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Subject: OPEN LOOK GUI FAQ 01/04: General

This article was archived around: Thu, 24 Jul 1997 22:06:08 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: open-look
All FAQs posted in: comp.windows.open-look, alt.toolkits.xview, comp.windows.news, alt.toolkits.intrinsics
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: open-look/01-general Last-Modified: Apr 3 23:55
Frequently-asked questions about the OPEN LOOK Graphical User Interface. If your question isn't here, please try (at *least*) man openwin man xnews man 7 xview and looking in the appropriate manuals listed in the Bibliography below before posting to the comp.windows.open-look, comp.windows.x or alt.toolkits.xview newsgroups and/or their corresponding mailing lists. Frequently Asked Questions for X11 are posted to comp.windows.x monthly. This is version: $Revision: 1.58 $; Last posted version: 1.48 Contents: (in rn and trn you can use control-G to go to the next topic) Subject: Terminology: OPEN LOOK, OpenWindows, X11, XView, (MO)OLIT, Motif Subject: The COSE agreement Subject: Window Managers -- olwm, olvwm Subject: OpenWindows, Terminals, and Other Displays Subject: Configuration Files: Getting started with OpenWindows Subject: Key Bindings, Cut and Paste Subject: Applications: Finding Out... Subject: DeskSet, Calendar Manager, etc. Subject: Trouble Shooting: Strange Error Messages Subject: Trouble Shooting: It Won't Let Me Type Subject: Trouble Shooting: Not authorized to use display Subject: Trouble Shooting: other common problems Subject: Trouble Shooting: XView problems Subject: Fonts Subject: Environment Variables Subject: Where Can I get It? Ftp, implementations, etc... Subject: Bibliography -- books, manuals, journals, papers, beer-mats Subject: Getting this File, Revision History, Recent Changes Subject: Terminology: OPEN LOOK, OpenWindows, X11, XView, OLIT, MOOLIT, Motif @ What is OPEN LOOK? OPEN LOOK is a specification of a Graphical User Interface (GUI). A GUI determines the `look and feel' of a system -- the shape of windows, buttons and scroll-bars, how you resize things, how you edit files, etc. The OPEN LOOK GUI is specified, developed and maintained jointly by Sun Microsystems and AT&T (or USL?). See Also: Bibliography @ What is OpenWindows? OpenWindows is Sun's name for its windowing environment; the current version conforms to the OPEN LOOK Graphical User Interface Specifications (a later version will use OSF/Motif and CDE). It's compatible with the X11 window system from MIT; the SunOS 4.x versions of OpenWindows are compatible with Sun's NeWS and SunView. SunOS 5.x (Solaris 2) versions of OpenWindows after Solaris 2.2 use MIT X11R5 and include Adobe's DPS/X Display PostScript, which is (in brief) a small subset of NeWS for displaying PostScript files. OpenWindows is sometimes also called openwin or xnews, after the program used to start it and the main executable itself, respectively. It should not be called `Windows' or 'OPEN LOOK' or `OpenLook', as these terms are either wrong or apply to something else. The current versions of OpenWindows for various platforms are: SunOS 4.1.1 on Sun 3: 2.0 Solaris 1.x (SunOS 4.1.x) on SPARC: 3.0 Solaris 2.4 (SunOS 5) on SPARC: 3.4 See Also: Mixing X11 and OpenWindows Where can I get it? @ What are OLIT, XView and TNT? These are all toolkits for programmers to use in developing programs that conform to the OPEN LOOK specifications. See the Bibliography for documentation on the individual toolkits. Here's a brief summary: OLIT was AT&T's OPEN LOOK Intrinsics Toolkit for the X Window system; it used a widget set, and was probably the easiest for people who were already X11/Xt programmers to learn. You could buy the source from AT&T, although you didn't get the same version tht Sun ship. Sun includes the OLIT library in OpenWindows (q.v.); it is also often included in System V Release 4. It was written in C. OLIT support passed to USL (then a division of AT&T, now owned by Novell), who replaced it with MoOLIT (q.v.). Note that because of the nature of Xt subclassing, you will probably want or need OLIT source in order to develop a large application or anything else that uses subclasses. [see the proceedings of the 1991 X Technical Conference] OLIT was until recently Sun's recommended toolkit, although until Solaris 2 was released OLIT lacked a long way behind XView (q.v.) in many important areas. XView is Sun's toolkit for X11, written in C. XView is similar in programmer interface to SunView. There's even a shell script to help migrate source code from SunView to XView. XView is often said to be the easiest toolkit to learn if you are not familiar with X Windows. The XView toolkit is included in OpenWindows, and full source is available by anonymous ftp from ftp.x.org (and elsewhere). The current version of XView from Sun is 3.2. The XView toolkit is still supported by Sun, although few if any enhancements beyond version 3.2 should be expected. The NeWS Toolkit (TNT) was an object-oriented programming system based on the PostScript language and NeWS. TNT implements many of the OPEN LOOK interface components required to build the user interface of an application. It's included in OpenWindows up to release 3.2, but is not supported (and will not run) under OpenWindows 3.3 (based on X11R5). The current version of TNT from Sun is 3.1; Release 3 contains some incompatibilities with `tNt' 1.0 and TNT 2.0, but Sun were committed to supporting the API, at least until they released Solaris 2.3 and `replaced' it with Display PostScript. Wail. Sun currently asserts that it is committed to OLIT, however. Correction: Sun is now committed to COSE, which is committed to a new Motif toolkit, and OLIT support will presumably be dropped until the wind changes again. Note: Solaris 2.3 does not include Motif: SMCC is shipping Motif separately as part of the Solaris Software Developer's Kit. In addition, SMCC is shipping an unbundled version of the Motif toolkit. The C++ User Interface Toolkit (UIT) consists of an object-oriented C++ class library layered on top of XView and a tool to generate code from DevGuide 3 GIL files. The UIT also includes features that simplify event management and the use of PostScript and color. It is said to be compatible with OpenWindows V2 and V3, and presumably beyond, since the release mentions that it works on Solaris 2. UIT is not an official Sun-supported product but an ongoing project of various people within Sun. It used to be available on ftp.x.org in the MIT contrib directory as UITV2.tar.Z @ Where does Motif fit in? Motif is an alternative Graphical User Interface that was developed by OSF. It has a `look and feel' reminiscent of Microsoft Windows and the OS/2 Presentation Manager. There are no non-commercial Motif toolkits available, and the Motif source by OSF is fairly expensive. Fresco (in X11R6) will have a Motif-like user interface; TK, based on the tcl language, looks a little like Motif. There are commercial XView to Motif translation tools, such as Accent's. OSF/Motif will be included in COSE (q.v.) in a somewhat changed form. @ What is MoOLIT? MoOLIT is a version of OLIT from AT&T/USL that lets users choose between a Motif and an OPEN LOOK UI feel at run-time. It will be part of System V Release 4.2. Contact: Joanne Newbauer, jo@usl.com, (908) 522-6677 @ What about that Display PostScript thing? Sun and Adobe agreed that Sun include the DPS extension to X in OpenWindows, and this is in Solaris 2.3 and later. Unfortunately, this has also meant dropping the NeWS server, and hence the NeWS toolkit (TNT), with what many consider to be a significant loss of functionality and ease of programmability as a result. On the other hand, a number of commercial applications such as Adobe Illustrator and Adobe PhotoShop have being ported to the Sun. See the Solaris Porting guide [see Bibliography below] for a few more details. Subject: The COSE agreement @ What is COSE? The Common Operating System Environment is an agreement by several of the largest Unix manufacturers, including e.g. Sun, HP, IBM and SCO, to provide a compatible windowing environment (CDE) across all platforms. It's widely rumoured that only fear of Windows NT could have brought this on. @ What's it like? A snapshot of the Common Desktop Environment for HP, Sun, IBM, USL, SCO has been released on CD/ROm and was given out at the CDE develoer's conference. Some of the features include: * Sun's Mailtool and Calander Manager * Sun's ToolTalk protocol for desktop interoperability * IXI's desktop file manager * HP's VUE desktop manager - a little like olvwm without the map * a Motif toolkit that offers all of the OPEN LOOK UI controls and window decorations. It isn't clear to me in what way it's still Motif. * various games and demonstrations, `the entertainment value of these should not be underestimated' :-) * Sun's F3 outline font technology [actually I don't see this yet] @ Why would I want it? If you're using OpenWindows you probably don't, particularly, but you're not the targeted market. If you are not yet using X11 at all, or if you get fed up of all the differences between the various vendors' X11 environments, you'll probably be interested. @ When can I have it? Not until the end of 1994, in order to give Windows NT a fair start :-) Subject: Window Managers -- olwm, olvwm @ What are olwm and olvwm? They are window managers. A window manager is the part of the X Window system (e.g. X11) that is responsible for deciding how to lay out windows on the screen, and for managing the user's interaction with the windows. Olwm is the standard OPEN LOOK window manager. It's included with all of the OpenWindows (q.v.) implementations, and you can also get the source by ftp, since Sun donated it. Olvwm is a version of olwm that manages a `virtual desktop' (hence the `v' in its name). It shows a little map on the screen, with the currently displayed area represented by a little rectangle. You can move around by dragging the rectangle or with the arrow keys. This lets you run several clients (applications) and move the display around from one to the other. Olvwm was derived by Scott Oaks from the Open- Windows 3 olwm; you need to have libolgx (from XView 3.x) to compile it. Get olvwm from an ftp site such as ftp.x.org (in the contrib directory; watch out for any patches there). @ Can I use my favorite window manager with OpenWindows instead of olwm? Yes. If you use twm, for example, or mwm, you won't be able to use the Pin and Unpin feature of olwm, and you (probably) won't see the footers some windows use to display certain messages. If you use twm, you'll want to use the f.delete function to unpin menus and get rid of programs that don't have a `quit' button when not run under olwm. For twm, put this in your $HOME/.twmrc: LeftTitleButton "target" = f.delete where "target" is a 16x16 icon from /usr/include/X11/bitmaps. Alternatively, try # Add a menu to each window managed by twm or tvtwm LeftTitleButton ":menu" = f.menu "OL.menu" menu "OL.menu" { "Quit" f.delete } For mwm, you can double-click on the menu icon on the left of the title bar to dismiss a pop-up window (I am told). XView windows might simply iconify themselves; there's a C work-round for this involving editing the program to make the windows `transient'. See the manual page for your window manager (twm, etc). Subject: OpenWindows, Terminals, and Other Displays @ Can I use olwm and olvwm without OpenWindows or on an X Terminal? The OpenWindows xnews server combines SunView, NeWS (PostScript) and X11. This means that it can run programs compiled for any of those systems. Unfortunately, it means that some OpenWindows programs need either NeWS or SunView support, and thus won't run on an X terminal. This includes pageview in particular. You can use olwm or olvwm (see above) on an X terminal or a non-Open- Windows display, and most OPEN LOOK clients (e.g. OLIT or XView ones) will work perfectly well. You may find that you get complaints about fonts not being found. If so, see the Fonts section below. If you are running the window manager built-in to an NCD terminal, you may have problems with input focus; setting *Input: True in the terminal's XDefault file in /usr/lib/X11/xdm may or may not help. Subject: Configuration Files: Getting started with OpenWindows @ What configuration files do I need to know about? .xinitrc and .xsessionrc The first time you run OpenWindows, a .xinitrc file will be created in your login directory ($HOME). If it already exists, you might have to edit it somewhat; it's simplest to move it and any other old X11 files you have to another directory, and then merge the old and new files. If your site uses xdm, you should use .xsession instead of .xinitrc, since xdm doesn't look at your .xinitrc file. .openwin-init, .openwin-menu and .openwin-sys These are optional files you can create in your $HOME directory, depending on which version of olwm or olvwm you use. Look in $OPENWINHOME/lib (normally /usr/openwin/lib) for these files without the leading . and copy any you want to change. You may need to edit your .xinitrc to get them recognized. If you are not on an X terminal, you will want to run a console window (such as cmdtool -C, shelltool -C, xterm -C) or Chuck Musciano's "contool" program so that system output will be directed there instead of writing over your screen. Note that .openwin-sys is not executed unless you edit .xinitrc. .Xdefaults You can put X Windows resource specifications in here. In particular, it is a good idea to include at least: OpenWindows.FocusLenience: true *Input: TRUE These allow non-ICCCM-compliant programs to receive input even if they forget to ask for it. Props, the program that runs when you select `properties' from the default root menu under olwm or olvwm, writes your choices into either .Xdefaults or, in newer versions, a file called .OWdefaults instead. Don't put comments in .Xdefaults, since `props' and other programs that re-write the file delete comments (this is an X problem, not a Sun-specific bug...). You can use resources like comment.001 This is a comment comment.002 Actually, it's an X default, but unless you have an comment.003 X program called comment, it's pretty safe. .startup.ps This is the NeWS user profile file, read by OpenWindows (actually xnews) on startup. This is documented in the NeWS programming manual, near the back. The most useful thing to put here is PostScript code to change the keyboard repeat rate, although you must be very careful, since a syntax error in the PostScript means that xnews will either not start up at all or will get broken in strange ways. The NeWS manual gives code that is both incorrect and insufficient. WARNING: things in this file rarely work on both OpenWindows 2 and 3. Note that the mouse speed is best set in your .xinitrc with xset m; see the man page for xset ("man xset", and "xset -help") for more information. Here's what $HOME/.startup.ps should look like if you want a delay of about a third of a second (300000 microseconds), and a repeat rate of twenty or so keys per second (30000 microseconds between repeats) for OpenWindows 3. You'll have to experiment a bit because the RepeatTime is the delay between keys sent, and thus doesn't include the time to process each key, which is probably higher on my 4/110 than on your SuperSPARC 10/51 GTi injection :-) Again, this is for OpenWindows 3... % don't want the demos - see p. xxxii of NeWS Toolkit Reference Manual % /IncludeDemos? false def UserProfile begin /KeyRepeatThresh 0 300000 timeval storetimeval def /KeyRepeatTime 0 30000 timeval storetimeval def % Note: 300000 and 30000 differ greatly... end You must also have a .user.ps file in the same directory, like this: /NeWS 3 0 findpackage beginpackage /TNTCore 3 0 findpackage beginpackage /TNT 3 0 findpackage beginpackage ClassRepeatKeys pop % force repeat.ps to autoload endpackage endpackage endpackage If you change these parameters, you can test them without restarting the OpenWindows server like this: $ psh -i .startup.ps Welcome to X11/NeWS Version3 $ psh -i Welcome to X11/NeWS Version3 /classinit ClassRepeatKeys send %%% now press control-D You can also either of these two files (.startup.ps and .user.ps) to make the root window be "retained", so that a PostScript drawing on the background won't be erased when you move windows: frambuffer /Retained true put will do this. Note that this may increase the amount of memory used by the NeWS server (xnews) dramatically. See also: Trouble Shooting: It Won't Let Me Type Trouble Shooting: Is there an easy way to edit Xdefaults? Environment Variables @ How can I configure OPEN LOOK for a left-handed mouse and keyboard? You can use xmodmap to change the mouse buttons, but be prepared for one or two occasional surprises. See also "man 7 xview" for a list of keybindings you can change, at least for XView programs. With OpenWindows 2.0, you can use defaultsedit to set the mouse mappings and then let SunView handle them. The status returned by svenv should tell you whether your server is running under SunView or not; put this in your .xinitrc: if eval `svenv -env` then xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3" input_from_defaults else xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1" fi @ How can I get the screen to go blank when the system is idle? Run screenblank from /etc/rc.local if you can; it's a boring but effective screen saver. See `man screenblank'. Under Solaris 2 you'll need to copy screenblank from an older system, as it's not supplied. Then add a new file in /etc/rc2.d to make the system run screenblank automatically. You can also pick up a replacement screenblank by Jef Poskanzer (<jef@acme.com> or <jef@netcom.com>): ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/je/jef/screenblank.tar.Z ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/screenblank.tar.Z Subject: Key Bindings, Cut and Paste @ How do I cut and paste between XTerm and OpenWindows programs? To go from XTerm to textedit (say): * Select the text you want to copy by dragging the SELECT mouse button in xterm * Press COPY in the XTerm (this key is L6, or Meta+c (the O'Reilly XView manual gets this wrong) * Move to the textedit window, and press PASTE (L8 or Meta+v) If this doesn't work, see Trouble Shooting: Cut and Paste To go the other way, from textedit to XTerm: * Select the text in textedit. No need to use COPY * Move to the XTerm window and press ADJUST (the middle mouse button). * You can also use the COPY/CUT and PASTE buttons. @ COPY/PASTE is boring. What short-cuts are available? Quick Copy within textedit, mailtool, etc: * Click SELECT to get a text caret where you want the copied text to go * Press and HOLD DOWN the PASTE (or CUT) button * Select the text you want to copy/move. You'll see that it's underlined or crossed out, as appropriate. (In the jed demo it goes grey) * Let go of the PASTE (or CUT) button. * The text you underlined or crossed out appears at the insert caret. Drag and Drop to Move a Selection * Select the text you want to copy or move, by dragging or multiple- clicking the SELECT or ADJUST mouse button * Put the mouse pointer anywhere within the selection * Press and HOLD DOWN down the SELECT mouse button, and move the mouse pointer a little to the right; you'll see the cursor changes to be the first 3 letters of the text (or some other icon). * Still holding SELECT down, move the mouse over the point where you want to drop the text * You may see the mouse pointer change to a rifle-sight or target, to show that it's OK to drop things here * Let go of SELECT, and the text is moved. This works in text fields of dialogue boxes as well as in text subwindows. Drag and Drop to Copy a Selection * This is the same as using Drag and Drop to Move a Selection, except that you must hold the CONTROL key down as well as the SELECT mouse button. [several sections moved to "deskset.faq" posted separately] Subject: Applications: Finding Out... Contact SunSoft (or Sun) and ask for the Catalyst OPEN LOOK guide, which lists over 200 pages of applications, and also the _huge_ Catalyst listing of products for Suns, updated six-monthly. Sun's free CDWare CD/ROMs each contain demo versions of several popular OPEN LOOK applications. Often you can simply contact the vendor concerned to have the license upgraded from demo, and receive the full product documentation. SunPICS produces a CD/ROM for NeWSPrint users, Printer's Pallate, which contains NeWSprint drivers for a variety of printers and plotters, as well as 600 scaleable fonts that you can license. There is a separate FAQ posting in comp.windows.open-look that lists a number of free and commercial aplications; mail lee@sq.com for a copy, including OPEN LOOK UI Application List in the Subject for a faster reply. Subject: Fonts @ Does OpenWindows support Type 1 PostScript fonts? Yes, under either Solaris 2. You must use .pfa format, not .pfb; I have a program to convert them (lee@sq.com, ask for pfb2ps). You will want to add an "XLFD" alias, e.g. /-bruce rogers-centaur-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 /Centaur-Roman _FontFamilySYN (put these all on one line with tabs between them, in Synonyms.list, before running bldfamily). If you have FrameMaker there is a utility to import them, I'm told. The 57 fonts supplied with OpenWindows are fully hinted, though, and comparing them to the Microsoft Windows and Apple TrueType fonts is interesting... The F3 font format is described in a publication from the Sun OpenFonts group, listed in the Bibliography below. Documentation on the unbundled version of TypeScaler is also available from Sun OpenFonts. You can buy F3 fonts from SunPICS, Monotype, Linotype, URW and probably other major foundries. SunPICS' NeWSPrint software supports both F3 and Type 1 fonts. TtrueType fonts are not supported at this time. @ Improving font rendering time Although the Sun type renderer (TypeScaler) is pretty fast, it's not as fast as loading a bitmap. You can pre-generate bitmap fonts for sizes that you use a lot, and you can also alter and access the font cache parameters. If you have a lot of memory you might want to increase the font cache size. $ psh -i Welcome to X11/NeWS Version3 <--- psh will say this at you currentfontmem = % type this line ... 300 % and here's whai my server was using -- 300 Kbytes 2000 setfontmem % Just to check: currentfontmem == 2000 See pp. 328ff of the NeWS 3.0 Programmer's Guide. You need to say psh -i so that the NeWS packages are loaded, since the font memory controls are NeWS extensions to PostScript - see the psh man page. @ Making bitmap fonts for faster startup: $ mkdir $HOME/myfonts $ cd $HOME/myfonts $ makeafb -20 -M $OPENWINHOME/lib/fonts/Bembo.f3b Creating Bembo20.afb $ convertfont -b Bembo20.afb Bembo20.afb->./Bembo20.fb Chars parameter greater than number of characters supplied. $ ls Bembo20.afb Bembo20.fb Synonyms.list $ bldfamily * Bembo ./Bembo.ff (Encoding: latin) cat: ./Compat.list: No such file or directory $ xset +fp `pwd` $ xset fp rehash If you want the server to see your new font directory every time, add this directory to your FONTPATH environment variable in one of your start-up files, e.g. .login or .profile. @ Converting between font formats (convertfont, etc.) You can also use Folio fonts with an X11 server, by converting them to a bitmap (X11 bdf format) first. Your licence forbids you from using the fonts on another machine, and unless you have NeWSPrint you shouldn't use them for printing. Having said all that... you can use makeafb and convertfont to generate bdf files that you can compile with bdftosnf or bdftopcf. Use mftobdf (from the SeeTeX distribution) to convert TeX pk fonts to X11 bdf format, which you can then use with either X11 or OenWindows. You can also use der Mouse's "getbdf" to get bdf fonts from a running X display server -- ftp: larry.mcrcim.mcgill.edu (132.206.1.1) /X/getbdf @ Xview/OLIT fonts at 100 dpi Put $OPENWINHOME/lib/fonts/100dpi first in your font path. The glyph font for XView controls isn't scaled until Solaris 2, when OLIT, TNT and XView all use the same scaled font for controls. You could probably generate a bitmap (see above) for use on other systems, since the font is included in the XView source, but I don't know if that's legal. Subject: Trouble Shooting: Strange Error Messages @ No manual entry for cm_lookup If man doesn't seem to find OpenWindows commands, even though you are running OpenWindows, try setting the MANPATH environment variable: MANPATH=$OPENWINHOME/share/man:/usr/man; export MANPATH or setenv MANPATH $OPENWINHOME/share/man:/usr/man for csh users. $OPENWINHOME should be /usr/openwin on most systems. @ window: Window creation failed to get new fd @ window: Base frame not passed parent window in environment @ Cannot create base frame. Process aborted. These messages all come from SunView programs. SunView was an earlier windowing system for Suns, and was not networked. Some of the SunView programs are still around in /usr/bin, and have names that are the same as their OpenWindows counterparts. You almost certainly want to run the programs in $OPENWINHOME instead. Set your path so that $OPENWINHOME/bin (and $OPENWIN/bin/xview for OpenWindows 2) come before /bin (or /usr/bin, they're the same), or you'll get the SunView versions of mailtool, cmdtool, shelltool, etc. If you are trying to run SunView programs, use eval `svenv -env` (see the man page for svenv) before running Sunview programs; you can put this in your .xinitrc file. The default Sun .xinitrc has this already. NOTE: You can't run SunView programs on an X terminal. You can't run SunViw programs to display anywhere except on the console of the host running the program. You may need to be running OpenWindows rather than X to run Sunview programs (X can be compiled to work with SunView, though). SunView programs do not work beyond Solaris 2.2, so you should consider moving. @ memory fault - core dumped If you get this from the binder, or if binder vanishes suddenly, get the following patches: 100493-02 Binder 100524-03 Cetables 100626-03 Tooltalk @ Trouble compiling Xt, Xmu or OLIT programs: _get_wmShellWidgetClass If you are using OpenWindows 3.0 (X11R4-based Xt), contact your local Sun office and request the following patches: 100512-02 4.1.x OpenWindows 3.0 libXt Jumbo patch 100573-03 4.1.x OpenWindows 3.0 undefined symbols when using shared libXmu If you can't install the patch, a workaround is to add -u get_wmShellWidgetClass -u get_applicationShellWidgetClass on the link (ld or cc ... -o ...) line. An alternative is to add -assert nodefinitions to CFLAGS in your Makefile, or even in Imake.tmpl. Subject: Trouble Shooting: It Won't Let Me Type @ When I try to type into some programs, I just get beeps or nothing happens It is a good idea to include at least: OpenWindows.FocusLenience: true *Input: TRUE in your .Xdefaults file, as these allow non-ICCCM-compliant programs to receive input even if they forget to ask for it. See the next item for editing .Xdefaults Subject: Trouble Shooting: Cut and Paste not working @ I can't paste from xterm to XView (including Sun DeskSet) programs Under OpenWindows 2, you need to add the following either to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file, or to $OPENWINHOME/lib/app-defaults/XTerm instead: XTerm*VT100.Translations: #override \ <Key>L6:select-set(CLIPBOARD)\n\ <Key>L8:insert-selection(CLIPBOARD) You must not move the mouse between ending the selection and pressing L8 (the Paste key)! Under OpenWindows 3, this is already in the app-defaults file, so if it isn't working, check that XFILESEARCHPATH is set to /usr/openwin/lib/%T/%N%S and if it isn't, either set it or copy/merge the above lines from $OPENWINHOME/lib/app-defaults/XTerm into /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/XTerm. [See also: Environment Variables] This version automatically puts each xterm selection onto the clipboard: XTerm*VT100.translations: #override\n\ ~Ctrl ~Meta<Btn2Up>: insert-selection(PRIMARY,CUT_BUFFER0)\n\ ~Ctrl ~Meta<BtnUp>: select-end(PRIMARY,CUT_BUFFER0,CLIPBOARD)\n\ <KeyPress>L8: insert-selection(CLIPBOARD) [Note: be sure that the \n\ is at the very end of the line, there must be no following spaces, and any + or | signs showing that this FAQ file was altered must also be removed!] If you are using X11R5, you may find that adding the lines <Key>L10: start-extend() select-end(PRIMARY, CLIPBOARD, CUT_BUFFER0)\n\ <KeyRelease>L10: kill-selection() \n before the <KeyPress>L8 line will make L10 (CUT) work as a cut key! If you alter $HOME/.Xdefaults instead, you must use what X calls a `more specific' resource name: xterm.vt100.translations will do. @ I can't paste from XView (including Sun DeskSet) programs to xterm If you don't have the Sun L keys on the left of your keyboard, you can use Meta-x, Meta-c and Meta-v for cut, coy and paste respectively. You can change the keys by adding the following two lines to your .Xdefaults file, edited as you wish (the values shown here are the defaults): Openwindows.KeyboardCommand.Copy: c+Meta,L6 OpenWindows.KeyboardCommand.Paste", "v+Meta,L8 Lists of resources are in the manual page for xview, and also in the thinnish blue book `Companion to Volume 7, XView Reference Manual' from O'Reilly, and also in the olwm and olvwm manual pages. @ I can't copy and paste between OSF/Motif and OpenWindows programs. Adding the following lines to your .Xdefaults file may help: *XmText.translations: #override\n\ <Key>L6: copy-clipboard()\n\ <Key>L8: paste-clipboard()\n\ <Key>L10: cut-clipboard()\n *XmTextField.translations: #override\n\ <Key>L6: copy-clipboard()\n\ <Key>L8: paste-clipboard()\n\ <Key>L10: cut-clipboard()\n @ I always get the same piece of text when I press PASTE (L8, Meta+v) Remove the file /tmp/textsw_shelf and see if that helps; see also the next item. @ Cut Copy and Paste don't work at all (OpenWindows only) Oh dear. Use ps -xuaww | grep xv to check that sv_xv_sel_svc is running and that either you or root started it, depending on whether you started OpenWindows with "openwin" or by logging in through xdm. If not, start it. If it dies, check that there is no /tmp/.sv_xv_sel_svc before restarting it - you may need to be root to remove it, or you can reboot your workstation. Check that there is space in /tmp (use "df /tmp"), and also see if there are a lot of files there with names like /tmp/tty.txt.a01246; if there are several hundred of them, cut and paste may take so long that it times out. Quit any deskset tools such as mailtool, filemgr and cm (calendar), start a terminal emulator and remove and /tmp/tty.txt* and /tmp/Text* files that are still there. It's simplest to quit openwin and start it again after doing that, if cut and paste was broken, but if it starts working again you can just carry on. Note that files in /tmp not owned by you might be in use by another worker comrade, so don't remove those without checking first! Subject: Trouble Shooting: Not authorized to use display If you get error messages that look like Xlib: connection to ":0.0" refused by server Xlib: Internal error during connection authorization check Error: Can't Open display try, on the machine running OpenWindows or X11, xhost +machine where "machine" is the computer on which you ran the command that failed. If you want to let other users run programs on the same machine as you, using your display, you will have to type the bizarre-looking xhost +`hostname` (or xhost +happyboy, if happyboy is the name of your workstation). This lets ANY user on `happyboy' access your display. With OpenWindows 3 you can also use xauth, and the Programmer's Guide describes how to do this in Chapter 8, p. 101. This is more secure. Also check the man page for fbtab(5) to stop other users accessing the framebuffer directly! Also note that there is a Sun patch for OpenWindows 3.0 under SunOS 4.1.1 to fix a serious security problem. It is available through your local Sun Answer Center as well as through anonymous ftp from ftp.uu.net [192.48.96.2] system in /sun-dist: Fix PatchID Filename Checksum loadmodule 1076118 100448-01.tar.Z 04354 5 On an X Terminal, there may be a setup menu that lets you change or disable the list of hosts that can access the display. If you start getting this message after you've been logged in overnight, there might be a cron job that's removing the Unix sockets in /tmp that are used to communicate with the server when $DISPLAY doesn't have a hostname before the :, or is empty. Have the system administrator change the cron script to skip sockets, or log out when you go home! Subject: Trouble Shooting: other common problems @ Netscape (or some other Motif application) complains about a missing keysym & I can't use the right mouse menu You probably don't have an F10 key. With a Sun Type 3 or 4 keyboard, try xmodmap -e "keycode 0x34 = F10" to map one of the R keys (I think it's R6) to F10; you can use xev or (if you have it) xkeycaps to find out what keycode to use for a given key. @ I get console error messages on my screen and they don't go away (Sun 3 or 4) If "refresh" makes the messages vanish, but new ones come along later, you need to run "xterm -C" from your .xinitrc, or start one up in the background and then choose Save Workspace from the Workspace->Utilities menu. Better still, pick up "contool" and run that. Get it from ftp.x.org in the contrib directory. It will monitor the console and open, flash its icon or beep when a message appears; it's very easy to configure. If "refresh" from the Workspace->Utilities menu doesn't make the messages, go away... a Sun with a cg4 frame buffer has two screens - you can move the mouse off the right-hand (by default) edge of the screen and onto a whole new (but monochrome) display, called ":0.1". See the man. page for openwin; I have a shell script that checks for this and, if there's a /dev/cgfour0, does openwin -dev /dev/cgfour0 -dev /dev/bwtwo0 If you are running X11 or OpenWindows 2, you might need to add this to your .xinitrc or other startup file: ( eval `svenv -display unix:0.1 -env` olvwm -display unix:0.1 ) & Later releases of olwm and olvwm do this automatically. You can also run switcher -e 0 to get rid of the messages. Also, see the note about contool, above. @ Is there an easy way of editing .Xdefaults? Use `props', which appears in the default root menu as `properties'. This starts `props', a property editor which will re-write your .Xdefaults after removing comments. It then applies any changes. Keep comments by using "comment." instead of "!", for example, comment.*.font: Palatino-Italic-37 @ How do I get the File manager to use emacs instead of textedit? set the default editor to sh -c "exec emacs -font lucidasanstypewriter-18 \"$FILE\"" (you can change the font if you prefer a smaller one) @ How do I run OpenWindows in inverse video? This tends not to work under OpenWindows 2. With OpwnWindows 3.0, there are various ways, including using -bg and -fg options. If you're using OpenWindows 2 on a Sun 3 , probably the best you can do (short of upgrading the workstation to a SPARC!) is to use xterm instead of cmdtool. @ Why don't flat check-boxes work? A known bug may make Guide's output dump core if you use these. A workaround is to edit the Guide output, as it's only Guide's output that's broken, not the actual check-box code. This applies only to versions of DevGuide before Devguide 3.0. If you're still using an ancient DevGuide, you should upgrade as soon as possible; the new one is fantastic! @ When I leave OpenWindows, my screen goes blank or my mouse cursor stays on the screen. Try running clear_colormap; if this helps, put it as the last line in the shell script you use to start OpenWindows (e.g. `openwin'). @ When I use snapshot, the system crashes, or the server hangs, or something. This was a bug related to some systems only. The only work-round was to use some other screen dump program, such as xwd, xv 2.21 or xgrabsc. @ Why have some of my function keys stopped working? Keys F11 and F12 changed from SunF36 and SunF37 to SunXK_F36 and SunXK_F37 respectively in OpenWindows 3. Applications must be recompiled, or you might be able to use xmodmap or the public domain xkeycaps program to change your keyboard layout back again. @ When I type shelltool or cmdtool or textedit, I get the Sunview version See under "Trouble Shooting: Strange Error Messages" below. (see also next item) @ Mixing X11 and OpenWindows (see also next item) Note that OpenWindows 3.0 includes the X11R4 core distribution (to patch level 18), but not the contrib directory. These notes apply to OpenWindows 2.0, although you could also the do same sort of thing with OpenWindows 3.0 and X11R5. Install the X11 libraries in /usr/lib/X11. You can intermix OpenWindows and X11R4 or X11R5, they're all compatible in this respect. Put the X11 binaries in (for example) /usr/bin/X11. Put /usr/bin/X11 last in your PATH, so that you get OpenWindows versions of programs instead of X11 ones where appropriate, although this is a matter of preference. In any event, put the OpenWindows bin directory first -- see the preceding item for more details on that. If you have /bin (or /usr/bin, they're the same directory on SunOS) earlier in your PATH than $OPENWINHOME/bin/xview, you'll get SunView programs instead of OpenWindows ones! Set LD_LIBRARY_PATH so that /usr/openwin/lib is last, after the X11 library directory. This doesn't matter with OpenWindows 3.0, but with older versions you'll get error messages from X11 programs if you don't do this. The messages are generally harmless (see next item), although xdm core dumps if this isn't right. Set OPENWINHOME to the directory containing OpenWindows if it isn't /usr/openwin. NOTE: OpenWindows 3.3 is based on X11R5, so you don't need to do this. In fact, you might as well simply stick to the Xsun server provided by Sun, unless it turns out to be buggy. OpenWindows 3.3 (or 4.0?) will probably be released (with Solaris 2.3?) later this year. See Also: Environment Variables (especially XFILESEARCHPATH). @ I get error messages on my screen about ld.so: libX11.so.4 not found set LD_LIBRARY_PATH to be /usr/openwin. If you also use X11, use /usr/lib:/usr/5lib:/usr/openwin/lib If you put this in a shell script or your .profile, use ${OPENWINHOME-/usr/openwin}/lib instead of /usr/openwin; this is for /bin/sh; for csh it is different. @ I launch my filemgr and I get ld.so:map heap error (9) at /dev/zero Your system needs to be patched. Look in $OPENWINHOME/lib/OSpatches and install the patch. @ Why doesn't AnswerBook run for me? You must be running OpenWindows to use AnswerBook. It won't run under X11 (on an X terminal or on anything else) because it uses NeWS to draw the PostScript text and pictures. If you are using OpenWindows 3.0, you need to use the OpenWindows 3.0 compatible navigator; it's called .navigator.ow3 on the AnswerBook CD/ROM. If all AnswerBook users are using OpenWindows 3.0, you can replace navigator wih .navigator.ow3 altogether (rename the old one first to satisfy your sense of paranoia!) The navigator.ow3 binary is also on CD/Ware Vol 2. Note that the data files are in PostScript, so you can look at them with a PostSript viewer (q.v.). @ Why aren't there any fish in realxfishdb? A fixed version of realxfishdb is available by ftp from ftp.eng.auburn.edu [131.204.10.91] as /pub/realxfishdb.Z @ Why is the Properties choice disabled in the Window menu? It isn't implemented yet. Many programs do respond to the Properties Key (L3), though, or have a pop-up menu with Properties on it. Under Solaris 2, programs using the NeWS toolkit (TNT, q.v.) take one last sneer at X by providing a Properties menu that lets you rotate or scale the window! Try $OPENWINHOME/demo/{rap,jet,jed,text} for example. @ File completion in the C-shell is broken in cmdtool Sadly true, but use shelltool or xterm instead and it's fine. It also works if you run command tool on a remote machine. Fixed in Solaris 2, and presumably in the XView 3.2 distribution. @ When I run OLIT programs, some of the widgets are red! Release 3 of OLIT added mouseless operation; action widgets can be selected via the keyboard. The currently selected item is highlighted in red (the `Red Stain') to show that it has the input focus. To disable it in most places, add this to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file: *traversalOn: off *TextEdit.traversalOn: on *TextField.traversalOn: on You can change the color using (for example) *InputFocusColor: grey50 *input*FocusColor: green *List*inputFocusColor: <your background color> See the man page resources(3w), at the start of the OLIT 3 Widget Set Reference Manual included in the OpenWindows 3 programmer documentation. Meanwhile contact your distributor and ask for patch id 100451-30, the OLIT/3.0 CTE Jumbo Patch. Solaris 2 includes an OLIT that uses the Giant Caret, just like XView. @ When I run several programs, the colors on the screen all change when I move into a different window! ("colormap flashing") This is becasue most hardware can only display a few colors at a time. However, you can minimise the effect with the following procedure: * Start all the applications with colors that you wish to reserve. * Run cmap_compact save to create the .owcolors file * Put the line cmap_compact init near the start of your start-up file (.xinitrc or .openwin-init) if it is not already there. * Exit and then restart the window system. * cmap_compact init will push those colors .owcolors to the end of the colormap and reserves them. Also note that control-L2 locks the colors of the current window, and Control-L4 unlocks them -- this is described in the olwm manual page. @ pageiew uses the wrong colors, or makes the colormap flash (see above): This problem was reported by people for some reason running the Motif window manager (mwm) with OpenWindows. Try running pageview like this: $OPENWINHOME/bin/reservecolors -svmono $OPENWINHOME/bin/pageview $OPENWINHOME/bin/reservecolors -discard @ XDM breaks things Command tool doesn't like being run without a Unix `controlling terminal'. Use /etc/setsid to start your command tools and all will be well. SunView applications may need to be run with svenv, as in svenv -exec /usr/bin/traffic because xdm won't set the necessary environment variables. (You can't run SunView programs on an X terminal, of course!) Note that the MIT xdm starts up the X server as root, which is a security hole for OpenWindows; use the OpenWindows 3.0 xdm or be aware that your users can access files and start Unix processes as root... @ Function keys 11 and 12 stopped working In OpenWindows 3.0, the X11 names ("keysyms") for these keys was changed to SunXK_F36 and SunXK_F37. Code which uses them should be recompiled, or you might be able to get away with xmodmap -e 'keysym SunXK_F36 = SunF36' @ Motif applications make my screen hang Apply patch 100444-77. Note that Motif menus that lock up the screen can be taken down by pressing Escape at them. [the xview section is now posted separately] Subject: Environment Variables Environment variables, and plausible values to use -- this list doesn't take into account any local changes that you might have made, of course. This list is for OpenWindows 3.0 -- differences for OpenWindows 2.0 are marked, and I've added some comments for users of X11R4 and X11R5, too. DISPLAY The name of the X Windows Display to use :0.0 (on the local machine, the one actually running X11 or xnews) :0.1 (on some machines for a second, monochrome screen) machine-running-unix:0.0 (on other machines) (You may need to do "xhost +other-machine" to let programs on other machines use your display; see also under Trouble Shooting, and see the section on xauth in the OpenWindows Version 3 Programmer's Guide, pp. 101ff) See also: console messages, under Trouble Shooting FONTPATH Where xnews searches for fonts /usr/openwin/lib/fonts (you can also use "xset fp+ dir" to add a directory to the font path, but you may have to do "xset fp rehash" afterwards. This is fine under OpenWindows, but many X11 servers have font problems) HELPPATH Where XView looks when you press the Help key (or F1) /usr/openwin/lib/locale:/usr/openwin/lib/help (On SunOS 4.0.*, or with OpenWindows 2.0, omit the first entry, which is for sites using a local other than "C" or "USA"). LD_LIBRARY_PATH Where to look to find shared C libraries /usr/lib:/usr/5lib:/usr/openwin/lib:/usr/CC/`arch` (the /usr/CC/`arch`/lib entry is only needed if you use C++ programs) OPENWINHOME Where OpenWindows lives /usr/openwin KEYBOARD, MOUSE -- serial devices to use instead of the console (don't set these for normal use; /dev/kbd and /dev/mouse) PATH Where the Shell searches for programs to run $(OPENWINHOME)/bin:$(OPENWINHOME)/bin/xview:/usr/local/bin:.\ $HOME/bin.`arch`:/usr/ucb:/usr/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/hosts:\ (you will certainly want to change this example! There is no $(OPENWINHOME)/bin/xview in OpenWindows 3.0) XFILESEARCHPATH Where programs look for app-defaults files /usr/openwin/lib/%T/%N%S (This is set automatically by "openwin" in OpenWindows 3.0) You might want to use /usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%S, or perhaps both, separated with a :, for example (for sh users) XFILESEARCHPATH=$OPENWINHOME/lib/%T/%N%S:/usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%S export XFILESEARCHPATH If you use X11R5, you might instead want /usr/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S: /usr/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S: /usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%C%S: /usr/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%S: /usr/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%S: /usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%S: $OPENWINHOME/lib/%T/%N%S (put all this on one line, though, with no spaces!) Together with the following in lib/Xinitrc xrdb -merge <<'END_XRDB' *customization: END_XRDB xrdb -merge <<'END_XRDB' #ifdef COLOR *customization: -color #endif END_XRDB you automatically get a color oclock, editres, bitmap, xcalc, and xlogo since they use the "*customization" resource appearing as %C in the XFILESEARCHPATH. (see oclock (n)) according to Rainer Sinkwitz <sinkwitz@ifi.unizh.ch>. Subject: Where Can I get It? Ftp, implementations, etc... XView 3.2 is available by anonymous ftp from ftp.x.org and elsewhere. MoOLIT can be bought from AT&T in source form. OpenWindows can be obtained from Sun, or you can get the source from Interactive Systems Inc. It is also included in some vendors' System V Release 4 implementations, although that's not always the latest version. The current release of OpenWindows from Sun for supported architectures is 3.0; for the Sun 3 series it is frozen at OpenWindows 2.0. Note that Sun includes OpenWindows with SunOS, and it is also included as the windowing system for Solaris. There are said (by Sun) to be over 35 ports of OpenWindows either available now or in progress. Unfortunately, none of them seem to be available from anywhere. Contact anthony@ovi.com for more information. Subject: Bibliography: books, manuals, journals, papers, beer-mats The OPEN LOOK (tm) Graphical Interface is documented in two books: Sun Microsystems Inc., `OPEN LOOK Graphical User Interface Application Style Guidelines', Addison Wesley, 1989 and Sun Microsystems Inc., `OPEN LOOK Graphical User Interface Functional Specification', Addison Wesley The Main documentation for the X Window system comes from O'Reilly & Associates in about nine or ten volumes. The most useful for OPEN LOOK users are: Volume 1: XLib Programming Manual Volume 2: XLib Reference Manual Volume 3: X Window System User's Guide (An OPEN LOOK edition of Volume 3 should appear later this year) Volume 7: XView Programmer's Manual [Dan Heller] [make sure you get the edition for XView 3.2] Companion to Volume 7: XView Reference Manual [Ed. Thomas Van Raalte] The Companion to Volume 7 is an expanded version of the Attribute Summary from the previous edition of the XView Programming Manual, together with other reference information, so that in practice you have to buy both books. Unfortunately, the 3.2 edition covers the features new since 3.0 only in an appendix, but it's still pretty helpful, and the attributes have been merged in the summary; in addition, much of the book has been reworked, so that it's worth considering the 3.2 edition even if you're using 3.0. O'Reilly also have a thinnish orange book on the differences between X11R4 and RX115. OLIT programmers will also want the Xt books - volumes 4 and 5. There is a new big fat green Vol 5 updated for X11R5. Make sure you don't get the Motif versions of these books by mistake. A journal, The X Resource, may also be of interest. O'Reilly & Associates, 103 Morris Street, Suita A, Sebastopol, CA 95472 +1 707 829-0515, or, in the USA and Canada only, 1-800-998-9938 Fax: +1 707-829-0104. Email nuts@ora.com or uunet!ora!nuts. For other distributors: mail, FAX, or call +1 707-829-0515. Some of the O'Reilly examples are available for ftp from ftp.x.org in the contrib/OReilly directory. The System V Release 4 Documentation from Prentice Hall may also include a section on OpenWindows. David Miller describes programming with OLIT in his `An OPEN LOOK At Unix' (M&T press). Nabajyoti Brkakati gives an excellent introduction to X and to OLIT programming, as well as setting up and using X and OpenWindows, in: `Unix[R] Desktop Guide to OPEN LOOK' SAMS, 1992 ISBN 0-672-30023-0 You can get the examples from this book as ftp.x.org:contrib/naba-olguide-examples.tar.Z Also about using OLIT, and Xt in particular: The X Window System: Programming and Applications with Xt, OPEN LOOK Edition, Doug Young and John Pew, Prentice Hall, 1992, ISBN 0-13-982992-X There are also HP Widgets and Motif versions of this book. The example source code in this book can be obtained by ftp from ftp.x.org, file "contrib/young.pew.olit.Z". There is an introduction to XView in `Writing Applications For Sun Systems', Vol 1, `A Guide for Macintosh(R) Programmers' (Sun Microsystems, pub. Addison Wesley) Another recent XView book is `Practical XView Programming', Kenneth W. Bibb and Larry Wake, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993, ISBN 0-471-57460-0 You can get the examples from this book as ftp.x.org:/contrib/xvprac.tar.Z Neither of these two XView books elimiates the need for the O'Reilly X Series vols 1, 2 and 7. To learn more about the NeWS and PostScript languages, see The NeWS Book, Springer Verlag, 1989 (sadly, a little out of date) PostScript Language Reference Manual, Second Edition, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison Wesley, 1990 ["the Red Book"] Note that OpenWindows 3 is a level 1 PostScript implementation, with certain Level 2 features (such as Composite Fonts) to some degree. PostScript Language Tutorial and Cookbook, Adobe Systems Inc., Addison Wesley, 1985 ["The blue book"] There are several books on using Solaris (i.e. SunOS). See the FAQ in the Solaris newsgroup. I'll mention here: `Solaris Porting Guide', SunSoft ISV Engineering et. al., 1993, SunSoft Press (Prentice Hall), ISBN 0-13-030396-8 for an excellent (if sometimes over-ebullient) introduction to the differences and new features of Solaris 2, including a clear section on localisation and internationalisation. Includes diskette. Sun also supplies a large amount of documentation with OpenWindows, although you may have to order it separately. Here's what I have; they are each a little over 21 cm square (wider than A4 paper), and vary from about 1 cm to about 3cm thick. They say `User's Guide' or `Programmer's Guide' on the front. The User manuals have a red stripe on the bottom, and the Programmer ones have a green stripe. Note: the Solaris 2 documentation sets are red, blue and silver. Watch in particular for small spiral-bound task-oriented `how-to' booklets in the Solaris 2 documentation. Here are the OpenWindows 3.0 part numbers for SunOs 4: 800-6006-10 OpenWindows Version 3 Release Manual 800-6029-10 OpenWindows Version 3 Installation and Start-Up Guide 800-6231-10 OpenWindows Version 3 DeskSet Reference Guide 800-6618-10 OpenWindows Version 3 User's Guide 800-6323-10 Desktop Integration Guide [also available in bookstores?] 800-6027-10 Programmer's Guide 800-6005-10 OpenWindows Version 3 Reference Manual [the man pages] 800-6319-10 The NeWS Toolkit 3.0 Reference Manual 800-6736-10 NeWS 3.0 Programming Guide 800-6055-10 OLIT 3.0 Widget Set Reference Manual 800-6198-10 XView 3.0 Reference Manual: Converting SunView Applications 800-6854-10 F3 Font Format Specification [order separately] There are also some other sets of documentation, including the TypeScaler documentation from the OpenFonts group, for example. There doesn't seem to be a complete list anywhere. ??????????? ToolTalk 1.0 Setup and Administration Guide (SunSoft, 1991) 800-6093-10 ToolTalk 1.0 Programmer's Guide (SunSoft, 1991) There might be documentation about the Link Manager somewhere, too; I am not sure what happened to the Link Manager, is that part of DOE?? AT&T includes several large thorny bushes' worth of paper with OLIT. Sun's AnswerBook CD/ROM contains a lot of the above documentation. Volume 8 of the O'Reilly series is about X Administration, and mentions OpenWindows, although it is primarily aimed at X11R5. A CD/ROM is included, which contains a working X11R5 distribution. This book will be of particular use with OpenWindows 3.3 and later, based on X11R5. Subject: Getting this File, Revision History, Recent Changes Mail lee@sq.com to ask for it. Douglas N. Arnold (dna@math.psu.edu) keeps an up-to-date copy on ftp.math.psu.edu (currently 146.186.131.129) in the file ~ftp/pub/FAQ/open-look. An automatically generated HTML verion of this file is available from http://www.join.ad.jp/tech/faq-e/text/ courtesy of Takayuki Fujino <fujino@cc.kagu.sut.ac.jp>. # @(#) $Id: ol1.faq,v 1.58 97/04/03 23:55:41 lee Exp $ Acknowledgements: Dale Dougherty <dale@ora.com> (Nov/info about new XView book) Antonio Freixas <tonyf@ims.com> (Nov/Motif patch and Escape tip) Karl Glazebrook <kgb@mail.ast.cam.ac.uk> (Motif copy/paste) And many others... You get deleted from this list after a while. -- Liam Quin | lq-text freely available Unix text retrieval liamquin at interlog.com | FAQs: Metafont fonts, OPEN LOOK UI, OpenWindows | xfonttool (Unix xfontsel in XView) +1 416 594 9646 (home) | the barefoot programmer