None Next... 10) Outgoing : Login Script Use Script: Yes Login Script: All are left unchanged except 2nd Send: ELN/mschalit <-- My login name 3rd Send: ********** <-- My password Your username will probably be just your email name, but earthlink requires me to prepend an ELN/ before my username for logging in. Then next.... 11) Outgoing : IP Network Protocol: Local address assigned by: Remote Local IP address/hostname: 0.0.0.0 Remote address assigned by: Remote Remote IP address/hostname: 0.0.0.0 Use as default route: Yes Local host acts as gateway: No Act as Proxy for arp: No Here I use 0.0.0.0 because it is a manual attach link. I select use as default route, because theoretically, this is a PPP link to an ISP who will link me out to the world. I want any data, not destined for my local computers, to go out to the Internet through my ISP by default, thus the default route. The local host will not act as a gateway for all the other computers on my LAN so that they can get their data out, in this example. The act as proxy for arp is related to the gateway, and this is also not needed, because I am not forwarding all data from my LAN out to the net, just from the Uw7 host to the net. 12) Outgoing : Name Servers Domain Search Order: schalit.net Name Server Search Order: Put your local DNS server last if any. 206.xxx.yyy.12 206.www.zzz.12 Then next.... 13) Outgoing : Link Devices Flow Control: Hardware Multilink max links: 1 Selected Link Devices: Add the COM1 ACU device. Then Finish. You're done. Now that the link has been created, exit all managers and we'll test it. Note these facts: Manual pppattach links will not be listed in ifconfig -a until the link is brought up. Part of the ifconfig setup is an option called 'RFC1323' which gets set on all ifconfig devices. This RFC option conflicts with VJ Header Compression. RFC1323 is on by default, and VJ Header compression is off by default, so the setup is ok at this point, but I've found that rfc1323 mucks up some web pages from finishing to load or to send, so look in the ifconfig man page and consider turning this off if you have a good link but some pages don't complete. To turn off rfc1323, do the following: ifconfig ppp0 -rfc1323 Testing and Monitoring the dialout PPP link: To test and monitor the state of the pppd as you make the outgoing PPP link, use the ppptalk command: ppptalk debug med bundle earthlink ppptalk debug med link link_0 pppattach earthlink & tail -f /var/adm/log/ppp.log That will set debugging on the bundle and the link device, and dial the earthlink bundle, and then tail the PPP log. If it stays on line with the ISP, then your link succeeded. Often times you will have to read the log closely to see what your ISP rejected and to modify your PPP configuration to fit that. PPP is sensitive to what ptf's you've applied, also. Be sure to apply set71101 after ISL. If you want you modem speaker on until you connect, then you will need to edit your /etc/uucp/default/modem.name.file and change the Speaker line to read ATM1. After my link was up and it didn't hang up on me right away, I typed ping www.sco.com and it worked, so I'm going to stop here. 4.27 How do I set up an incoming PPP connection? 27 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- This exciting example of modern networking begins with no modem. Follow step (1) through (4) of the above procedure in (4.26). Continue here with (5) below. The big picture is that I intend to add a modem that is configured as incoming/outgoing (this is the key to success!). I'll test the modem outward using cu on the Uw7 computer to my ISP and inward allowing Uw7 to answer a call from Hyperterminal on NT4 SP5. I'll then make an incoming PPP bundle so that I can dial in from NT4 and login as my unix username, mschalit. After (1) - (4) above: 5) This button takes you into the Serial Configuration Manager. Port Type = COM1 Modem Configure Port = Incoming & Outgoing Speed = 115200 Then ok to exit. Then ok to exit again. Then Host --> Exit. Back in the Network Configuration Manager, Go ahead and exit it also, 6) Testing the Modem: Working at a terminal prompt. * Set the correct UID:GID on the serial port to uucp:uucp if it's not correct: chown uucp:uucp /dev/term/00m * Directly connect to the modem with cu: cu -l /dev/term/00m You should enter the connection screen and see a message. You may see an AT. Type AT and press Enter, and you will see an OK or 0. If you don't, type ATE1 and Enter, and then AT again. That E1 turns on echo, which you need to see the data, but you don't need for PPP, that's why it's off. You can also type ATZ and Enter to reset the modem, then AT. Don't worry about about the state you leave it in. * Test that link to see if you get a dial tone: ATDT You will hear it after typing that. Hit ~. to disconnect and reconnect with cu -l /dev/term/00m * Test the link outbound... Dial the ISP, login, etc. ATDT 2xxyy92 After you login, disconnect with ~. * Test the link incoming... I got on my NT4 box and ran Hyperterminal and dialed my Uw7 modem. It answered and I hit enter to get a Login prompt. I logged in as myself and was able to ls -l and cal and banner hello a bunch of times. Good. * Test the link outbound again. * Test the link inbound again. All those tests show me that the modem is stable and will answer calls and make calls repeatedly. Good news. 7) Now with a working modem, restart the Scoadmin Network Configuration Manager again to build the PPP link. Choose View --> WAN and then select Software --> Configure PPP... Then choose View --> Bundles screen. Then Wizard --> Add. Then Incoming, Start. 8) In the Incoming : Remote Access Window... Remote access bundle: sysop Authentication methods... Enable Chap = No Enable Pap = No Enable login = Yes Enable Caller ID = No Then Next... 9) In the Incoming : Login screen....... Username: rasop Password: entered something here Next 10) In the Incoming : IP Network Protocol window..... I left it on local and left my local address in there... Local address assigned by: Local Local IP Address/hostname: 10.1.1.1 Remote address assigned by: Local Remote IP address/hostname: 10.1.1.103 Use as default route: No Local host acts as gateway: Yes Act as proxy for arp: Yes Then next...... 11) In the Incoming : Advertise DNS Advertise DNS servers: Yes Primary server address: 10.1.1.1 (because I have one) Secondary: The next.... 12) In the Incoming : Link Devices window......... Flow Control: Hardware Multilink max links: 1 Selected devices: COM1 Add >> Then finish, then exit, then exit. Now we are ready to dial in from another computer. I have set up my NT4 box with a PPP link to Uw7. I told NT to bring up a terminal window during the modem negotiation so that I can type in my login:pass. That's on the Script tab in the Edit Modem Properties. I told it not to do software compression and not to do VJ header compression due to the modem compression and the rfc1323 being enabled. When I dial, a little window pops up with three fields: username password domain Check Box for save password It doesn't matter what I enter there, because I will end up logging in with the terminal window. I entered something and it dialed out and popped up the terminal window. I logged in as rasop and gave it the password, and it worked. 4.28 How do I set up bidirectional PPP? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- To do bidirectional PPP, it's a whole lot easier to have two modems, where one handles each direction. In an old SCO Network Administration class, I met a guy named Fred, who was an old BBS'er. He was able to get bidirectional PPP working between two Uw711 hosts. The key is that they were both Uw7, configured similarly, and had similar network configuration needs. After installing set71101, he did the following: A) Setup both hosts with PPP links using the Wizard as Outgoing only. B) On machine A, both IP addresses are Assigned By Local. In both spaces put in the real IP addresses of the two hosts. C) On machine B, both IP addresses are Assigned by Remote. Use fake addresses like 127.0.0.2 and 127.0.0.3. D) After exiting all the scoadmin managers, restart them and go back into Network Manager --> Wan --> Configure PPP, Modify the bundle and select the box to fix it as BiDirectional. E) Then you can setup the logins, and it should work. 4.29 I want to disable a particular daemon, how is this done? 5 Nov 1999 ---------------------------------------- You can ask yourself the following questions: a) Is it stand-alone and started via a script in /etc/rc2.d? b) Does it start from /etc/inet/config c) Does it start from /etc/inet/inetd.conf d) Is it run from the Service Access Facility (SAF)? Often you will just need to comment something out in the right file. 4.30 How do I apply changes made to /etc/inet/inetd.conf? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Changes made to this file can be applied by doing either kill -HUP `cat /etc/inet/inetd.pid` sacadm -k -p inetd sacadm -s -p inetd to stop and start it. 4.31 How do I apply changes made to /etc/inet/config? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Changes made to the config file will only take effect after tcp is restarted which can only be done with a reboot. 4.32 How do I boot an ftp user who is logged in? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- This can be accomplished with ftpwho or ps: ftpwho ps -ef | grep ftpd | grep -v grep which will list everyone who's using ftp into your site. Choose the offender and note the PID. Let's say it is 767. kill 767 gives them the boot. :-) 4.33 How do I catch someone trying to port scan my Uw7 host? 24 Sept 1999 by Jim Van Verth ---------------------------------------- The curious out there like to scan the ports of publicly available computers. At times they are trying to attack your system. So you can run a dummy service on an unused port that'll send mail to root if someone tries to connect to the port. Let's call the new service we are going to create 'probe.' Let's have probe run on port 999, which is unused. Let's make a batch file that probe runs called 'etcprobe.' Probe will be added with an entry in /etc/services. Probe will be started with an entry in /etc/inet/inetd.conf. Etcprobe will be stored in /usr/local/bin. /usr/local/bin/etcprobe +------------------------------------------------------------------- | #!/bin/sh | netstat -an | grep 999 | grep ESTAB | mail -s "Probe Alert!!" root | /etc/services +------------------------------ | ... | ... | probe 999/tcp | ... /etc/inet/inetd.conf +---------------------------------------------------------------------- | ... | probe stream tcp nowait root /usr/local/bin/etcprobe probe | Now apply the changes made to inetd.conf with the kill command. Test that probe is working by trying to telnet to port 999. You'll get mail to root in a few seconds. 4.34 What web servers are running or not on Uw7 after ISL? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- After Initial System Load (ISL), only the scohelphttpd is running. Netscape Fastrack Server is not running. Netscape Fastrack Administration Server is not running. scohelphttp query nsfast query /usr/ns-home/admserv/ns-admin query 4.35 Why can't I access the Webtop, my Netscape server, or Netscape Admin? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- This happens when no Netscape servers are enabled on those ports. The Webtop runs off your usual Netscape server on port 80. nsfast enable The Netscape Admin server in another daemon run on port 620. /usr/ns-home/admserv/start-admin There are also instances where an error or a misconfigured magnus.conf file will make it difficult or impossible to run the server to which that file referred. It is easy to burger your magnus.conf file when you alter your domain name or your network IP address, or when you defer network installation during ISL. 4.36 How do I configure remote Netscape administration? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Edit the /usr/ns-home/admserv/ns-admin.conf file and modify the "Addresses" line from Addresses 10.1.1.1 to read Addresses (10.1.1.1|10.1.1.2) in order to let both 10.1.1.1 and 10.1.1.2 run Netscape Admin Server. 4.37 What is the login:pass for Netscape Admin? I can't log in. 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The login is admin The pass is root's password set during ISL If you ever change root's password with 'passwd,' it will not change the Netscape AdminServe password. Be sure to type in the one that you entered during ISL. Sometimes this can get garbled, so have a look at /usr/ns-home/admserv/admpw to be sure there is a password. The password in that file should be in encrypted form. Sometimes you just press Enter as the password. Change the nsadmin password by first starting and going into the Nsadmin server. Once you log in with the old password, you will see a button on the bottom of the page to Configure Administration. Hit that and then Access Control. 4.38 What do I need to watch out for with ns-admin.conf? 24 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- The Netscape Administration Server config file /usr/ns-home/admserv/ns-admin.conf can give people problems if there is a trailing dot in the ServerName or if the servername is wrong. This can occur if the hostname has been changed. If things get bad, fix them with: pkgrm nsadmin pkgadd -d cdrom1 nsadmin 4.39 How do I do NAT or DNAT or IP Masquerading on Uw7? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- There is no way currently to do this in Uw7. It is proposed and in beta testing at the time of this writing. Check for it at SCO's ftp site, at ftp://ftp.sco.com/TLS People also like to use Linux to do this, but a full SuSE install isn't quite elegant enough when compared to the following: http://www.gnatbox.com/ http://www.linuxrouter.org/ The GnatBox, pronounced like the bug, and the Linux Router Project are both mini Linux OS's that fit on a single diskette and don't need a cdrom or hard drive. They both contain firewall/NAT capability, support for many common network cards and built in web servers for remote administration. They are rock solid, fast, and very stable. The GnatBox is $1000, and uses a parallel port dongle (booo). The LRP is of course, free :). I've used them both. I continue to use the LRP on an old P150, and I think it's very good. See also Section (4.9) in this Faq. 4.40 Why do I see a 'Disk not sane' error when booting off emergency disks? 12 Jul 2001 --------------------------------------- This error can be caused by several things. First, you might be using the Veritas Filesystem package with ODM. Secondly, you may be lacking some critical ptf's like set71101 or ptf7430g, the Emergency Repair ptf. And finally, this error will occur if you try to use the emergency repair disks on an unpartitioned hard drive. If your hard drive isn't parititoned and you see the disk not sane error, then you can get to prompt and use fdisk to create an active unix partition that takes 100% of the disk. Then continue with the restore. Beware Veritas and that it can't unencapsulate an encapsulated boot disk. There's a TA for those restores. I use a Super-Tar, like Lonetar from Cactus software, to have disaster recovery and emergency boot utilities. 4.41 Can I speed up DNS resolution on my SOHO network? 8 Jun 2001 --------------------------------------- On a SOHO network that uses their ISP's namerservers only and no nameservers on the LAN, adding a cacheing DNS server on the UnixWare box will speed up name resolution. In this setup, you change your LAN computers to do DNS lookups from the UnixWare box. When the requests now start coming to the UnixWare cacheing DNS server, it won't know the address of www.yahoo.com, let's say. So it will look go an outside nameserver to answer the request. Once it gets the answer, it's cached until it expires. From then until the answer expires, anyone requesting the same www.yahoo.com will get their answer instantly out of the cache. That's where the speed comes from. 4.42 How do I set up well tuned cacheing DNS server? 12 Jul 2001 --------------------------------------- A cacheing DNS server can easily be installed and tuned, thanks to the work that SCO and the BIND folks have done. Use scoadmin to start the DNS Server Manager. Use it to add a cacheing DNS server. You don't have to make any decisions or change any settings. Exit the manager and it's running. Unfortunately, the default settings are poorly tuned, and the default is to expunge the cache every 60 minutes. And to add to that, every 60 minutes, you get a load of statistics filling your syslog. Once again, these are easy to tune. All you need to do is edit the file /etc/inet/named.conf and add a couple of statements to the options{} section to change the cleaning-interval and the statistics interval. Below is part of my named.conf where I set the cleaning to 2880 min (2 days) and the statistics to 10080 (7 days). /etc/inet/named.conf .---------------------------------------- | options { | directory "/etc/inet/named.d"; | cleaning-interval 2880; | statistics-interval 10080; | }; | On one hand, there's the cleaning interval I just described for cleaning the cache of all the DNS entries. On the other hand there's a individual expiration time built into each entry in the cache. That expiration time came from the DNS server who supplied you with the name and it's address. That expiration defaults to 12 hours. So a lot of entries will expire on their own, long before the two day cleaning interval comes around. Many won't. All in all it's faster if you LAN has a moderate amount of traffic. ______________________________ | | | 5. System Administration | |______________________________| 5.1 What do I want to watch out for, right after ISL? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Don't go changing your host name, your domain name, or your IP address willy nilly. That data is stored in too many places. Xntpd will be running with an empty ntp.conf file. Routed will be running. Wu-ftpd 2.4.2 will be running and it is very very insecure! There are a lot of security problems. See http://www.sco.com/security/ Be careful of starting the DNS manager; it can start a caching DNS server. Netscape server on 80, Netscape Admin Server on 620, Webtop, and Visionfs are not enable be default, but scohelphttp on 457 is. You need to immediately re-apply update710 if you just installed Uw7.1.0. You need to immediately re-apply update711 if you just installed Uw7.1.1. You need to look closely at whether there is an updated NIC driver, an updated Graphics driver, or Audio driver. There are quite a few. The scohelp files need to be indexed. You may still be installing software, so decide and then index it. Root can't ftp in by default. Be sure to apply set71101 as soon as possible. Be careful of applying any ptf. Only do one at a time and really look around for problems is causes like licensing errors. Look at your syslog and osmlog after rebooting. This is much less of an issue once set71101 is installed. Any Real Networks apps need to be pkgrm'd and re-added after the audio subsystem is configured. Skunkware apps will need /usr/local/bin in your PATH, and they'll need /usr/local/man in your MANPATH, which is kept in /etc/default/man. ORDER=, in /etc/default/man is too long, and overflows man's buffer! It needs to be less than 255 characters long. SCO is working on this. 5.2 What do I want to set up, right after ISL? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- Here are some personal suggestions. Your results will vary as your hardware varies. Please check the Quick Overview of Patches and Supplements at ftp://ftp.sco.com/SLS/README.UW7.Supplements http://www.sco.com/support/ftplists/uw7list.html/ for the latest list of patches. A) update711 B) apply set71101. C) /etc/hosts, and ping a few things for curiosity's sake. D) A few user accounts and ksh for root. E) Create /.profile and add a few aliases and EDITOR=vi. F) All drivers at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/drivers/UW711/ G) Security sse patches at http://www.sco.com/security/ H) Make emergency Boot and Root. I) Protect server by disabling unneeded services. J) nsfast enable. K) ln -s /usr/bin/clear /usr/bin/cls :) L) /usr/vision/bin/visionfs setup M) gzip, glibs, xpm, less, gs, gv, bash, pine, gcc, glib. N) A backup program. O) scoadmin Network Manager --> configure my nic to force speed/duplex. P) umask. Q) create /.profile with a few aliases. R) Set up my default route through DSL hopefully. S) Set up nameserver entries in /etc/resolv.conf if I have an active link to a DNS server. T) Add /usr/local/bin to the path in /etc/profile. U) Add /usr/local/man to the MANPATH in /etc/default/man. Defadm has a bug and can't parse /etc/default/man, use vi ! V) Apply Security Patches (SSE's) as described in Section (6). W) Create DNS server and Printers if necessary. With the help of others in the comp.unix.unixware.misc newsgroup, we've found that a vast majority of systems will run smoothly nowadays if we apply the minimum patch listing of PTF's and any optional ones that you need for your unique setup, in the right order. See the next question for the details. 5.3 In what order do I install all those PTF's? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Apply set71101 first, then any other one that you think you need. Order is much less important, now with 7.1.1 and set71101. 5.4 What logs do I want to follow? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- There are a few logs that will grow over time and ones that contain useful information: * /var/adm/syslog * /var/adm/log/osmlog * /var/adm/log/ppp.log * /usr/vision/vfsdata/logs/error.log * /.dt/startlog * /.dt/errorlog * /var/adm/sulog * /var/webtop/log/error.log * /usr/ns-home/httpd-scohelphttp/logs/access * /usr/ns-home/httpd-80/logs/access * /usr/ns-home/admserv/access 5.5 Where are errors recorded? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- In all the files in section (5.3) and: * /var/dt/Xerrors * /usr/ns-home/admserv/errors * /usr/ns-home/admserv/cron.error * /usr/ns-home/httpd-80/logs/errors * /usr/ns-home/httpd-scohelphttp/logs/errors * /var/uucp/.Admin/errors * $HOME/.dt/errorlog * /var/adm/log/*.err Also note that problems often echo an error message to stderr, which may or may not be set to your current screen. After an error switch to the console with <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc> and look for anything there that may help. The other day, my Kde desktop wouldn't run, it'd get 95% of the way loaded, with a mouse and grey background, then crash out. By switching to the console, I was able to see that it couldn't find some qt stuff. I had accidentally rm'd the qt directory. 5.6 Do I like Uw7? Is it helpful? Is it harsh upon my reality? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- The bugs and idiosyncrasies can get to me sometimes, but they are rapidly being fixed with patches. I just try to take care and do any modifications to my test system first. I try to appreciate the fact that Uw7 is almost mature. I keep an intense log book that details my every action and their exact time. When I see an error starting to occur at a given time, I know just what happened at that moment. After those issues and a bit of fishing, I like it more than any other PC based OS I've every used. 5.7 A program that was running has crashed and is locked up, why? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- When a program crashes, it's the running processes that are hanging. When a program crashes, we need to run a ps -ef and grep the output for the name of the program or the name of the process and kill it off if necessary. 5.8 What are the keys I press to kill a foreground process? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- When you are running a program that is seemingly stuck, like an nslookup that isn't working, you can press the 'Delete' key or 'ctrl-c'. If neither of those work, you can try 'ctrl-\', but that will dump a core. 5.9 How do I find and kill a background process? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Let's say that a process called tasker is hung and we need to kill it. Run the command: ps -ef | grep tasker | grep -v grep and get the PID of the process. Let's say the PID is 8376. Type: kill 8376 <-- First try this. It's the nicest kill. kill -1 8376 <-- If that doesn't work, try this. kill -2 8376 <-- If it's being stubborn, try this. kill -9 8376 <-- This will kill anything, but it's rough. After you try the first kill, do another ps -ef to see if the process is still running. If it is try the next kill, and so on. 5.0 What are the various 'kill' command arguments? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- There is a nice discussion of this in 'man 5 signal.' Some of the different kills in order of increasing power: kill -15 SIGTERM Exit Terminated kill -1 SIGHUP Exit Hangup kill -2 SIGINT Exit Interrupt kill -3 SIGQUIT Core Quit kill -9 SIGKILL Exit Killed 5.11 What are the Security Profiles and their password restrictions? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Low Passwords not required Traditional Passwords required. Default minimum == 3 chars. Improved Passwords required. Default minimum == 6 chars. High Passwords required. Default minimum == 8 chars. 5.12 What are the restrictions on login names? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Then maximum login name length is 254 characters. Any name longer than 8 characters must be created using the useradd command. The name should not contain upper case letters. No colons. It can't start with a number. 5.13 What's a umask? What's the default umask? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- The umask is a set of numbers like 0022. It specifies which permissions to withhold when a directory or file is created. The default umask is set in /etc/profile and /etc/cshrc. For Low and Traditional, it's 0022. For Improved and High, it's 0077. To see what permissions a file or directory will get when created, do the following: always start with 1 7 7 7 write in the umask 0 0 2 2 subtract -------------- equals the directory perms. --> 1 7 5 5 which we see as drwxr-xr-x to get file perms enter 1 1 1 1 and subtract again -------------- equals the file perms. -----> 0 6 4 4 which we see as -r-xr--r-- 5.14 What's an environment? What's a .profile or .cshrc? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- A users environment is a series of name=value pairs that hold values specific to that user. People are familiar with the environment variables named PATH and HOME. The environment for a user can be set in their $HOME/.profile or their $HOME/.cshrc if the user is using csh. 5.15 Where are all the possible places to set the environment? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- All the possible places include: /etc/profile /etc/cshrc /etc/default/su $HOME/.profile $HOME/.login $HOME/.cshrc $HOME/.dtprofile though I don't claim to have found every one. It's a mystery to me sometimes where these PATHS are created. 5.16 Where do I change the default account aspects, like the login shell? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- You can use the 'defadm' command to manipulate your /etc/default/* files: defadm useradd Defadm has a bug where it can't parse the /etc/default/man file because ORDER is too long. It also had another problem with another file, /etc/default/login, which is important because it needs to delay hackers from attacking the system. In that file, right after ISL, the MAXTRYS= null entry screws up the works. Logfailure and account locking don't work without it. 5.17 How do I reuse a UID after deleting the original user? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- By default, Uw7 doesn't let you reuse a UID for a period of one year. The default can me modified with 'defadm userdel.' The aging UIDs can be found in and deleted from: /etc/security/ia/ageduid 5.18 What are the advantages of command line 'userdel?' 18 Dec 2000 contribs: OLC zigazou ---------------------------------------- The command line userdel will allow you to remove a user but leave their home directory intact. It will allow you to specify when to allow the UID to be reused. _____ zigazou said _____ Using userdel is better than directly modifying /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow because it also keeps /etc/security/ia/audit, index and master files up to date. Though index and master may be edited manually as they are plain ASCII text files, audit is a binary file with fixed-length fields. 5.19 What are the advantages of command line 'usermod?' 18 Dec 2000 contribs: OLC zigazou ---------------------------------------- The command line usermod will allow you to change a UID or a login name. _____ zigazou said _____ Using usermod is better than directly modifying /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow because it also keeps /etc/security/ia/audit, index and master files up to date. Though index and master may be edited manually as they are plain ASCII text files, audit is a binary file with fixed-length fields. 5.20 Where do I change the default password restrictions, such as length? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the command 'defadm login' to view these restrictions. The defadm command will let you change the settings too. You can always use vi on /etc/default/login. 5.21 How do I record unsuccessful login attempts? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- To get the all /etc/default/login subsystems to work, make sure to put in a value for MAXTRYS, such as MAXTRYS=30. To Make the System Log: You can create the file -rw------- root sys 0 /var/adm/loginlog with the touch command and the chmod command. Then enter: defadm login MAXTRYS=50 <-- because that needs to be non-null. defadm login LOGFAILURES <-- to see what it is set at. defadm login LOGFAILURES=2 <-- if you want to log after two failures. 5.22 How do I lock an account? How do I unlock an account? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- You can use the command line utilities on user foobar's account: passwd -l foobar <-- to lock the account named foobar passwd foobar <-- to unlock the account by issuing a new pass. There was a bug that's just been solved with a TA and a PTF that fixes the problem where you could not create an account and force the user to change their password at the next login. We were faced with a locked account instead of being faced with a logged in user looking at the password change screen. Thanks SCO! 5.23 How do I control process priority in Uw7, with nice? 10 Jan 2001 ---------------------------------------- Nice and renice are the commands. The priority of a process is an integer value that represents how much time to spend working on that process versus the other processes. The priority in Uw7 ranges from -20 to 20, for very nice to very much a cpu hog. To view a process's priority, whose PID is 842, use priocntl -d 842 Ex. 1. Making myprog nicer to other users: ------------------ If you're about to run myprog, use nice -n 10 myprog If myprog is a process with pid 842, use renice -n 10 842 Ex. 2. Making myprog grab more cpu cycles so that it completes faster: ---------------------- Only a privileged user can boost a priority. If you're about to run myprog, use nice -n -10 myprog If myprog is a process with pid 842, use renice -n -10 842 When you run a program in the background with an &, it's priority is -4. When you run a program in the foreground, it gets a 0. That's a difference of only 5, but we know from experience that's big. When you use renice, it reports back strange things that you'll just have stare at to understand. You can trust the output from priocntl. 5.24 What's good to know about cron in Uw7? 25 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- It checks the validity of your cronfile when you modify it with 'crontab -e' and exit. You can't have any empty lines in a crontab file, or the whole file will be ignored. List your crontab with 'crontab -l.' 5.25 How do I monitor the amount of space left on my drives? 7 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- Root can use the commands such as these: dfspace quot -F vxfs / du -ks /etc repquota -F vxfs /home 5.26 How do I determine disk usage by user? 5 Nov 1999 ----------------------------------------- Use the quot command and give it a filesystem mount point as an argument. It will list the number of blocks used by user. quot -F vxfs /home quot -F vxfs / 5.27 How do I locate and remove 'core' files? 7 Dec 1999 ----------------------------------------- In Uw7, there are system files named core.4.html core.ph core.h so searching for core* and rm'ing that would be an oops. What is safer, is a find with an rm that confirms before removing the file so that you can spare the core.ph file and others. All core files in Uw7 that are dumped by processes are named core.PID; where PID is the processes id. To remove them, try the following: find / -name "core.*" -ok rm {} \; Then press 'y' for any files you want to delete. 5.28 What is the DCU? What do I need to know about it? 9 Oct 1999 ----------------------------------------- The DCU is the Device Configuration Utility which is a character based, menu driven interface for viewing and modifying the hardware configuration of your computer, such as IRQ's and port addresses. You can always exit and cancel any changes. It is one of the only ways to see your hardware setup, unlike OpenServer 5 which had the handy hwconfig -h. During ISL, you have only one chance to enter the DCU. You can not go back using the F9 key and enter it a second time. You can't enter it once you skip it. During ISL, it is a good idea to go into the DCU and disable any HBA drivers for which you don't have hardware. There are about a dozen or so, and you don't need them all. 5.29 How do I spool a package instead of install it? 18 Jan 2001 ------------------------------------------ You can do this with pkgadd -s spooldir. Here's an example of how to spool a package called /var/tmp/gnomelibs.pkg to /junk/spooldir: pkgadd -s /junk/spooldir -d /var/tmp/gnomelibs.pkg This will create /junk/spooldir/gnomelibs/ that contains the standard layout for a package, which you might be curious about. That layout looks like the following, but only the first three items remain constant. The last one I've seen named root: drwx------ 2 root sys 96 Jan 18 16:55 install -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 253 Oct 30 10:01 pkginfo -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 60840 Oct 30 10:01 pkgmap drwx------ 3 root sys 96 Jan 18 16:55 reloc Your perms may be less restrictive, because I use C2 security. 5.30 How do I change the resolution / colors on my video card? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------------ To make adjustments to your display settings, you can use the scoadmin video manager in either CHARM or GUI mode. You have the ability with this manager to test the settings first, before making them permanent. 5.31 Will you describe the boot process please? 7 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------------ The boot process was taught to me in my Uw7 Admin II class at the Open Learning Center in Santa Cruz. Here is what happens when you push the power button on a Uw7 computer: A. The mainboard BIOS loads runs a series of tests called POST, for Power On Self Test. B. After POST, the BIOS loads Sector 0, Cylinder 0 on the boot drive that was chosen in the BIOS setup (A,C). C. This sector is what we call the Master Boot Block, or the Master Boot Record (MBB or MBR). This contains the partition table which is read to determine the active partition. D. The secondary bootstrap then reads sector 0 of the Active partition and loads what it finds there. On Uw7, this is the boot slice, # 7, which is raw data and contains the boot program. E. The boot program runs and we see the splash screen. If no keys are pressed for 5 seconds, then the system continues to boot up. If a key is pressed, you see a boot: prompt and the system pauses. When the system continues loading, boot reads some or all of the following files from /stand: stage3.blm bfs.blm dcmp.blm hd.blm platform.blm smallfs.blm If the computer can't find /stand, then you will get an error like, "Can't load Stage3." F. Boot reads and acts upon the data in: /stand/boot /stand/bootmsgs G. Boot loads and runs the kernel, unix. H. After the kernel is successfully loaded and running in memory, you see the message, "The system is coming up." -------- a. Sysproc (as PID 0) loads, executes, and starts init. b. Init (as PID 1) executes, and reads inittab to set the initial run level and mount filesystems. c. Init goes through the inittab and runs all the programs it is told to, based on the run level that the system is entering. d. Almost always, this includes reading and running /etc/rc2 which runs all the S##scripts in /etc/rc2.d. e. init starts the login sessions (via /etc/rc.d) starts File and Print sharing (via /etc/rc3.d) starts programs after logins have started (via /etc/dinit.d) Then you should see a login prompt, either GUI or terminal text. 5.32 What is the default run level for Uw7? How do I set it? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------------ The default run level is 2. It's rarely 3 but would be so if you installed Netware or NFS utilities. Set the default run level in /etc/inittab. The line you want to edit looks like: is:3:initdefault: 5.33 What does 'Can't load stage3' mean? 7 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------------ As described above in the boot process question, the system will return a "Can't load stage3" error when it can't find the file /stand/stage3.blm when the system is booting. This commonly happens when you've installed Uw7 into a partition so that the /stand slice exists entirely or in part beyond the 1024th cylinder. 5.34 What can I do at the boot: prompt? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------------ If you hit the spacebar when you see the Uw7 splash screen, you can access the usual unix style boot: prompt. You can't type ls, but you can type dir. You can type ? to get a list of commands. You can boot the computer by typing boot, b, go, or g, then Enter. You can boot to init 1 by typing initstate=1, then go. You can boot the unix.old kernel by typing bootprog=unix.old, then go. You can boot to a DOS partition by typing: b hd(0,dos) 5.35 Where do I set autoboot time, after which the system goes multiuser? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------------ You can set the variable AUTOBOOT=15 in the file /stand/boot to set the autotimeout at 15 seconds, instead of 5 seconds. This is the number of seconds that the splash screen will stay up before autobooting the system. You can also set a variable called TIMEOUT=60 in /stand/boot to set the number of seconds to 60, that the computer will wait at a boot: prompt before booting. Normally the computer will wait indefinitely (TIMEOUT=0) if the user presses a key during the AUTOBOOT delay and causes the boot: prompt to appear. 5.36 How do I boot unix.old? 18 Dec 2000 ------------------------------------------ To boot the old kernel, unix.old, that was running before you relinked the kernel, type the following at the boot: prompt, bootprog=unix.old go 5.37 How do I make a change to the /etc/inittab file? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------------ We often make changes to the /etc/inittab file when we want to to make a change to the initstate or how a terminal is behaving. To make a permanent change to the inittab file, you will need to edit two files: /etc/conf/init.d/kernel /etc/inittab Manually editing these two files works well. The inittab file is made from the kernel file whenever the idmkinit command is run, so editing them both accomplishes the task of running idmkinit an copying the file to /etc. 5.38 Why does my system hang during startup or during shutdown? 15 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------------ The system executes one file at a time in the /etc/rc2.d directory and waits for the file to finish running before it starts the next file. Sometimes the ppp or the lp script can hang, and you can see this by typing ps -ef. Look for an S##script that is stuck. 5.39 How do I rebuild the kernel? 20 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------------ To rebuild the kernel: * log in as root * /etc/conf/bin/idbuild -B * shutdown -g0 -y -i6 By rebooting with the -i6, the environment maker idmkenv is run on reboot. 5.40 How do I rebuild the MBB or MBR? 7 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------------ Sometimes the MBB of the computer's root hard drive gets trashed and you will not be able to boot the computer from the hard drive. You will probably see a NO SYSTEM DISK, or NO OS error from the BIOS. If you boot from your boot/root emergency disks, you can use fdisk to recreate your MBB. Enter the fdisk program and you'll see the MBR option on the main menu. These days, I'm using a SuperTar more often, because two of them have Emergency Recovery Programs. 5.41 How do I rebuild the boot slice? 7 Dec 1999 by Tony Nelson ------------------------------------------ If your boot slice has been corrupted, boot will not load, and probably nothing will appear on your screen after POST. You will see no Uw7 splash screen. If you need to rebuild your boot slice, you can do this as follows: * Boot off the emergency disks * Mount the filesystems * Access a Unix shell * /mnt/usr/bin/disksetup -b /mnt/etc/boot /dev/rdsk/c0b0t0d0s0 * exit * ctrl-alt-F1 * Reboot 5.42 How do I figure what process caused a core dump, such as core.242? 7 Dec 1999 by Robert Lipe ------------------------------------------ You can easily find this information by typing: # file core.242 core.242: ELF 32-bit LSB core file 80386 Version 1 Arguments = '/etc/ifor_pmd ' 5.43 What are the important tunable parameters I might adjust like MAXUP? 7 Dec 1999 ------------------------------------------ There isn't much you can tune to increase performance. Most parameters are autotuned these days on Uw7. There are a few important tunables that you may run into like MAXUP, ULIMIT, and MAXLINK. Search your http://localhost:457/ pages for Tunable Parameters and read about them. The first three sections are the important ones. Here's a summary: To view a tunable: /etc/conf/bin/idtune -g MAXUP To set a tunable: /etc/conf/bin/idtune -m MAXUP 250 Now there are two types of tunable parameters, internet and KERNEL. * internet: parameter names are lower case tunables stored in /etc/inet/dfl * KERNEL: parameter names are upper case tunables are stored in /etc/conf/mtune.d /etc/conf/autotune.d Important ones are: Default Value: * ULIMIT block size of the largest file 2097151 listed in /etc/default/login * MAXLINK Maximum number of subdirectories 1000 allowed in a directory changed with idtune. * MAXUP Maximum number of processes an 80 unprivileged user can run. changed with idtune. * NPROC The maximum number of processes 400 possible on the system. changed with idtune. * SFSZLIM Soft size limit for a user file 3FFFFFFF HFSZLIM Hard size limit for a user file 3FFFFFFF * SFNOLIM Soft limit on the number of files a user opens. HFNOLIM Hard limit on the number of files a user opens. 5.44 How do I stop the X desktop or the CDE from running? 30 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------- You can use the following commands to have an affect on the CDE or what people commonly call the X desktop: scologin enable scologin disable scologin start scologin stop You don't need to scologin stop when you change your video settings. Any new settings will take affect the next time you log in. If you run a scologin stop, then log in on some terminal like vt04, you can do do a startx to bring up the PMWM instead of the CDE. 5.45 How do I send a pop-up message to the Windows machines on my LAN? 18 Dec 2000 --------------------------------------- With Visionfs, root can send a broadcast pop-up message to Windows machines. The command is something like: /usr/vision/bin/visionfs message --to luke --from Sysop Hello World. The message can be longer than Hello World. The message can be longer than one line and formatted. Send the message with quotes, and you'll see your secondary prompt, usually >, indicating your shell is waiting for you to complete the command (which needs the ending ") # /usr/vision/bin/visionfs message --to luke --from Sysop " > Hello Pappy, > > I've got a little update for you. > > The address you wanted was: Ben Franklin > 1600 Pennsylvania Ave > Washington D.C, 90036" 5.46 How do I change the message I see at the login prompt? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Modify the /etc/issue file. Normally you're presented with: Welcome to UnixWare 7.1.1 The system's name is yoda. Login (vt04): You can have this give more or less information as your security needs dictate. I'm not sure where pseudo tty (telnet type) logins are messaged. 5.47 How do I get the character terminals to blank the screen? 26 Dec 1999 ---------------------------------------- There is a kernel parameter called TBLNK that you can easily modify with vtblank (1M): # vtblank - View TBLNK seconds and (on | off) state # vtblank -s 60 - Set the screen to blank after 60 sec, turn on. # vtblank -m 1 - Set the screen to blank after 1 min, turn on. # vtblank -o off - Disable screen blanking, leave TBLNK unchanged. # vtblank -o on - Enable screen blanking. 5.48 How do I load XFree86 instead of XSco? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- For example the Mach64 card. 1. cp /usr/dt/config/Xservers to /etc/dt/config/Xservers 2. Edit /etc/dt/config/Xservers so that the line * Local local@console /usr/bin/X11/X :0 -noexit becomes * Local local@console /usr/X11R6/bin/XF86_Mach64 :0 5.49 How do I disable tty's on UnixWare 7? 18 Dec 2000 contribs Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- Look at the man page on pmadm for more information. pmadm -d -p contty -s XXX # where XXX is the tty number to disable. pmadm -e -p contty -s 8 # will enable it 5.50 How do I check which PTF patches are installed? 8 Jun 2001 ---------------------------------------- You can run the pkginfo command on the patch set, then pipe it into grep to filter out the chaff and then into sort to put in the order that they use on the SCO Quick List of Patches page. pkginfo -lc patch | grep PSTAMP | sort -nr | less Your SSE's get listed first, then your PTF's. ______________________________ | | | 6. Security | |______________________________|============================================ 6.1 What are the system security features? 7 Dec 1999 -------------------------------------- The system controls access to files via permissions and user logins. The system controls access to and from the network via Tcp Wrappers and Packet Filters. The system controls access to sensitive system commands via permissions and privileges, using the commands su, tfadmin, adminrole, and adminuser. There is a special type of user besides root called a system owner, that is a security risk, and should not be used willy nilly. It turns out that anyone with system owner privilege can issue the command /sbin/tfadmin passwd root and change root's password. It's not a good idea to give people system owner accounts. There is a Skunkware program called sudo, an enhanced su, that people like also. 6.2 What are permissions? 25 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- Permissions are the -rwxr-xr-- bits and the UID:GID on the file that you see when you do a long listing on a file. These are discussed in Section (2.6) and elsewhere. 6.3 What are Tcp Wrappers and Packet Filters? 7 Dec 1999 -------------------------------------- Tcp wrappers control who is allowed to access the services run via inetd. And packet filters control exactly which packets are allowed to move in and out of each NIC. Both allow and deny certain things to happen based on a set of rules that are checked in order. The first rule to match the item being tested is the rule that gets applied. These commands are discussed in Sections (4.10) and (4.11). 6.4 What are privileges? 7 Dec 1999 -------------------------------------- Users need to be granted the privilege to run important system commands like kill, shutdown, and ifconfig. Privileges are an additional way, besides permissions, to control who can run sensitive commands like shutdown and ifconfig. By using privileges, root can grant the right to run a command or group of commands, rather than give out the root password and telling the user to use su. When a user has been granted privileges to use a command, they execute that command as if they were root, using that command as an argument to the tfadmin command, as in /sbin/tfadmin shutdown -g0 -y -i6 (The system maintains a security privilege database, and it can get corrupted. Check it by typing /sbin/initprivs and fix it with /etc/security/tools/setpriv -x. See also Sections (1.15) and (6.6). 6.5 What are the alternatives to su? A user needs a privilege. 25 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- Instead of granting every right by giving out the root password and telling someone to use su, we use the tfadmin command and the privilege mechanism. This allows us to grant specific access. 6.6 How do I use tfadmin, adminuser, and adminrole, instead of su? 18 Dec 2000 -------------------------------------- To use privileges instead of su, we do the following: A) Create a group of commands that a user needs, called a role, with the adminrole command B) Assign a user or users to that role with adminuser. C) Then they can execute the commands using tfadmin. This is straightforward enough. The following is an example, where I'll grant the privilege to use 'kill' and 'shutdown' to Yurtle: Script started on Mon Oct 25 20:56:10 1999 # id | awk '{ print $1 " " $2 }' UID=0(root) GID=3(sys) # # /bin/adminrole -n SCRAM # /bin/adminrole -a kill:/bin/kill:allprivs SCRAM # /bin/adminrole -a shutdown:/sbin/shutdown:allprivs SCRAM # /bin/adminuser -n -o SCRAM yurtle # # ^D script done on Mon Oct 25 21:00:45 1999 That's all there is to it. Yurtle can kill and shutdown now, as long as initprivs returns nothing and they type their command like: /sbin/tfadmin shutdown -g0 -y -i0 6.7 What are some gaping security risks I need to patch immediately? 2 Jul 2001 -------------------------------------- Caldera has released quite a few interim security patches for buffer overflow vulnerabilities. These are serious if you have users on your UnixWare 7 machine that may probe your system. Eventually they will be wrapped up into an SSE patch, I figure, but you can apply them now. Go here, download them, and install them: ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/ Also, recently there have been issues with rtpm and ntp. These have been taken care of by PTF's 7691 and 7710. Even though they started out as SSE's, they've now been rolled into PTF's. There are several CERT advisories that pertain directly to UnixWare 711. As such, these documented security risks are well known throughout the net underground, and if someone knows your system, they may try these. If system security is at all important to you, then apply the SSE patches. Please take a close look at the following SCO Security Web page: http://www.sco.com/security/ I am running the following SSE patches on 7.1.1 SSE 7033 Bind SSE 7039 Su SSE 7042 Xlock SSE 7046 Uidadmin SSE 7047 xauto SSE 7053 Package tools SSE 7059 rtpm SSE 7060 scohelp SSE 7065 telnet SSE 7066 ftp PTF 7684 verity scohelp PTF 7691 rtpm PTF 7710 ntp And I compiled my own wu-ftpd 2.6.1, so I don't use SSE 7658. There's a hole in Pine up through 4.10. There are many other attacks that people can use to exploit Unix. Have a look at: http://oliver.efri.hr/~crv/security/bugs/list.html for an extensive list of security exploits that may pertain to you. There's a way for people to flood your ports and create a DoS attack. The http://www.sco.com/security page has a way to guard against that. There is a feature that anyone with system owner privileges on Uw7 can change root's password with /sbin/tfadmin passwd root. Any emergency recovery diskettes that you make are like master keys to your system. Anyone with those can reboot your computer and boot off of those (if the floppy is enabled) and change root's password. Try to guard those as tightly as you guard root. The Tcp Wrappers are excellent, and you may want to use them to protect telnet, rlogin, and rsh, so that people can't just log in remotely. People like to use ssh to do secure telnet. 6.8 I'm not sure if I should apply a Uw7 security patch, what do I do? 31 Oct 1999 -------------------------------------- Each SSE### patch will only install on the exact version of UnixWare for which it was written. 6.9 How do I check which SSE security patches are installed? 8 Jun 2001 ---------------------------------------- You can run the pkginfo command on the patch set, then pipe it into grep to filter out the chaff and then into sort to put in the order of latest patch first. pkginfo -lc patch | grep PSTAMP | sort -nr | less Your SSE's get listed first, then your PTF's. 6.10 What does 'unable to invoke login scheme means' ? 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- You will see this message in your syslog if someone makes a telnet connection to your host but doesn't complete the login process within the timeout period. ______________________________ | | | 8. Third Party Software | |______________________________| 8.1 openssl- www.openssl.org 8 Jun 2001 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ You don't need openssl-engines which is an experimental library for crypto card peripherals. 1) Weird host which is ok, uses a config file. 2) ./config 3) gmake <--- Uses cc. Very nice build. 4) gmake test <--- Excellent. Passes all the extensive tests. 5) gmake install 8.2 ssh2 - openssh-2.5.2p2 www.openssh.org 2 Jul 2001 ---------------------------------------- openssh2 need openssl. Install that first. 1) Guesses correct host. 2) ./configure --x-libraries=/usr/X/lib \ --x-includes=/usr/X/include --with-ipv4-default 3) gmake 4) no tests 5) gmake install 6) /etc/rc2.d/S99sshd start Up and running well. I can login. 8.3 Star Office 18 Sept 1999 contribs Roberto Zini ---------------------------------------- Star Office 5.0 ran on UnixWare 7, but is buggy and hard to find. Star Office 5.1 does not run on Uw7.1.1 due to the lack of thread support in lxrun at this time. Look for Sun to distribute a Java version of Star Office in the end of 1999. Now at the end of 2000, it looks like Sun has frozen work on a Java version, but they released Star Office 5.2. It requires glibc 2.1.0. No reports yet. 8.4 Where do I find a piece of software called "xxxxxxxxxxx" for Uw7.1.0? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- There are many programs available for UnixWare7 on the Open License Software Supplement (OLSS, or Skunkware) which has its home at: http://www.sco.com/skunkware/ There is an archive for UnixWare called Freebird, located at: http://www.freebird.org/ 8.5 Lonetar, Backup Edge, Backup Professional 6 Jan 2000 ---------------------------------------- I've used Lonetar for years and I swear by it. I have heard many people who will say the exact same thing for Backup Edge. Both of those have Emergency Recovery software. I've used Airbag and it has a bunch of nice features. Beware of the Putfront, though. Backup Professional is another product by Cactus and it worked well for me, but was too tricky for me to be happy with. When using Lonetar on Uw7.1, it will modify the access times of all your files that it backs up, corrupting your security privilege database (initprivs). This can be fixed with setpriv -x as described elsewhere in this Faq. This can be prevented by editing the Ltar.X.cron and Ltar.X.tape files in /etc/lone-tar, where you would replace the 'X' with 'M' 'V' 'S' and 'I' for Master, Verify, Selective, and Incremental. The details are in the new Lonetar online Faq. You'll end up searching for OPTIONS= and removing any lower case 'a'. 8.6 What is on the OLSS (Skunkware)? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Here is a list of the programs on the Uw7.1.0 OLSS disc: a2ps aalib Acme addressbo AnswerGar apache ApacheJMe astrolog autoconf bash bb bison bladeenc blt24g bzip2 calc catdoc cdrecord cgiwrap Count cpio ctags cvs dejagnu ecu egcs elvis enhydra enscript eperl esound Eterm expect528 fetchmail file fileutils findutils flex fnlib freefonts freeWAIS ftwalk fvwm fvwm95 fweb fwf gawk gdb getline gimp glibs glimpse gnucash gnuplot gphoto groff gs guile gutils gv gzip htdig httpanaly hypermail ImageMagi infozip inn ipalias irc ispell itcl301 jikes jsdk kde less lsof lwgate lyx majorcool majordomo make maplay mathrec mc md5 mgdiff mkpkg mpack mpeg2enco mpegplay mpg123 mtools mutt mysql nana ncftp nedit nvi objc orion palmpilot patch pixmap povray procdump procmail psutils python qtfree rcs rpm rxvt sbart sentry sgmltools sharutil skunkperl slrn snd squid stl strobe sudo swing tanked tar tcl804 tclx804 tcsh teTeX texinfo tik timidity tk804 tkinfo top transfig treeps ttutils vim vrwave wget WindowMak xanim xaos xascii xautolock xboing xbuffy xcoral xdiary xdir xearth xemacs xfig xfishtank xgalaga xgrabsc xhtml xinvest xkobo xlockmore xmailbox xmcd XmHTML xmix Xmixer xmmix xpaint xpdf xpipeman3 xpm xpool xquote xrolodex xscavenge xscreensa Xswallow xt xv xwave zircon zsh 8.7 How do I enable 128-bit encryption with Netscape programs? 8 Jun 2001 --------------------------------------- The 128-bit program is called /opt/netscape/netscape-us and it is already on your system, but you need to pay $20 to your var to get the COLA. I am looking at my COLA for 128-bit Netscape, and it it titled, "SCO Strong Encryption Supplement" Run the Scoadmin License Manager and add in the new COLA license number and code. Then delete the old netscape symlink: rm /opt/netscape/netscape Then create the new symlink from the US 128-bit version to a file called netscape in the same directory: ln -s /opt/netscape/netscape-us /opt/netscape/netscape Some people seem to think that licensing the 128 bit version changes the symlink, but nothing is changed. You MUST do this by hand to get the 128-bit Netscape version running. You can prove this to yourself with a quick ps -ef. 8.8 Wordperfect 8 20 Oct 1999 ------------------------------------- The Wordperfect 8 Linux version works with lxrun, except for a bug where the program may exit right after printing. 8.9 How do I install the KDE? Is it any good? 8 Jun 2001 -------------------------------------- I would update my graphics drivers from ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/drivers/ and install set71101, then the rest should go very smoothly. I installed KDE 1.1.2 the other day, after downloading it from http://www.sco.com/skunkware, and I was amazed at how effortless it was to install and how outstanding an interface it is. Thanks to Ron Record, the other goodly folks at SCO, and the original people who hacked it. On the SCO website KDE page there is a very simple installation procedure that I'll echo here for completeness. I'll stop my X server with scologin disable first. I run it on demand, anyway. Then I'll set up the KDE so that it starts when I type startx. Find your way to ftp://ftp.sco.com/skunkware/uw7/x11/winman/kde and download the following: Xpm Libs 2 MB Glibs 21 MB Qtfree Libs 9 MB ETerm Terminal emulator. 15 MB kde-1.1.2.pkg 40 MB Pkgadd them all except the KDE package. The KDE package has problems with /var/tmp being too small (it needs more that 40 MB), so you'll need to unmount /var/tmp before you pkgadd the KDE. Be patient when installing the KDE. It may look like it's hung, when actually it's working hard at uncompressing the archive to /var/tmp. Then add the following to your $HOME/.profile: PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/kde/bin:. KDEDIR=/usr/local/kde export KDEDIR PATH Then create or modify your $HOME/.xinitrc file so that you add the following as the last line: startkde Now when you are at a terminal prompt, just type startx to run the KDE. Just the other day, I decided to compile the newer Eterm and I used the newer backrounds which I also downloaded. If you like the original choices, your really like the new ones, too. 8.10 Where is Kermit for UnixWare 7? 18 Dec 2000 contribs fdc@columbia.edu -------------------------------------- Kermit communications software for serial and network connections, file transfer, character-set translation, alpha and numeric paging, and scripting can be downloaded from the Kermit Project website at Columbia University: http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ 8.11 Pine-4.33 2 Jul 2001 -------------------------------------- This version supports threads. Downloads: http://www.washington.edu/pine/ $ gzcat pine4.33.tar.gz | tar xvopf - Then cd into the pine4.33 directory, go down into doc/tech-notes/ and read index.html. Here's what you'll learn: 1) Pine builds on UnixWare 7.x.x using the command: build uw2 2) Before you build it, you probably want to edit a few files: pine4.33/pine/makefile.uw2 pine4.33/pico/makefile.uw2 pine4.33/pine/osdep/os-sv4.h pine4.33/pico/osdep/os-sv4.h pine/makefile.uw2: In this file I changed: OPTIMIZE= -O -Kpentium_pro DEBUG= #-g -DDEBUG pico/makefile.uw2: In this file I changed: OPTIMIZE= -O -Kpentium_pro DEBUG= #-g -DDEBUG pine/osdep/os-sv4.h: In this file I changed: #define DF_MAILCHECK "600" #define MAXFILLCOL "132" pico/osdep/os-sv4.h: In this file I changed: #include <locale.h> #define MAILDIR "/var/mail" #define SPELLER "/usr/local/bin/ispell" The choice to optimize was mine, after I had already built and tested this a few times. Then I compiled it in it's top level directory ./pine4.33. I used the build uw2 command to compile it: ./build uw2 > make.log 2>&1 while I switched to another terminal and less make.log shift+f so I can tail the log file. After building it, it's on to installing it. To install Pine, log in as root, copy the files pico, pilot, and pine from ./bin to /usr/local/bin, chown them to root:sys, and chmod them to 555. The others executables like imapd and mtest are optional to install. After installing Pine, it's on to configuring it's system-wide defaults. To configure Pine's system wide defaults, create the file pine.conf as follows: 1) Log in as root. 2) cd /usr/local/lib 3) pine -conf > pine.conf 4) chmod 644 pine.conf 5) cp -p pine.conf pine.conf.fixed 6) vi pine.conf.fixed: looking to change _only_ the items you want fixed, ie. users can't change those defaults. See also mine below.... 7) Once you set up those fixed items, DELETE all the other fields you didn't touch. You don't want them fixed. 8) vi pine.conf: Set the system-wide defaults that the user can change. See also mine below.... pine.conf.fixed ------------------------------------------------- |smtp-server=yoda |feature-list=allow-changing-from, | compose-maps-delete-key-to-ctrl-d, | quell-dead-letter-on-cancel, | quell-user-lookup-in-passwd-file | |local-fullname=Matt Schalit |local-address=matthew |ssh-path=/usr/local/bin/ssh | pine.conf ------------------------------------------------- |user-domain=pacbell.net |nntp-server=news.pacbell.net |feature-list=compose-cut-from-cursor, | enable-sigdashes, | enable-search-and-replace, | enable-reply-indent-string-editing, | include-text-in-reply, | reply-always-uses-reply-to, | enable-background-sending, | enable-delivery-status-notification, | compose-sets-newsgroup-without-confirm, | news-post-without-validation, | delete-skips-deleted, | prefer-plain-text, | quell-extra-post-prompt, | enable-aggregate-command-set, | enable-full-header-cmd, | enable-jump-shortcut, | enable-goto-in-file-browser, | enable-tab-completion, | disable-take-last-comma-first, | enable-dot-files, | expunge-without-confirm, | no-expunge-without-confirm-everywhere, | quell-folder-internal-msg, | quit-without-confirm, | show-plain-text-internally |character-set=ISO-8859-1 |speller=/usr/local/bin/ispell |composer-wrap-column=128 |sort-key=thread 9) Now just remove any previous ~/.pinerc files and run pine. Use the S for Setup Use the C for Config Change a few things, like your name if necessary. To read news, enter an nntp-server. If your nntp-server login name is differnt from you UnixWare 7 username, then you need to make your nntp-server: field look like this, news.pacbell.net/user=matt123 Otherwise, leave off the /user=matt123 part and just use your news server's FQDN. 10) Finally exit pine and do the final trick: setting the From: What I mean by this everyone's email has a return address on it in the From: field. Everybody needs to specify a From: by hand, unless you own a registered, named domain, and are running pine from there. When I set my user-domain in pine.conf to pacbell.net, I'm setting the right hand side of the @. When I set my From: as desribed below, I'm setting the whole email@address.com. To set your From: vi ~/.pinerc Part of my ~/.pinerc ----------------------------------------------------------- |customized-hdrs=From: Matt Schalit <mschalit@pacbell.net> | That's about it. Pine pauses a lot when reading news, so don't be alarmed if it takes a long time to enter a group. 8.12 Alladin Ghostscript gs7.00 2 Jul 2001 ---------------------------------------- ftp://mirror.cs.wisc.edu/pub/mirrors/ghost/AFPL/gs700/ 1) Read the doc/build.htm 2) Read the doc/make.htm 3) Read the doc/install.htm 4) No host, no configure porgram. 5) Hard to build. You can get away with skunkware gs, but don't bother if you care about your apps. 6) cd src 7) cp unix-gcc.mak unix-gcc.mak.orig 8) vi unix-gcc.mak At this point you have to modify the file and make a bunch of settings that are not easy to figure out. You have to read and experiment a lot. Here's the variables that I changed or added, others that were left alone I'll not put in here: INSTALL = /usr/local/bin/install JSRCDIR=/home/matthew/Uber/Gnome/jpeg-6b PSRCDIR=/home/matthew/Uber/Gnome/libpng-1.0.10 SHARE_LIBPNG=1 ZSRCDIR=/home/matthew/Uber/Gnome/zlib-1.1.3 SHARE_ZLIB=1 AR=/usr/local/bin/ar RANLIB=/usr/local/bin/ranlib XCFLAGS=-DSVR4 EXTRALIBS=-lsocket -lnsl STDLIBS=-pthread -lm XINCLUDE=-I/usr/X/include XLIBS=Xt SM ICE Xext X11 XLIBDIRS=-L/usr/X/lib XLIBDIR= SYNC=posync DEVICE_DEVS2=$(DD)cljet5.dev $(DD)stcolor.dev 9) gmake 10) Here's how to test it out. a) cd lib b) ../bin/gs ../examples/tiger.ps 11) gmake install 12) Fix perms if you have a strong umask like I do. 8.13 Gnu-make-3.79.1 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- ./configure make check-loadavg make make check - ok. Passes all tests. gmake install 8.14 binuitils-2.11 ftp://sourceware.cygnus.com/pub/binutils/releases/ 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1) Guesses correct host. 2) ./configure --enable-shared 3) gmake 4) gmake check - Passes 21, Fails 4. We need it so it's in. 8.15 gmp-3.1.1 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Guesses correct host, even though it calls it a pentium2-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 because it optimizes it for my pentium2. 2) cd objdir 3) ../gmp-3.1.1/configure 4) gmake 5) gmake check -ok. all tests passed. 8.16 libtool-1.4 From Gnu.org 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Guesses correct host. 2) ./configure --with-gnu-ld 3) gmake 4) gmake check - ok. 5) gmake install 8.17 m4-1.4p 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Guesses wrong host. 2) CC="/bin/cc -Kalloca" CPPFLAGS=-I/usr/local/include ./configure \ --host=i586-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 --with-gmp --enable-shared 3) gmake 4) gmake check - ok. All 72 tests passed. 5) gmake install 6) ln -s /usr/local/bin/m4 /usr/local/bin/gm4 You'll want to do this symlink, because apps look for gm4. 8.18 dejagnu-1.4 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Wrong host, use the method below to specify the host.... 2) ./configure --x-includes=/usr/X/include --x-libraries=/usr/X/lib \ --with-tclinclude=/usr/local/bin i586-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 3) gmake 4) gmake info 5) gmake install 8.19 autoconf-2.50 From Gnu.org 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Correct host. 2) ./configure 3) gmake 4) gmake check - ok, passes all tests. 5) gmake install 8.20 gcc-3.00 http://gcc.gnu.org/ 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) I wrote up a gcc-mini-HOWTO at ftp://63.194.213.179:710/pub/mini-HOWTO/ It's important to make your own gcc. This is because you have to be very very careful to build every single app as i586-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 or some things will snowball into a disaster, like Gnome. 8.21 gnu-tar-1.13 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Wrong host. 2) ./configure --host=i586-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 --disable-largefile \ --disable-nls --x-includes=/usr/X/include --x-libraries=/usr/X/lib 3) gmake 4) gmake check - ok. 10/10 tests passed 5) gmake install prefix=/usr/local 6) ln -s /usr/local/bin/tar /usr/local/bin/gtar 8.22 bzip2-1.0.1 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) No configure, so host is not used. 2) gmake - ok. compiles the static lib and passes all tests. 3) gmake -f Makefile-libbz2_so - ok. Makes the shared lib. 4) gmake install PREFIX=/usr/local 5) cp libbz2.so.1.0.1 /usr/local/lib 6) cp bzip2-shared /usr/local/bin 7) chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/bzip2-shared /usr/local/lib/libbz2.so.1.0.1 8) wrong 711 perms on a lot of bzip2 files 8.23 gdbm-1.8.0 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) wrong host 2) The ltmain and ltconfig.sh in this app are too old. cp /usr/local/share/libtool/ltconfig . cp /usr/local/share/libtool/ltmain.sh . 3) LDFLAGS=-L/usr/ucblib NM=/usr/local/bin/nm ./configure \ --host=i586-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1 --x-libraries=/usr/X/lib \ --x-includes=/usr/X/include 4) gmake 5) gmake install fails to work. Need to install manually. 6) gmake -n install This command just prints out what the install script wanted to do, and you can do it by hand. This may be why things work poorly and my results need to be double checked. 8.24 flex-2.5.4a ftp.gnu.org/pub/non-gnu/flex/ 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) correct host? 2) ./configure 3) gmake check 4) gmake bigcheck 5) gmake install 8.25 zlib-1.1.3 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- 1) Doesn't use a host, or a config.guess.... ok. 2) Just use ./configure --shared 3) gmake 4) gmake test <-- *** zlib test OK *** 5) gmake install 8.26 perl-5.6.0 2 Jul 2001 ------------------------------------- Perl is complicated to install because it has about 72 questions that you need to answer in order for it to be configure for the gmake. The best way is to just start doing it, as versus read all the files it tells you to. You can bail out and start again. I posted to the comp.unix.sco.misc newsgroup with an output of all the 72 variables to create a working version. There are many options that will make perl fail its tests, so you might want to skim over those if you decide to have a go at it. _____________________________________ | | | 9. Useful Shell Commands | |_____________________________________| 9.1 How do I search in every file for a string like "See foo?" 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- To find the string "See foo" in every local file, one can do a 'find' and 'fgrep' utilizing 'xargs' to run a group of fgreps at once which is more efficient than running one fgrep at a time: find / -type f -mount | xargs fgrep -l "See foo" 9.2 How do I find the largest files and directories? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- To find the largest files and directories, in units of kilobytes one can use 'du,' 'sort,' and 'less' to list the files from largest to smallest: du -akx | sort -nr | less 9.3 How do I find the largest files? 12 Jul 2001 ---------------------------------------- To find the largest files, in units of bytes, excluding files smaller than 1 MB, one can use find, ls, awk, sort, and less: find / -type f -size +2048 -exec ls -l {} + | \ awk '{ print $5 "\t" $9 }' | sort -nr | less The same find again, but in units of kilobytes: find / -type f -size +2048 -exec ls -l {} + | \ awk '{ print int($5/1024) "\t" $9 }' | sort -nr | less 9.4 How do I determine the number of free inodes? 18 Sept 1999 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'df' command: df -i 9.5 How do I find the user who is using files in a filesystem and thus preventing it from being unmounted? 18 Dec 2000 ---------------------------------------- Use the 'fuser' command, and notice that it refers to block devices unless you throw the '-c' flag which lets you use mount points: fuser -cu /home <-- List all PIDs(usernames) using files in /home fuser -u /dev/fd0 <-- List all PIDs(usernames) using the first floppy fuser -u /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s4 <-- " using slice 4 on disk 0 ( /home ) ____________________________________________________ | | | 10. Migrating from OpenServer 5 to UnixWare 7 | |____________________________________________________| 10.1 SCO Migration Tools 8 Jun 2001 contrib Boyd Gerber ---------------------------------------- SCO provides a set of Migration Tools to UnixWare 7. http://www.sco.com/migration/ Always check the following links for the latest information on UnixWare 7. http://www.sco.com/unixware7/documentation http://www.sco.com/upgrade/ or http://wdb1.sco.com/clbk_web/owa/dwn_customer 10.2 SETUID bit 8 Jun 2001 contrib zigazou@libertysurf.fr ------------------------------------------ SETUID and SETGID bits allow a process to gain higher privileges than the caller. Under UnixWare 7, a program also needs to gain privileges from the system by asking even if it can gain them (similarly to Windows NT). If a C program has a call to the setreuid function like this : setreuid(geteuid(),geteuid()); and the SETUID bit is set correctly, it will work under OpenServer but not under UnixWare. You need to put some privileges on the executable file by using the filepriv shell command to make it work under UnixWare 7: filepriv -f setuid programfile.exe -- -- Boyd Gerber <gerberb@zenez.com> ZENEZ 1042 East Fort Union #135, Midvale Utah 84047