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Subject: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.* Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 4/5

This article was archived around: 22 Mar 1998 19:29:55 -0500

All FAQs in Directory: pc-hardware-faq
All FAQs posted in: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.comm, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.storage, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.cd-rom, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.systems, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.networking, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.chips, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/part4 Last-modified: 1997/11/10 Version: 1.25
S) 7.0 Diagnostics Q) 7.1 What do the POST beeps mean? This section contains information on the following: IBM AMI Phoenix DTK/ERSO XT BIOS MR BIOS Mylex 386 System BIOS Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS [From: Shaun Burnett (burnesa@cat.com)] POST (Power-On Self Test) beeps signal something is wrong with your system. The meaning of these beeps is BIOS dependent. Below are the audio codes for IBM, AMI, and Phoenix BIOS's. IBM Beep(s) Errant device No beep Power supply, system board 1 short beep System OK 2 short beeps POST Error displayed on monitor Repeating short beeps Power supply, system board 3 long beeps 3270 keyboard card 1 long, 1 short beeps System board 1 long, 2 short beeps Display adapter (MDA, CGA) 1 long, 3 short beeps EGA Continuous beep Power supply, system board AMI Beep(s) Failure 1 short DRAM refresh 2 short Parity circuit 3 short Base 64K RAM 4 short System timer 5 short Processor 6 short Keyboard controller Gate A20 error 7 short Virtual mode exception error 8 short Display memory R/W test 9 short ROM BIOS checksum 1 long, 3 short Non-fatal--Conventional/extended memory 1 long, 8 short Non-fatal--Display/retrace test PHOENIX Beep Fatal Failures* Beep code Non-Fatal Failures* code 1-1-3 CMOS write/read (or real- 4-2-1 Timer tick interrupt test time clock read/write) (or in progress) 1-1-4 ROM BIOS checksum 4-2-2 Shutdown test (or in progress) 1-2-1 Programmable interval timer 4-2-3 Gate A20 failure 1-2-2 DMA initialization 4-2-4 Unexpected interrupt in protected mode 1-2-3 DMA page register write/read 4-3-1 RAM test in progress or address failure > FFFFh 1-2-4 SRAM test and configuration 4-3-3 Interval timer Channel 2 (or test) 1-3-1 RAM refresh verification 4-3-4 Time-of-day clock (or test) 1-3-3 1st 64kb RAM chip or data 4-4-1 Serial port (or test) line failure, multibit 1-3-4 First 64K RAM odd/even logic 4-4-2 Parallel port (or test) 1-4-1 Address line failure first 4-4-3 Math coprocessor (or test) 64K RAM 1-4-2 Parity failure first low 1-1-2 System-board select 64K RAM 2-1-1 Bit 0 first 64K RAM low 1-1-3 Extended CMOS RAM 2-1-2 Bit 1 first 64K RAM 2-1-3 Bit 2 first 64K RAM 2-1-4 Bit 3 first 64K RAM 2-2-1 Bit 4 first 64K RAM 2-2-2 Bit 5 first 64K RAM 2-2-3 Bit 6 first 64K RAM 2-2-4 Bit 7 first 64K RAM 2-3-1 Bit 8 first 64K RAM 2-3-2 Bit 9 first 64K RAM 2-3-3 Bit 10 first 64K RAM 2-3-4 Bit 11 first 64K RAM 2-4-1 Bit 12 first 64K RAM 2-4-2 Bit 13 first 64K RAM 2-4-3 Bit 14 first 64K RAM 2-4-4 Bit 15 first 64K RAM 3-1-1 Slave DMA register 3-1-2 Master DMA register 3-1-3 Master interrupt mask register failure 3-1-4 Slave interrupt mask register failure 3-2-4 Keyboard controller test failure 3-3-4 Screen initialization 3-4-1 Screen retrace 3-4-2 Search for video ROM in progress (not failure) * Unless otherwise noted. [From: Will Spencer (will@gnu.ai.mit.edu)] DTK/ERSO XT BIOS 1 short - Begin POST and End POST 1 long, 1 short - Floppy Disk Drive or Controller Failure Continuous short - Parity Error in First 64K RAM Continuous tone - First 64K RAM failure 1 long - Keyboard Failed or Locked, Interrupt or other system board error long short, long short, long short - Video Initialization Failure, or Invalid Video Switch Setting MR BIOS :POST Code 1A Beep Codes low high, low high low high high - Real Time Clock is Not Updating :POST Code 03 Beep Codes low high, low low low - ROM BIOS Checksum Test :POST Code 04 Beep Codes low high, high low low - Page Register Test (Ports 81-8F) :POST Code 05 Beep Codes low high, low high low - 8042 Keyboard Controller Selftest :POST Code 07 Beep Codes low high, high high low - Memory Refresh Circuit Test :POST Code 08 Beep Codes low high, low low high - Master (16bit) DMA Controller Failure low high, high low high - Slave (8 bit) DMA Controller Failure :Post Code 0A Beep Codes low high, low low low low - Memory Bank 0 Pattern Test Failure low high, high low low low - Memory Bank 0 Parity Circuitry Failure low high, low high low low - Memory Bank 0 Parity Error low high, high high low low - Memory Bank 0 Data Bus Failure low high, low low high low - Memory Bank 0 Address Bus Failure low high, high low high low - Memory Bank 0 Block Access Read Failure low high, low high high low - Memory Bank 0 Block Access Read/Write Failure :POST Code 0B Beep Codes low high, high high high low - Master 8259 (Port 21 ) Failure low high, low low low high - Slave 8259 (Port A1) Failure :POST Code 0C Beep Codes low high, high low low high - Master 8259 (Port 20) Interrupt Address Error low high, low high low high - Slave 8259 (Port A0) Interrupt Address Error low high, high high low low - 8259 (Port 20/A0) Interrupt Address Error low high, low low high high - Master 8259 (Port 20) Stuck Intercept Error low high, high low high high - Slave 8259 (Port A0) Stuck Intercept Error low high, low high high high - System Timer 8254 CH0/IRQ0 Interrupt Failure :POST Code 0D Beep Codes low high, high high high high - 8254 Channel 0 Test and Initialization :POST Code 0E Beep Codes low high, low low low low high - 8254 Channel-2 (Speaker) Failure low high, high low low low high - 8254 OUT2 (Speaker Detect) Failure :POST Code 0F Beep Codes low high, low high low low high - CMOS RAM Read/Write Test Failure low high, high high low low high - RTC Periodic Interrupt / IRQ8 Failure :POST Code 10 Beep Codes low high, low low high low high - Video Initialization and (Cold-Boot) Signon Message :POST Code 12 Beep Codes low high, high low high low high - Keyboard Controller Failure :POST Code 17 Beep Codes low high, low low low high high - A20 Test Failure Due to 8042 Timeout low high, high low low high high - A20 Gate Stuck in Disabled State :POST Code 19 Beep Codes low high, low high high low high - Memory Parity Error low high, high high high low high - IO Channel Error Mylex 386 System BIOS long - Begin POST Beep Code 2 long - Video Card Bad or No Video Card long, short, long - Keyboard Controller Error long, 2 short, long - Keyboard Error long, 3 short, long - Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259-1) Error long, 4 short, long - Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259-1) Error long, 5 short, long - DMA Page Register Error long, 6 short, long - RAM Refresh Error long, 7 short, long - RAM Data Test Error long, 8 short, long - RAM Parity Error long, 9 short, long - DMA Controller 1 Error long, 10 short, long - CMOS RAM Failure long, 11 short, long - DMA Controller 2 Error long, 12 short, long - CMOS RAM Battery Failure long, 13 short, long - CMOS Checksum Failed long, 14 short, long - BIOS ROM Checksum Failed several long beeps - Multiple failures Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS 3 short - Any Failure Q) 7.2 What do the POST codes mean? This section contains information on the following: IBM Award Modular BIOS Mylex 386 System BIOS Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS MR BIOS Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS (pre-4/9/90) AMI BIOS AMI Color BIOS (after 2/1/91) EuroBIOS [From: zz96sr@sdacs.ucsd.edu (Steve Rusk)] All personal computer error codes for the Power On Self Test, General Diagnostics, and Advanced Diagnostics consist of a device number followed by two digits other than 00. (The device number plus 00 indicates successful completion of the test.) This list is a compilation from various sources, including USENET's Info-IBMPC Digest, IBM Technical Reference Manuals, and IBM Hardware, Maintenance and Service manuals. 01x Undetermined problem errors. 02x Power supply errors. 1xx System board errors. 101 System board error - Interrupt failure. 102 System board error - Timer failure. 103 System board error - Timer interrupt failure. 104 System board error - Protected mode failure. 105 System board error - Last 8042 command not accepted. 106 System board error - Converting logic test. 107 System board error - Hot NMI test. 108 System board error - Timer bus test. 109 Direct memory access test error. 121 Unexpected hardware interrupts occurred. 131 Cassette wrap test failed. 152 161 System Options Error-(Run SETUP) [Battery failure]. 162 System options not set correctly-(Run SETUP). 163 Time and date not set-(Run SETUP). 164 Memory size error-(Run SETUP). 199 User-indicated configuration not correct. 2xx Memory (RAM) errors. 201 Memory test failed. 202 Memory address error. 203 Memory address error. 3xx Keyboard errors. 301 Keyboard did not respond to software reset correctly, or a stuck key failure was detected. If a stuck key was detected, the scan code for the key is displayed in hexadecimal. For example, the error code 49 301 indicates that key 73, the PgUp key, has failed (49 hex = 73 decimal). 302 User-indicated error from the keyboard test, or AT keylock is locked. 303 Keyboard or system unit error. 304 Keyboard or system unit error; CMOS does not match system. 4xx Monochrome monitor errors. 401 Monochrome memory test, horizontal sync frequency test, or video test failed. 408 User-indicated display attributes failure. 416 User-indicated character set failure. 424 User-indicated 80 X 25 mode failure. 432 Parallel port test failed (monochrome adapter). 5xx Color monitor errors. 501 Color memory test failed, horizontal sync frequency test, or video test failed. 508 User-indicated display attribute failure. 516 User-indicated character set failure. 524 User-indicated 80 X 25 mode failure. 532 User-indicated 40 X 25 mode failure. 540 User-indicated 320 X 200 graphics mode failure. 548 User-indicated 640 X 200 graphics mode failure. 6xx Diskette drive errors. 601 Diskette power-on diagnostics test failed. 602 Diskette test failed; boot record is not valid. 606 Diskette verifysd function failed. 607 Write-protected diskette. 608 Bad command diskette status returned. 610 Diskette initialization failed. 611 Timeout - diskette status returned. 612 Bad NEC - diskette status returned. 613 Bad DMA - diskette status returned. 621 Bad seek - diskette status returned. 622 Bad CRC - diskette status returned. 623 Record not found - diskette status returned. 624 Bad address mark - diskette status returned. 625 Bad NEC seek - diskette status returned. 626 Diskette data compare error. 7xx 8087 or 80287 math coprocessor errors. 9xx Parallel printer adapter errors. 901 Parallel printer adapter test failed. 10xx Reserved for parallel printer adapter. 11xx Asynchronous communications adapter errors. 1101 Asynchronous communications adapter test failed. 12xx Alternate asynchronous communications adapter errors. 1201 Alternate asynchronous communications adapter test failed. 13xx Game control adapter errors. 1301 Game control adapter test failed. 1302 Joystick test failed. 14xx Printer errors. 1401 Printer test failed. 1404 Matrix printer failed. 15xx Synchronous data link control (SDLC) communications adapter errors. 1510 8255 port B failure. 1511 8255 port A failure. 1512 8255 port C failure. 1513 8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count. 1514 8253 timer 1 stuck on. 1515 8253 timer 0 did not reach terminal count. 1516 8253 timer 0 stuck on. 1517 8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count. 1518 8253 timer 2 stuck on. 1519 8273 port B error. 1520 8273 port A error. 1521 8273 command/read timeout. 1522 Interrupt level 4 failure. 1523 Ring Indicate stuck on. 1524 Receive clock stuck on. 1525 Transmit clock stuck on. 1526 Test indicate stuck on. 1527 Ring indicate not on. 1528 Receive clock not on. 1529 Transmit clock not on. 1530 Test indicate not on. 1531 Data set ready not on. 1532 Carrier detect not on. 1533 Clear to send not on. 1534 Data set ready stuck on. 1536 Clear to send stuck on. 1537 Level 3 interrupt failure. 1538 Receive interrupt results error. 1539 Wrap data miscompare. 1540 DMA channel 1 error. 1541 DMA channel 1 error. 1542 Error in 8273 error checking or status reporting. 1547 Stray interrupt level 4. 1548 Stray interrupt level 3. 1549 Interrupt presentation sequence timeout. 16xx Display emulation errors (327x, 5520, 525x). 17xx Fixed disk errors. 1701 Fixed disk POST error. 1702 Fixed disk adapter error. 1703 Fixed disk drive error. 1704 Fixed disk adapter or drive error. 1780 Fixed disk 0 failure. 1781 Fixed disk 1 failure. 1782 Fixed disk controller failure. 1790 Fixed disk 0 error. 1791 Fixed disk 1 error. 18xx I/O expansion unit errors. 1801 I/O expansion unit POST error. 1810 Enable/Disable failure. 1811 Extender card warp test failed (disabled). 1812 High order address lines failure (disabled). 1813 Wait state failure (disabled). 1814 Enable/Disable could not be set on. 1815 Wait state failure (disabled). 1816 Extender card warp test failed (enabled). 1817 High order address lines failure (enabled). 1818 Disable not functioning. 1819 Wait request switch not set correctly. 1820 Receiver card wrap test failure. 1821 Receiver high order address lines failure. 19xx 3270 PC attachment card errors. 20xx Binary synchronous communications (BSC) adapter errors. 2010 8255 port A failure. 2011 8255 port B failure. 2012 8255 port C failure. 2013 8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count. 2014 8253 timer 1 stuck on. 2016 8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count, or timer 2 stuck on. 2017 8251 Data set ready failed to come on. 2018 8251 Clear to send not sensed. 2019 8251 Data set ready stuck on. 2020 8251 Clear to send stuck on. 2021 8251 hardware reset failed. 2022 8251 software reset failed. 2023 8251 software "error reset" failed. 2024 8251 transmit ready did not come on. 2025 8251 receive ready did not come on. 2026 8251 could not force "overrun" error status. 2027 Interrupt failure - no timer interrupt. 2028 Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card or planar. 2029 Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card. 2030 Interrupt failure - receive, replace card or planar. 2031 Interrupt failure - receive, replace card. 2033 Ring indicate stuck on. 2034 Receive clock stuck on. 2035 Transmit clock stuck on. 2036 Test indicate stuck on. 2037 Ring indicate stuck on. 2038 Receive clock not on. 2039 Transmit clock not on. 2040 Test indicate not on. 2041 Data set ready not on. 2042 Carrier detect not on. 2043 Clear to send not on. 2044 Data set ready stuck on. 2045 Carrier detect stuck on. 2046 Clear to send stuck on. 2047 Unexpected transmit interrupt. 2048 Unexpected receive interrupt. 2049 Transmit data did not equal receive data. 2050 8251 detected overrun error. 2051 Lost data set ready during data wrap. 2052 Receive timeout during data wrap. 21xx Alternate binary synchronous communications adapter errors. 2110 8255 port A failure. 2111 8255 port B failure. 2112 8255 port C failure. 2113 8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count. 2114 8253 timer 1 stuck on. 2115 8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count, or timer 2 stuck on. 2116 8251 Data set ready failed to come on. 2117 8251 Clear to send not sensed. 2118 8251 Data set ready stuck on. 2119 8251 Clear to send stuck on. 2120 8251 hardware reset failed. 2121 8251 software reset failed. 2122 8251 software "error reset" failed. 2123 8251 transmit ready did not come on. 2124 8251 receive ready did not come on. 2125 8251 could not force "overrun" error status. 2126 Interrupt failure - no timer interrupt. 2128 Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card or planar. 2129 Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card. 2130 Interrupt failure - receive, replace card or planar. 2131 Interrupt failure - receive, replace card. 2133 Ring indicate stuck on. 2134 Receive clock stuck on. 2135 Transmit clock stuck on. 2136 Test indicate stuck on. 2137 Ring indicate stuck on. 2138 Receive clock not on. 2139 Transmit clock not on. 2140 Test indicate not on. 2141 Data set ready not on. 2142 Carrier detect not on. 2143 Clear to send not on. 2144 Data set ready stuck on. 2145 Carrier detect stuck on. 2146 Clear to send stuck on. 2147 Unexpected transmit interrupt. 2148 Unexpected receive interrupt. 2149 Transmit data did not equal receive data. 2150 8251 detected overrun error. 2151 Lost data set ready during data wrap. 2152 Receive timeout during data wrap. 22xx Cluster adapter errors. 24xx Enhanced graphics adapter errors. 29xx Color matrix printer errors. 2901 2902 2904 33xx Compact printer errors. [From: Will Spencer (will@gnu.ai.mit.edu)] Award Modular BIOS 01 - Processor Test 1: Processor Status Verification 02 - Determine Post Type 03 - Clear 8042 Keyboard Controller 04 - Reset 8042 Keyboard Controller 05 - Get Manufacturing Status 06 - Initialize Chips (DMA, 8259's) 07 - Processor Test 2: Read/Write/Verify Registers with Data Pattern FF and 00 08 - Initialize CMOS Timer 09 - EPROM Checksum 0A - Initialize Video Controller Register 6845 0B - Test Timer (8254) Channel 0 0C - Test Timer (8254) Channel 1 0D - Test Timer (8254) Channel 2 0E - Test CMOS Shutdown Byte 0F - Text Extended CMOS 10 - Test DMA Channel 0 11 - Test DMA Channel 1 12 - Test DMA Page Registers 13 - Test Keyboard Controller 14 - Test Memory Refresh 15 - Test 1st 64K of System Memory 16 - Setup Interrupt Vector Table 17 - Setup Video I/O Operations 18 - Test Video Memory 19 - Test 8259 Mask Bits - Channel 1 1A - Test 8259 Mask Bits - Channel 2 1B - Test CMOS Battery Level 1C - Test CMOS Checksum 1D - Set Configuration from CMOS 1E - Size System Memory 1F - Test Found System Memory 20 - Test Stuck 8259 Interrupt Bits 21 - Test Suck NMI Bits (Parity I/O Check) 22 - Test 9259 Working 23 - Test Protected Mode 24 - Size Extended Memory 25 - Test Found Extended Memory 26 - Test Protected Mode Exceptions 27 - Setup Cache Control or Shadow RAM 28 - Setup 8242 29 - Reserved 2A - Initialize Keyboard 2B - Initialize Floppy Drive and Controller 2C - Detect and Initialize COM Ports 2D - Detect and Initialize LPT Ports 2E - Initialize Hard Drive and Controller 2F - Detect and Initialize Math Coprocessors 30 - Reserver 31 - Detect and Initialize Option ROMs 3B - Initialize Secondary Cache w/OPTi Chipset (486 only) CA - Micronics Cache Initialization CC - NMI Handler Shutdown EE - Unexpected Processor Exceptiom FF - INT 19 Boot Attempt Mylex 386 System BIOS 01 - CPU Test 02 - DMA Page Register Test 03 - Keyboard Controller Test 04 - BIOS ROM Checksum 05 - Send Keyboard Command Test 06 - CMOS RAM Test 08 - RAM Refresh Test 09 - First 64K Memory Test 0A - DMA Controller Test 0B - Initialize DMA 0C - Interrupt Test 0D - Determine RAM Size 0E - Initialize Video of EGA/VGA Checksum 10 - Search for Monochrome Card 11 - Search for Color Card 12 - Word Splitter and Byte Shifter Test 13 - Keyboard Test 14 - RAM Test 15 - Timer Test 16 - Initialize Output Port of Keyboard Controller 17 - Keyboard Interrupt Test Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS 02 - Flag Test 04 - Register Test 06 - System Hardware Initialization 08 - Initialize Chip Set Registers 0A - BIOS ROM Checksum 0C - DMA Page Register Test 0E - 8254 Timer Test 10 - 8254 Timer Initialization 12 - 8237 DMA Controller Test 14 - 8237 DMA Initialization 16 - Initialize 8259/Reset Coprocessor 18 - 8259 Interrupt Controller Test 1A - Memory Refresh Test 1C - Base 64KB Address Test 1E - Base 64KB Memory Test 20 - Base 64KB Test (Upper 16 bits) 22 - 8742 Keyboard Self Test 24 - MC146818 CMOS Test 26 - Start First Protected Mode Test 28 - Memory Sizing Test 2A - Autosize Memory Chips 2C - Chip Interleave Enable Test 2E - First Protected Mode Test Exit 30 - Unexpected Shutdown 32 - System Board Memory Size 34 - Relocate Shadow Ram if Configured 36 - Configure EMS System 38 - Configure Wait States 3A - ReTest 64K Base RAM 3C - CPU Speed Calculation 3E - Get Switches From 8042 40 - Configure CPU Speed 42 - Initialize Interrupt Vectors 44 - Verify Video Configuration 46 - Initialize Video System 48 - Test Unexpected Interrupts 4A - Start Second Protected Mode Test 4C - Verify LDT Instruction 4E - Verify TR Instruction 50 - Verify LSL Instruction 52 - Verify LAR Instruction 54 - Verify VERR Instruction 56 - Unexpected Exception 58 - Address Line 20 Test 5A - Keyboard Ready Test 5C - Determine AT or XT Keyboard 5E - Start Third Protected Mode Test 60 - Base Memory Test 62 - Base Memory Address Test 64 - Shadow Memory Test 66 - Extended Memory Test 68 - Extended Address Test 6A - Determine Memory Size 6C - Display Error Messages 6E - Copy BIOS to Shadow Memory 70 - 8254 Clock Test 72 - MC146818 Real Time Clock Test 74 - Keyboard Stuck Key Test 76 - Initialize Hardware Interrupt Vectors 78 - Math Coprocessor Test 7A - Determine COM Ports Available 7C - Determine LPT Ports Available 7E - Initialize BIOS Data Area 80 - Determine Floppy/Fixed Controller 82 - Floppy Disk Test 84 - Fixed Disk Test 86 - External ROM Scan 88 - System Key Lock Test 8A - Wait for F1 Key Pressed 8C - Final System Initialization 8E - Interrupt 19 Boot Loader B0 - Unexpected Interrupt MR BIOS (The post codes for MR BIOS are located with the post beeps) Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS Release date 4/9/90 and after Code Meaning 01 NMI disabled and 286 register test about to start. 02 286 register test passed. 03 ROM BIOS checksum (32K at F800:0) passed. 04 Keyboard controller test with and without mouse passed. 05 Chipset initialization over, DMA and Interrupt controller disabled. 06 Video disabled and system timer test begin. 07 CH-2 of 8254 initialization half way. 08 CH-2 of timer initialization over. 09 CH-1 of timer initialization over. 0A CH-0 of timer initialization over. 0B Refresh started. 0C System timer started. 0D Refresh link toggling passed. 10 Refresh on and about to start 64K base memory test. 11 Address line test passed. 12 64K base memory test passed. 15 Interrupt vectors initialized. 17 Monochrome mode set. 18 Color mode set. 19 About to look for optional video ROM at segment C000 and give control to the optional video ROM if present. 1A Return from optional video ROM. 1B Shadow RAM enable/disable completed. 1C Display memory read/write test for main display type as set in the CMOS setup program over. 1D Display memory read/write test for alternate display type complete if main display memory read/write test returns error. 1E Global equipment byte set for proper display type. 1F Video mode set call for mono/color begins. 20 Video mode set completed. 21 ROM type 27256 verified. 23 Power on message displayed. 30 Virtual mode memory test about to begin. 31 Virtual mode memory test started. 32 Processor executing in virtual mode. 33 Memory address line test in progress. 34 Memory address line test in progress. 35 Memory below 1MB calculated. 36 Memory above 1MB calculated. 37 Memory test about to start. 38 Memory below 1MB initialized. 39 Memory above 1MB initialized. 3A Memory size display initiated. This will be updated when the BIOS goes through the memory test. 3B About to start below 1MB memory test. 3C Memory test below 1MB completed and about to start above 1MB test. 3D Memory test above 1MB completed. 3E About to go to real mode. 3F Shutdown successful and processor in real mode. 40 CACHE memory on and about to disable A20 address line. 41 A20 address line disable successful. 42 486 internal cache turned on. 43 About to start DMA controller test. 50 DMA page register test complete. 51 DMA unit-1 base register test about to start. 52 DMA unit-1 base register test complete. 53 DMA unit-2 base register test complete. 54 About to check F/F latch for unit-1 and unit-2. 55 F/F latch for both units checked. 56 DMA unit 1 and 2 programming over and about to initialize 8259 interrupt controller. 57 8259 initialization over. 70 About to start keyboard test. 71 Keyboard controller BAT test over. 72 Keyboard interface test over, mouse interface test started. 73 Global data initialization for keyboard/mouse over. 74 Display 'SETUP' prompt and about to start floppy setup. 75 Floppy setup over. 76 Hard disk setup about to start. 77 Hard disk setup over. 79 About to initialize timer data area. 7A Timer data initialized and about to verify CMOS battery power. 7B CMOS battery verification over. 7D About to analyze POST results. 7E CMOS memory size updated. 7F Look for <DEL> key and get into CMOS setup if found. 80 About to give control to optional ROM in segment C800 to DE00. 81 Optional ROM control over. 82 Check for printer ports and put the addresses in global data area. 83 Check for RS232 ports and put the addresses in global data area. 84 Coprpcessor detection over. 85 About to display soft error messages. 86 About to give control to system ROM at segment E000. 00 System ROM control at E000 over now give control to Int 19h boot loader. Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS Release date prior to 4/9/90 Code Meaning 01 NMI disabled & 286 reg. test about to start 02 286 register test over 03 ROM checksum OK 04 8259 initialization OK 05 CMOS pending interrupt disabled 06 Video disabled & system timer counting OK 07 CH-2 of 8253 test OK 08 CH-2 delta count test OK 09 CH-1 delta count test OK 0A CH-0 delta count test OK 0B Parity status cleared 0C Refresh & system timer OK 0D Refresh link toggling OK 0E Refresh period ON/OFF 50% OK 10 Confirmed refresh ON & about to start 64K memory 11 Address line test OK 12 64K base memory test OK 13 Interrupt vectors initialized 14 8042 keyboard controller test OK 15 CMOS read/write test OK 16 CMOS checksum/battery check OK 17 Monochrome mode set OK 18 Color mode set OK 19 About to look for optional video ROM 1A Optional video ROM control OK 1B Display memory read/write test OK 1C Display memory read/write test for alternate display OK 1D Video retrace check OK 1E Global equipment byte set for video OK 1F Mode set call for Mono/Color OK 20 Video test OK 21 Video display OK 22 Power on message display OK 30 Virtual mode memory test about to begin 31 Virtual mode memory test started 32 Processor in virtual mode 33 Memory address line test in progress 34 Memory address line test in progress 35 Memory below 1MB calculated 36 Memory size computation OK 37 Memory test in progress 38 Memory initialization over below 1MB 39 Memory initialization over above 1MB 3A Display memory size 3B About to start below 1MB memory test 3C Memory test below 1MB OK 3D Memory test above 1MB OK 3E About to go to real mode (shutdown) 3F Shutdown successful and and entered in real mode 40 About to disable gate A-20 address line 41 Gate A-20 line disabled successfully 42 About to start DMA controller test 4E Address line test OK 4F Processor in real mode after shutdown 50 DMA page register test OK 51 DMA unit-1 base register test about to start 52 DMA unit-1 channel OK, about to begin CH-2 53 DMA CH-2 base register test OK 54 About to test f/f latch for unit-1 55 f/f latch test both unit OK 56 DMA unit 1 & 2 programmed OK 57 8259 initialization over 58 8259 mask register check OK 59 Master 8259 mask register OK, about to start slave 5A About to check timer and keyboard interrupt level 5B Timer interrupt OK 5C About to test keyboard interrupt 5D ERROR! timer/keyboard interrupt not in proper level 5E 8259 interrupt controller error 5F 8259 interrupt controller test OK 70 Start of keyboard test 71 Keyboard BAT test OK 72 Keyboard test OK 73 Keyboard global data initialization OK 74 Floppy setup about to start 75 Floppy setup OK 76 Hard disk setup about to start 77 Hard disk setup OK 79 About to initialize timer data area 7A Verify CMOS battery power 7B CMOS battery verification done 7D About to analyze diagnostic test results for memory 7E CMOS memory size update OK 7F About to check optional ROM C000:0 80 Keyboard sensed to enable setup 81 Optional ROM control OK 82 Printer global data initialization OK 83 RS-232 global data initialization OK 84 80287 check/test OK 85 About to display soft error message 86 About to give control to system ROM E000:0 87 System ROM E000:0 check over 00 Control given to Int-19, boot loader AMI BIOS 01 - 286 Register Test Failed 02 - ROM BIOS Checksum (32KB at F800:0) Failed 03 - ROM BIOS Checksum (32KB at F800:0) Passed 04 - 8259 Interrupt Controller Initialization 05 - Chipset Initialization Over, DMA & Interrupt Controller Disabled 06 - Video Disabled and System Timer Test Begin 07 - CH-2 of 8254 Initialization Half Way 08 - 8254 CH-2 Timer Test to be Completed 09 - 8254 CH-1 Timer Test to be Completed 0A - 8254 CH-0 Timer Test to be Completed 0B - DRAM Refresh Failure 0C - System Timer Started 0D - Refresh Link Toggling Passed 0E - Refresh Period ON/OFF 50% OK 10 - Refresh ON and About to Start 64KB Base Memory Test 11 - Address Line Test Passed 12 - 64KB Base Memory Test Passed 13 - Interrupt Vectors Initialized 14 - 8042 Keyboard Controller Test Passed 15 - CMOS Read/Write Test Passed 16 - CNOS Checksum and Battery Check Passed 17 - Monochrome Mode Set 18 - Color Mode Set 19 - Give Control to the Optional Video ROM at Segment C0 if present 1A - Return from Optional Video ROM 1B - Display Memory Read/Write Test Passed 1C - Alternate Display Memory Read/Write Test Passed 1D - Video Retrace Check Passed 1E - Global Equipment Byte Set for Proper Display Type 1F - Video Mode Set Call for Mono/Color Begins 20 - Video Mode Set Completed 21 - ROM Type Verified, Video Display OK 22 - Power On Message Displayed 23 - Power On Message Displayed 30 - Virtual Mode Memory Test About to Begin 31 - Virtual Mode Memory Test Started 32 - Processor Executing in Virtual Mode 33 - Memory Address Line Test in Progress 34 - Memory Address Line Test in Progress 35 - Memory Below 1MB Calculated 36 - Memory Above 1MB Calculated, Memory Size Computation OK 37 - Memory Test About to Start 38 - Memory Below 1MB Initialized 39 - Memory Above 1MB Initialized 3A - Memory Size Display Initiated 3B - About to Start Below 1MB Memory Test 3C - Memory Test Below 1MB Completed 3D - Memory Test Above 1MB Completed 3E - About to go to Real Mode (Shutdown) 3F - Shutdown Successful and Processor in Real Mode 40 - Cache Memory ON and About to Disable A20 Address Line 41 - Gate A-20 Line Disabed Successfully 42 - 486 Internal Cache Turned ON 43 - About to Start DMA Controller Test 4E - Address Line Test Passed 4F - Processor in Real Mode After Shutdown 50 - DMA Page Register Test Complete 51 - DMA Unit-1 Base Register Test About to Start 52 - DMA Unit-1 Base Register Test Complete 53 - DMA Unit-2 Base Register Test Complete 54 - About to Check F/F Latch for Unit-1 and Unit-2 55 - F/F Latch for Both Units Checked 56 - DMA Unit-1 and 2 Programming Over 57 - 8259 Initialization Over 58 - 8259 Mask Register Check Passed 59 - Master 8259 Mask Register Passed 5A - About to Check Timer and Keyboard Interrupt Level 5B - Timer Interrupt Passed 5C - About to Test Keyboard Interrupt 5D - Error! Timer/Keyboard Interrupt Not in Proper Level 5E - 8259 Interrupt Controller Error 5F - 8259 Interrupt Controller Test Passed 70 - About to Start Keyboard Test 71 - Keyboard Controller BAT Test Over 72 - Keyboard Interface Test Over, Mouse Interface Test Started 73 - Global Data Initialization for Keyboard/Mouse Over 74 - Display "Setup" Prompt and About to Start Floppy Setup 75 - Floppy Setup Over 76 - Hard Disk Setup About to Start 77 - Hard Disk Setup Over 79 - About to Initialize Timer Data Area 7A - Time Data Area Initialized and About to Verify CMOS Battery Power 7B - CMOS Battery Verification Over 7D - About to Analyze POST Test Results 7E - CMOS Memory Size Updated 7F - Look for <DEL> Key and Get into CMOS Setup if Found 80 - About to Give Control to Optional ROM in Segment C800 to DE00 (Setup) 81 - Optional ROM Control Over 82 - Check for Printer Ports and put the Addresses in Global Data Area 83 - Check for RS232 Ports and Put the Addresses in Global Data Area 84 - Co-processor Detection Over 85 - About to Display Soft Error Messages 86 - About to Give Control to System ROM at Segment E000 87 - System ROM E000:0 Check Over AMI Color BIOS after 2/1/91 00 - Going to Give Control to INT 19H Boot Loader 01 - Processor Register Test About to Start, and NMI to be Disabled 02 - Power On Delay Starting 03 - Any Initialization Before Keyboard BAT is in Progress 04 - Reading Keyboard SYS Bit, to Check Soft Reset/Power On 05 - Going to Enable ROM. i.e. Disable Shadow RAM/Cache if Any 06 - Calculating ROM BIOS Checksum 07 - Going to Issue the BAT Command to Keyboard Controller 08 - Going to Verify the BAT Command 09 - Keyboard Command Byte to be Written Next 0A - Going to Write Command Byte Data 0B - Going to Issue Pin-23,24 Blocking/Unblocking Command 0C - NOP Command of Keyboard Controller to be Issued Next 0D - CMOS Shutdown Register Test to be Done Next 0E - Going to Calculate CMOS Checksum, and Update DIAG Byte 0F - CMOS Initialization to begin (If "INIT CMOS IN EVERY BOOT IS SET") 10 - CMOS Status Register About to Init for Date and Time 11 - Going to Disable DMA and Interrupt Controllers 12 - About to Disable Video Display and Init Port-B 13 - Chipset Init/Auto Memory Detection About to begin 14 - 8254 Timer Test About to Start 15 - 8254 CH-2 Timer Test to be Completed 16 - 8254 CH-1 Timer Test to be Completed 17 - 8254 CH-0 Timer Test to be Completed 18 - About to Start Memory Refresh 19 - Memory Refresh Test to be Done Next 1A - Going to Check 15 Micro Second On/Off Time 1B - Base 64K Memory Test About to Start 20 - Address Line Test to be Done Next 21 - Going to do toggle Parity 22 - Going for Sequential Data R/W Test 23 - Any Setup Before Interrupt Vector Init About to Start 24 - Interrupt Vector Initialization About to begin 25 - Going to Read I/O Port of 8042 for Turbo Switch (if any) 26 - Going to Initialize Global Data for Turbo Switch 27 - Any Initialization After Interrupt Vector to be Done Next 28 - Going for Monochrome Mode Setting 29 - Going for Color Mode Setting 2A - About to go for toggle Parity Before Optional ROM Check 2B - About to do any Setup Required Before Optional Video ROM Check 2C - About to Look for Optional Video ROM and Give Control 2D - About to do any Processing after Video ROM Returns Control 2E - If EGA/VGA Not Found, Then do Display Memory R/W Test 2F - Display Memory R/W Test About to begin 30 - About to Look for the Retrace Checking 31 - About to do Alternate Display Memory R/W Test 32 - About to Look for the Alternate Display Retrace Checking 33 - Verification of Display Type with Switch Setting and Actual Card to begin 34 - Display Mode to be Set Next 35 - BIOS ROM Data Area About to be Checked 36 - Going to Set Cursor for Power On Message 37 - Going to Display the Power On Message 38 - Going to Read New Cursor Position 39 - Going to Display the Reference String 3A - Going to Display the Hit <ESC> Message 3B - Virtual Mode Memory Test About to Start 40 - Going to Verify from Video Memory 41 - Going to Prepare the Descriptor Tables 42 - Going to Enter in Virtual Mode for Memory Test 43 - Going to Enable Interrupts for Diagnostics Mode 44 - Going to Initialize Data to Check Memory Remap at 0:0 45 - Check for Memory Remap at 0:0 and Find the total System Memory Size 46 - About to go For Writing Patterns to Test Memory 47 - Going to Write Patterns in Base 640K Memory 48 - Going to Find Out Amount of Memory Below 1M Memory 49 - Going to Find Out Amount of Memory Above 1M Memory 4A - Going for BIOS ROM Data Area Check 4B - Going to Check <ESC> and to Clear Memory Below 1M for Soft Reset 4C - Going to Clear Memory Above 1M 4D - Going to Save the Memory Size 4E - About to Display the First 64K Memory Test 4F - Going for Sequential and Random Memory Test 50 - Going to Adjust Memory Size for Relocation/Shadow 51 - Memory Test Above 1M to Follow 52 - Going to Prepare to go Back to Real Mode 53 - Going to Enter in Real Mode 54 - Going to Restore Registers Saved During Preparation for Shutdown 55 - Going to Disable Gate A20 Address Line 56 - BIOS ROM Data Area About to be Checked 57 - BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed 58 - Going to Clear Hit <ESC> Message 59 - About to Start DMA and Interrupt Controller Test 60 - About to Verify from Display Memory 61 - About to go For DMA #1 Base Register Test 62 - About to go For DMA #2 Base Register Test 63 - About to go For BIOS ROM Data Area Check 64 - BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed 65 - About to Program DMA Unit 1 and 2 66 - 8259 Interrpt Controller Initialization 67 - About to Start Keyboard Test 80 - About to Issue Keyboard Reset Command 81 - About to Issue Keyboard Controller Interface Test Command 82 - About to Write Command Byte and Init Circular Buffer 83 - About to Check for Lock Key 84 - About to Check for Memory Size Mismatch with CMOS 85 - About to Display Soft Error and Check for Password or Bypass Setup 86 - About to do Programming Before Setup 87 - Going to CMOS Setup Program 88 - About to do Programming After Setup 89 - Going to Display Power On Screen Message 8A - About to Display <WAIT...> Message, Mouse Check and Initialization Next 8B - About to do Main and Video BIOS Shadow 8C - Setup Options Programming After CMOS Setup About to Start 8D - Going for Hard Disk, Floppy Reset 8E - About to go For Floppy Check 8F - Floppy Setup to Follow 90 - Test for Hard Disk Presence to be Done 91 - Hard Disk Setup to Follow 92 - About to go for BIOS ROM Data Area Check 93 - BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed 94 - Going to Set Base and Extended Memory Size 95 - Going to Verify From Display Memory 96 - Going to do Any Init Before C800 Optional ROM Control 97 - Optional ROM Check and Control Will Be Done Next 98 - Give Control to Required Processing After Optional ROM Returns Control 99 - Going to Setup Timer Data Area and Printer Base Address 9A - Going to Set the RS-232 Base Address 9B - Going to do Any Initialization Before Co-Processor Test 9C - Going to Initialize the Coprocessor Next 9D - Going to do Any Initialization After Co-Processor Test 9E - Going to Check Extd Keyboard, Keyboard ID and Num-Lock 9F - Keyboard ID Command to be Issued A0 - Keyboard ID Flag to be Reset A1 - Cache Memory Test to Follow A2 - Going to Display Any Soft Errors A3 - Going to Set the Keyboard Typematic Rate A4 - Going to Program Memory Wait States A5 - Screen to be Cleared Next A6 - Going to Enable Parity and NMI A7 - Do Initialization Required Before Giving Control to Optional ROM at E000 A8 - E000 ROM to Get Control Next A9 - Going to do Any Initialization Required After E000 Optional ROM Control AA - Going to Display the System Configuration Post Codes for EuroBIOS v4.71 03 DMA Page registers OK 04 DMA Page registers failed 05 Keyboard did reply 06 Keyboard did not reply 07 Keyboard self-test passed 08 Keyboard self-test failed 09 8042 was able to read links 0A 8042 was unable to read links 0B RATMON/DIAG link OK 0C Keyboard accepted 60h command 0D Keyboard did not accept 60h 0E Keyboard parameter accepted 0F Keyboard parameter not accepted 10 Able to read keyboard command byte 11 Unable to read keyboard command byte 12 Keyboard command byte came back OK 13 Keyboard command byte came back corrupt 14 RAM refresh clock ticking correctly 15 RAM refresh clock not ticking correctly 16 RAM bit test passed 17 RAM bit test failed 18 RAM parity OK 19 RAM parity error 1A CMOS RAM passed 1B CMOS RAM failed 1C CMOS RAM battery OK 1D CMOS RAM battery faulty 1E CMOS RAM checksum passed 1F CMOS RAM checksum failed 20 CMOS RAM battery fault bit set 21 DMA controllers passed 22 DMA controller 1 failed 23 DMA controller 2 failed 24 Protected mode entered safely 25 RAM test completed 26 ROM checksum correct 27 ROM checksum incorrect 28 Protected mode exit successful 29 Keyboard power-up reply received 2A Keyboard power-up reply not received 2B Keyboard disable command accepted 2C Keyboard disable command not accepted 2D No video display 2E Reported errors 2F About to halt 30 Protected mode entered safely 31 RAM test complete 32 PIC 1 (master) passed 33 PIC 1 (master) failed 34 PIC 2 (slave) passed 35 PIC 2 (slave) failed 36 Chipset initialised OK 37 Chipset initilize failed 38 Shadowed BIOS OK 39 Shadowed BIOS failed 3A Shadowed video BIOS OK 3B Shadowed video BIOS failed Q) 7.3 *I think my cache is bad. What's a good diagnostic? S) 8.0 Misc Q) 8.1 What is the pin out for ...? [From: ralf@alum.wpi.edu (Ralph Valentino)] This is a list of the pinouts to the more common PC hardware interfaces. It is by no means complete. While I have taken care not to make any mistakes, I urge you to take caution when using these tables. Also, please keep in mind that these are only tables, they are not a guide to hardware hacking and do not attempt to explain drive capabilities, signal timings, handling care, or other interface issues. As always, make sure you know what you're doing before you start hooking wires to your PC. This section contains pinouts for: ---I/O ports--- Game Port DB15-Female Serial Port DB9-Male DB25-Male Serial Port loopback Null Modem Parallel Port DB25-Female Parallel Port Centronics-36 Parallel Port loopback DB25-Male Bidirectional ("Laplink") Parallel Cable DB-25 male to DB-25 male 10Base-T RJ-45 Male 10Base-T Crossover MIDI 5pin DIN ---Controller/Host Adapter--- Floppy Disk Controller IDC-34 Male IDE Hard Disk Interface IDC-40 Male ESDI Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male RLL/MFM Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) IDC-50 Male SCSI Connector Pinouts (Differential) IDC-50 Male Macintosh SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) DB-25S Female ---Video--- VGA DB15-S Female DB9 Female CGA DB9 Female EGA DB9 Female VESA Standard Feature Connector ---Bus interfaces--- ISA Bus Connector EISA Bus Connector VESA Local Bus (VLB) Connector PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit ---Misc--- Power Connector Male Speaker Connector Turbo Indicator Connector AT LED Power and Key Lock AT Backup Battery Motherboard Power Connectors (8 pin, 9 pin) AT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN XT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN PS2 Keyboard/Mouse Connector 6pin-MDIN PS2 to AT Keyboard adapter 30 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM 256kx8 256kx9 1Mx8 1Mx9 4Mx8 4Mx9 72 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM 256k/512k/1M/2M/4M/8M x 32/36 bit 5pin DIN Male DB15-S Male 6pin MDIN Male --+-- ---------------------- --- / ^ \ \ 1 2 3 4 5 / ] 2 1 [ | 1 3 | \ 6 7 8 9 10 / | 4 3 | \ 425 / \ 11 12 13 14 15 / \6 5/ ----- ---------------- -^- DB9 (DE-9) Male DB15 (DA-15) Male ------------- -------------------------- \ 1 2 3 4 5 / \ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 / \ 6 7 8 9 / \ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 / --------- ---------------------- DB25 Male IDC-50 Male ------------------------------ ------------------- \ 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 ... 13 / | 1 3 5 7 ... 49 | \ 14 15 16 17 18 .......25 / | 2 4 6 8 ... 50 | -------------------------- ------------------- (Power Connector) Male RJ-45 (8 conductor phone) Male __________ / \ ------------------ | 4 3 2 1 | | 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | ------------ -------____------- 30 pin SIMM 72 pin SIMM ------------------------------- --------------------------------------- | | | | ) | ) _ | --|||||||||||||||||||||||||--- --|||||||||||||||/ \|||||||||||||||--- 1 30 1 36 37 72 EISA/ISA/VLB ----------------------------------------------- | (component side) | | | | VLB __ ISA-16bit __ ISA-8bit __| ||||||||| ||||||||||| ||||||||||||||||||| A1(front)/B1(back) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | <-EISA C1/D1 E1(front)/F1(back) G1/H1 PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit. PCI Universal Card 32/64 bit ---------------------------------------------------------------- | PCI Component Side (side B) | | | | | | optional | | ____ mandatory 32-bit pins 64-bit pins _____| |___| |||||||--|||||||||||||||||--|||||||--|||||||||||||| ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ b01 b11 b14 b49 b52 b62 b63 b94 PCI 5V Card 32/64 bit | optional | | ____ mandatory 32-bit pins 64-bit pins _____| |___| ||||||||||||||||||||||||||--|||||||--|||||||||||||| PCI 3.3V Card 32/64 bit | optional | | ____ mandatory 32-bit pins 64-bit pins _____| |___| |||||||--||||||||||||||||||||||||||--|||||||||||||| Power Connector Male Speaker Connector Turbo Indicator Connector pin assignment pin assignment pin assignment 1 +12V 1 -Speaker 1 +5V 2 +12V return 2 [key] 2 -High Speed 3 +5V return 3 GND 3 +5V 4 +5V 4 +Speaker +5V AT LED Power and Key Lock AT Backup Battery pin assignment pin assignment 1 LED power 1 Batt+ 2 GND 2 [key] 3 GND 3 GND 4 Key Switch 4 GND 5 GND Motherboard Power Connectors pin P8 assignment pin P9 assignment 1 Power Good 1 GND 2 +5v (or N.C.) 2 GND 3 +12v 3 -5v 4 -12v 4 +5v 5 GND 5 +5v 6 GND 6 +5v MIDI 5pin DIN MIDI In MIDI Out pin assignment pin assignment 1 N/C 1 N/C 2 N/C 2 GND 3 N/C 3 N/C 4 Current Src 4 Current Sink 5 Current Sink 5 Current Src Floppy Disk Controller IDC-34 Male pin assignment pin assignment 1 GND 2 Density Select 3 GND 4 (reserved) 5 GND 6 (reserved) 7 GND 8 Index 9 GND 10 Motor Enable A 11 GND 12 Drive Sel B 13 GND 14 Drive Sel A 15 GND 16 Motor Enable B 17 GND 18 Direction 19 GND 20 Step 21 GND 22 Write Data 23 GND 24 Floppy Write Enable 25 GND 26 Track 0 27 GND 28 Write Protect 29 GND 30 Read Data 31 GND 32 Head Select 33 GND 34 Disk Change Game Port DB15-Female pin assignment pin assignment 1 +5V DC 2 Button 4 (A_PB1) 3 Position 0(A_X) 4 GND 5 GND 6 Position 1 (A_Y) 7 Button 5(A_PB2) 8 +5V DC 9 +5V DC 10 Button 6 (B_PB1) 11 Position 2(B_X) 12 GND 13 Position 3(B_Y) 14 Button 7 (B_PB2) 15 +5V DC Serial Port DB9-Male DB25-Male 9-pin 25-pin assignment 1 8 DCD (Data Carrier Detect) 2 3 RX (Receive Data) 3 2 TX (Transmit Data) 4 20 DTR (Data Terminal Ready) 5 7 GND (Signal Ground) 6 6 DSR (Data Set Ready) 7 4 RTS (Request To Send) 8 5 CTS (Clear To Send) 9 22 RI (Ring Indicator) Parallel Port DB25-Female pin assignment pin assignment 1 -Strobe 2 Data 0 3 Data 1 4 Data 2 5 Data 3 6 Data 4 7 Data 5 8 Data 6 9 Data 7 10 -Ack 11 Busy 12 Paper Empty 13 Select 14 -Auto Feed 15 -Error 16 -Init 17 -Slct in 18 GND 19 GND 20 GND 21 GND 22 GND 23 GND 24 GND 25 GND Parallel Port Centronics-36 1 -Strobe 2 Data 0 3 Data 1 4 Data 2 5 Data 3 6 Data 4 7 Data 5 8 Data 6 9 Data 7 10 -Ack 11 Busy 12 Paper Empty 13 Select 14 -Auto Feed 15 {OSCXT} 16 Signal GND 17 Frame GND 18 +5v 19 GND 20 GND 21 GND 22 GND 23 GND 24 GND 25 GND 26 GND 27 GND 28 GND 29 GND 30 GND 31 -Prime 32 -Error 33 Signal GND 34 N/C 35 N/C 36 N/C 10Base-T RJ-45 Male pin assignment twisted pair color 1 TxData+ 2 White/Orange 2 TxData- 2 Orange 3 RxData+ 3 White/Green 4 - 1 Blue 5 - 1 White/Blue 6 RxData- 3 Green 7 - 4 White/Brown 8 - 4 Brown 10Base-T Crossover Connector 1 to Connector 2 TxData+ RxData+ TxData- RxData- RxData+ TxData+ RxData- TxData- AT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN XT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN pin assignment pin assignment 1 CLK/CTS (open-collector) 1 CLK/CTS (open-collector) 2 RxD/TxD/RTS (open-collector) 2 Keyboard Data 3 N/C 3 Reset 4 GND 4 GND 5 +5V 5 +5V PS2 Keyboard/Mouse Connector 6pin-MDIN PS2 6pin-MDIN to AT 5pin-DIN Keyboard pin assignment pin-PS2(F) pin-AT(M) 1 Data 1 2 2 N/C 2 N/C 3 GND 3 4 4 Vcc 4 5 5 CLK 5 1 6 N/C 6 N/C IDE Hard Disk Interface IDC-40 Male pin assignment pin assignment 1 -Reset 2 GND 3 Data 7 4 Data 8 5 Data 6 6 Data 9 7 Data 5 8 Data 10 9 Data 4 10 Data 11 11 Data 3 12 Data 12 13 Data 2 14 Data 13 15 Data 1 16 Data 14 17 Data 0 18 Data 15 19 GND 20 Key 21 (reserved) 22 GND 23 -IOW 24 GND 25 -IOR 26 GND 27 IO Chrdy 28 Ale 29 (reserved) 30 GND 31 IRQ14 32 -IOCS16 33 Addr 1 34 (reserved) 35 Addr 0 36 Addr 2 37 -CS0 (1F0-1F7) 38 -CS1 (3f6-3f7) 39 -Active 40 GND ESDI Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male ESDI IDC-34 pin assignment pin assignment 1 GND 2 Head Sel 3 3 GND 4 Head Sel 2 5 GND 6 Write Gate 7 GND 8 Config/Stat Data 9 GND 10 Transfer Ack 11 GND 12 Attn 13 GND 14 Head Sel 0 15 GND 16 Sect/Add MK Found 17 GND 18 Head Sel 1 19 GND 20 Index 21 GND 22 Ready 23 GND 24 Trans Req 25 GND 26 Drive Sel 1 27 GND 28 Drive Sel 2 29 GND 30 Drive Sel 3 31 GND 32 Read Gate 33 GND 34 Command Data ESDI IDC-20 pin assignment pin assignment 1 Drive Selected 2 Sect/Add MK Found 3 Seek Complete 4 Addr Mark Enable 5 (reserved) 6 GND 7 Write Clk+ 8 Write Clk- 9 Cartridge Chng 10 Read Ref Clk+ 11 Read Ref Clk- 12 GND 13 NRZ Write Data+ 14 NRZ Write Data- 15 GND 16 GND 17 NRZ Read Data+ 18 NRZ Read Data- 19 GND 20 GND RLL/MFM Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male RLL/MFM IDC-34 pin assignment pin assignment 1 GND 2 Head Sel 8 3 GND 4 Head Sel 4 5 GND 6 Write Gate 7 GND 8 Seek Complete 9 GND 10 Track 0 11 GND 12 Write Fault 13 GND 14 Head Sel 1 15 GND 16 (reserved) 17 GND 18 Head Sel 2 19 GND 20 Index 21 GND 22 Ready 23 GND 24 Step 25 GND 26 Drive Sel 1 27 GND 28 Drive Sel 2 29 GND 30 Drive Sel 3 31 GND 32 Drive Sel 4 33 GND 34 Direction In RLL/MFM IDC-20 pin assignment pin assignment 1 Drive Selected 2 GND 3 (reserved) 4 GND 5 (reserved) 6 GND 7 (reserved) 8 GND 9 (reserved) 10 (reserved) 11 GND 12 GND 13 Write Data+ 14 Write Data- 15 GND 16 GND 17 Read Data+ 18 NRZ Read Data- 19 GND 20 GND VGA DB15-S Female DB9 Female 15-pin 9-pin assignment 1 1 Red 2 2 Green 3 3 Blue 4 - Monitor ID bit 2 5 - N/C 6 6 GND (red return) 7 7 GND (green return) 8 8 GND (blue return) 9 - N/C 10 - GND 11 - Monitor ID bit 0 12 - Minitor ID bit 1 13 4 Horizontal Sync 14 5 Vertical Sync 15 - N/C Monitor ID bit 0: reserved Monitor ID bit 1: GND = mono, OPEN = color Monochrome monitors use the green signal CGA DB9 Female pin assignment 1 GND 2 GND 3 Red 4 Green 5 Blue 6 Intensity 7 (reserved) 8 Horizontal Sync 9 Vertical Sync EGA DB9 Female pin assignment 1 GND 2 Secondary Red 3 Primary Red 4 Primary Green 5 Primary Blue 6 Secondary Green / Intensity 7 Secondary Blue / Mono Video 8 Horizontal Drive 9 Vertical Drive ISA Bus Connector EISA Bus Connector ----------------- ------------------ Back Side Component Side Back Side Component Side pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment B1 GND |A1 CHCHK# |F1 GND |E1 CMD# B2 Reset DRV |A2 SD7 |F2 +5V |E2 START# B3 +5V |A3 SD6 |F3 +5V |E3 EXRDY B4 IRQ9 |A4 SD5 |F4 --- |E4 EX32# B5 -5V |A5 SD4 |F5 --- |E5 GND B6 DRQ2 |A6 SD3 |F6 ACCESS KEY |E6 ACCESS KEY B7 -12V |A7 SD2 |F7 --- |E7 EX16# B8 NOWS# |A8 SD1 |F8 --- |E8 SLBURST# B9 +12V |A9 SD0 |F9 +12V |E9 MSBURST# B10 GND |A10 CHRDY |F10 M/IO# |E10 W/R# B11 SMWTC# |A11 AEN |F11 LOCK# |E11 GND B12 SMRDC# |A12 SA19 |F12 (reserved) |E12 (reserved) B13 IOWC# |A13 SA18 |F13 GND |E13 (reserved) B14 IORC# |A14 SA17 |F14 (reserved) |E14 (reserved) B15 DACK3# |A15 SA16 |F15 BE3# |E15 GND B16 DRQ3 |A16 SA15 |F16 ACCESS KEY |E16 ACCESS KEY B17 DACK1# |A17 SA14 |F17 BE2# |E17 BE1# B18 DRQ1 |A18 SA13 |F18 BE0# |E18 LA31# B19 REFRESH# |A19 SA12 |F19 GND |E19 GND B20 BCLK |A20 SA11 |F20 +5V |E20 LA30# B21 IRQ7 |A21 SA10 |F21 LA29# |E21 LA28# B22 IRQ6 |A22 SA9 |F22 GND |E22 LA27# B23 IRQ5 |A23 SA8 |F23 LA26# |E23 LA25# B24 IRQ4 |A24 SA7 |F24 LA24# |E24 GND B25 IRQ3 |A25 SA6 |F25 ACCESS KEY |E25 ACCESS KEY B26 DACK2# |A26 SA5 |F26 LA16 |E26 LA15 B27 T/C |A27 SA4 |F27 LA14 |E27 LA13 B28 BALE |A28 SA3 |F28 +5V |E28 LA12 B29 +5V |A29 SA2 |F29 +5V |E29 LA11 B30 OSC |A30 SA1 |F30 GND |E30 GND B31 GND |A31 SA0 |F31 LA10 |E31 LA9 |H1 LA8 |G1 LA7 D1 M16# |C1 SBHE# |H2 LA6 |G2 GND D2 IO16# |C2 LA23 |H3 LA5 |G3 LA4 D3 IRQ10 |C3 LA22 |H4 +5V |G4 LA3 D4 IRQ11 |C4 LA21 |H5 LA2 |G5 GND D5 IRQ12 |C5 LA20 |H6 ACCESS KEY |G6 ACCESS KEY D6 IRQ15 |C6 LA19 |H7 D16 |G7 D17 D7 IRQ14 |C7 LA18 |H8 D18 |G8 D19 D8 DACK0# |C8 LA17 |H9 GND |G9 D20 D9 DRQ0 |C9 MRDC# |H10 D21 |G10 D22 D10 DACK5# |C10 MWTC# |H11 D23 |G11 GND D11 DRQ5 |C11 SD8 |H12 D24 |G12 D25 D12 DACK6# |C12 SD9 |H13 GND |G13 D26 D13 DRQ6 |C13 SD10 |H14 D27 |G14 D28 D14 DACK7# |C14 SD11 |H15 ACCESS KEY |G15 ACCESS KEY D15 DRQ7 |C15 SD12 |H16 D29 |G16 GND D16 +5V |C16 SD13 |H17 +5V |G17 D30 D17 MASTER16# |C17 SD14 |H18 +5V |G18 D31 D18 GND |C18 SD15 |H19 MAKx |G19 MREQx VESA Local Bus (VLB) Connector ------------------------------ Back Side Component Side Back Side Component Side pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment B1 Dat00 |A1 Dat01 |B30 Adr17 |A30 Adr16 B2 Dat02 |A2 Dat03 |B31 Adr15 |A31 Adr14 B3 Dat04 |A3 GND |B32 Vcc |A32 Adr12 B4 Dat06 |A4 Dat05 |B33 Adr13 |A33 Adr10 B5 Dat08 |A5 Dat07 |B34 Adr11 |A34 Adr08 B6 GND |A6 Dat09 |B35 Adr09 |A35 GND B7 Dat10 |A7 Dat11 |B36 Adr07 |A36 Adr06 B8 Dat12 |A8 Dat13 |B37 Adr05 |A37 Adr04 B9 Vcc |A9 Dat15 |B38 GND |A38 WBACK# B10 Dat14 |A10 GND |B39 Adr03 |A39 BEO# B11 Dat16 |A11 Dat17 |B40 Adr02 |A40 Vcc B12 Dat18 |A12 Vcc |B41 n/c |A41 BE1# B13 Dat20 |A13 Dat19 |B42 RESET# |A42 BE2# B14 GND |A14 Dat21 |B43 DC# |A43 GND B15 Dat22 |A15 Dat23 |B44 M/ID# |A44 BE3# B16 Dat24 |A16 Dat25 |B45 W/R# |A45 ADS# B17 Dat26 |A17 GND | | B18 Dat28 |A18 Dat27 | | B19 Dat30 |A19 Dat29 |B48 RDYRTN# |A48 LRDY# B20 Vcc |A20 Dat31 |B49 GND |A49 LDEV<x># B21 Adr31 |A21 Adr30 |B50 IRQ9 |A50 LREQ<x># B22 GND |A22 Adr28 |B51 BRDY# |A51 GND B23 Adr29 |A23 Adr26 |B52 BLAST# |A52 LGNT<x># B24 Adr27 |A24 GND |B53 ID0 |A53 Vcc B25 Adr25 |A25 Adr24 |B54 ID1 |A54 ID2 B26 Adr23 |A26 Adr22 |B55 GND |A55 ID3 B27 Adr21 |A27 Vcc |B56 LCLK |A56 ID4 B28 Adr19 |A28 Adr20 |B57 Vcc |A57 LKEN# B29 GND |A29 Adr18 |B58 LBS16# |A58 LEAD5# VESA Standard Feature Connector pin assignment pin assignment 1 PB 2 PG 3 PR 4 PI 5 SB 6 SG 7 SR 8 SI 9 Dot Clock 10 Blank 11 HSync 12 VSync 13 GND 14 GND 15 GND 16 GND 17 Ext Video Sel 18 Ext Sync Sel 19 Ext DotClock Sel20 N/C 21 GND 22 GND 23 GND 24 GND 25 N/C 26 N/C Null Modem: Connector 1 to Connector 2 DTR DSR/DCD DSR/DCD DTR RTS CTS CTS RTS TXD RXD RXD TXD GND GND Serial Port loopback: Connected Pins RX & TX RTS & CTS DCD & DTR & DSR & RI Bidirectional (Laplink/Interlnk) Parallel Cable DB-25 male to DB-25 male Connector 1 to Connector 2 2 15 3 13 4 12 5 10 6 11 10 5 11 6 12 4 13 3 15 2 16 16 17 17 25 25 Parallel Port loopback DB25 Male Connected Pins 2 & 15 3 & 13 4 & 12 5 & 10 6 & 11 30 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM 256kx8 256kx9 1Mx8 1Mx9 4Mx8 4Mx9 pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment 1 Vcc |9 Gnd |17 A8 |25 DQ7 2 -CAS |10 DQ2 |18 A9 |26 QP 3 DQ0 |11 A4 |19 A10 |27 -RAS 4 A0 |12 A5 |20 DQ5 |28 -CASP 5 A1 |13 DQ3 |21 -WE |29 DP 6 DQ1 |14 A6 |22 Gnd |30 Vcc 7 A2 |15 A7 |23 DQ6 8 A3 |16 DQ4 |24 N/C Notes: QP, CASP and DP are N/C on all x8 bit modules a9 is a N/C on 256k modules a10 is a N/C on 256k and 1M modules 72 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM 256k/512k/1M/2M/4M/8M x 32/36 bit pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment 1 Gnd |19 A10 |37 MP1 |55 DQ11 2 DQ0 |20 DQ4 |38 MP3 |56 DQ27 3 DQ16 |21 DQ20 |39 Gnd |57 DQ12 4 DQ1 |22 DQ5 |40 -CAS0 |58 DQ28 5 DQ17 |23 DQ21 |41 -CAS2 |59 Vcc 6 DQ2 |24 DQ6 |42 -CAS3 |60 DQ29 7 DQ18 |25 DQ22 |43 -CAS1 |61 DQ13 8 DQ3 |26 DQ7 |44 -RAS0 |62 DQ30 9 DQ19 |27 DQ23 |45 -RAS1 |63 DQ14 10 Vcc |28 A7 |46 N/C |64 DQ31 11 N/C |29 N/C |47 -WE |65 DQ15 12 A0 |30 Vcc |48 N/C |66 N/C 13 A1 |31 A8 |49 DQ8 |67 PD1 14 A2 |32 A9 |50 DQ24 |68 PD2 15 A3 |33 -RAS3 |51 DQ9 |69 PD3 16 A4 |34 -RAS2 |52 DQ25 |70 PD4 17 A5 |35 MP2 |53 DQ10 |71 N/C 18 A6 |36 MP0 |54 DQ26 |72 Gnd Notes: MP0,MP1,MP2,MP3 are N/C on all x32 bit modules a9 is a N/C on 256k and 512k modules a10 is a N/C on 256k, 512k, 1M and 4M modules RAS1/RAS3 are N/C on 256k, 1M and 4M modules SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) IDC-50 Male pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment 01 GND |02 -DB0 |27 GND |28 GND 03 GND |04 -DB1 |29 GND |30 GND 05 GND |06 -DB2 |31 GND |32 -ATN 07 GND |08 -DB3 |33 GND |34 GND 09 GND |10 -DB4 |35 GND |36 -BSY 11 GND |12 -DB5 |37 GND |38 -ACK 13 GND |14 -DB6 |39 GND |40 -RST 15 GND |16 -DB7 |41 GND |42 -MSG 17 GND |18 -DBP |43 GND |44 -SEL 19 GND |20 GND |45 GND |46 -C/D 21 GND |22 GND |47 GND |48 -REQ 23 GND |24 GND |49 GND |50 -I/O 25 (open) |26 TERMPWR SCSI Connector Pinouts (Differential) IDC-50 Male pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment 01 (open) |02 GND |27 GND |28 GND 03 +DB0 |04 -DB0 |29 +ATN |30 -ATN 05 +DB1 |06 -DB1 |31 GND |32 GND 07 +DB2 |08 -DB2 |33 +BSY |34 -BSY 09 +DB3 |10 -DB3 |35 +ACK |36 -ACK 11 +DB4 |12 -DB4 |37 +RST |38 -RST 13 +DB5 |14 -DB5 |39 +MSG |40 -MSG 15 +DB6 |16 -DB6 |41 +SEL |42 -SEL 17 +DB7 |18 -DB7 |43 +C/D |44 -C/D 19 +DBP |20 -DBP |45 +REQ |46 -REQ 21 DIFFSENS |22 GND |47 +I/O |48 -I/O 23 GND |24 GND |49 GND |50 GND 25 TERMPWR |26 TERMPWR Macintosh SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) DB-25S Female pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment|pin assignment 01 -REQ |08 -DB0 |14 GND |20 -DBP 02 -MSG |09 GND |15 -C/D |21 -DB1 03 -I/O |10 -DB3 |16 GND |22 -DB2 04 -RST |11 -DB5 |17 -ATN |23 -DB4 05 -ACK |12 -DB6 |18 GND |24 GND 06 -BSY |13 -DB7 |19 -SEL |25 NC (TERMPWR) 07 GND PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment B1 -12V |A1 TRST# |B48 AD[10] |A48 Ground B2 TCK |A2 +12V |B49 Ground |A49 AD[09] B3 Ground |A3 TMS |B50 (KEYWAY2) |A50 (KEYWAY2) B4 TDO |A4 TDI |B51 (KEYWAY2) |A51 (KEYWAY2) B5 +5V |A5 +5V |B52 AD[08] |A52 C/BE[0]# B6 +5V |A6 INTA# |B53 AD[07] |A53 +3.3V B7 INTB# |A7 INTC# |B54 +3.3V |A54 AD[06] B8 INTD# |A8 +5V |B55 AD[05] |A55 AD[04] B9 PRSNT1# |A9 reserved |B56 AD[03] |A56 Ground B10 reserved |A10 +Vi/o |B57 Ground |A57 AD[02] B11 PRSNT2# |A11 reserved |B58 AD[01] |A58 AD[00] B12 (KEYWAY1) |A12 (KEYWAY1) |B59 Vi/o |A59 +Vi/o B13 (KEYWAY1) |A13 (KEYWAY1) |B60 ACK64# |A60 REQ64# B14 reserved |A14 reserved |B61 +5V |A61 +5V B15 Ground |A15 RST# |B62 +5V |A62 +5V B16 CLK |A16 Vi/o |B63 reserved |A63 Ground B17 Ground |A17 VNT# |B64 Ground |A64 C/BE[7]# B18 REQ# |A18 Ground |B65 C/BE[6]# |A65 C/BE[5]# B19 +Vi/o |A19 reserved |B66 C/BE[4]# |A66 +Vi/o B20 AD[31] |A20 AD[30] |B67 Ground |A67 PAR64 B21 AD[29] |A21 +3.3V |B68 AD[63] |A68 AD[62] B22 Ground |A22 AD[28] |B69 AD[61] |A69 Ground B23 AD[27] |A23 AD[26] |B70 +Vi/o |A70 AD[60] B24 AD[25] |A24 Ground |B71 AD[59] |A71 AD[58] B25 +3.3V |A25 AD[24] |B72 AD[57] |A72 Ground B26 C/BE[3]# |A26 IDSEL |B73 Ground |A73 AD[56] B27 AD[23] |A27 +3.3V |B74 AD[55] |A74 AD[54] B28 Ground |A28 AD[22] |B75 AD[53] |A75 +Vi/o B29 AD[21] |A29 AD[20] |B76 Ground |A76 AD[52] B30 AD[19] |A30 Ground |B77 AD[51] |A77 AD[50] B31 +3.3V |A31 AD[18] |B78 AD[49] |A78 Ground B32 AD[17] |A32 AD[16] |B79 +Vi/o |A79 AD[48] B33 C/BE[2]# |A33 +3.3V |B80 AD[47] |A80 AD[46] B34 Ground |A34 FRAME# |B81 AD{45] |A81 Ground B35 IRDY# |A35 Ground |B82 Ground |A82 AD[44] B36 +3.3V |A36 TRDY# |B83 AD[43] |A83 AD[42] B37 DEVSEL# |A37 Ground |B84 AD[41] |A84 +Vi/o B38 Ground |A38 STOP# |B85 Ground |A85 AD[40] B39 LOCK# |A39 +3.3V |B86 AD[39] |A86 AD[38] B40 PERR# |A40 SDONE |B87 AD[37] |A87 Ground B41 +3.3V |A41 SBO# |B88 +Vi/o |A88 AD[36] B42 SERR# |A42 Ground |B89 AD[35] |A89 AD[34] B43 +3.3V |A43 PAR |B90 AD[33] |A90 Ground B44 C/BE[1]# |A44 AD[15] |B91 Ground |A91 AD[32] B45 AD[14] |A45 +3.3V |B92 reserved |A92 reserved B46 Ground |A46 AD[13] |B93 reserved |A93 Ground B47 AD[12] |A47 AD11] |B94 Ground |A94 reserved Notes: Pins 63-94 exist on 64 bit PCI implementation only KEYWAY1 exists on Universal and 3.3V boards, they are Ground on 5V boards KEYWAY2 exists on Universal and 5V boards, they are Ground on 3.3V boards +Vi/o is 3.3V on 3.3V boards, 5V on 5V boards, and define signal rails on the Universal board. Q) 8.2 *Where are benchmark programs located. What do they mean? Q) 8.3 What is Plug and Play? [From: leefi@microsoft.com (Lee Fisher)] Plug and Play is the name of a technology that lets PC hardware and attached devices work together automatically, reducing end-user complexity. Plug and Play technology is implemented in hardware, in operating systems, and in supporting software such as drivers and in the systemboard's BIOS. Microsoft will support Plug and Play starting with Windows "Chicago" and Windows NT "Cairo". Today there is a solution for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.x using software from Intel which works with the Plug and Play hardware. There are a variety of Plug and Play technologies, today including BIOS, ISA cards, SCSI, IDE CD-ROM, PCMCIA, drivers. Many specifications are available via anonymous ftp at ftp.microsoft.com:/drg/Plug-and-Play. Email the PlayList@Microsoft.COM alias to get on a list for announcements regarding new specifications, informations on workshops, etc. The Compuserve Plug and Play forum (GO PLUGPLAY) is available for technical support issues regarding hardware and driver design issues. For more related information, on ftp.microsoft.com, see /drg/Plug-and-Play/readme and /drg/Developer-Info/devinfo.zip. Microsoft is starting a "Plug and Play Hardware Catalog" to showcase Plug and Play hardware, entries are being accepted for the initial issue. Send hardware and company information to: Plug and Play Catalog c/o Microsoft Corporation Hardware Vendor Relations Group, building 6 One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98053-6399 USA Q) 8.4 What is an OEM product? [From: scott@bme.ri.ccf.org (Michael Scott)] OEM versions of may computer products including keyboards, CDROM drives, video and sound cards, modems, monitors, popular software packages and more are available, either as parts of a computer system purchase, or as individual items. If you are considering a purchase of any OEM hardware or software, it's important that you understand what you are buying. OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer. OEM's exist in most major industries; Chrysler sells cars made by Mitsubishi, and all of Sear's Kenmore products are made by OEM companies. The main difference in the computer industry is that OEM products are usually less expensive than the retail versions supplied by the manufacturer. However, there are different types of OEM products. Some manufacturers have two versions of their products; one retail version which ships in fancy packaging, and an OEM version which is sold in bulk (usually to system manufacturers). OEM products are not intended for individual sale, and so don't include a glossy box, and often don't include a manual or driver disks (if req'd). Sometimes, the OEM versions are functionally identical to the original retail version, but not always. Often, a large system manufacturer will specify particular features in an OEM product which are not the same as the retail version. For example, Matrox supplies OEM video cards to a large manufacturer (i.e. Compaq's QVision 2000+ video card). Because of the large numbers purchased, Compaq gets a good price, and also specifies things like: amount of video RAM, upgradability, RAMDAC speed, etc. Part of the deal is usually that Compaq will take over responsibility for the hardware warranty. Hypothetically, say that Matrox makes 10000 extra units in anticipation of Compaq's next order, with a few small BIOS tweaks for compatibility with Compaq's machines. Compaq decides they only need 8000 units this quarter, so Matrox sells the extra 2000 units as OEM. Once those units go out of the factory, they're no longer Matrox's responsiblity, and probably don't even have Matrox stamped on them anywhere. I'm just using Matrox and Compaq for illustrative purposes here, but component manufacturers commonly provide OEM versions of their products for systems manufacturers. i.e. ATI, Tseng and Cirrus Logic provide chipsets for integration onto motherboards. Sometimes, the difference between a retail version and the equivalent OEM is negligible, i.e. the packaging. However, more commonly the OEM version has been made with less expensive components, includes no software or hardware 'freebies' or extras, includes no hardware warranty, etc. So, be careful when buying OEM that you are getting what you _think_ you are getting. You may be saving $20-30 and get a slower RAMDAC or a unit that isn't upgradable. On the other hand, you may be one of the thousands of people who have good success with their OEM products and saved some money at the same time. Often, the OEM (original manufacturer) will not provide any tech support or warranty service for OEM units. Q) 8.5 What size should I set my DOS partitions to be? [From: Mike Long <mike.long@analog.com>] [Some corrections by: Osmo Ronkanen <ronkanen@cc.helsinki.fi>] This depends on what cluster size you want. A smaller cluster size is better, because a small file takes up a whole cluster if there is even one byte in it; the leftover space is called "slack." If you have N files on your drive, and your cluster size is S bytes, then you can expect to lose N*S/2 bytes to slack space on the average. The table below shows the maximum partition size to get clusters of a given size. You cannot format a hard drive under DOS with a cluster size less than 2K. +-------------------+-----------+-------+ | Cluster size | Partition | FAT | Notes | | size | type | +-------------------+-----------+-------+ | 4K (4096 bytes) | 16 MB | FAT12 | | 2K (2048 bytes) | 32 MB | FAT16 | (DOS versions < 4.0) | 2K (2048 bytes) | 128 MB | FAT16 | (DOS versions >= 4.0) | 4K (4096 bytes) | 256 MB | FAT16 | | 8K (8192 bytes) | 512 MB | FAT16 | | 16K (16384 bytes) | 1 GB | FAT16 | | 32K (32768 bytes) | 2 GB | FAT16 | | 64K (65536 bytes) | 4 GB | FAT16 | +-------------------+-----------+-------+ Another consideration is backup. If you backup to tape, you should have disk partitions smaller than the capacity of a single tape for ease in backup. [From: Osmo Ronkanen <ronkanen@cc.helsinki.fi>] The 32 MB limit actually didn't have anything to do with the cluster size or FAT it was because the number of sectors in the partition was stored in boot record as a 16 bit number. Q) 8.6 How do I get DOS to letter my devices the way I want? The first floppy drive will always be A:, the second floppy drive will always be B:. If there is no second floppy, B: will also point to A:. DOS will assign drive letters C: and up in the following order: Primary DOS partition on each BIOS supported drive (Master, Slave, EIDE ch2 Master, EIDE ch2 Slave) All logical drives in the Extended DOS partition on each BIOS supported drive (Master, Slave, EIDE ch2 Master, EIDE ch2 Slave) Device drivers in CONFIG.SYS, in order, unless over ridden Device drivers in AUTOEXEC.BAT, in order, unless over ridden This table can be used to add drives without reordering drive letters. For instance, if you have a Master drive with a Primary and Extended DOS partition and you add a second (Slave) drive with a Primary DOS partition, all of your extended partitions will be re-lettered. If, however, you only place an extended partition on the new drive, all partitions on the Master will be assigned letters first. Some device drivers, such as MSCDEX, have command line switches to specify an unused drive letter rather than the next open one. It is usually a good idea to set these to a higher drive letter right off rather than having to reinstall all of your software after adding another drive. Q) 8.7 Why won't my system boot from the hard drive? If you can boot from a floppy and see the files on your hard drive, then chances are there's something wrong with your MBR (Master Boot Record) / partition table. The first thing you should try is: "FDISK /MBR". This will fix the master boot record without effecting the contents of your disk. If this doesn't work, the next thing to try is verifying that you have your Primary DOS Partition set active. To do this, enter "FDISK" and chose "Set active partition" (usually the second option) then pick "Primary DOS Partition". Then exit and reboot. This too will not effect the contents of your disk. The next thing to try is replacing the files required for DOS to boot; they may have been corrupted or deleted. To do this, run "SYS C:". This may or may not be possible as DOS versions before 5.0 required these files be located at a certain place on your hard drive and that spot may no longer be available. Either way, this will not otherwise effect the contents of your disk. If neither of these things work, then the next thing to try is reformatting your hard drive (FORMAT C: /SYS). Note that this will erase all of the files on your hard drive, so back up anything you want to save first!!! If all three of these suggestions fail, then chances are you have a more serious problem. Q) 8.8 How do I clean my computer? Clean the outside with a damp (not wet) cloth with a mild dish washing detergent after unplugging the system. Let it dry completely before plugging your system in. Do not clean the inside - computer components are not susceptible to common house hold dust. Unless you have special equipment, you will more likely cause more harm than help to your computer if you try. Q) 8.9 *What OS's are available for the PC? Which are free? [this section being worked on] Q) 8.10 *How can I transfer files between my PC and a Unix system? [this section being worked on] Q) 8.11 What tape backup software is available? [From: herbst@techunix.technion.ac.il (Herbst OMR)] JUMBO TAPE ---------- Small. Not many features but does the job. Seems to work only with Colorado drives. Latest version is 4.03 and can be found by Archie jumbo403.zip. >From "Stan Faullin": Useful DOS program. Has very basic Backup (total, modified, selected), Restore, Compare, Erase and Format functions. Some versions come with a Windows scheduler, but it will NOT run in the background in a DOS window. The compression scheme used in some previous versions is NOT compatible with their latest release, so you may not be able to read backups made with version 3.x with version 4.x. Separate versions of this software are available for their internal model or the parallel port model. Windows: The Lite version supports both parallel port versions and internal versions. The only Windows backup program for a parallel port device, but only supports the Colorado Trakker unit. Can run in the background. Can be found by Archie, cbwlite.exe. >From "gregb@oclflt.den.mmc.com (gregb)": CMS Trakker 250 is supplied with a "generic" software package: it performs backup, restore, selective backup & restore, compression, compare. It works with DOS and Windows 3.1. For an additional $49.95 ($39?) you can purchase their fancier version. Central-Point backup -------------------- Large with many, many features and confusing directory selections. Works with most drives. Conner Basic 1.0 ---------------- >From "Moshe Braner braner@emba.uvm.edu": useless -- only backs up entire drive. Conner Basic 1.1 ---------------- >From: If you got the low-power backup software bundled in -- Conner Backup Basics -- and it is V1.0, you are entitled to a free upgrade from Conner. The new version has an only slightly better addendum to the manual, but the software now is about as flexible as most users would want -- partial backup and restore by directory or file, etc. It has worked well for us, and I recommend that you ask for your copy. >From: dmiller@im.lcs.mit.edu (Dick and Jill Miller) I emphasize that v1.1 of Conner Backup Basics fixes many of the prior problems, although its prompts, on-line help and printed documentation still deserve improvement. Conner Exec ----------- >From "Moshe Braner braner@emba.uvm.edu": Very large (2.5 megs for DOS version, windows version even larger). Did not work with my parallel-port Conner 250meg QIC-80 drive. QICstream==Conner "Simply Safe Software Backup Basics version 3.0P" ------------------------------------------------------------------- Small and works fine. Works with parallel port Conner drive. Symantec Norton Backup ---------------------- This is included with Norton Desktop for Windows, which is a much better deal than purchasing Norton Backup for Windows alone. Symantec Norton Backup for Windows ---------------------------------- GNU-Tar ------- Q) 8.12 Why doesn't my new device work as fast as it should? The performance of individual components in your system are highly dependent the rest of your system. For instance, the transfer rate of drives, usually measured in megabytes per second, can depend on the drive controller, bus type and OS. Video card speed, sometime measured in Winmarks, highly depends on the speed of your main CPU as well as the OS. When ever you see a statement on the speed of the device, be sure to check the small print to determine what type of system and under what conditions the speed was measured. Don't be fooled by benchmark numbers. Another important corollary of this is *never* post benchmarks - they offer little to no information for comparison with other systems. Benchmarks are only useful for comparison purposes when run in a controlled environment, and even then to a limited degree. Q) 8.13 My drive lists a MTBF of 300,000 hours. Will it really last 34 years? [From: swwalters@fl51mail.space.honeywell.com (Steve Walters)] Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is a statistical calculation indicating the mean time between randomly occurring hardware failures. Two parameters are necessary to fully describe how long a piece of hardware will last. The first parameter is MTBF which is a measure of frequency in which random hardware failures will occur. The second parameter is mean operating life which defines how long the hardware will last before an anticipated wearout phenomena will occur. These two parameters combined together give the true projection of the 'real' life of the drive. As an example of how these parameters interrelate, assume your drive has an MTBF of 300,000 hours and an operating life of 5 years. The drive will operate uninterrupted until failure (such as a file server, for example). This is telling you that your drive should be very reliable until wearout occurs since the MTBF greatly exceeds the mean life. However, after 5 years (on the average), expect it to fail due to wearout. In this example, the actual chances of the drive lasting 3 years is 92%, 4 years is 88%, 5 years is 56% and 6 years is 35%. Q) 8.14 How do I find pin 1 on my chip/card/cable/connector? Pin 1 is always marked in one way or another to avoid confusion due to symmetry (after which known numbering schemes can be used). The most important thing to note is that the orientation of the letters or numbers printed on the chip have absolutely nothing to do with the actual orientation of the pins. Never assume that all chips should be readable from the same angle! The most obvious marking for pin 1 is a small number '1'. The first thing you should do is look very carefully for it. Ribbon cables are often marked with a blue or red stripe on pin 1. Some chips are marked with a dot, notch or small angled cut in the material just above pin 1. Rectangular chips are usually marked with a notch on one of ends; the first pin counter clockwise from this notch is pin 1. If you can't find a marking on the socket or connector, then try looking at the pads (the holes in the board the socket or connector is soldered into). For through-hole devices, pin 1 has a square pad, the rest should be round. Q) 8.15 I've run out of power connectors, what can I do? Assuming your power suply is actually strong enough to power all of your devices, you can pick up a Y-adapter at your local Radio Shack. Q) 8.16 What does FCC approval cover and what needs to be approved? [From: scharf@mirage.nsc.com (Steve Scharf)] FCC Part 15 EMI Certification and UL/CSA/TUV Safety Certification FCC Part 15 Certification of Computer Equipment ----------------------------------------------- The basic thing to understand is that SYSTEMS are certified, Not individual circuit boards (though in most cases add-on cards ARE certified), not motherboards, not cases, and not power supplies. Class A & B ----------- Class A is for systems that will be used only in a commercial environment. Class A is more lax than Class B. Class B is stricter, and is for systems that will be used in a home. A manufacturer cannot simply declare that a system is not intended for home use and test to the more lax Class A limits (believe me, they tried this). A high end file server with a RAID array of drives and multiple network connections would qualify for Class A. A simple Pentium 100 desktop or Power PC would not. FCC Certified Peripherals and Add-On Cards ------------------------------------------ Most add-on cards and peripherals (disk drives, floppy drives, CD-ROM drives, tape drives, etc.) have their own FCC certification. This is so they can be sold separately. They would technically not need to be certified separately if the system in which they are installed is certified as a unit. Once a SYSTEM has passed FCC certification, a manufacturer may swap or add FCC certified cards and peripherals and retain compliance even though the system may technically exceed the limit with the different peripherals. I believe the FCC still has the right to demand that the system be in actual compliance with the emissions limits. Motherboards ------------ The FCC has twice considered requiring motherboards be FCC certified and has twice rejected the idea. Of course there is great appeal to system manufacturers of this concept. Once a system is certified, the manufacturer could swap everything except the case and power supply and not have to re- test. The problem with this concept is that there could be no guarantee that the case that the motherboard was ultimately installed in, would be as good as the one that it was originally certified in. It would be easy to manufacture a very EMI tight case at great expense, inside which nearly any motherboard could pass. I don't believe ANY 386 or greater class of motherboard could pass outside of a case. The Independent Testing Labs were very vocal against the certification of motherboards since it would have seriously affected their business. Power Supplies and Cases ------------------------ Power supplies and cases are NOT FCC certified. Keyboards and Mice ------------------ These are not required to be certified seperately if they are sold as part of a system, but in most cases they are certified separately so they can be sold separately. Monitors, Printers, Externally Powered Peripherals -------------------------------------------------- Each has their own certification. It actually has gotten very difficult to manufacture monitors that can meet Class B. This is why so many monitors have the plastic enclosed ferrite bead on the interface cable. Swapping Motherboards, Power Supplies, and Cases. ------------------------------------------------- You may not swap motherboards, power supplies, or cases, without re- certification. Bare Bones Systems ------------------ Some motherboard manufacturers sell 'bare bones' systems. This is the motherboard, power supply, and case, that has been FCC certified with some add-on cards and peripherals. The reseller can add any certified add-on cards and peripherals and retain compliance. For each new motherboard they recertify the bare bones system. The bare bones system concept has not been very successful in the chop shop type stores. This is because the bare bones systems cannot use the lowest quality and cheapest case and power supply, and thus costs several dollars more than what a chop shop normally uses. The bare bones systems are also sometimes UL and CSA certified which necessitates better quality (and thus more costly) power supplies and cases. How Add-On Card Makers Certify Their Cards. ------------------------------------------- What all add-on card makers do, is to certify their cards in a 'golden' system; a system with an excellent low noise (often low speed) motherboard and a high quality well shielded case and power supply. It isn't their problem to certify cards in a crappy and noisy system. The original IBM AT running at 6 Mhz is a popular system for certifying add-on cards, though of course this doesn't work anymore with PCI or VL bus cards. How System Vendors Certify Their Systems. ----------------------------------------- What most system makers do is to certify their systems with the lowest noise add-on cards and peripherals they can find. Then they can swap in any FCC certified add-on cards and peripherals. Thus the system you buy may legally be FCC certified even though it is over the emission limits. I think the FCC has built in leeway into the requirements to allow for this. I think that the FCC still has the right to insist that such a system meet the actual limits, but I doubt if they ever do anything about it. How All The Small Stores Comply with FCC Part 15 ------------------------------------------------ Most small chop shop stores simply do not certify their systems. They are violating federal law and they usually get away with it since the FCC has very limited resources to enforce their rules. The problem is actually solving itself as buyers become more educated. The systems assembled by the small stores are usually lower quality, often higher priced, and lack the warranty support of the systems sold by the top and middle tier vendors. What About Build-It-Yourself ---------------------------- There is no certification requirement for do-it-yourself systems. However if their is a complaint lodged against you and the FCC investigates and finds you to be the cause of excessive emissions, then they can take action against you. UL/ETL/CSA/TUV Safety Certification ------------------------------- UL-Underwriters Laboratories CSA-Canadian Standards Association TUV-German Safety Agency. ETL-Electronic Testing Laboratories These are product safety agencies. Most top tier systems are UL (or ETL)/CSA/TUV approved. Each agency now is supposed to inspect to the same international standards, but some policies are different in each agency. The approval process is pretty simple despite all the requirements, but it can be costly so the cost needs to be amortized over a lot of systems. This is a partial list of the requirements: No high voltages can be accessible to the user, so the power switch may have no exposed contacts (this is a problem on some cheap cases). This is why the original PCs had a power supply with an integral switch on the side, and why the PS/2 had a front switch that was mechanically linked to the switch on the power supply by a long steel rod The power supply must be UL/CSA/TUV approved (low quality power supplies cannot pass this approval so this is a good indication of at least minimal quality of a power supply). All peripherals powered by the system must have fuses in the power lines. This means PS/2 mice and all keyboards. They don't want a short in the keyboard or mouse setting the cable on fire (this is ridiculous, since the power supply would shut down if the +5volts was shorted to ground, but it is still a requirement). The lithium battery must be double protected against being charged by the system. Two diodes are typically used for this. All circuit board materials must meet flame ratings. Proper labeling of power connections, fuses, and switches is required. There are limitations on the colors of switches and lamps, i.e. no red LEDs (which indicate danger). All peripherals must be approved separately. A 'finger' test to be sure that fingers cannot touch moving parts like fans is performed. The agency will test the system FULLY LOADED with peripherals and load boards to simulate maximum power supply load. Afterwards, depending on the agency, you can swap approved peripherals. UL requires that you submit a list of which approved peripherals you will swap and investigates every one to be sure that current limits are not exceeded. CSA and TUV do not require this. UL is a royal pain, since there are so many different peripherals, and so many new ones are being introduced. All plastics must be approved. The agency will attempt to set the unit on fire. Towers are subject to a 'tip test,' which necessitates the use of bases on the case. Tower PC's are especially poorly designed for the tip test since all the heaviest components are at the top. You must perform certain test procedures on each system to check shock hazards. This is called Hi-Pot testing. The test machines must be calibrated periodically. You must affix proper labels, and there are very strict requirements on the materials, the ink, the logos, etc. The agency will inspect your factory and then conduct periodic and/or random inspections to ensure that you are complying with all the rules. Do You need these Safety Approvals? ----------------------------------- In the United States there is no federal requirement that electrical equipment be approved. Some counties and cities DO have this requirement. Most recognize UL, ETL, or CSA, and some may recognize others as well. Some bare bones systems have UL/CSA approval, but since UL must approve a system's peripherals as they change, it is uncommon. Some manufacturers are getting just CSA since it is valid in most places in the U.S. that require certification. Companies that export systems to Canada and Europe must have the appropriate approvals. As you would expect, very very few, if any, chop shops can get these safety approvals. In reality, the systems they build would be pretty close to passing, providing they use the proper power supplies and switches, since nearly all motherboards and peripherals meet the proper requirements. The safety approvals do usually ensure a modicum of quality, since no fly- by-night factory could hope to meet the safety standards. Still there are instances of really poor equipment passing all the appropriate safety approvals. As an aside, in Germany many types of products are subject to TUV testing, not just electronics. TUV designs appropriate tests for the product category. The bicycle/ski rack on the roof of my car is a TUV approved Thule rack, which has mounting systems far superior to their non-approved competitor. You can be fairly sure that it won't fly off the car at high speeds. VDE Emissions Testing --------------------- Germany has different emissions requirements (which are accepted by most European countries). VDE emissions approval is difficult to obtain becaues there are only a couple of labs in the United States that VDE has allowed to certify systems. Thus, few PC's that are not intended for sale in Europe will have VDE approval. S) 9.0 References Q) 9.1 What other FAQ's are out there? The following is a partial list of official FAQs which may be useful for more information on PC related items. All of these FAQs are archived on news.answers, though the frequency in posting and availability are subject to the maintainers' whims. If you are retrieving these by anonymous ftp, those items listed with Archive-name's can be found under the news.answers directory under the archive name. The others can be found in their respective hierarchy's directory under the Subject line's name. For more information on how to retrieve these items and how to find other FAQs, refer to the article "Introduction to the *.answers groups" periodically posted to news.announce.newusers. Note: all *.answers groups have been removed from the Newsgroups lines ------ Hardware Related FAQs ------ Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.chips,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.systems, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc,comp.sys.intel Subject: Personal Computer CHIPLIST 7.0 part * of * From: offerman@einstein.et.tudelft.nl (Aad Offerman) Summary: This list contains the various CPU's and NPX's and their features, used in the IBM PC, IBM PC/XT, IBM PC/AT, IBM PS/2 and compatbles, and the differences between them. Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/chiplist -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.storage,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc Subject: Enhanced IDE/Fast-ATA/ATA-2 FAQ [* of *] From: pieterh@sci.kun.nl (Maintainer) Summary: This FAQ addresses issues surrounding Enhanced IDE, ATA-2, ATAPI and Enhanced BIOSes. It includes practical questions, background information and lists of net resources. Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/enhanced-IDE -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video Subject: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video FAQ, Part * / * Subject: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video Chipsets List From: scott@bme.ri.ccf.org (Michael Scott) Summary: This is a monthly posting containing a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) pertaining to video hardware for IBM PC clones. It should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video newsgroup. Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/video/part1 -- Newsgroups: comp.dcom.modems,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.comm Subject: MS-Windows COM and Ns16550A UART FAQ From: rjn@fc.hp.com (Bob Niland) Summary: Improving Windows 3.x COM performance and reliability. Archive-name: windows-com-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.programmer,comp.sys.ibm.pc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware Subject: The Serial Port, rel. *, part * / * From: chbl@stud.uni-sb.de (Christian Blum) -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware, comp.os.ms-windows.advocacy,comp.os.os2.advocacy, comp.sys.intel,comp.sys.mac.advocacy,comp.sys.powerpc Subject: Mac & IBM Info-Version * From: bgrubb@scf.nmsu.edu (Bruce Grubb) -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard,comp.music,rec.music.synth, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware Subject: FAQ: Gravis Ultrasound ("GUS") FAQ v* From: Matthew E. Bernold <MEB117@psuvm.psu.edu> Summary: A list of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) concerning the Gravis Ultrasound (GUS) sound card for IBM PC's. Archive-name: PCsoundcards/gravis-ultrasound/faq -- Newsgroups: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000 Subject: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000 FAQ Part 1 of 3 From: tbrann1@uic.edu (Timothy S. Brannan) Summary: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000 FAQ Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/gateway2000/part1 -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.advocacy, comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.games,comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.misc, comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.music,comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.tech, comp.os.os2.multimedia Subject: Aria Soundcard FAQ v* From: dtauritz@wi.leidenuniv.nl (Daniel R. Tauritz) Summary: This posting discusses hardware related issues concerning soundcards based on the Aria chipset from Sierra Semiconductor Corporation. Archive-name: PCsoundcards/aria/faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.misc Subject: Tropez ISA sound board FAQ From: towwang@umich.edu (Tow Wang Hui) Summary: FAQ file on Tropez sound board by Turtle Beach Systems, for owners and prospective purchasers. Archive-name: PCsoundcards/Tropez-faq Comp-sys-ibm-pc-soundcard-misc-archive-name: Tropez-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware, comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc Subject: PRO AUDIO SPECTRUM SOUND CARD FAQ v* From: thompson@kuhub.cc.ukans.edu -- Newsgroups: comp.graphics,comp.lang.pascal,comp.os.msdos.programmer, rec.games.programmer Subject: SuperVGA/VESA programmer's notes. From: myles@giaec.cc.monash.edu.au Summary: This posting contains programming notes and references for those interested in programming in SuperVGA modes. Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/supervga-programming -- Newsgroups: comp.graphics.api.opengl,alt.3d, comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.graphics,comp.cad.pro-engineer, comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video,comp.graphics.animation, comp.os.ms-windows.nt.misc Subject: PC 3D Graphics Accelerators FAQ (Part * of *) From: bm@cs.columbia.edu (Blair MacIntyre) Summary: The FAQ is about 3D Graphics Accelerators for PC-compatible computers. Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/3dgraphics-cards/ -- Newsgroups: bit.listserv.big-lan,comp.dcom.lans.misc Subject: BIG-LAN/bit.listserv.big-lan FAQ From: jmwobus@mailbox.syr.edu (John Wobus) Archive-name: LANs/big-lan-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.dcom.cabling Subject: Data Communications Cabling FAQ From: pmac@fox.nstn.ca (Peter Macaulay) Summary: This article is a collection of information sources, standards, implementation methods and definitions for data communications cabling. Archive-name: LANs/cabling-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.apps,comp.sys.mac.misc,comp.sys.mac.system, comp.sys.mac.wanted,comp.sys.mac.hardware Subject: Introductory Macintosh frequently asked questions (FAQ) From: erh0362@tesla.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold) Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked questions on Usenet about Macintosh computers. To avoid wasting bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this document BEFORE posting. Archive-name: macintosh/general-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.hardware,comp.sys.mac.misc Subject: Macintosh PowerPC FAQ From: mac_ppc_faq@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu Summary: This posting contains a list of questions and (often speculative) answers about PowerPC and its relation to the Macintosh. Archive-name: macintosh/PowerPC-FAQ -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.system Subject: Macintosh system software frequently asked questions (FAQ) From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold) Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked questions about Macintoshes on Usenet. To avoid wasting bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this document BEFORE posting. Archive-name: macintosh/system-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.misc,comp.sys.mac.printing Subject: Miscellaneous Macintosh frequently asked questions (FAQ) From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold) Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked questions about Macintoshes on Usenet. To avoid wasting bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this document BEFORE posting. Archive-name: macintosh/misc-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.hardware.misc,comp.sys.mac.hardware.storage, comp.sys.mac.hardware.video Subject: Macintosh hardware frequently asked questions (FAQ) From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold) Summary: This document answers several of the most frequently asked questions about Macintosh hardware on Usenet. To avoid wasting bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this document BEFORE posting. Archive-name: macintosh/hardware-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.comm Subject: comp.sys.mac.comm Frequently Asked Questions [* / *] From: davido@Princeton.EDU (David L. Oppenheimer) Summary: This is the comp.sys.mac.comm Frequently Asked Questions list; its intent is to provide information specific to Macintosh computer communications, including modems, networks, and the like. You are encouraged to read this FAQ before posting to the newsgroup. Archive-name: macintosh/comm-faq/part1 -- Newsgroups: comp.unix.sys5.r4,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit,comp.sys.intel, comp.os.linux.announce Subject: PC-Clone UNIX Hardware Buyer's Guide From: esr@snark.thyrsus.com (Eric S. Raymond) Summary: Tips on how and where to buy hardware for your UNIX. Archive-name: pc-unix/hardware ------ OS Related FAQs ------ Newsgroups: comp.unix.questions,comp.unix.shell Subject: Unix - Frequently Asked Questions (Contents) [Frequent posting] From: tmatimar@empress.com (Ted M A Timar) Archive-name: unix-faq/faq/contents -- Newsgroups: comp.unix.questions,comp.unix.shell Subject: Unix - Frequently Asked Questions (* / *) Digest [Frequent posting] From: tmatimar@empress.com (Ted M A Timar) Archive-name: unix-faq/faq -- Newsgroups: comp.unix.sys5.r4,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit,comp.unix.bsd, comp.os.linux.announce Subject: PC-clone UNIX Software Buyer's Guide From: esr@snark.thyrsus.com (Eric S. Raymond) Summary: A buyer's guide to UNIX versions for PC-clone hardware Archive-name: pc-unix/software -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce Subject: LILO FAQ, version * From: almesber@nessie.cs.id.ethz.ch (Werner Almesberger) -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce Subject: Linux FTP and BBS List #* (LONG) From: Zane H. Healy <healyzh@holonet.net> -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux Subject: [comp.os.linux.announce] Guidelines for posting From: mdw@sunSITE.unc.edu (Matt Welsh) Archive-name: linux/announce/guide -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin Subject: Linux * HOWTO From: (Vince Skahan) Comment: The following article are currently being posted (archive names, in parentheses, are in the "linux/howto" archive directory): Electronic Mail (mail); News (news); UUCP (uucp). Archive-name: linux/howto/mail -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help,comp.os.linux.admin Subject: Linux NET-2 HOWTO From: terryd@extro.ucc.su.oz.au (Terry Dawson) Summary: HOWTO on configuration of TCP/IP networking and SLIP under Linux. Archive-name: linux/howto/networking -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help,comp.os.linux.admin Subject: Linux HOWTO Index From: mdw@sunsite.unc.edu (Matt Welsh) Summary: Index of HOWTO documents about Linux. Archive-name: linux/howto/index -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin Subject: Linux Ethernet HOWTO From: Paul Gortmaker <paul@cain.mmtc.rmit.oz.au> Archive-name: linux/howto/ethernet -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin Subject: Linux Printing HOWTO From: gtaylor@cs.tufts.edu Summary: HOWTO on printing under Linux Archive-name: linux/howto/printing -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help Subject: Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers From: ijackson@nyx.cs.du.edu (Ian Jackson) Summary: Please read the whole FAQ before posting to comp.os.linux.help. Archive-name: linux/faq -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help Subject: Linux INFO-SHEET From: Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@sunsite.unc.edu> Summary: Generic introduction to the Linux operating system Archive-name: linux/info-sheet -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help Subject: Linux META-FAQ From: Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@sunsite.unc.edu> Summary: A listing of Linux sources of information Archive-name: linux/meta-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help, comp.os.linux.development,comp.os.linux.admin,comp.os.linux.misc Subject: Welcome to the comp.os.linux.* hierarchy! From: mdw@sunsite.unc.edu (Matt Welsh) Archive-name: linux/announce/intro -- Newsgroups: comp.os.mach Subject: comp.os.mach Frequently Asked Questions From: fgray@owlnet.rice.edu (Frederick Earl Gray) Summary: Answers to questions frequently asked on the USENET newsgroup comp.os.mach Archive-name: mach-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.unix.solaris,comp.sys.sun.admin Subject: Solaris 2 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) * From: Casper.Dik@Holland.Sun.COM (Casper H.S. Dik) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about Sun Microsystem's Solaris 2.x system in general. See also the FAQs archived as Solaris2/Porting and Solaris2/x86. Archive-name: Solaris2/FAQ -- Newsgroups: comp.os.minix Subject: Changes to MINIX Information Sheet From: overby@plains.nodak.edu (Glen Overby) Summary: Commonly Asked Questions -- With answers! Archive-name: minix-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.unix.msdos Subject: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for comp.unix.msdos From: fnx!vpix-faq@uunet.UU.NET (VP/IX FAQ maintainance) -- Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.programmer Subject: comp.os.msdos.programmer FAQ From: Jeffrey Carlyle <carlyle@tocnet.com> Summary: Frequently Asked Questions by DOS programmers with tested answers. Please read this before posting. Archive-name: msdos-programmer-faq/faq Comp-os-msdos-programmer-archive-name: dos-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.os.os2.misc Subject: OS/2 Users Frequently Asked Questions List Edition * From: klund@athena.mit.edu (Kent H Lundberg) Summary: This posting contains a list of common questions (and answers) about the IBM OS/2 Warp operating system. It should be read by everyone interested in OS/2 Warp, from the newly curious to the long-time power user. Archive-name: os2-faq/user/part* -- Newsgroups: comp.os.os2.programmer.misc Subject: FAQ: OS/2 Programming FAQ v* From: andreas@traci.almroth.pp.se (Andreas Almroth) ------ Windowing System Related FAQs ------ -- Newsgroups: comp.windows.x Subject: comp.windows.x Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) * / * From: dbl@visual.com (David B. Lewis) Summary: useful information about the X Window System Archive-name: x-faq/part* -- Newsgroups: comp.windows.x.i386unix,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit, comp.unix.bsd,comp.windows.x Subject: X on Intel-based Unix Frequently Asked Questions [FAQ] From: steve@ecf.toronto.edu (Steve Kotsopoulos) Summary: X options for Intel-based Unix (SYSV/386, 386BSD, Linux, Mach) Archive-name: Intel-Unix-X-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.os.ms-windows.apps,comp.os.ms-windows.misc, comp.os.ms-windows.setup,comp.os.ms-windows.nt.misc, comp.os.ms-windows.nt.setup,bit.listserv.win3-l Subject: Windows FAQ: How to get it From: tomh@metrics.com (Tom Haapanen) Archive-name: ms-windows/windows.how-to-find-faqs -- Newsgroups: comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.misc, comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.tools, comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.win32,bit.listserv.win3-l Subject: Windows Programmer FAQ: How to get it From: tomh@metrics.com (Tom Haapanen) Archive-name: ms-windows/programmer.how-to-find-faqs -- Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.desqview Subject: DESQview/QEMM Frequently Asked Questions: READ BEFORE POSTING From: aml@world.std.com (Andrew Langmead) Summary: FAQ list for the MS-DOS multitasker DESQview and memory manager QEMM Archive-name: desqview-faq ------ Miscellaneous FAQs ------ Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc, comp.os.ms-windows.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc,alt.cd-rom, alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000,alt.sys.pc-clone.zeos, alt.sys.pc-clone.dell,comp.binaries.ibm.pc.d, comp.binaries.ibm.pc.wanted Subject: PC-Clone Hardware Newsgroup Pointer From: grohol@alpha.acast.nova.edu (John M. Grohol) Summary: Newsgroup subject pointer for PC-clone hardware Archive-Name: finding-groups/pc-hardware -- Newsgroups: comp.sources.wanted,alt.sources.wanted Subject: How to find sources From: kent@sterling.com (Kent Landfield) Archive-name: finding-sources -- Newsgroups: comp.std.internat,comp.std.misc,comp.protocols.iso Subject: Standards FAQ From: unrza3@cd4680fs.rrze.uni-erlangen.de (Markus Kuhn) Summary: Answers to questions such as what are ISO standards, where can I get standards, what are ISO/ITU/ANSI/etc., what standards are there relevant to computing, ...? This is a periodic posting in comp.protocols.iso, comp.std.misc and comp.std.internat. Archive-name: standards-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.announce,rec.games.misc Subject: PC GAMES FAQ <- Guide To The Gaming World (Part * of *) From: mmwang@mv.us.adobe.com (Michael Wang) Summary: This FAQ has answers to common questions and other useful information that all new readers of the comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.* newsgroups should read before posting. Archive-name: PC-games-faq/part1 -- Newsgroups: comp.virus Subject: VIRUS-L/comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) From: n.fitzgerald@cantva.canterbury.ac.nz (Nick FitzGerald) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions, and their answers, about computer viruses. It should be read by anyone who wishes to post to VIRUS-L/comp.virus. Archive-name: computer-virus-faq -- Newsgroups: misc.forsale.computers.workstation, misc.forsale.computers.other.misc,misc.forsale.computers.other.systems, misc.forsale.computers.other.software,misc.forsale.computers.modems, misc.forsale.computers.net-hardware,misc.forsale.computers.memory, misc.forsale.computers.monitors,misc.forsale.computers.printers, misc.forsale.computers.storage,misc.forsale.computers.other Subject: Misc.FS+Biz.Mktplc ADVERTISING FAQ--INFO FOR NEW USERS From: dank@metrics.com Summary: This article describes appropriate ways of posting forsale and wanted ads on misc.forsale.* and biz.marketplace.*. As most posters to misc.forsale are on Usenet for the first time, it provides information useful to all readers--new and old alike. Archive-name: misc-forsale-faq/posting-ads -- Newsgroups: misc.forsale.computers.workstation, misc.forsale.computers.other.misc,misc.forsale.computers.other.systems, misc.forsale.computers.other.software,misc.forsale.computers.modems, misc.forsale.computers.net-hardware,misc.forsale.computers.memory, misc.forsale.computers.monitors,misc.forsale.computers.printers, misc.forsale.computers.storage,misc.forsale.computers.other Subject: Misc.FS+Biz.Mktplc TRANSACTIONS FAQ--INFO FOR NEW USERS From: dank@metrics.com (Dan King) Summary: This article describes transactions over Usenet in detail. It presents the options available, recommended methods, and issues to protect buyers and sellers who conduct business by e-mail and parcel service--domestically and internationally. Archive-name: misc-forsale-faq/buying-selling -- Newsgroups: comp.archives.msdos.announce,comp.archives.msdos.d Subject: comp.archives.msdos.{announce,d} FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) From: ts@chyde.uwasa.fi (Timo Salmi) Archive-name: msdos-archives/faq -- Newsgroups: comp.archives.msdos.d,comp.binaries.ibm.pc.wanted, comp.os.msdos.apps,comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc Subject: Useful MSDOS Programs at SIMTEL20 and Garbo (Part * of *) From: sko@wimsey.bc.ca (Samuel Ko) Summary: A list of recommended msdos programs available from major ftp sites Archive-name: msdos-archives/part* -- Newsgroups: comp.binaries.ibm.pc Subject: v*inf*: charter, CBIP newsgroups charter (part * / *) From: cbip@cs.uml.edu (CBIP Moderator) Archive-name: admin/charter -- Newsgroups: comp.lang.postscript Subject: PostScript monthly FAQ v* *-*-* [* of *] From: Allen Braunsdorf <postscript-faq@cc.purdue.edu> Summary: Useful facts about the PostScript graphics programming language Archive-name: postscript/faq/part* -- Newsgroups: comp.periphs.scsi Subject: comp.periphs.scsi FAQ From: garyf@wiis.wang.com (Gary Field) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) about SCSI. It should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the comp.periphs.scsi newsgroup. Archive-name: scsi-faq -- Newsgroups: comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc,comp.protocols.tcp-ip, alt.winsock,comp.os.ms-windows.networking.tcp-ip Subject: comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) From: internau@zilker.net (Bernard Aboba) Summary: Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about TCP/IP on PC-compatible computers. Archive-name: ibmpc-tcp-ip -- Newsgroups: comp.protocols.ppp Subject: comp.protocols.ppp part* of * of frequently wanted information From: ignatios@cs.uni-bonn.de (Ignatios Souvatzis) Summary: This document contains information about the Internet Point-to-Point Protocol, including a bibliography, a list of public domain and commercial software and hardware implementations, a section on configuration hints and a list of frequently asked questions and answers on them. It should be read by anybody interested in connecting to Internet via serial lines, and by anybody wanting to post to comp.protocols.ppp (before he/she does it!) Archive-name: ppp-faq/part1 -- Newsgroups: alt.cd-rom,comp.multimedia Subject: alt.cd-rom FAQ From: rab@cdrom.com Summary: Frequently asked questions about CD-ROMs Archive-name: cdrom-faq =============== Ralph Valentino (ralf@worcester.com) (ralf@alum.wpi.edu) Senior Design Engineer, Instrinsix Corp.