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Subject: rec.music.makers.piano FAQ-General Topics

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Archive-name: music/piano/general-faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 17 Oct 1997 Version: 1.7b
This is the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) list for the newsgroup rec.music.makers.piano. This FAQ list is intended to present general topics frequently addressed in rec.music.makers.piano. It is posted every month. Updates, additions, suggestions and corrections are always welcome: send e-mail to the address at the end of this FAQ. However, it has become increasingly difficult to keep up with the demand, so response, if any, may be very delayed. This FAQ is periodically posted to rec.music.makers.piano, news.answers and rec.answers. This FAQ is available from rtfm.mit.edu via anonymous FTP under: /pub/usenet/news.answers/music/piano/general-faq If you do not have access to anonymous FTP, you may retrieve it by sending e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the message (leave the subject line blank): SEND usenet/news.answers/music/piano/general-faq You also have access to rmmp FAQs on WWW: http://rmmpiano.tripod.com/rmmp-faq.html ========================================================== changes from version 1.7a update RMMP FAQ web address ========================================================== Rec.Music.Makers.Piano General Topics FAQ You may run a search using the pattern [#.#] where "#.#" is the topic number. CONTENTS [1] About rec.music.makers.piano [1.1] What is rec.music.makers.piano? [1.2] Who reads this group? [1.3] What kind of topics are discussed in RMMP? [1.4] FAQ lists maintained by this newsgroup [2] On Piano Playing [2.1] Am I too old to start learning how to play piano? [2.2] How do you improve sight-reading? [2.3] Playing from memory? [2.4] Ouch! My arm hurts!! [2.4.1] Repetitive stress injuries [2.4.2] What's a carpal tunnel syndrome? [2.5] Is practicing scales, arpeggios, exercises, etc. useful? [2.6] 101 ways to play Hanon exercises [3] Teaching! What about teaching piano playing? [3.1] Checklist for transfer or new students [4] Digital Pianos [5] Player Pianos [5.1] How old are they? [5.2] What are their values today? [5.3] Definitions of parts [5.4] How do they work? [5.5] Restoring player pianos? [5.6] Books on player restoration [5.7] Where can I get Player piano parts? [5.8] Where can I get new and used music rolls? [5.9] Any player piano associations? [5.10] Mailing list? [6] Harpsichords [6.1] Where can I purchase a harpsichord? [6.2] Harpsichord mailing list [7] How Do I Represent Notes Using "Text" Characters? [7.1] The "General" notation method [7.2] The "Piano Technician" notation method [7.3] The "MIDI file" notation method [7.4] On sharps and flats [8] Miscellaneous, Random Tidbits [8.1] What books discuss the piano literature? [8.2] Interval nomenclatures? [8.3] Octave spans of various pianos and harpsichords [8.3.1] Harpsichord octave spans [8.3.2] Piano octave spans [8.5] What's a standard height of a piano keyboard? [8.6] Klavarscribo? [8.7] Printing staff lines using postscript codes? [9] On Copyright Laws [9.1] Where do I get the information on copyright laws? [9.2] Copyright Status [9.3] Duration of Copyright Status [9.4] International Protection [9.5] Derivative Works and Editions [9.6] Fair Use [10] Books and Magazines on Pianos [10.1] Magazines on pianos [10.2] Random recommended readings on piano playing [10.3] Some books on jazz playing [10.4] What books discuss the piano literature? [10.5] Random miscellaneous reference books [11] Other Mail Order Companies [11.1] Music score companies [11.2] Digital Piano Mail-Order [11.3] Specialized recordings [12] Other Sources of Information [12.1] RMMP Piano Internet Resources List [12.2] Piano Technicians Guild _____________________________________________________________ [1] About rec.music.makers.piano [1.1] What is rec.music.makers.piano? Rec.music.makers.piano (RMMP) is an unmoderated newsgroup created February 1994, initiated by Tim MacEachern as a newsgroup dedicated for discussions related to pianos. The group's initial intention was to pull together amateurs and professionals interested in piano playing or maintenance without creating prejudice as to whether they play in the classical, folk, jazz, popular or other musical styles. [1.2] Who reads this group? The newsgroup subscribers range from beginning piano students and people thinking about starting to professional players and teachers; professional piano technicians to casual do-it- yourselfers -- all share a common interest in the piano. [1.3] What kind of topics are discussed in RMMP? rec.music.makers.piano is an international forum for the dissemination of information and discussion of all topics related to pianos, piano playing, piano study and piano music. Articles posted include, but not necessarily be limited to topics such as: - makes and models of pianos - piano tuning - mechanics and maintenance of pianos - techniques used in playing the piano - the technical or artistic merit of pieces - techniques applicable to different musical styles: classical, folk, jazz, etc. - difficulty of mastery of pieces - creating electronic accompaniment to piano playing - non-acoustic piano-like instruments: digital pianos, electric pianos, etc. - composing music for piano - compositions with a major piano component, e.g. piano concertos or piano/violin sonatas - teaching styles and techniques [1.4] FAQ lists maintained by this newsgroup There are currently three official and three draft FAQ lists maintained by RMMP: General Topics FAQ (general-faq) Playing From Memory FAQ (memory-playing-faq) Piano Maintenance and Purchasing FAQ (maint-and-buy-faq) Digital Pianos FAQ (digital-pianos-faq) Digital Pianos Hardware List (digital-pianos-list) Piano Internet Resources List (internet-resources) All official RMMP FAQ lists can be retrieved from rtfm.mit.edu via anonymous FTP under the directory: /pub/usenet/news.answers/music/piano If you do not have access to anonymous FTP, you can get a copy by sending e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the message (leave the subject line blank, and replace the "*" with the name written within the parenthesis above): SEND usenet/news.answers/music/piano/* You also have access to RMMP FAQs on WWW. Here, both the official and draft documents are available: http://rmmpiano.tripod.com/rmmp-faq.html _____________________________________________________________ [2] On Piano Playing [2.1] Am I too old to start learning how to play piano? The answer to this question is an emphatic "No! One is never too old to start!" All you need is love of music, love of the piano, interest, perseverance and enthusiasm!! (well... and an access to a keyboard of some sort) As an "older" student, you actually may have the advantage of quicker understanding of the concepts, and better motivation since you know why you want to play. Also since you are the one initiating the learning process, you have a better chance of succeeding in your goals of becoming a piano player (some kids just start playing because their "parents told them so," and that won't get them too far in the long run). Piano playing does wonderful things to the human mind and body. There have been reports where an 80 year old person started to learn to play the piano, and in so doing, improved his motor skills, mental agility and overall well-being, and went ahead and became an excellent player! So don't let those 5-year-old seemingly prodigious kids discourage you! Just go ahead and start learning! [2.2] How do you improve sight-reading? *** still under construction :-) *** [2.3] Playing from memory? Please read "Playing from Memory FAQ" available from anonymous ftp at rtfm.mit.edu under pub/usenet/news.answers/music/piano/memory-playing-faq ...or whatever similar method you used to get hold of this "RMMP General Topics FAQ". [2.4] Ouch! My arm hurts!! [2.4.1] Repetitive stress injuries Concurrent with the increased use of computer keyboards and mice in the work world at large, there is an increasing incidence of computer related repetitive stress injuries (RSI). Such an injury can interfere with piano playing or even render it impossible. Because of this possibility, here we introduce some sources of information available on the Internet and beyond, containing information on the nature, causes, prevention and treatment of RSIs. The Typing Injury FAQ. Available periodically from newsgroups sci.med.occupational, news.answers, sci.med, comp.human-factors, and via anonymous ftp from the newsgroup archives at rtfm.mit.edu in directory pub/usenet/news.answers/typing-injury-faq/. A five-part document, Part 5 of which contains copious references to other information sources. SOREHAND listserv RSI discussions by victims and therapy practitioners. To subscribe, send a message to listserv@itssrv1.UCSF.edu containing as the text SUBSRIBE SOREHAND your name. ftp.csua.berkeley.edu, under directory pub/typing-injury/ An extensive anonymous ftp resource. books Emil Pascarelli, "Repetitive Stress Injury: A Computer Users Guide," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. Gyorgy Sandor, "On Piano Playing," Schirmer Books - A division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1981. Richard Norris, M.D. publications Dr. Norris is the Director of the National Arts Medicine Center & Center for Repetitive Motion Disorders at the National Rehabilitation Hospital in Bethesda, Md. "The Musician's Survival Manual: a guide to preventing and treating injuries in instrumentalists," 1993, International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians. ISBN 0-918812-74-7 $16.95. This book describes types of injuries, and how to recognize, treat and prevent them. Other topics covered are therapeutic exercises and returning to playing after an injury. A list of performing arts clinics is given in an appendix. The book can be ordered from: MMB Music Inc. Tel: 314 531-9635 800 543-3771 (USA/Canada) For people who are unable to locate a proper source of treatment Dr. Norris has also created a VHS tape titled "Treatment Options for Repetitive Motion Disorders", available for $65 directly from him at National Rehabilitation Hospital 3 Bethesda Metro Ctr. Suite 950 Bethesda, MD 20814 (301) 654-9160 [2.4.2] What's a carpal tunnel syndrome? Here's an excerpt from "The Complete Canadian Health Guide": "...Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an easily treatable wrist and hand disorder, more frequent in women than in men. The problem arises through compression of the median (arm) nerve in its narrow passageway through the wrist, often starts up in mid-life to old age and generally affects both hands, the dominant (most-used) more severely. CTS can arise from certain jobs or hobbies where repeated movements or vibrations inflame the wrist tissues - for instance, knitting, computer keyboard work, driving or operating certain hand held tools such as drills, hammers, chain saws. The disorder is frequently seen among miners, roadmenders and others whose jobs involve use of hand-held tools that vibrate. "The first hint of CTS is a sensation of numbness or pain, usually on first awakening - as if parts of the hand had 'gone to sleep' - typically felt in the thumb and index finger, but sometimes all the fingers tingle. The tingling sensation worsens on flexing or extension of the wrist, subsiding when the hand is bent inwards or at rest (in a 'neutral' position). "Numbness from carpal tunnel syndrome may appear after any movement that keeps the wrist overexerted for long periods: stitching, painting, doing manicures or giving a massage. Besides being annoying, the loss may lead to burns (due to lessened sensation of heat, pain, pressure), and the muscle- wasting can make wrist movements clumsy. As CTS progresses, wrist and thumb strength may seriously decline. The reduced grip may make it difficult to grasp even light objects. "The tingling can be set off or worsened by anything that makes the wrist tissues swell and compress the median nerve. Fluid accumulation during pregnancy or before a menstrual period, a Colles' (wrist-bone) fracture, gout, rheumatic (arthritic) swelling, and adrenal or thyroid disease are typical causes. "Diagnosis of CTS is relatively easy by the typical night- time or early-morning hand tingling, use of Phalen's test (flexing the hands at a 90-degree angle to see if and when tingling occurs) and Tinel's test (tapping the median nerve at the wrist to see if and how strongly it produces tingling). The sooner the tingling appears, the more serious the condition. Confirmation is with a nerve-conduction study and electromyogram (EMG), in which small electric shocks are applied at different spots along the median nerve and the muscle twitch is charted to show whether, and to what extent, the hand muscle has retained or lost its nerve supply. "Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome can be conservative: wearing a light plastic wrist splint at night, taking anti- inflammatory medication by mouth or injection into the wrist, altering sleep positions and avoiding movements that worsen the disorder. With correct therapy, time and patience, the loss of nerve conduction can often be reversed. Sometimes operating tools in a better, more neutral wrist position helps to alleviate the problem. Modern designers are working on vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other ways to lessen the damaging vibrations of hand-held tools. "If other methods fail to correct CTS, surgery to decompress the nerve may be suggested - a simple procedure done under general or local anesthetic that frees the trapped nerve and usually provides rapid relief. After a few days, stitches are removed, but splints may be needed until the wounds heals..." [2.5] Is practicing scales, arpeggios, exercises, etc. useful? You will find differing opinions on this matter, but most pianists will agree that practicing these exercises can help your technique if you approach it with the correct attitude. Don't simply race through all the notes; treat the exercises as if they were real compositions, and give them just as much attention to phrasing and dynamics. Also, try to find exercises which pertain to the repertoire you are learning. If you are studying a Bach fugue in E minor, for example, careful practice of the E minor, G major, and neighboring scales will help you much more than practicing the A flat major scale. With Hanon exercises, you can increase the difficulty by transposing the studies into different keys, playing them backwards, playing one hand legato and the other staccato, playing them in canon, etc. Be creative! [2.6] 101 ways to play Hanon exercises ***I'm still compiling this part! Any suggestions would be most appreciated!!!*** _____________________________________________________________ [3] Teaching! What about teaching piano playing? [3.1] Checklist for transfer or new students This is a list compiled by Martha Beth Lewis, presented here with her permission. She likes to send a complete report of the student when the student is transferring to another teacher, or vice-versa. If you are a teacher, this would be a good guideline on what to look for when learning about a new student. She does not keep this list confidential - and will share with the student, parent and the teacher involved. It is also suggested to keep a record of the report for future reference. 1. general - when student began study and at what level (beginner or transfer.; parental attitudes), precis of personality, mental acuity, cooperative spirit last recital piece(s) and date(s), any other instruments played or desired to be played; other music activities 2. note-reading skills (does student read sharps and flats? key signatures?) 3. counting skills (eighth-notes yet? sixteenths?) 4. technique studied; include exercises student would have started with me within the next 6-12 mos.; sight-reading skills 5. articulation skills (can student play accents? staccato? sfz? portato? feminine endings? phrase lifts? motif lifts?) 6. fingering (how much does student do on own?) 7. pedaling skills (damper? sostenuto? half-pedal?) 8. literature studied 9. ornamentation (which ornaments student can play; general knowledge of performance practice) 10. form and analysis skills, including keyboard harmony 11. ear-training skills 12. composition and improvisation (how much we have done; whether student seems interested in these areas more than the norm) 13. memory (how easily and securely student memorizes; how he feels about memory playing; my recommendation for memory playing) 14. competitions and adjudicated exams (how student reacts to these; or how I think he might) 15. motivation (how well student motivates himself; what external motivators help or hinder) 16. poise (primarily stage presence) 17. summary (general recommendations for teaching strategies with this particular student; long-term prospects) _____________________________________________________________ [4] Digital Pianos Please read "Digital Pianos FAQ" and "Digital Pianos Hardware List" available from anonymous ftp at rtfm.mit.edu under: pub/usenet/news.answers/music/piano/digital-pianos-faq pub/usenet/news.answers/music/piano/digital-pianos-list ...or whatever similar method you used to get hold of this "RMMP General Topics FAQ". _____________________________________________________________ [5] Player Pianos The general subject of player pianos is far too great to try and cover entirely here. Therefore, this list is limited to those instruments most likely to be found at the average estate sale, grandma's basement, or in an old dusty corner of a garage. This section of the FAQ was contributed by Rick Pargeter. If you have any questions regarding player pianos, please contact Rick at 70702.2016@compuserve.com. If you have corrections, etc., please e-mail the FAQ maintainer at the end of this FAQ. [5.1] How old are they? Most common players were manufactured between 1915 - 1929 [5.2] What are their values today? Generally, an unrestored, average, run-of-the-mill, complete, 70-year-old player is perhaps worth 10% - 20% more than the same vintage non-player. However, it is always best to have it professionally appraised. Some players bring very high values. Player pianos which are grand pianos, original "nickelodeons" (coin-operated commercial units), and reproducing players are usually considered high-value player pianos. [5.3] Definitions of parts Bellows - A component usually consisting of two like-pieces of wood with a cloth hinge at one end, and covered with a rubberized cloth. One side of the bellows will have an opening, so that when vacuum is applied, a mechanical action occurs. Conversely, when connected to pedals and a check valve is added, they act as a pump, lowering the pressure in the stack. Stack - The upper part of the player. This is the part that plays the piano, and contains the valves, bellows, spoolbox, and wind motor. Spool Box - This is the area where the piano roll is inserted, and is usually behind a set of doors. Tracker bar - The brass bar in the middle of the spool box that has all those holes in it. Each hole represents a note on the keyboard. They are sequential (i.e., C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B). Tubes, usually made of lead, are connected from the back of the tracker and to the stack. Each tube is connected to a channel in the stack that controls a valve connected to the main vacuum supply from the pump. Pump - The lower part of the player. The pumping pedals are connected to the pump. The pump usually contains the wind motor regulation, and controls to divert the vacuum to the stack, wind motor, and expression pneumatics. Expression pneumatic - Since the piano's usual expression pedals are covered up by the pump pedals, it looks as if you cannot access them. However, there is a way to duplicate these pedals through the use of expression pneumatics. The piano controls are usually located underneath the hinged key slip. Usually, there is a button which will control the equivalent pedal function also. In order to operate the loud pedal, simply push a button on the control rail, and the loud expression pneumatic will operate exactly like the loud pedal. In addition to the loud pedal, there are usually two soft pedal expression pneumatics. [5.4] How do they work? Player pianos use suction, not pressure, to work. As the pedals are operated, air is pulled from the pump and the entire stack is placed under a slight vacuum. This vacuum operates a motor that turns the rolls in the spool box. The piano roll has holes cut in them that when they pass over the tracker bar, the tracker bar's holes are uncovered. A valve is operated when the holes are uncovered that applies vacuum to the striking pneumatic, which plays the note on the piano. [5.5] Restoring player pianos? As with any pianos, a key to safely restoring old instrument is patience and time. It is best to have restoration done by a professional; however, anyone with a reasonable mechanical aptitude and patience can restore a player. The materials used in restoring player pianos are very specialized, and are generally unavailable at your average local stores. Vinyl covering (naugehide) will crack to pieces in a matter of days when used to recover pneumatics. Common rubber hoses (fish tank and automotive style) will collapse and turn brittle in a matter of months, rendering an irreplaceable antique musical instrument useless. Also, white glue, silicone sealers, body filler, tape, etc., have no place in player pianos. The tried and true methods and materials as used when manufactured are to be used in the restoration. [5.6] Books on player restoration The main book for player restoration is: PLAYER PIANO - Servicing and Rebuilding, by Arthur Reblitz Published by The Vestal Press Vestal, NY 13850 ISBN 0-911572-40-6 (pbk.) For advanced rebuilders: PNEUMATICS HANDBOOK & Orchestrion Builder's Handbook By Craig Brougher [5.7] Where can I get Player piano parts? The main source for player piano parts is: Player Piano Co. 704 East Douglas Wichita, Kansas, 67202 Tel. (316) 263-3241 [5.8] Where can I get new and used music rolls? New Piano rolls are being produced today. Some of the manufacturers and suppliers are: Upright & Grand Eric D. Bernhoft P.O. Box 421101 San Francisco, CA 94142 QRS Music Rolls, Inc. 1026 Niagara Street Buffalo, NY 14213-2099 Tel: (716) 885-4600 Fax: (716) 885-7510 AOL Keyword: QRS QRS Pianomation Center Solenoid player piano division (similar to PianoDisc system) 2011 Seward Ave Naples, FL 33942 Tel: (941) 597-5888 Fax: (941) 597-3936 Play-Rite Music Rolls 401 S. Broadway Turlock, CA 95380 Bluestone Music Rolls 485 Gatewood Lane Grayslake, IL 60030 Piano Roll Center 108 Southcreek Circle Folsom, CA 95630 Collector's Classics 163 Main St. Thomaston, ME 04861 Pianola Institute c/o Denis A Hall 6 Southbourne Hayes, Kent England Bam-Bam Piano Rolls 1750 Karg Drive Akron OH 44313-5504 http://users.aol.com/BamRolls bjelen8875@aol.com http://www.playerpianos.com source of collectible player piano rolls [5.9] Any player piano associations? Automatic Musical Instrument Collectors Association (AMICA) Suppliers of specialty items are also advertise here. For membership information contact: Mike Barnhart 919 Lantern Glow Trail Dayton, Ohio 45431 [5.10] Mailing list? There exists a group called Mechanical Music Digest, formerly called Automatic Musical Instruments, which has a mailing list maintained by Jody Kravitz. If you want to subscribe, send your request to: automatic-music-request@foxtail.com _____________________________________________________________ [6] Harpsichords [6.1] Where can I purchase a harpsichord? Here's where you can get a harpsichord: Harpsichord Clearing House Glenn Giuttari 9 Chestnut Street Rehoboth, MA 02769 tel: (800) 252-4304 [6.2] Harpsichord mailing list Send e-mail to listserv@albany.edu with a message (leave subject line blank): SUBSCRIBE HPSCHD-L yourname _____________________________________________________________ [7] How Do I Represent Notes Using "Text" Characters? There are three major notation systems being used rather frequently today. When you see a notation on your screen, you will have to judge for yourself which system is being used. In most cases, that shouldn't be too difficult. For instance if you see "RPT" written after the poster's name, you can probably assume they are using the "piano technician" notation (RPT = Registered Piano Technician). And if you start seeing numbers higher than "7" being used after the pitch, you probably can assume the "MIDI" notation system is being used. [7.1] The "General" notation method There is a simple alpha-numeric notation system which has been in existence for some time and which may be used in postings on the Internet. It is as follows: Going up starting at middle C: c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 a1 b1 Continuing up the next octave: c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 a2 b2 And the octaves above that: c3 etc. ...and so on... First octave below middle C: c d e f g a b Next octave lower: C D E F G A B Next octave lower: C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A1 B1 ...and so on... However, if you decide to print this out in hard-copy, publications rules change. On hard-copy, the numerals in the upper octaves are written as superscripts, and those below middle-C are written as subscripts. Source: Baker, Theodore, Ed., "Pronouncing Pocket-Manual of Musical Terms", G. Schirmer, Inc., New York, 1947. [7.2] The "Piano Technician" notation method Some piano technicians seem to prefer a different system, which starts with A0 at the bottom and ends with C8 at the top: A0 B0 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A1 B1 C2 D2 E2 etc. ...and so on, until you reach C8 [7.3] The "MIDI file" notation method The MIDI files sequentially number keys from 1 at the bottom to 88 at the top: A1 A#2 B3 C4 ... B87 C88 [7.4] On sharps and flats The computer keyboard imposes a few limitations on the use of this notation system. There is a sharp sign (# -- use the "pound" sign) on the computer keyboard, but no flat sign. The lower-case "B" (b) will have to suffice The accidental is written one position to the right of the letter which indicates the note, makes it unambiguous. For example, B# for B-sharp-second-octave-below-middle-C, b1b for b-flat- first-octave-above-middle-C, etc. _____________________________________________________________ [8] Miscellaneous Tidbits [8.2] Interval nomenclatures? Here's a crash course on interval nomenclatures. perfect unison: 2 notes on same pitch minor second: 1/2 step major second: 1 step minor third: 1-1/2 steps major third: 2 steps perfect fourth: 2-1/2 steps augmented fourth: 3 steps (see enharmonic intervals) diminished fifth: 3 steps (see enharmonic intervals) perfect fifth: 3-1/2 steps minor sixth: 4 steps major sixth: 4-1/2 steps minor seventh: 5 steps major seventh: 5-1/2 steps perfect octave: 6 steps perfect consonances: unisons (or primes), fourths, fifths, and octave are only perfect, diminished or augmented. imperfect consonances: thirds and sixths intervals dissonances: seconds and sevenths intervals. only major, minor, diminished or augmented Major intervals: 1/2 step larger than minor intervals. only major, minor, diminished or augmented Augmented intervals: 1/2 step larger than perfect or major intervals. Diminished intervals: 1/2 step lower than perfect or minor intervals. Enharmonic intervals: intervals that use the same pitches but are spelled differently (and thus function differently). Tritone: augmented fourths and diminished fifths are enharmonic, and both are commonly referred to as the tritone. (for example, C to F# and C to Gb are not the same interval, but they are enharmonically the same) Other intervals: compound intervals...larger than an octave inverted intervals...major becomes minor, etc., but note that perfect inverts to perfect, imperfect to imperfect, and dissonant to dissonant Sources of this information: Benjamin, Horvit, and Nelson, "Techniques and Materials of Tonal Music" (Houghton Mifflin, 1975): [8.3] Octave spans of various pianos and harpsichords [8.3.1] Harpsichord octave spans Pisaurensis (1533) = 169mm Ruckers = 167mm Pratensis (1612) = 166mm J. Mayer (1619) = 168mm Giusti (1676) = 174mm Italian (1695) = 163mm Kirkman (1767) = 162mm Graebner (1774) = 156mm Clavichord, Schmahl (1794) = 158mm [8.3.2] Piano octave spans (All grands unless otherwise noted) Cristofori (1726) = 164mm Pohlman (square, 1770) = 178mm Stein (1780s) = 156, 158, 160mm Schiedmeyer (1780) = 156mm Schiedmeyer (1785) = 180mm Longman & Broderip (square, 1790) = 169mm Schantz (1790, 1805) = 160mm Schmid (1794) = 158mm Clementi (1805) = 163mm Erard (Beethoven's piano, 1803) = 162mm Walter (1795) = 159mm Walter (1803) = 153mm Walter (1815) = 160mm Streicher (1816) = 158mm Kirckman (1820) = 162mm Broadwood (Beethoven's piano, 1817) = 166mm Broadwood (1819) = 164mm Boehm (6 oct) = 158mm Fritz (c1825 in workshop of Paul Poletti) = 167mm Graf (1826, similar to Beethoven's Graf) = 161mm J.B. Streicher (1841) = 158mm Pleyel (1852, cf Chopin's Pleyel of 1839) = 164mm Steinway (Hamburg, 1937, modern range) = 165mm Bluethner (modern range) = 165mm [8.5] What's a standard height of a piano keyboard? 28.5" [8.6] Klavarscribo? contact: Klavar Music Foundation 171 Yarborough Road Lincoln LN1 3NQ UK tel: +44 (0) 1522-523117 [8.7] Printing staff lines using postscript codes? (courtesy of anonymous someone on the net) Try creating a file with the following postscript command lines, and print it out on a postscript printer. %! % blank page of 12-line music paper 0 setlinewidth /staffline{newpath dup 75 exch moveto 480 0 rlineto stroke} def /staff{dup 5 exch 20 add {staffline} for} def 95 53 678 {staff} for showpage _____________________________________________________________ [9] On Copyright Laws The following is a rather simplified summary of materials (Circulars) published by the U. S. Copyright Office, a department of the Library of Congress. Also take a look at the Copyright Office web pages at: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/ ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/copyright/circs/ gopher://marvel.loc.gov:70/00/.ftppub/copyright/circs/ This section not intended to be legal advice, nor is it necessarily error-free. It is included here to give people some basic knowledge pertaining to copyrighted materials. [9.1] Where do I get the information on copyright laws? U. S. Copyright Office, a department of the Library of Congress, 101 Independence Avenue, S. E., Washington, DC 20559. Phone (202) 707-3000. The source materials may be obtained on the Internet by gopher or telnet to the Library of Congress at address marvel.loc.gov. For telnet log in as marvel. Select the copyright option from the main Library of Congress menu. [9.2] Copyright Status Title 17, U.S. Code provides copyright protection for both published and unpublished works, granting the owner of the copyright exclusive rights over reproduction, creation of derivative works, distribution of copies for sale or rent, and public performance and display. Copyright protects "original works of authorship" that are "fixed in a tangible form of expression," such as scores or sound recordings of musical works. Works that have not been "fixed in a tangible form of expression," such as improvisational performances that have not been written or recorded, are not protected by copyright. Works for which the copyright has expired are no longer protected; they are in the public domain and cannot again receive copyright protection. Currently copyright is automatically secured upon the creation of a work (as "fixed in a tangible form..."); publication or registration with the Copyright Office is not required. Before 1978, copyright was generally secured by means of publication with a copyright notice (e.g. Copyright MCMXX by John Doe) or, for unpublished works, registration with the Copyright Office. After March 1, 1989 the copyright notice was no longer mandatory on copyrighted works. [9.3] Duration of Copyright Status A work created on or after January 1, 1978 is automatically protected from the moment of its creation, and protection ordinarily lasts for the author's life plus an additional 50 years thereafter. For works published or registered before January 1, 1978 a first term copyright of 28 years starting on the date it was secured (published or registered as unpublished) was provided. During the last (28th) year of the first term, the copyright was eligible for renewal for another 28 years. For copyrights in effect January 1, 1978 the current copyright law extended the renewal term from 28 to 47 years, giving works with renewed copyrights a total term of protection of 75 years. For copyrights secured January 1, 1964 through December 31, 1977, the 47 year extension is automatic. This means that as of 1995 all works published during or before 1920 are now in the public domain, as are works published before 1964 for which a copyright extension was not obtained. Circulars 15, 15a, and 15t contain further information on copyright terms. Circular 22 describes how to search the Copyright Office records concerning the copyright status of a work. [9.4] International Protection The United States is a founding member of the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) since September 16, 1955 and a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. A work by a national or resident of a member country of the UCC or a work first published in a UCC country may claim protection under the UCC. The U.S. joined the Berne Convention on March 1, 1989. Members of the Berne Union agree to treat nationals of other member countries like their own nationals for purposes of copyright. For further information on international copyrights see Circulars 38a and 93. [9.5] Derivative Works and Editions Regarding derivative versions of previous works, including musical arrangements, adaptations, revised or newly edited editions: the derivative works are independently copyright- able, and the copyrights of such works do not affect or extend the protection, if any, of the underlying work. I would presume that the concept of a derivative work applies to a musical work which has been edited, and that any additions or changes due to editing is what is being copyrighted, but I have not run across specifics in this regard. ...in other words... If you want to make a simplified edition of something--you have to use music in the public domain or you have to get permission from the copyright holder. It is sometimes quite a search to find out and to secure permission. But it must be done. [9.6] Fair Use The "fair use" of a copyrighted work, including reproduction as copies or recordings for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, research, or parody, is not an infringement of copyright. Fair use is covered in Section 107 of title 17. There is no real definition of fair use, and in court cases each situation is decided based on its own facts. However, four yardsticks have come to be used, which are expressed in section 107 as: "(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for non-profit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work." Most of the applications of the "fair use" concept have to do with books and articles as used in teaching. ...in a nutshell... Fair use includes: a) reviews/criticism (including parody), b) scholarly use (photocopying one section only-- not a complete perform-able portion such as a movement or an aria; and for study purposes only, not for "using"--such as photocopying a copy for each student to use for a form & analysis exercise or test). c) Copying a page to avoid a page turn is generally considered fair use. Fair use does not include: a) copying to avoid buying the book b) because it's out of print c) because there's not enough time to order and receive another copy, d) because you can't find who holds the copyright e) because you need one for your duet partner. [9.6] More...? Martha Beth Lewis has written up a section on commonly asked questions regarding music copyrights. The URL is http://www.serve.com/marbeth/music_copyright.html Also, check out Copyright FAQ at ftp://ftp.aimnet.com/pub/users/carroll/law/copyright/faq/ _____________________________________________________________ [10] Books and Magazines on Pianos [10.1] Magazines on pianos Clavier Magazine 200 Northfield Rd Northfield, Ill 60093 Keyboard Companion PO Box 24-C-54 Los Angeles, CA 90024 focus on teaching at early levels Piano & Keyboard PO Box 767 San Anselmo, CA 94979-0767 (415) 485-6946 Piano Explorer 200 Northfield Rd Northfield, Ill 60093 primarily for piano students (young ones) Piano Today (formerly Keyboard Classics & Piano Stylist) 223 Katonah Avenue Katonah, NY 10536 Misc. articles and music both classical & pop/jazz Sheet Music PO Box 58629 Boulder, CO 80321-8629 (800) 759-3036 Musical Success Resource Guide E-mail: Bob101Ways@aol.com tel: (314) 773-3466 (800) 527-ROCK This is a free newsletter/catalog which features tips and tools on how to make money and succeed with your career in music. Also it contains many promotional listings, it regularly features tips. You can also ask to be put on their e-mail list to get regular e-mail updates. [10.2] Random recommended readings on piano playing Ward Cannel & Fred Marx, "How to Play the Piano Despite Years of Lessons: What Music Is & How to Make It at Home", Hal Leonard Corp. ISBN 0-385-14263-3, $17.95, (Video: $39.95, 0-88188-831-1) Useful especially for someone just beginning to play by ear (assumes knowledge of basic musical notation, melodies mostly). Hal Leonard Corp. 7777 W. Bluemound Rd. P.O.Box 13819 Milwaukee, WI 53213 (414)774-3630 (800)524-4425 James Friskin and Irwin Freundlich, "Music for the Piano," Dover Publishing. ISBN 0-486-22918-1, ~$10 Book on piano repertoire [10.3] Some books on jazz playing Scott D. Reeves, "Creative Jazz Improvisation" A very thorough book on the application of various scales, modes, and techniques to jazz chord progressions, and it's chock full of exercises to boot. Mark Levine, "The Jazz Piano Book," Chuck Sher Publishing This book will give you a nice complete introduction to scale theory, and it contains information on chord voicing and how to approach different progressions. Mark Levine, "The Jazz Theory Book," Chuch Sher Publishing Stephen Nachmanovich, "Free Play: Creativity in Life and in the Arts." This book covers improvisation, creativity in jazz playing [10.4] What books discuss the piano literature? There are two books reported so far. The definitive classic is "The Literature of the Piano" by Ernest Hutchison, which was written in the early part of this century. For the most part, this book sticks to the traditional Classical and Romantic repertoire, though there is also an interesting discussion of Bach and the pre-Baroque composers. The revised edition, updated by Rudolph Ganz, adds useful sections on more modern composers, as well as commentary on the older material. There are even a few places where Ganz takes Hutchison to task! The two also make recommendations for selection of repertoire. Overall, it is a wonderful book which is not just for reference, but can also be read cover to cover. A more recent book is "The Art of the Piano", by [???]. This book is more encyclopedic in nature than "The Literature of the Piano", and it does not try to recommend particular works, as "The Literature of the Piano" does. Therefore, it is strictly a reference work, but it is more complete. In particular, there is detailed information on modern compositions written after the publication of "The Literature of the Piano". Unfortunately, nothing before Bach and Scarlatti is listed. There is also an encyclopedic listing of pianists in this book. [10.5] Random miscellaneous reference books Paul Cooper "Perspectives in Music Theory", Harper & Row, 1973. book on music theory Benjamin, Horvit, and Nelson, "Techniques and Materials of Tonal Music", Houghton Mifflin, 1975. more book on music theory John Clough and Joyce Conley, "Scales Intervals Keys Triads Rhythm and Meter", Norton. ISBN 0-393-95189-8, ~$24 programmed text for introductory theory Dorothy Priesing and Libbie Techlin, "Language of the Piano: A Workbook in Theory and Keyboard Harmony", Carl Fischer Publisher. focuses on theathing theory in a way that is useful to keyboard players. Covers theory and some keyboard exercises. _____________________________________________________________ [11] Other Mail Order Companies [11.1] Music score companies Rec.music.classical.performing has a FAQ containing extensive list of mail-order companies. Please check their FAQ list if you want more. Dover Publications 31 East 2nd Street Mineola, NY 11501 Eble Music Company P.O. Box 2570 Iowa City, Iowa 52240 tel: (319) 338-0313 fast, dependable source for classical music scores. will help special search for hard-to-get music Musica Obscura 17 Ebbet Avenue Wallaston, MA 02170 tel: (617) 773-1947 a source for unusual piano music from classical and romantic periods. (photocopies, so obviously no recent music included) Patelson's NY tel: (212) 582-5840 classical music Patti Music 414 State Street PO Box 1514 Madison, WI 53701-1514 tel: (800) 777-2884 RBC Music Company, Inc. 4410 Piedras Drive West San Antonio, TX 78228 tel: (800) 548-0917 (210) 736-6902 fax: (210) 736-2919 E-mail: rbcnote1@aol.com has huge inventory of all types of piano music. specializes in educational print music Order on-line, or be added to e-mail list to receive promotional flyers or mail outs, send e-mail. Wadler-Kaplan Music Shop 3907 S. Main Houston, TX 77002 tel: (713) 529-2676 (800) 952-7526 fax: (713) 529-2844 Sheet music Yesterday Music Service 1972 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02140 tel: (617) 547-8263 Extensive selection of scores of all kinds, in any quantity. They will take special orders of any scores they don't carry. They also have a walk-in service on the 4th floor of 1972 Mass. Ave building (near Porter Square, on Red Line "T" station). Offers student discounts for walk-in service. [11.2] Digital Piano Mail-Order Please see "Digital Pianos Hardware List" maintained by this newsgroup. See section [4] for how to get hold of a copy. [11.3] Specialized recordings A company called Academy Records specializes in publishing CD's and cassettes of piano music that one tends to play as a beginning/intermediate/early advanced student. Their offerings include: Bach "18 Little Preludes" Bach "Anna Magdalena" w/ "Two-Part Inventions" Beethoven "Selected Works" (Bagatelles, Fur Elise, etc.) Burgmuller "25 Easy & Progressive Studies, Op.100" Clementi "Six Sonatinas, Op.36" Kabalevsky "30 Children's Pieces, Op.27" w/ "24 Little Pieces, Op.39" Schumann "Album for the Young, Op.68" 20th Century Literature (Copland "Cat and Mouse", Turina "The Circus, etc.) Music from Jane Bastien's PIANO LITERATURE series, Vol.1-4 For more info. call contact Academy Records PO Box 10805 Burbank, CA 91510-0805 tel: (800) 858-1469 _____________________________________________________________ [12] Other sources of information [12.1] RMMP Piano Internet Resources List This document is in its draft stage, scheduled to be released as its own FAQ soon. The draft document is currently available through the RMMP FAQ Locator Page (see beginning of this document for URL). This list is a compilation of resources available on the Internet (WWW, Gopher, FTP) which are piano-related or may be of interest to pianists. [12.2] Piano Technicians Guild The home office of the Piano Technicians Guild (PTG) is located in Kansas City, MO, and apparently keep the usual 9-5 business hours. Here are some methods to contact them. The PTG's www home page has many interesting and useful information. I highly recommend you to go check it out, if you haven't done so yet! 3930 Washington Kansas City, MO 64111 tel: (816) 753-7747 URL: http://www.ptg.org/ E-mail: 75032.3711@compuserv.com ************************** end RMMP General Topics FAQ I would like to extend my thanks to many in the RMMP newsgroup for bits and pieces of information contained in this FAQ: Martha Beth Lewis, Tim MacEachern, Guy Klose, Larry Fine, Tom Sheehan, John Musselwhite, Ron Torrella, Achim Gratz, carolp@teleport.com (Carolyn), Duncan Vinson, Stephen Birkett, and Virginia Marks for directly contributing to this FAQ. Special thanks goes to Phil Tompkins, for his countless suggestions, proof-reading, contributions, etc. This is what happens when you "volunteer" to help me write this FAQ! :-) If I missed anyone, please let me know! This is really a collective effort of the entire newsgroup. This document is copyright (c) 1995-1997 by Isako Hoshino. It may be freely distributed in its entirety provided that this copyright notice is not removed. It may not be sold for profit nor incorporated in commercial documents without the author's permission. This article is provided "as is" without express or implied warranties. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this article, the maintainer assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. Isako Hoshino rmmpfaq@yahoo.com ==========================================================