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Subject: comp.sys.m68k Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:22:25 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: motorola
All FAQs posted in: comp.sys.m68k
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Archive-name: motorola/68k-chips-faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 1996/01/06 Version: 22
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) comp.sys.m68k This list is maintained by: Robert Boys San Jose, California formerly from Ontario, CANADA Email: r.boys@genie.geis.com or rboys@hitex.com January 6, 1996 this is the 22th list =========================================================================== =========================================================================== = I am finally updating this FAQ ! I have been quite busy lately. = = = = I hope all of you reading this, your family and friends had a = = wonderful and peaceful Christmas and New Year holiday wherever = = you may happen to live in the world. I wish that all of you = = have a continuing prosperous and safe 1996. = = = = As you may have noticed in my header - I have moved from the land of = = ice and snow (Canada) to sunny California. = = I now work for Hitex Development Tools - aka HiTOOLS Inc. They sell = = emulators and such. Watch for me at tradeshows = = = = VMEbus, M68K and HC11 information may be sent to rboys@hitex.com = = = = I have a new Homepage: http://www2.best.com/~rboys (California) = = The latest version of this FAQ is stored there - i.e. the "work in = = process" version. I will be getting it running in the next few weeks. = = This is also true for the FAQ for comp.arch.bus.vmebus = = My backup Homepage is http://www.sentex.net/~rboys (Canada) = = = = This FAQ is also stored on: = = = = Canada - http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/archive/m68kfaq.html = = Germany - http://www.ba-karlsruhe.de/automation/FAQ/m68k = = California - http://www.hitex.com/automation/FAQ/m68k = = = = You can also retrieve the entire set of files (gifs and text) by = = pointing your Browser (Netscape 1.1n does this) at: = = = = http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/archive/m68kfaq.zip = = http://www.hitex.com/automation/Faq/m68kfaq.zip = = = =========================================================================== =========================================================================== The information contained in this FAQ is believed to be correct and up to date. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy. The maintainer cannot be responsible for errors and omissions. Check with a Motorola sales office to make sure a device is available before designing any products. Products or services listed here are for information purposes only - they are not endorsed or recommended. This article is copyright (c) 1995 and all rights are reserved. This article may be reprinted provided it is intact, proper credit is given and no cost is levied. Contact the author for permissions. The various archive locations of this FAQ are now listed under: G) M68k and VMEbus FAQs Archive sites What's New! new entries have a ] in the left margin ------------ * There is finally a good 68000 simulator available on the Net for non-commercial applications. It is called x68k.zip. ftp://nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola/m68k/x68k.zip Alan Clements of the University of Teesside is named M68K Friend of the Year for contributing this program. It was badly needed. * Introl is offering a US$150 non-commercial license for their C compiler - for information see http://www.introl.com or Email info@introl.com. This is now available for Windows95. * SDS has a Homepage now. They make the Cross-Code C/C++ compilers. http://www.sdsi.com * Applications Update File mailing list. From the Advanced Microcontroller Division in Texas. * Some new prices from California Coming Soon! * ColdFire information - this will appear on my Homepage first. * MC68MH360 information -------------------------------------------------------------------------- CONTENTS: 1) Motorola 16/32 Bit Product Line A) MC680x0 B) MC68EC0x0 and MC68LC0x0 C) MC68300 series D) ColdFire E) Peripheral Chips F) 8 and 16 bit Processors (HC05, HC11 and the HC16 series) G) Speed Comparisons H) PowerPC - MPC601, MPC603, MPC604 series. I) PowerPC Embedded Controllers J) Other Manufacturers K) Interesting places M68K devices are used. 2) Software Sources A) Free Software Available B) GNU, NetBSD, LINUX, GCC, RTEMS etc. C) Commercial Software Available D) Motorola BBS and AESOP E) ftp and WWW sites F) World Wide Web (WWW) links G) M68k and VMEbus FAQs Archive sites 3) Hardware (board level) Sources A) Integrated Development Platform (IDP), MEVB, BCC, et al B) VMEbus modules C) Indiana University 68030 single board project D) Consumer computers and Workstations E) Integrated Circuit Prices 4) Construction Information 5) General Specifications A) Integrated Circuit Package Information B) Pin-outs C) S-Records D) CPU Clocks and Double-Clocking E) Big and Little Endians 6) Literature A) "Specs in Secs" B) "UPDATE" C) "The 68K Connection" D) Master Selection Guide E) Motorola Addresses F) Literature Distribution Centres G) Training and Instructional Books H) University Support I) Trade Journals and Magazines //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 1) Motorola 16/32 Bit Product Line: ===================================== Motorola introduced its first microprocessor in 1974: the 8 bit MC6800 with an extensive line of support peripherals soon available. The MC68000 was introduced in 1979 and was soon followed by a host of 16 bit peripheral chips. The 6800 and 68000 families soon became very popular due to their straightforward architecture and simple and easy to use bus connections. The original 6800 evolved into the 6502 (MOS Technology ie Apple ][), 6802, 6805, 6809, HC11 and the HC16 series. Motorola also manufactured an unusual one (1) bit CPU called the MC14500 Industrial Control Unit (ICU). It is still listed in their current Master Selection Guide. The first member of the 68K family - the MC68000, is not software compatible with the 8 bit 6800 series which includes the 68HC11 series. The 68K family itself is upwards software compatible. There are no multiplexed pins on the 68000 series. The instruction set is noted for being orthogonal. The two Motorola divisions of interest here are the High Performance MPU and the Advanced Micro-Controller Unit (AMCU). The High Performance Group deals with the MC680x0 series, 68306, 68307, 68322, 68340, 68341 and 68349. The rest (including 680x, 68HC11, 68HC16) are from the AMCU division except the 68360, 68302 and 68356 which are from the Communications Division. This FAQ divides the 68K family into three sections - MC680x0, MC68EC0x0 and the MC68300 series. A short section on 8/16 bit processors follows. The Motorola integrated circuit product line (almost all of it) has the prefix of "MC" as in MC68030. 68030 and '030 are short forms of this. A prefix of "XC" indicates a part not yet fully qualified. A prefix of "SC" designates a part specially made for a customer. The terms M68K or 68K represent the 68000 processor line in general as in comp.sys.m68k. ( K = 10^3 or ,000 in scientific circles) A "*" as in DTACK* signifies the signal is active or true in the low state if level sensitive or on the presence of a negative edge if edge triggered. A byte is 8 bits, a word 16 bits and a long word is 32 bits. The prefix "$" as in $7F or $128 signifies a hexadecimal number. Motorola was originally the Galvin Mfg. Co in the early thirties. The name "Motorola" came from the fact that Motorola was once a major player in automobile radios hence the "motor". Autos were called "motor cars" ("motors" by those who were "hip") in the 1930s. The "ola" is the "derived 2nd element of pianola" according to the Oxford dictionary. Pianola was a turn-of-the-century machine that played pianos. The "ola" is a suffix used to form commercial nouns such as used in the music industry ie "Victrola"; just as "tronics" is a suffix commonly used today by electronics firms. A) MC680x0 ------------ The original MC68000 has the following general features: * CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computer architecture. * eight 32 bit general purpose data registers (D0-D7). * eight 32 bit general purpose address registers (A0-A7). (A7 is the stack pointer - user or supervisor) * 32 bit Program Counter - linear 4 gigabyte - no paging or segments. * 16 bit external data bus - needs 16 bit ROM and RAM for system. Can access 8 or 16 bit memory and peripheral devices. * 16 Mbyte linear addressing range (23 bit plus Upper* and Lower* data strobes for an effective 24 bit range), 32 bit with 68020. * 56 Instruction types - over 1000 useful permutations are possible. * memory mapped I/O. (peripheral registers addressed as memory). * 14 addressing modes on a contiguous address space (no segments). * 5 main data types. (bit, byte, BCD, word and long word). * Supervisor and User states. Stack Pointer A7 is set to User (USP) or Supervisor SP (SSP) by a bit in the status register. * Exception processing and 7 levels of interrupts. * Tracing function - each instruction ends in a TRAP to user program. * Asynchronous bus structure. Uses DTACK* from the peripheral chip. * non-multiplexed address and data buses - interfaces with LS-TTL. * Bus Arbitration Control circuitry. * 5 volt NMOS dynamic construction. (the 68HC000 is a CMOS 68000) The 68HC000 is a CMOS version of the NMOS MC68000. The 68EC000 is a CMOS version of the 68000 with a switchable (at reset) 8 or 16 bit data bus. It is not a static device - the minimum clock frequency is 4 Mhz. It is designed for the embedded controller market. Exception processing results from interrupts, TRAP instructions, a bus or address error or a reset. This feature simplifies software development by detecting bugs and errors and helps prevent "run-away" conditions. The Exception Vector table is normally made of 255 32 bit vectors using 1024 bytes of memory starting at location 0. The CPU loads the appropriate vector, containing the 32 bit address of the routine to service the exception, from this table at the occurrence of an exception such as reset, bus or address error, word access to odd memory location, TRAP and others. This table is usually constructed in RAM by the operating system during the initialization period. There are 192 user interrupt vectors reserved. The initial SSP (Supervisor Stack Pointer) and initial PC (for RESET) occupy memory location $0 and $4 which usually maps out to ROM. The CPU can only switch from USER mode to the SUPERVISOR mode via exception processing. The majority of programs are meant to execute in the User Mode. The Supervisor Mode is used by the operating system to access system resources. The processor is in the Supervisor Mode at RESET. A system can operate continuously in the Supervisor Mode. MC68008: The 68008 is a MC68000 with a 8 bit data bus in a 48 pin DIP or a 52 pin PLCC. The RAM, ROM and peripheral chips must have 8 bit data paths. The DIP package address bus is 20 bits (1 mbyte) and the PLCC device has 22 bits (4 mbytes). A0 is present on both these parts. The 68008 is listed as "not recommended for new designs". Other devices such as the MC68HC001, 68EC000 and the 68302 have a switchable (at reset) 8 or 16 bit data bus. MC68010: The 68010 is a 68000 with the addition of virtual machine and virtual memory capabilities and a "loop mode" which acts like a 3 word instruction cache. This processor is listed as "not for new designs". A 68010 will plug into a 68000 socket and work in most systems. Three new registers are added. The Vector Base Register (VBR) determines where in memory the vector table is located which allows for multiple tables to implement the virtual machine and memory functions. The Alternate Function Code Registers (SFC and DFC) allow the Supervisor mode to access user data space or emulate CPU space cycles. The instruction set is essentially the same for the 68000/08/10. The 68010 supports modular programming. The CPU32 processor used in the 68300 series is a 68010 with some 68020 instructions added. MC68020: The MC68020 incorporates 32 bit address and data paths and Dynamic Bus Sizing to "size" peripherals and memory on a cycle-by-cycle basis to 8, 16 or 32 bit lengths using signals supplied by external hardware to the SIZ0-1 pins. The 68020 is software compatible to all earlier 68K members. A co-processor interface is provided in the instruction set. All virtual features of the 68010 are preserved. The multiply and divide instructions use 32 bit operands and branch displacements can be 32 bits. A new data type, the "quad word" is 64 bits and used in the multiply and divide instructions. Over 20 new instructions have been added. A 256 byte instruction cache has been added along with two cache registers (CACR and CAAR). A Master Stack Pointer (MSP) (32 bits) has been added to facilitate Multi-Tasking Operating Systems. MC68030: The MC68030 is essentially an improved 68020. The MC68030 incorporates a paged memory management unit (MMU) and 256 byte instruction and data caches (modified Harvard Architecture). The internal MMU implements most of the functions of the MC68851 MMU. Two 64 bit, three 32 bit and one 16 bit registers have been added for MMU control functions. The improved bus interface supports "burst mode", asynchronous and synchronous memory accesses as well as dynamic bus sizing support. The Burst Mode fills the data and instruction caches with bytes from external memory independently with four accesses in a row. Many functions of the 68030 operate in parallel increasing throughput. The 68030 can switch between synchronous and asynchronous modes "on the fly". The '030 is a device useful for new designs and is available in PGA and surface mount packages up to 50 Mhz. MC68040: The MC68040 adds a Floating Point Unit (FPU), separate memory managers for data and instruction memory and 4 Kbyte data and instruction caches. The '040 has 32 bit data and address busses with synchronous bus cycles and uses a full Harvard architecture. The 68040 (as well as the 68060) does not support dynamic bus sizing as in the '020 and '030. The MC68150 will add this feature to the '040 and '060. A new instruction, "Move16", has been added which performs 16 byte block transfers using burst read and writes for high speed. The built-in FPU utilizes most of the instructions of the MC68882 FPU. For a no-cost software package that simulates the unimplemented instructions, see 040_fpsp under A) Free Software Available. The MC68040 is used in current high power computer systems. There is a special companion mode on the MC68360 QUICC to replace the CPU32+ with a MC68EC040 to increase performance of the QUICC. The 360/EC040 pair reportedly performs at 22 MIPS @ 25 Mhz. MC68050: There is no known 68050 part. The rumour on the Net is that since people were pairing Intel and Motorola processors by part number - ie 6800/8080, 68000/8086, 68010/80186, 68020/80286, 68030/80386 and so on - Motorola decided to break the pattern and jump from the '040 directly to the '060. I have never seen any information from Motorola to suggest this story is true - it is just rumour. It does make appropriate marketing sense. Signetics once (still?) made a Scc68070 that is similar to the MC68000. The official word from Motorola is that odd numbered parts represent minor changes from the previous chip. Even numbers are for major part changes. Another rumour is that the '050 existed at least on paper but when it was shown to major customers, this prototype did not fit into their strategic plans since it was only an improved '040. In view of this, Motorola decided to skip the '050 and go straight to the '060 which also existed on paper then and better fit into the strategies of major customers. MC68060: This is the latest and most powerful member of the 68K family. The '060 is designed as an upgrade from a '040 with 2.5 to 3.5 times the performance of the 25 mhz '040. It uses Superscalar pipelined architecture which means it can perform more than one instruction at a time. The 68060 allows simultaneous execution of two integer instructions (or 1 integer and 1 float instruction) and one branch during each clock cycle. A branch cache allows most branches to execute in zero cycles. This CPU has some RISC processor features. The chip is all hardwired - there is no microcode in it. It incorporates a JTAG interface to help simplify the debugging process. The on-board caches have been increased to 8 Kbytes each and the '060 has 2.5 million transistors on the single die. The '060 uses various dynamic power management techniques to reduce power consumption. The '060 has a clock speed of 50 Mhz currently with a future model at 66 Mhz and since the '060 is a static device, the clock has no lower limit and can even be stopped. This part operates at a Vcc of 3.3 volts and interfaces to both 3 and 5 volt peripherals. The input pins can swing between 0 and 5 volts and the output pins between 0 and 3.3 volts. It has been available as a sample part for some time now and is probably now entering quantity production. This may be the last member of the 68K family. The '060 does not support dynamic bus sizing except with the addition of the MC68150 chip. The '060 offers 100 MIPS @ 66mhz and 250 million operations per second @ 50 mhz. SPECint = 50 @ 50Mhz. There is a M68060 software package (M68060SP) that supplies software emulation for unimplemented integer instructions, FPU software and other library subroutines. This package is available on the Motorola BBS system and now, AESOP. Apple Computer has announced it will not use the MC68060 in the Macintosh. It has switched to the PowerPC RISC chips. The Motorola 68000 series no longer appears to have a future in the desktop market. The '060 will likely find application in advanced high power embedded controllers. It has a list price of $US 308 probably at quantity. (unverified) Motorola claims it will add peripheral devices to the '060 in the future as it has with its 8 bit parts. This is possible because the '060 is of a modular design. The '060 is available in a 223 PGA package and will fit into a 179 pin 68040 super- socket. The extra '060 pins are in towards the center of the socket. ]The '060 is starting to appear in VMEbus computers from such companies as Motorola, Heurikon, EKF, Synergy (2 '060s!) and others. There are '060 accelerator cards available for the Amiga and a European firm called Escom will have the Amiga A4000T/060 computer on the market in late October. This information courtesy of Rask Lambertson in Denmark. It appears the 68K line will have a long life due to its straight forward architecture, simple bus interface and ease of machine language programming. DEVICE TRANSISTORS DEVICE TRANSISTORS MC68000 68,000 MC68302 320,000 MC68008 70,000 MC68330 235,000 MC68010 84,000 MC68340 350,000 MC68020/EC20 190,000 MC68440 26,000 MC68030 273,000 MC68661 6,000 MC68EC030 251,000 MC68681 9,743 MC68040 1,170,000 MC68881 155,000 MC68EC040 962,000 MC68882 176,000 MC68LC040 813,500 MC68901 9,100 MC68060 2,500,000 MC68230 16,700 MC68322 422,000 PPC601 2,800,000 Alpha AXP 21164 9.3 million PPC603 1,600,000 MIPS R8000 3,400.000 PPC604 3,600,000 PPC620 7,000,000 Pentium 3,300,000 P6 > 6 million IntelDX4 1,600,000 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Feature | 68000 | 'EC000 | 68010 | 68020 | 68030 | 68040 | 68060 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Data bus | 16 8/16 16 8/16/32 8/16/32 32 32 | | Addr bus | 23 23 23 32 32 32 32 | | Virtual memory | - - Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes | | Instruct Cache | - - 3 256 256 4096 8192 | | Data Cache | - - - - 256 4096 8192 | | Memory manager | <+ (68451 or 68851) +> 68851 Yes Yes Yes | | FPU interface | - - - 68881 or 68882 Internal FPU | | built-in FPU | - - - - - Yes Yes | | Burst Memory | - - - - Yes Yes Yes | | Bus Cycle type | <++++++++ asynchronous +++++++> both synchronous | | Data Bus Sizing| - - - Yes Yes use 68150 | | Power (watts) | 1.2 .13-.26 .13 1.75 2.6 4 - 6 3.9-4.9| | at frequency of| 8.0 8-16 8 ? ? 25-40 50-66 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTES: a) 68010, 68008, 68451 are apparently no longer available from Motorola. b) FPU (floating point arithmetic unit) has eight 80 bit registers. c) MC68008 is a MC68000 with a 8 bit external data path and A0 pin. d) MC68882 is an enhanced version of the MC68881. Check the appropriate data sheets for more information and interchangeability. e) The MC68000/10 external address bus consists of pins A1 to A23. A0 is an internal signal. Using this scheme, the processor accesses memory in steps of 16 bits for a maximum total of 8 mwords or 16 mbytes of memory. The external outputs UPPER* and LOWER* data strobes can be used to effect byte transfers. See the 68000 data sheet for more detail. Other 68k series members have a A0 pin. All internal address registers are 32 bit. f) MC68060 has a 256 byte entry branch cache. It is also a 3.3 volt part. g) MC68040V and MC68EC040V are 3.3 volt parts, the rest are 5 volts. h) MC68HC000 is low power version of the 68000 using HCMOS technology. i) MC68HC001 is a HC68000 with either a (at reset) 8 or 16 bit data bus. j) The MC68040V, 68LC040, 68EC040 or 68EC040V do not have a FPU. k) The MC68HC000 is a CMOS (low power) version of the MC68000. l) The MC68EC020 is a low cost '020. It has a 24 bit address bus. m) HCMOS= CMOS combined with HMOS (high density NMOS) B) MC68EC0x0 and MC68LC0x0 ---------------------------- This family is essentially a subset of the MC680x0 product line. It is designed for low cost embedded controller applications. The major differences between the two are listed below. Check the appropriate data sheet for more detailed information. a) MC68EC000 is a MC68000 with selectable 8 or 16 bit data bus and A0. b) MC68EC020 is a MC68020 with a 24 bit address bus rather than 32 bits. c) MC68EC030 is a MC68030 without a paged memory manager (PMMU). d) MC68LC040 is a MC68040 without a built-in math coprocessor (FPU). e) MC68EC040 is a MC68040 without a memory manager or built-in FPU. f) MC68LC060 is a MC68060 without a built-in math coprocessor (FPU) g) MC68EC060 is a MC68060 without a memory manager or built-in FPU. External FPUs (MC68881/2) are not easily attached to 68000/08/10, 68EC040 or 68LC040 processors since the co-processor instructions are not present on these CPUs. C) MC68300 series ------------------- This series incorporates various peripherals into various 68K core processors. They may be called "integrated processors". The core processors are the 68EC000 and CPU32. The CPU32 is derived from the 68020 processor. The CPU32 has a 16 bit data bus and the extended version (CPU32+) incorporates a full 32 bit data bus. The CPU32 and CPU32+ have a built-in background debugging mode (BDM) in the internal microcode. corrections and additions in the next three charts: EC000 CPU CORES: --------------------------------------------------------------------- | Feature | 68302 | 68306 | 68307 | 68322 | 68356 | ? | --------------------------------------------------------------------- | Core CPU | EC000 EC000 EC000 EC000 EC000 - | | TPU (timer) | - - - - - - | | DUART (68681) | - Yes 1/2 see - - | | DRAM controller| Yes Yes - below Yes - | | Static Ram | 576 x 2 - - for 1152 - | | Flash EEPROM | - - - more - - | | A/D Converter | - - - info - - | | Serial Ports | 3 Duplex - - - 3+2 - | | DMA | Yes - ? - Yes - | | Timer | 3 - 2 - 3 - | | Parallel Ports | 2 2 bit - 45+8 bits - | | Chip Selects X | 4 8 4 - 4 - | | PGA package ? | Yes - ? - - - | | Clock speed Mhz| 16/20 16 8/16 16/20 25 - | | 3.3v available?| - - Yes - @20 Mhz - | | Power (Watts) | .37-.93 | | at frequency of| 8-20 | --------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTES: a) MC68307 has a 8051 8 bit data bus, 8 external interrupts and IIC port b) MC68302 has a DRAM controller ability using the Communications Processor main (RISC) controller. MC68322 (BANDIT): - Uses a EC000 core with a RISC graphics processor (RGP), a print engine video controller (PVC) and other features. This part is designed for non-impact printers such as 600 dpi lasers, inkjets and the fax/modem/printer market. MC68356: Signal Processing Communication Engine (SPCE): a 68302 and a 56002 (24 bit Digital Signal Processor - (DSP)) in one package. The DSP section has 5.25K program RAM and 5.5K data RAM (all @ 24 bits). Licensed to use "TRUESPEECH" speech compression from DSP Group and other DSP56002 code. Target market includes small modems, wireless communications, cellular and automobile navigation. Available 4th quarter 1994 @$64.95 (qty > 10,000). Uses BGA (OMPAC) package. Other features include PCMCIA support and emulates a 16550 serial port. There are three new flavours of the MC68302: MC68LC302 - this part is a low power version. There is one less serial port (SCC) and the CPU core is static therefore will run down to DC. It will cost $11.25 (qty = 10k) and will be available 1995. MC68PM302 - this part has a PCMCIA controller and the same low power characteristics as the LC. Both the LC and the PM are available in 3.3 and 5 volt version @ 16 and 20 Mhz. $ 17.50 (qty = 10k) and available in 1995. MC68EN302 - an Ethernet version. This configuration is useful for lo-end bridge and router markets. It connects to a MC68160 EEST to form a complete Ethernet connection. It is 5 volt and 20 Mhz only. It will be available late 1995 for $25 (qty = 10k). The MC68160 EEST is $10 @ 10k. CPU32 CPU CORES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Feature | 68330 | 68331 | 68332 | 68F333 | 68334 | 68340 | 68341 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Core CPU | CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 | CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 | | TPU (timer) | - - Yes Yes | Yes - - | | DUART (68681) | - - - - | - Yes - | | DRAM controller| - - - - | - - - | | Static Ram | - - 2K 4K | 1K - - | | Flash EEPROM | - - - 64K | - - - | | A/D Converter | - - - 8/10 bits| 8 ch - - | | Serial Ports | - 2 2 2 | - 2 ch UART 2 | | DMA | - - - No | - 2 CH 2 CH | | Timer | 2 GPT - 1 | - 2 Yes | | Parallel Ports | 2 - - 18 bits| ? 2 2 | | Chip Selects X | 4 12 12 9 | ? 4 8 | | PGA package ? | - - - - | No Yes - | | Clock speed Mhz| 8/16/25 16/20 20 16 | 16 8/16/25 - | | 3.3v available?| Yes - - - | - Yes Yes | | Power (watts) | .63 .6 | .95 | | at frequency of| 16.78 ? | 16.78 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTES: a) The MC68330 is the lowest cost member of the 68300 family. (maybe) b) MC68341 has a RTC. (real time clock) The 68341 was developed for CD-I (Compact Disk Technology) products. c) The MC68F333 may not be available due to production problems. d) The 68340V and 68330V are 3.3 volt parts. CPU32+ CPU CORE: (32 bit address bus) and 68HC16 --------------------------------------------------------------------- | Feature | 68349 | 68360 | | | HC16Y1| HC16Z1| HC16Z2 | --------------------------------------------------------------------- | Core CPU | CPU030 CPU32+ | CPU16 CPU16 CPU16 | | TPU (timer) | - - | Yes - - | | DUART (68681) | similar 2 UART | - - - | | DRAM controller| - Yes | - - - | | Static Ram | 4K 2.5K | 2k 1k 2k | | Flash EEPROM | - - | 48k rom - 8k rom | | A/D converter | No - | all 8 channel - 10 bits | | Serial Ports | - 4 | 2 2 1 | | DMA | 2 ch 2 ch | - - - | | Timer | 2 4+16 | GPT GPT GPT | | Parallel Ports | 2 3 | Yes Yes Yes | | Chip Selects X | 4 8 | 9 12 12 | | PGA package ? | - Yes | QFP QSP QFP | | Clock speed Mhz| 16/25 25 | 16 16 - | | 3.3v available?| Yes - | - - - | | Power (Watts) | .3 | | | at frequency of| 25 | | --------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTES: a) The MC68360 has an optional -dual- Ethernet capability. (MC68EN360) b) The 68349 has a 1 kbyte instruction cache or a 2k static ram. This memory has four partitions, each can be configured as cache or ram. c) The 68349 is known as "Dragon I" and is the most powerful 683xx. d) The serial channels in the MC68360 have a totally transparent mode which is useful since it can act as a ISDN controller. e) The HC16 series use the same modules as the 683xx series. The HC16 series use a CPU16 which is upwardly code-compatible with the HC11. f) There is a new 68360 - MC68MH360. General Notes on the MC683xx Series: a) Availability of features is not necessarily mutually exclusive. b) CPU32 has a 16 bit external data bus. CPU32+ has a 32 bit data bus. c) The CPU32+(with cache) (as in the 68349) is referred to as a CPU030. A CPU030 is a CPU32+, a configurable instruction cache and a quad memory module. A CPU030 has performance comparable to a MC68030. Memory management is not supported in the MC68349. d) Chip Selects X - programmable CS pins to select external peripherals. e) ? - I do not have the data sheet for this device. f) PGA avail - Pin Grid Array. Easier to use as surface mount devices are difficult to solder. (but not impossible) g) These devices are very complicated. It is impossible to outline all the possible features. Refer to the appropriate data sheet. h) Some devices have built-in background debuggers. See data sheets. i) GPT = General Purpose Timer. See the appropriate data sheets. j) The 68HC16 series is not software compatible with the 68k series. k) The file apps.info from nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca contains a list of documents available for products such as 68302, 68360 and others. l) Technical Briefs for the MC68349(V), MC68322 and MC68356 are available in PCX format (zipped) via ftp from nyquist.ee.ualberta in the directory /pub/motorola/datasheets as files m68349.zip, m68322.zip and mc68356.zip and from AESOP either by phone or via Internet. D) ColdFire ------------- This will be the next new section in this FAQ. Next month perhaps. E) Peripheral Chips --------------------- There is a large offering of peripheral chips available from various manufacturers. The MC68230 PIT (Parallel Interface/Timer) and the MC68901 MFP (Multi-Function Peripheral) are common and very useful. 68K peripheral devices have a DTACK* output that signals acknowledgement of the bus cycle to the CPU - this is how the asynchronous bus functions in the 68k family. Devices from other families can be used with some ingenuity in the interface. The multiplexed bus on other competitive products and the lack of the DTACK* acknowledgement signal are two issues. Generation of the DTACK* signal in these situations is simple. 68K DEVICE DESCRIPTION note: prefix MC on all these numbers 68150 Dynamic Bus Sizer (for 040, LC040, EC040 and 68060) 68160 EEST (Ethernet driver) - glueless logic to MC68360. 68184 Broadband Interface Controller (BIC) IEEE 802.4 68185 Twisted Pair Modem -use with 68824 for low cost LAN 68194 Carrierband Modem - IEEE 802.4 Physical Layer 1 68195 Local Talk Adapter - MC68332 and 68302 to LocalTalk networks 68230 Parallel Interface/Timer - two 8 bit ports, 24 bit timer 68338 Mac-Media Access Controller - FDDI, see BR1104/D for family 68339 FSI-FDDI System Interface (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) 68440 Dual Channel DMA - 32 bit addressing R & FN packages 68450 DMA Controller (DMAC) - 4 channel 68451 Memory Management Unit (MMU) (obsolete) 68605 X.25 Protocol Controller - two 22 byte FIFOs, DMA, HDLC 68606 X.25 Multi-Link LAPD Protocol Controller - in ISDN 68681 Dual Universal Asynchronous Receiver/transmitter (DUART) 68824 Token Bus Controller (TBC) - GM MAP Level 2 68836 FCG-FDDI Clock Generator - lower part of PHY of FDDI 68837 ELM Elasticity Buffer and Link - rest of PHY of FDDI 68851 32 bit Paged Memory Management Unit (PMMU) (obsolete) 68881/68882 Floating Point Coprocessor (FPU) 68901 Multi Function Peripheral - USART, 8 par I/O lines, 4 timers 10H640 MC68030/040 ECL/TTL Clock Driver (also MC100H640 @5v) 88915/88916 MC68030 and MC68040 clock drivers End-of-line has been announced for the 68230, 68901, 68681, 68440, 68450. CMOS versions of the 68901 and 68681 are in development. Motorola MC6800 family peripherals are very common in M68K systems. Some popular (and useful) ones are: 6821 PIA - Parallel Interface Adapter. (better to use 68230) 6845 CRT controller. (as in IBM PC Monochrome and CGA screens) 6850 ACIA - simple yet flexible serial port. Cheap too. 68B52 Synchronous Serial Data Adapter (SSDA) 68B54 Advanced data Link Controller (ADLC) 68488 IEEE 488 Interface Adapter 146818 RTC with Ram - Real Time Clock. (as in IBM AT Pcs) Other manufacturer's parts are often used with 68K products. AMD7992 Ethernet part (also AM79C970) MB86961A Fujitsu Ethernet part ($9 US) 843x National DRAM controller (low cost model) 844x National DRAM controller with Burst Mode support National DRAM Management Handbook - (800) 272-9959 - includes application notes for 68K, 80x86 and others. F) 8 and 16 bit Processors (HC16 series) ------------------------------------------ Motorola manufactures a wide range of 8 and 16 bit processors and controllers. The families are the 6800, 6801, 6805, 68HC05, 6809, 68HC11 and 68HC16 (16 bit) series. The HC16 series uses the CPU16 processor module which is upward compatible with the HC11. Many of these devices have built- in functions such as EPROM, analogue to digital convertors, PLLs and special drivers for stepper motors and LCD displays. Refer to the "Master Selection Guide" or SG166/D for more information. Information and free software is available on the Motorola BBS and most ftp sites. Dunfield Development Systems, Nepean Ontario, (613) 256-5820 or ddunfield@bix.com provides low cost compilers and emulators for these products. See also the special offer on the HC11, HC16 & M68k series C compilers from INTROL - info@introl.com or http://www.introl.com ============== hc11/hc16 mailing list =============== send message to listserv@bobcat.etsu.edu: subscribe mc68hc11 your full name unsub mc68hc11 your full name ===================================================== ============== 68hcx05 mailing list =============== send "help" as the body in a message to listserv@fatcity.com The subject line is ignored. ===================================================== See the MSA BBS under the Motorola BBS. Much of the information in this FAQ pertaining to Motorola resources, ftp sites and general information is also applicable to these processors. BR261/D outlines these product lines. The 68HC11 Microcontroller FAQ by Russ Hersch (hersch@silicom.co.il) contains a listing of resource information about these processors. It is posted once a month to comp.robotics and other similar groups. Mr. Hersch's 3 FAQs are archived at http://www.hitex.com and in Europe at http://www.ba-karlsruhe.de/automation/FAQ. The PowerPc FAQ from the newsgroup comp.sys.powerpc is available from the archive sites listed above. It is written by Derek Noonburg of the USA. G) Speed Comparisons ----------------------- These figures are taken from various Motorola promotional literature. AESOP has a Mac program called MMTG Analyzer by Art Parmet that provides benchmark ratings for various Motorola processors. Search for "analyzer" w/o "" at the URL http://pirs.aus.sps.mot.com:82/T4 __________________________________________________________________________ CPU Dhrystones type 8 Mhz 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M| --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68000 2100 4376 68EC000 2100 4376 68020 7559 9069 11336 15100 68EC020 7559 11336 68030 7830 9394 11743 15641 18788 23485 68EC030 11743 18788 68040 45460 60553 72736 68LC040 36368 45460 60553 68EC040 36368 45460 60553 68060 (50 and 66 Mhz) - claim is about 3.5 times faster than 68040 68300 SERIES CPU CORES EC000 2100 4376 5250 CPU32 6742 8036 10045 CPU32+ 7416 11049 14717 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- My Intel 80386 clone (with 80387) 40 Mhz is 11049 Dhrystones. My original IBM XT 4.77 Mhz computer shows 300 Dhrystones, my made-in-Canada 286 10 Mhz clone @ 1889, a Cray EL92 @ 14,286 and a Sparcstation IPC @ 23613. Motorola claims a Macintosh Quadra (68040) runs 15-20% faster than a 50Mhz 80486. Spec numbers are most useful to measure computer systems and are inappropriate for CPUs so are not shown here. The Cray EL90 is a 1 gigaflop machine; a J916 peaks at 3.2 gigs @64 bits. The new IBM PowerPC Embedded Processor PPC403GA may achieve 72k dhrystones. A PowerPC NT 3.51 running in a Msdos mode gave 13k and 83k in native mode. (these two not confirmed as accurate). A 486 50 Mhz returned around 20k. __________________________________________________________________________ CPU MIPS (VAX MIPS) type 8 Mhz 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M| --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68000 68EC000 1.2 2.5 68020 4.3 5.2 6.5 8.7 68EC020 4.3 6.5 68030 4.5 5.4 6.7 9.0 10.8 13.5 68EC030 6.7 10.8 68040 26.1 34.8 41.8 68LC040/EC040 20.9 26.1 34.8 68060 100 @ 66 Mhz 68300 SERIES CPU CORES (VAX MIPS) EC000 1.2 2.5 3.0 CPU32 3.9 4.6 5.8 CPU32+ 4.3 6.3 8.4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Floating Point Coprocessor Speeds: (KFLOPS) 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M MC68881 160 192 240 MC68882 264 352 422 528 MC68040 3,500 4,662 5,600 My 80287 10 Mhz = 248 and my 80387 40 Mhz showed 3,948. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- H) PowerPc - MPC601, MPC603, MPC604 series. -------------------------------------------- The PowerPC series are Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC). They were developed by Motorola, IBM and Apple Computer. These processors are featured in Macintosh, Motorola, VMEbus and IBM computers. Neither the 601, 603 or the 604 seem to have a Program Counter or Stack Pointers in the MC680x0 sense. See Motorola's Web site at http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC. The 601 has three execution units: an Integer Unit (IU), a Branch Processing Unit (BPU) and a Floating Point Unit (FPU). It also has a MMU, RTC and a unified instruction and data cache with a separate L2 cache interface. It is a superscalar processor capable of processing 3 instructions per clock cycle. Motorola has never manufactured the 601. The sole world source is an IBM facility in Canada. Motorola is/will be making the 603, 604 and 620. MPC601 Features: (the first PowerPC chip, used in current Apple desktops) * Thirty-two 32 bit General Purpose Registers (GPR). (user level) * Thirty-Two 64 bit Floating Point Registers (FPR). (user level) * Six 32 bit Special Purpose Registers (SPR). (user level) * Twenty-seven 32 bit Special Purpose Registers (SPR). (supervisor) * Sixteen 32 bit Segment Registers (SR) (supervisor). (for MMU) * Exception processing - uses vector offset table. * 32 bit address bus - linear, not multiplexed or segmented. * 64 bit data bus - not multiplexed (address bus not multiplexed). * single-beat (1-8 bytes) and burst (32 bytes) data transfers. * Two levels of privilege - Supervisor and User modes. * Floating Point Unit (FPU) - supports all IEEE 754 data types. * Memory Management Unit (MMU) - 52 bit virtual memory address. * 32 Kbyte unified data and instruction cache - with bus snooping. * 3.3 volt CMOS part - interfaces with TTL devices, 5.6 to 8.0 watts. * 2.5 volt part - MPC601v * 50, 66, 80 Mhz versions - 304 pin quad flat pack ceramic package. * uses instruction set from the IBM RS6000 Workstation. * the IBM RS/6000 Model 41 uses a 601 CPU @ 80 Mhz. * RS6000 binaries will run on the 601 at full speed. The 601 data types are: integer (8/16/32 bits), floating point (32/64 bits) Instructions are grouped into these six categories: (MPC601) * Integer - compare, rotate, shift, computational and logical. * Floating Point - arithmetic, rounding, conversion, compare, *, +. * Load/store - integer and floating load, store and move. * Flow control - branching, trap, condition register logical. * Processor control - move to/from SPRs, MSR, sync memory accesses. * Memory control - control of caches, segment registers, lookaside. The MPC603 is a low power version for use in battery operated portables and is used in Apple Powerbooks. It is made by Motorola in Austin, Texas and by IBM in Burlington, Vermont. The MPC604 will be available in early 1995. It is similar to the 601 with separate 16 Kbyte data and instruction caches (Harvard Architecture), separate data and instruction MMUs, 3 Integer Units and a Load/Store Unit. The SPECint and fp 92 values are 160 and 165 @100 mhz. A 100 Mhz 604 will have twice the performance of a 80 mhz 601 and 50% more at floating point. The MPC620 (64 bit) will be used in the next generation Apple desktops. It has an embedded L2 cache and reportedly can perform six (6) instructions per clock cycle. It is aimed at high end desktops, Workgroup servers and similar machines. It has a SPECint rating of 200 @ 150 mhz. SPEC ratings are most valuable for systems and not processors so be careful with these. ________________________________________________________________________ |Model | Speed | SPECint | SPECfp | PriceUS$ | Power (W) | Avail | |-------|--------|----------|--------|------------|------------|--------| |PPC601 | 50,66 | 62 | 72 | 165 | 8 * | now | |PPC601 | 80 | 85 | 105 | 249 | 8 | now | |PPC601 | 100 | 105 | 125 | 399 | 4 | Nov 94 | |PPC603 | 66 | 60 | 70 | 165 | | Nov 94 | |PPC603 | 80 | 75 | 85 | 195 | 2.5 ** | Nov 94 | |PPC604 | 100 | 160 | 165 | 549 | 10 ** | Dec 94 | |PPC620 | 133 |200@150 * | | | 30 ** | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notes: 1) these figures from IBM Austin Texas October 1994. Prices are QTY 1000 2) * = from other unverified sources. 3) ** = power dissipation less than this with low power modes activated. 4) P54C-75, a 75 Mhz Intel RISC CPU with SPEC of 75&60 @ $495 or $535 5) The PPC601 100 Mhz is made with a different process that results in less power dissipation. MPC930/950/972 are clock drivers for PowerPC and Pentium parts. MPC601UM/AD - PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor User's Manual MPC601/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 601 Microprocessor MPC601EC/D - Hardware Specs - PowerPC 601 Microprocessor MPC603/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 603 Microprocessor MPC604/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 604 Microprocessor Motorola's first RISC processors are the MC88100 (CPU and FPU) and the MC88200 (cache and MMU). They have separate address and data busses for instruction and data memory space. The PowerPC is not an upgrade of these parts. The 88100 family are presumably still available, but no longer appear to have a high profile in Motorola's present product matrix. I) PowerPC Embedded Controllers -------------------------------- The IBM PPC403GA is a 32 bit processor rumoured to deliver 72k Dhrystones per second @ 33 Mhz. It has a DMA, DRAM and I/O controllers, two-way associative instruction and data caches, serial port and multiple timer facilities. It runs at 3.3 volts and interfaces with both 3.3 and 5 volt peripheral parts. It comes in a 160 pin PQFP package and is priced at $49 @ 25 Mhz for 1000 pieces. It is being sampled now with volume production expected by the end of 1994 and 33 Mhz version is expected in early 1995. The Motorola MPC505 has a floating point unit, 4 kbytes static ram, 4 Kbytes instruction cache, 32 bit RISC processor, 32 x 32 bits general purpose register file and 32 x 64 bits FP register file. There are chip selects, a watchdog timer and various I/O ports. It comes in a 160 pin QFP package @25 Mhz and with a clock speed of 25 Mhz and uses a 3.3 volt power supply. It will be sampled in November 1994 and is initially priced at $75 for small quantities. A 144 pin package will be offered later. Volume pricing is expected to be $55 by 1995 and down to $25 by 1997. J) Other Manufacturers ------------------------ Philips, Toshiba and Signetics make (made) M68K family processors. Motorola has not second sourced any of the higher number processors such as the '020 and up. This is certainly an incomplete list: Philips - SCC68070 ( availability uncertain ). CMOS 68k core, similar to 68010 but no VBR or SFC/DFC. Includes 2 DMA channels, UART, IIC bus controller, 2 - 16 bit counter, a basic MMU and on-chip oscillator. - SCC68692 - CMOS 68681 DUART - with power-down mode & receiver time-outs - SC68C94 - also SC26C94. Dual CMOS 68681 (4 UARTs) with 8 byte FIFOs on Tx and Rx. Extended baud rate set. Signetics - 90C100 family, 93C100 (Signetics is owned by Philips) Toshiba - TMP68301 - 68HC000 + UART, parallel I/O, timer, interrupt controller, chip selects. 12 or 16 Mhz clock. TMP68303 - 68HC000 + UART, parallel I/O, timer, chip selects, DMA, interrupt and DRAM controllers. 12 and 16 Mhz. Stepper motor controller. PQFP100 package (TMP68301 also). Sonnet Technologies Inc., Irvine, California (714) 261-2800 manufacture "booster" chip assemblies for Macintosh MC68020/030/040 computers. This system works by interfacing a higher speed Motorola processor to the lower speed system bus. The computer speed is "boosted" by utilizing the internal data and/or instruction caches of the higher speed processor. A "mathless" 68LC040 computer can be upgraded using a 68040 which includes the math processor. There is a possibility these parts could be used in other systems since they operate "invisibly". Sonnet also sell MC68882 math chips. See under E) Integrated Circuit Prices for prices. K) Interesting places M68K devices are used --------------------------------------------- The 68349 is known as "Dragon I" and is the most powerful 683xx. The new SONY Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) will use this device. A Canadian firm, Crossbow Electronics in Richmond Hill Ontario make some interesting custom boards utilizing MC68K processors. Things like radar processing and satellite terminals. Tee-Comm, a Canadian Direct-To-Home satellite systems manufacturer, uses the MC68306 microprocessor in its receiver-decoder. The Winwriter 150c printer from Lexmark uses a 68EC000 processor. The HP Deskjet series use Motorola CPUs. The HP 9000/s300 workstations for many years used the 68010/20/30/40 series. The new Amiga computer made by Escom in Europe use the '040 and '060. 2) Software Sources ==================== A) Free Software Available --------------------------- Assemblers, compilers and debuggers exist to run on Ms-Dos, Mac, Unix, 680x0 and Amiga platforms. This is an incomplete list of filenames to search for on the Internet using Archie: ] x68k.zip</b> - A 68000 assembler and simulator to run on the IBM PC. This program is courtesy of Alan Clements, a lecturer at the University of Teesside in the U.K. This program is the property of the University and is not for any commercial use - educational uses only. Alan has written a textbook on M68K assembly language which includes a copy of this program. Early reports by 68000 student Chris Boys (my son) indicate that X68K works very well. ftp://nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola/m68k/x68k.zip This makes Alan "M68k Friend of the Year" for his generosity. 68asmsim.zip - 68000/08/10 assembler and simulator, MS-Dos, with docs and source code, uses S-records, widely available via ftp. Easy to use, docs are clear and well organized. Simple function. Serious bugs have been reported in the simulator portion. tutor.arc -source code for MEX68KECB (68000/08/10) monitor with one-line assembler/disassembler, S-records & terminal, no docs. The ECB docs are available from Motorola - MEX68KECB/D2 tutornew.zip - as above, improved version(?), binaries and source code in 68K assembler, no docs. For modified Alberta ECB computer. as68k.arc - source code in C of a 68000 assembler for the Amiga. Docs included. Look also for amigacc68k.lha and SOZOBON.* as68kdos.zip - 68020/68881/68851 assembler, with docs and source code, uses s-records, MS-Dos. A little more advanced than 68asmsim.zip fbug68k.arc - A monitor program for m68000/08/10/20/30/40 processors in C source code. MC68881/882 (fpu) support and good docs. M16pc.zip - MS-dos FORTH code to native 68k machine language. No docs other than the source code. It is available via ftp from asterix.inescn.pt/pub/forth/68000/m16.zip. (Portugal) 68343ffp.arc - A collection of 68000/10 assembly language floating point routines. Docs are in the ascii listings. Need assembler. cc68k.arc - optimizing C cross compiler for MS-dos. Generates MC68000 code. Minimal docs, source code included. 040_fpsp - Floating Point software for the MC68040 unimplemented 68881/882 instructions. Located on the Motorola Free BBS and AESOP (as m68040FPSP). See below for phone numbers. x68000.arc - 68000 assembler (DDJ PP) for MS-Dos, no docs, source code. On the Motorola BBS, nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca and ftp.luth.se. tbi68k.lbr - Tiny Basic for 68000 ECB board, with source, Found on the Motorola BBS, nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca and ftp.luth.se. m68k.zip - GCC cross-assembler for MC68k to run on a MS-dos host. ftp://ftp.lysator.liu.se/pub/msdos/gnu/gcc-dos-m68k/m68k.zip (about 1.8 mbytes) from Sweden. A problem concerning an error of not being able to find the preprocessor (cpp) can reportedly be cured by renaming the file ccc1.exe to cpp.exe. f68kans.zip - A FORTH O/S that will operate on any 68K system. It is easily adapted to a given system. ftp://asterix.inescn.pt/pub/forth/68000/f68kans.zip ftp://taygeta.oc.nps.navy.mil/pub/Forth/ANS/f68kans.zip Not listed here are assemblers, cross-assemblers, C compilers, debuggers etc. for 68HC11 series, 68701, 68HC16, MC68332, MC68302, MC68360 and Digital Signal Processors (DSP). There is Macintosh software also. These files are all available on the Motorola BBS and most ftp sites. (see below) For a low cost C Compiler, see Introl's special offer below. Two syntaxes exist for M68k assembler source code - the Motorola and the MIT versions. As an example, the Motorola syntax is move.l xxx and the MIT syntax is movel xxx. These types of differences must be resolved before the source code can be compiled. This problem seems to be found in GCC code and appears to result from the inability of MIT's computer system to handle a ".". Rolf Spalink's file mit2mot.tar.gz converts from one syntax to the other. FTP from (nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola/portable or ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola/m68k). For sample source code on IDE drive, VGA, SIMM memory and ISA bus interfaces, try the Indiana University 68030 project listed below. For drivers in source code for communications such as HDLC, Lapd, Bisync, LocalTalk and others, from nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola, get the file motorola_bbs_listing. This file is a listing of the Motorola BBS in Texas. Some files are mirrored on the ftp sites. See D) ftp sites below. B) GNU, NetBSD, LINUX, GCC, RTEMS etc. ---------------------------------------- DJGPP is a port of GCC to MS-DOS (386 or higher) which can be found via ftp on: omnigate.clarkson.edu/pub/msdos/djgpp oak.oakland.edu/pub/msdos/djgpp or any SIMTEL mirror site. Both sources and binaries are available. Linux68K - Linux, a UNIX clone for 80386 and higher processors is now being ported to the Amiga, Atari and Macintosh machines. For information about Linux and the 68K port contact the www server in Germany: http://www-users.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/~hn/linux68k.html The source code and some compiled code is available via ftp from: tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/680x0/ A new cross-gcc mailing list is being run from Cygnus that focuses on environments for 68K processors. It is specifically suitable for those who want to build a crossgcc compiler with GNU tools. To subscribe: Email crossgcc-request@cygnus.com with a blank subject line and a body of one line consisting of: subscribe crossgcc your_Email_address A Cross-gcc archive is located at ftp://ftp.FTA-Berlin.de/pub/crossgcc For more GNU and Cross-gcc material see http://www.cygnus.com. ftp://ftp.cygnus.com/pub/embedded has a large collection of free software for embedded systems. Included is the Motorola BBS and mirror sites for RTEMS, VSTA and GNU. The GNU tools (ver 2.7.0) supports Motorola's IDP and BCC Datacard and MVME 6U VMEbus boards. NetBSD - A freely available and redistributable UNIX-like operating system runs on a large number of hardware platforms, including the m68k-based Amiga, Atari, HP 9000/300 series, Macintosh, and Sun 3. For more information about NetBSD, contact the NetBSD www server: http://www.netbsd.org. BSD stands for Berkeley Software Distribution and Net is a tribute to the Internet which made the project possible. RTEMS (Real-Time Executive for Military Systems) is a real-time O/S with C and ADA implementations. It and documentation is available via ftp from lancelot.gcs.redstone.army.mil/pub/rtems/releases/3.2.0 and the WWW page is http://lancelot.gcs.redstone.army.mil/rtems.html. The contact person is Joel Sherrill (jsherril@redstone.army.mil) in Alabama. For a listserver about a interest group designing and building a FORTH based O/S called FIRE using a MC68360: send Email to fire-l@artopro.mlnet.com with a subject line of SUBSCRIBE. C) Commercial Software Available --------------------------------- ]There are many third party vendors of software for Motorola processors. A Motorola BBS - Aesop which is described below, contains a large listing of these vendors. The Motorola 68000 Developer program exists to provide marketing support for 68k tools developers (i.e. compilers, real time operating systems (RTOS), Emulators/analyzers, development boards and adapters). Interested developers can join by calling Anne Marie Furie at (805) 494-0830 or via Email furie@caprel.com. Developers are listed in "The Source Guide", (which has replaced the "68k Source" -BR729/D) is available via the WWW: http://www.mwmedia.com or by sending Email to subscribe@mwmedia.com to order a hardcopy version. Tools Developers can get on this on-line database for a nominal charge by contacting Glenn ImObersteg at MW Media (408) 286-4200 or glenn@mwmedia.com. The Motorola contact person is Mark Taylor at (512) 891-2592. For more information see http://pirs.aus.sps.mot.com/aesop/devloper.html. For European sources get the file ftp://ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola/faq/europe.gz (one year old). ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// The firms listed below are representative examples: --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Ltd. Ottawa, Ontario (613) 726-2111, FAX (613) 820 0377 John Mitchell (jmitchell@canada.hp.com) Sells and rents emulators, debuggers, ROM Monitors and other development tools for various platforms (UNIX and PC). A mailing list available for developers for new products and seminars. H-P also makes surface mount to PGA adapters. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SDS - Software Development Systems 815 Commerce Drive, Suite 250 Oak Brook, Illinois, 60521 (708) 368-0400 FAX (708) 990-4641 info@sdsi.com Support - support@sdsi.com World Wide Web: - http://www.sdsi.com Makers of CrossCode C, C++ compilers, SingleStep debuggers and compilers for processors up to the 68060. Costs are $US 2,000 C compiler ($2300 - C++), Debugger $2,200, Simulator/debugger $1500. Platforms are Windows, DOS, NT, Sun/SPARC. There is a free starter kit with demos of SingleStep and their C compiler to run on Windows - contact info@sdsi.com. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- HiTOOLS Inc. (Hitex in Europe) 2055 Gateway Place, Suite 400 San Jose, California 95110 (408) 451-3986 FAX (408) 441-9486 (800) 45-HITEX Email: info@hitex.com WWW: www.hitex.com Manufactures in-circuit emulators and debugging tools for many processors including the 68K , 683xx, HC11 and others such as 8051/251, Siemens 166/167 and the 186, 286 and 386DX/SX/EX families. This is where I work. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Orion Instruments 1376 Borregas Avenue Sunnyvale, California 94089-1004 (408) 747-0440, (800) 729-7700, FAX (408) 747-0688 http://www.oritools.com ftp://ftp.oritools.com/pub In Canada: Multitest Electronics Inc., (800) 567-0046 Orion offers a full range of high-quality integrated development tools for the embedded systems industry. Orion has several emulator families for all 68k, 680x0, and 683xx development needs, including support for the new 68356 (a 68302 and DSP56002 in one package). --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lauterbach Datentechnik Fichtenstr.27 D-85649 Hofolding Germany +49 (0)8104 / 89 430 FAX +49 (0)8104 / 89 43 49 Email: email@lauterbach.com WWW: http://www.lauterbach.com This firm produce a series of 68K emulators that work with MRI and GNU. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ]Introl Corporation Milwaukee, Wisconsin info@introl.com Introl is offering a special price for non-commercial applications of their C compiler for the HC11, HC16 and the M68K series. US$ 150 For more information see http:/www.introl.com or Email info@introl.com. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Noral Micrologics Ltd. UK Phone: INT+1254.682092 FAX: INT+1254.680847 Email: support@noral.co.uk Noral manufacture and supply in-circuit emulators and background mode debugging tools for Motorola devices such as PowerPC, 68K series, HC05/11/16, 683xx series. UK distributor for Lauterbach. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Motorola Microcontroller Software Applications Distributor: Hamilton Hallmark (800) 424-2668 or (508) 977-6585 Technical Support: (512) 891-MASM MCUaam is an assembly language development tool that supports the HC05, HC11, HC16 and M68300 processors. MCUdebug is a source level debugger which operates with the Motorola MMDS and MMEVS emulators for the HC05, HC08, HC16 and M68300 processors. MCUinit provides a graphical user interface for generating and debugging the intialization code for the HC16 and M68300 series processors. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- D) Motorola BBS ---------------- Motorola operates a free Bulletin Board System that contains documents and free software. There is also a Fax-Back service. The file faxndx.txt contains the documents available for faxback. The numbers are: ================================================================== MOTOROLA FREE BBS SYSTEM There is NO cost for this. Austin, Texas (512) 891-3733 The V.32 9600 Baud modems are now on-line using MNP-5! Please connect at 8 Data bits, No Parity, 1 Stop Bit. ALSO: Munich, Germany. 49-89-92103-111. (14400 baud) Stuttgart, Germany 49-7031-275496 (19200 baud) San Diego, California (619) 279-3907 Toronto, Ontario, Canada (416) 497-8989 (1200 baud) http://freeware.aus.sps.mot.com/freeweb/index.html The MSA BBS (Microcontroller Software Applications) is now running on the Austin BBS. It supports MASM which is a cross assembler for the 68HC05 and HC08/11/16 products. A demo version is available for free downloading. ========================================================================== "Design-NET" is an electronic link to customers. A database, Email, OEM pricing, NEWS database, technical queries and more are available. Request BR1307 from the Literature Distribution Centre or a Motorola sales office. The new version is due the middle of October 95. The old Design-Net that operated on the GEIS network is no longer functional. The new Design-Net is now situated on the Internet at http://design-net.com. This server is the same as www.motserv.indirect.com. "Design-NET" also has a fax-back service for many Motorola documents at (602) 244-6609. A touch-tone phone (DTMF) is needed. This is an International service. An instruction fax is available from here. Documents to be faxed can now be ordered via Internet Email. Contact r.boys@genie.geis.com for a copy of the instructions or see the 68HC11 FAQ. FAXs can now be ordered through the Internet: http://motserv.indirect.com/home2/fax_rqst.html Or send any Email to rmfax0@email.sps.mot.com for instructions. ======================================================================== DSP BBS: (Digital Signal Processing) (included here for reference) Austin, Texas (512) 891-3773 ======================================================================== AESOP - (Applications Engineering Support through On-line Productivity) 1-800-843-3451 (USA and Canada) (512)-891-3650 (elsewhere) AESOP is now available via the Internet: ftp://pirs.aus.sps.mot.com http://pirs.aus.sps.mot.com/aesop/hmpg.html This BBS has lists of third party support that supply M68k cross-compilers, C and other language compilers, emulators and analyzers. These lists are extensive. Chip and document errata are found here as well as ordering information for user's manuals and general information. No 8 bit parts. AESOP has a series of FAQs on the 680x0, 68EC0x0, 683xx and the MC68681. These files are available via ftp as one file (aesopfaq) from nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola or ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola/faq. The User's Manuals for the MC68040 and MC68322 for Windows and the Macintosh are available for downloading from AESOP only. E) ftp and WWW Sites --------------------- Numerous sites exist around the world that contain software and information for Motorola products. This includes 8, 16 and 32 bit processors. See the section "Free Software Available" in this faq. Much of the information contained on the Motorola BBS in Texas is mirrored on the Internet. Here are three good sites: The one at the University of Alberta in Western Canada is the best: nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca /pub/motorola } look under /m68k ftp.luth.se (Sweden) /pub/misc/motorola } for M68Kitems ernie.uvic.ca / } A current listing of the files on the Austin BBS is available via ftp from the Alberta site nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca as /pub/motorola/motorola_bbs_listing. A descriptive listing of files on the ftp sites can be obtained from: nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola as the file INDEX. From ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola or ernie.uvic.ca get freeware.dir. Motorola Internet ftp and WWW sites: http://www.motserv.indirect.com or http://design-net.com http://www.mot.com ftp://freeware.aus.sps.mot.com (Motorola BBS) ftp://pirs.aus.sps.mot.com (AESOP & DR. BUB) There are many links between each of these sites. DR. BUB (DSP information) is not operational yet. But it seems like soon - ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// To subscribe to a mailing list from the Communication Division (68360, 68302, 68356, etc): send Email to: lists@oakhill.sps.mot.com with the body of the message: SUBSCRIBE dcapps-update Incoming messages are not accepted. This is a broadcast-only list. Alternatively, to obtain the latest version, Email with this command in the body to the above address: INFO dcapps-update F) World Wide Web (WWW) links ------------------------------ In-Circuit Emulators and Debugging Tools: http://www.hitex.com/ North America General Interesting Links: http://emporium.turnpike.net/D/dhoward/index.html http://www.rtcgroup.com/rtc trade shows http://www.espmag.com/espmag more trade shows G) M68k and VMEbus FAQs Archive Sites -------------------------------------- ftp://nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola/m68kfaq ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/comp.sys.m68k (and its mirrors) Some files mentioned in this FAQ may have a suffix of .zip, .arc or .gz depending on the preferences of the archive site administrator. This FAQ is posted to comp.sys.m68k, news.answers and comp.answers. It is also on the WWW (World Wide Web). The URLs are: ===================================================== CANADA: http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/archive/m68kfaq.html EUROPE: http://www.ba-karlsruhe.de/automation/FAQ/m68k CALIFORNIA http://www.hitex.com/automation/FAQ/m68k http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/motorola/68k-chips- faq/faq.html Some WWW sites store this FAQ under the heading of "Motorola" as well as under "comp.sys.m68k". It is also stored on Genie in the PowerPC Pro archives. (account needed) Robert Boys also maintains the FAQ for comp.arch.bus.vmebus: http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/archive/vmefaq.html (Canada) http://www.hitex.com (California) ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 3) Hardware (board level) Sources =================================== A) Integrated Development Platform (IDP), MEVB, BCC, et al ------------------------------------------------------------ A series of products by Motorola that consists of a motherboard and various plug-in modules for different CPUs and I/O modules. The motherboard connects to a terminal or host computer through a RS-232 serial port. This system provides a low cost evaluation platform for developing software and hardware for M68K family members. The Product Brief part is M68KIDP/D. M68EC000IDP $510 M68EC000CPU $160 (IDP numbers are mother M68EC020IDP $595 M68EC020CPU $245 and daughter boards, M68EC030IDP $650 M68EC030CPU $300 CPU are daughter boards M68EC040IDP $750 M68EC040CPU $400 only) (US dollars) Sierra 68306 Development Board (with compiler and debugger) is US $249. Contact Mark_Taylor@oakqm3.sps.mot.com (512) 891-2592. for IDP and Sierra. The AMCU (Advanced MicroController Unit) supplies a board similar to the IDP that supports the MC68330 series parts. It is called the MEVB (Motorola Evaluation Board). It is a small (3" by 3") platform board with a processor on it. It supports all the parts that use the Inter-Module Bus (IMB) such as 68HC05, 68HC11, 68HC16 and 68331-334. Try BR711/D for info. Motorola also supplies the "Business Card Computer" (BCC). This is a stand- alone single board MC68340 computer. It is equipped with a monitor - 340bug which is also available on the Motorola BBS or the ftp sites. It is designed to interface between a RS-232 terminal and other boards such as the M68340 Platform Board. The Product Brief part number is BR753/D. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Motorola Datacomm Unit manufacture a series of Application Development Systems: US$ M68302ADS - MC68302 + DRAM, DUART, Eprom - $1995 M68360QUADS - Master/Slave 68360 + DRAM, Eprom, Flash memory, Ethernet interface and LocalTalk interface. - $1995 m68360quads-040 - ('040/Slave 68360 + DRAM, Eprom, Flash memory, Ethernet interface and LocalTalk interface - $2995 These boards are available from any Motorola representative. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Motorola also made the ECB single board computer (MEX68KECB) that runs a MC68000 CPU with a wirewrap area for educational and development purposes. It uses the TUTOR monitor program which is a simple assembler and disassembler. They are no longer available but used units may exist. The TUTOR software is available (source code) from the Motorola BBS and ftp sites and can be used on home brew computers with some modification. The documentation for the ECB is still available as MEX68KECB/D2 from the Literature Centre. It has schematics and TUTOR instructions. Arnewsh Inc, Colorado, (303) 223-1616 / FAX: (303) 223-9573 makes a board similar to the ECB with a 5.25" floppy disk interface. It sells for US$375 with a 25% discount to universities and students. Arnewsh also make single board computers using the 68302 ($495), 68306 ($375) and the 68EN360 ($975, $1475 with the optional MC68EC040). Mark Farnan in Australia, has developed a MC68332 microcontroller board that he would like to market. Its features include: 128 Kbyte Eprom, 64k or 256k Static RAM, Real Time Clock, 68681 DUART and an onboard monitor program. The board measures 3.75 x 6.25 inches and will sell for US$ 350 and will be available in 4 weeks. He has a 68340 board available now for the same price. For more information on either of these boards, Email Mark at mfarnan@mpx.com.au and he will send you a data sheet via Email. Scott Mackenzie at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada has developed a MC68000 educational demonstration board that is available from URDA in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, USA. It includes software and various i/o boards are available. The CPU board sells for around US$300 and i/o boards sell for $25 to $75. Scott has written support documentation including classroom experiments as well as a textbook om the 68000 and 8051. For more information: http://www.cis.uoguelph.ca/~mac/68KMB.html B) VMEbus modules - see the FAQ for comp.arch.bus.vmebus ----------------------------------------------------------- California: http://www.hitex.com Western Canada http://nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/archive/vmefaq.html Germany: http://www.ba-karlsruhe.de/automation/FAQ/vmefaq California: http://www.hitex.com/automation/FAQ/vmefaq ftp:// at Hitex somewhere - email me! VMEbus modules are state-of-the-art and are used to construct very powerful and rugged computer systems. The VMEbus is an industrial open standard system. VMEbus boards have data bus sizes of 16, 32 or 64 bits. VMEbus boards contain processors such as DEC Alpha, MIPS, i960, various DSP chips, AM29000 (RISC chip), PowerPC and 80486 in addition to the Motorola 680x0 line. Many peripheral boards exist including VGA, telecom, analyzers, data acquisition, video processors and memory (1 gigabyte!). The VXIbus is an instrumentation bus compatible with the VMEbus. A PMC (PCI Mezzanine Interface) is a proposed IEEE specification for a low profile mezzanine expansion bus for VMEbus, Multibus II and Futurebus+ systems. It has a 32 or 64 bit bus and has the same electrical specifications as the PCI bus (Peripheral Interconnect Bus). There are over 200 vendors supplying products to the VMEbus community. VMEbus suppliers are most active in the USA, Germany and Canada and range from large corporations to small custom shops. Information resources for the VMEbus come mainly from two sources: VITA and the VMEbus Systems Magazines edited by John Black. For complete information on how to contact these groups; see the VMEbus FAQ. Manufacturers -------------- There are many manufacturers of VMEbus computer modules worldwide. Post to comp.arch.bus.vmebus for more information. Many VMEbus CPU boards have a built-in monitor program similar to the TUTOR monitor and have a RS-232 port that can be hooked up to a terminal or a host computer. Programs can be entered with the simple assembler/disassembler and executed. Peripheral devices can be attached easily to these boards. These boards are often available used and the older ones with 68000/10 CPUs have a low cost(<$50). A neat setup is a VMEbus board with an internal monitor program connected to an IBM PC with a RS-232 port using a common communication program and an assembler such as 68asmsim or as68k. (Telix works good - treat the VMEbus as a modem) A power supply from an IBM PC will power a VMEbus board.(+5,+-12 volt) ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// C) Indiana University 68030 single board project -------------------------------------------------------- The schematics (in Postscript), GERBER artwork for the PCBs, sources and images for the monitor and PAL programming and some documentation are available via ftp from cs.indiana.edu/pub/goo/mc68030/. This board uses a floppy disk, IDE hard drive, VGA monitor, a ISA bus and SIMM memory chips. It uses the MINIX operating system (copyrighted), NetBSD and bootp code to run either a wd8003 or 3c501 Ethernet card. The contact person is Ingo Cyliax (cyliax@cs.indiana.edu). Ingo is also working on some 68302 designs. He has a minimum mode (8 bit) 68302 design that can load S-records from a PC parallel port. The schematic is available in: cs.indiana.edu/pub/goo/uC2 He has added info about the '030 and 68302 board to his hyplan, the URL is: http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/cyliax.html and he will add data as he works on it. He also is working on uC3, which is a 16 bit mode 68302 with PC/104 interface and takes up to 8Mb of DRAM. D) Consumer computers and Workstations ---------------------------------------- Computers that use the 68K series of processors are Atari, Amiga, Apple MacIntosh and some older Radio Shack models. Opportunities for experimentation may reside in some of these machines. Cross compilers, such as amigacc68k.lha, are available via ftp for the Amiga. There are older workstations that use M68K processors that may be available for low prices. The Sun 3/60 is very popular in the education field and the HP 9000 310 uses a 68010 and the 320 uses a 68020 CPU. The NeXT cube has a 68030 and the SGI Iris 3000 uses a 68020. The AT&T 3b1 computer uses a 68010, has a newsgroup on USENET and is a cheap way to get a SYS V UNIX. E) Integrated Circuits Prices ------------------------------- Prices given are from Canadian sources in small quantities in Canadian dollars. Multiply CDN$ by approximately 0.75 to obtain US$ figures. All prices are for reference only and may (will) vary widely due to quantity ordered, marketing price setting, package and speed. This section will be revamped soon. There is now an OEM price list on the Motorola WWW site: http://motserv.indirect.com/cgi-bin/pg MC68000P10 14.52 MC68302FC16 118.09 MC68EC000??8 12.67 MC68302RC16C 242.03 MC68EC000FU10 19.69 MC68331CF16 60.32 MC68EC000??16 24.13 MC68332CF16 71.88 MC68HC000P10 21.14 MC68008P8 8.48 MC68340FE16 74.74 MC68010P10 57.00 MC68882RC33A 1135.29 <??> MC68020FC16 72.37 MC68882FN33A 146.55 MC68020FC33E 152.55 MC68EC020FG16 51.71 MC68824FN12H 139.02 MC68EC030FE25B 109.05 XC68F333CFT16 242.92 MC68EN360 60.00 (QFP)(10K) these prices Apr. 1994 MC68360 50.00 (QFP)(10K) MC68160 10.00 MC68705R3 5.95 MC68701S 33.96 MC68705U35 21.95 MC68701U4S1 60.19 MC68B21 3.75 MC146818P 9.52 MC68B09 7.75 MC68488P 38.76 MC68B40 5.50 MC68B44 10.00 MC68185FN 19.85 MC68440P8 16.30 MC68195FN 12.49 MC68450R8 82.04 MC68230P8 9.68 MC68605RC10 137.61 MC68230P10 13.56 MC68606FN12B 207.50 MC68681 11.00 -Boards- HC11EVBU 140.00 MC68332BCC 71.73 68EBLP11KIT 285.00 MC68701EVM 1028.41 -Sonnet- US$ dollars - QTY and terms unknown 68040RC25 299.00 MC68882FN16 39.00 68040RC33 349.00 MC68882FN20 44.00 MC68881RC16A 99.00 MC68882FN25 46.00 MC68882RC25 49.00 MC68882FN33 49.00 MC68882RC33 59.00 MC68882FN40 99.00 MC68882RC40 75.00 MC68882RC50 95.00 ] These are current(?) prices from a flyer I found in California: MC6800 1.69 MC68B50 -the cheapest ACIA 1.29 MC68008-8 3.00 MC68008-10 3.00 MC68010-10 5.00 MC68020-12 PGA 20.00 MC68020-16 PGA 20.00 MC68121 5.00 MC68230-10 3.00 MC68452 5.00 MC68488 10.00 MC68652 1.00 MC68661 2.00 MC68681 7.00 I did not go and look to see if they -actually- had these in stock. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// +Boosters+ note these are genuine Motorola processors mounted on a circuit board that plugs into the CPU socket of a slower motherboard and are sold by Sonnet. MC68020 25 or 30 mhz runs in a slower bus 99.00 or 129.00 MC68030 33 mhz booster assembly 189.00 MC68EC030 33 mhz booster assembly 199.00 MC68LC040 40 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 249.00 MC68040 40 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 399.00 MC68040 50 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 599.00 4) Construction Information ============================= I guess this is next, well, I am off to grad school so...next year. Well, I am now out of Grad school (MIS), so maybe for January 1996...... 5) General Specifications =========================== A) Integrated Circuit Package Information ------------------------------------------- DIP Dual-in-line-Package only 68000/08/10/12/68HC000 PGA Pin Grid Array (ceramic) easy for hand construction PPGA Pin Grid Array (plastic) "" "" PLCC Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier not generally soldered QFP Quad Flat Package (plastic) difficult to hand solder CQFP Ceramic Quad Flat Package "" "" BGA Ball Grid Array impossible to hand solder {??} The DIP is the familiar package with the flexible pins at 0.10 inch spacing. This is the oldest package type used with the 68K family. The PGA (and PPGA) is a square package with rigid pins coming out the bottom. Usually socketed and the pins have a 0.10 inch spacing. The PLCC are meant to be in sockets soldered to a circuit board. They have a pin spacing of 0.050 inch. The package is square. The QFP and the CQFP are surface mount devices and are the latest package type used with the 68K family. The package is square with a pin spacing of a mere 0.025 inches making hand soldering difficult but not impossible. Generally, specialized soldering equipment is needed but many people solder with a sharp tipped iron. The pins are flexible but due to their short length cannot be bent very much. AMP (a plug and socket manufacturer) apparently manufacture sockets for these packages. 3M may be another source. The sockets have a 0.10 inch spacing for easier construction. The pins on a BGA package are solder-balls that are melted with special equipment to create the connection to the circuit board. The MC68356 which is a combination 68302 and DSP56002 uses this package. Advantages are very low profile and high pin count capacity. The BGA is also known as the OMPAC - Overmoulded Padded Array Carrier. Extremely nasty to hand solder. B) Pin-outs ------------- "What is the pin for ...." is a frequently-asked-question. The question is often asked for older processors such as 6800 and 68000. This information is becoming available on the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and elsewhere. One place to try is http://www.unix-ag.uni-kl.de/~hardware. This site contains information on M680x0, 68360, 68681 and 68461 parts. Included are instruction sets (mnemonics). Other makes of processors are at this site. Oxford University has some CPU pinouts and instruction set information available. The list is not up to date. To contribute contact jonathan.bowen@comlab.ox.ac.uk. The information is available from: http://www.comlab.ox.ac.uk/archive/cards.html or by ftp from: ftp.comlab.ox.ac.uk/pub/Cards. C) S-Records -------------- S-Records are Ascii characters in a protocol developed by Motorola and is used to transfer data and program code to and from host computers or to store such information. Details of this protocol have been archived as s_record.zip at nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/pub/motorola/general and also at ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola/faq as s_record.gz. D) CPU Clocks and Double-Clocking ----------------------------------- CPU clock speeds are used by consumers to compare the performance of different microprocessors. This is the classic case of comparing apples and oranges in almost all cases. Clock speeds can only be used for comparison with the same processor and then with care. For example, a 1 Mhz MC6800 processor runs at the same bus speed as a 4 Mhz MC6802: the 6802 has a divide-by-4 circuit so less expensive 4 Mhz crystals can be used. This is also a cheap way to make a CPU seem more powerful but runs the risk of marketing "numbers games". It is better to compare CPUs with test programs that return comparison values such as "millions of instructions per second (MIPS) or Dhrystones. Even then, one must be very careful using such comparisons - see Cray under "F) Speed Comparisons". Motorola clock frequencies should not be directly compared with other manufacturer's frequencies. The effective speed of a processor depends not only on clock speeds but also on computer bus speed (ie memory speed), CPU registers, internal features (such as caches), FPU units, external features such as external caches and data bus width and the software used. An instruction and/or data cache usually dramatically improves system speed. A 25 Mhz part is not necessarily twice the speed of a 12.5 Mhz part since system speed also depends on the external resources the CPU is connected to. The issue of "clock-doubling" with Apple products and the 68040 is a question often asked on the net. Apple (and others) advertises some of its notebook computers with "33/66 or 25/50" Mhz speed designations. This has been referred to as "clock doubling". The '040 has two clock inputs - PCLK and BCLK. PCLK runs at twice the frequency of BCLK. BCLK (1/2 PCLK) runs at the frequency of the part and is used to derive all bus signal timing. PCLK (2x BCLK) is used for internal logic timing. PCLK is not present on the 3.3 volt parts (MC68040V and 68EC040V). The 68020/030/060 do not have this feature but the 68360 does. Use BCLK as the part's true speed. This is not the same as Intel's "clock doubling" on the 486 Overdrive chip. "Overclocking" refers to increasing a CPU's clock frequency beyond the part's specification for higher performance (also called clock-chipping). This often causes reduced reliability and higher chip temperatures. It is usually (always?) a mistake to use this technique in a commercial product. Sonnet's "clock doubling" or "booster" chips (for Macs) interface a slower system bus to a higher speed processor that has internal fast caches. E) Big and Little Endians --------------------------- M68K processors store the most significant byte (msb) of a word (16 bits) or long word (32 bits) or quad word (64 bits) at the lowest memory address. This is called "big-endian" memory organization. Other processors, notably Intel, store the least significant byte (lsb) at the lowest memory address. This is called "little-endian". The PowerPC supports both formats with big endian the default. This is also known as "byte ordering". These terms reportedly stem from the Lilliputian's (in the classic book Gulliver's Travels) arguing over whether one should crack their egg open at the big or little end. A somewhat useless argument. Obviously, problems arise when a big and little endian processor must share information. One of them must swap bytes to match the other and this can be done either in software or in hardware which is much faster. The debate of which is better is best left to posters to comp.sys.m68k the next time the subject comes up there. (I think it is arbitrary) 6) Literature =============== Motorola publishes a plethora of literature ranging from product brochures and data sheets to detailed technical application notes (AN). The "Specs in Secs" data disk has a listing with descriptions of various documents. Motorola seems to have intentions of placing this material on the Internet. Application Notes are examples of applications of all Motorola products. An example is "AN1310 - Using the MC68332 Microcontroller for AC Induction Motor Control". Schematics, drawings and short program code are often included in these informative and usually easy to read notes. Article Reprints are reprints of articles from various publications that are of interest to users of Motorola products. An example is "AR217 - The Motorola MC68020. Articles are on the technical side yet easy to read. Brochures are usually short yet comprehensive outlines of Motorola products. An example is "BR176/D - M68000 Family Brochure." Selection Guides give information needed to choose among family members. The "Master Selection Guide" (SG73/D) lists all Motorola products. M680x0 series and the MC68300 series are in SG167/D and SG166/D respectively. Engineering Bulletins are similar to application notes. An example is "EB111 - The Application of a Duplexer". Design Concepts are similar and are also listed in the "Specs in Secs" disk. Data sheets are available in various stages of completion as the products mature. They are Product Briefs, Technical Summary, Advanced Information and regular. The Advanced Information is how most data sheets are made available. Data sheets part numbers contain the device part number followed (usually) by a /D. Examples are MC68360/D and MC68331TS/D. (TS means "technical summary"). Data sheet books have a suffix of DL and often have application notes in addition to specific data sheets for a family of parts. A listing is in the "Specs in Secs" data disk. User's Manuals contain just about everything you need to know about a device (except price and availability and instruction set details). The part number is the device number with a suffix of UM/AD. Examples are MC68606UM/AD, MC68030UM/AD and MC68360UM/AD. The 68360UM is 3.5 cm thick. Programmer's Manuals contain instruction set details such as mnemonics and data and addressing details. Most User's Manuals contain an overview of the instructions. Examples are M68000PM/AD (get this book) and CPU32RM/AD. Many third party textbooks contain information about this material too. Some more useful documents in addition to those listed above are: BR135/D - "Applications & Products Literature Selector Guide etc" - A list of available application notes (AN), BR, AR, EB etc documents referenced by chip part number and product category for all Motorola products. In Europe order as SG410/D. BR101/D - "Technical Literature and Information Guide" This lists (with short descriptions and prices) data books (DL), Selector Guides and Applications Literature, User's Manuals and textbooks. European edition - BR464/D. FR68K/D - "M68000 Family Reference", a book that contains data sheets for most of the current 68K family. May be M68000FR/AD. MPC601UM/AD - PowerPc 601 RISC Processor User's Manual. BR1133/D - High-Performance Product Portfolio Overview (HIPPO) - a quarterly overview of 16 and 32 bit microprocessors. Too large to fax (61 pages). SG421/D in Europe. DL409/D - collection of Application Notes, Article Reprints etc. ($14.85) DL408/D - as DL409/D but for 8-bit MCU parts. ($14.85) The file "texthelp.zip" available from: ftp.luth.se/pub/misc/motorola/general contains a list of most Motorola data literature. This file is getting old though...the $100 subscription mentioned in the embedded file UPDATE_S is no longer available. A) "Specs in Secs" -------------------- The Motorola "Specs in Secs" data disc contains the addresses for Motorola sales offices and distributors around the world besides product selection. A listing of various Application Notes and other publications is included. This disc is available from the Motorola BBS, nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca and ftp.luth.se. The file name for the latest version (6) is spec6.arc or spec6.zip. This file is about 340k and is worth downloading. B) "UPDATE" ------------- For general technical information (voice) try 1-800-521-6274 (USA and Canada). For information concerning literature or ordering "UPDATE" (BR128) which is a brochure outlining recent product releases and new publications and data sheets, call 1-800-441-2447 (USA) or (602)-994-6561. C) "The 68K Connection" ------------------------- The newsletter "The 68KC Connection" is available by mailing or faxing your name, address and company name to: The 68K Connection FAX = (512) 891-2943 Motorola, MD OE310 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735-2943 This newsletter contains general news and information concerning 68K family members and their implementation in various products. D) Master Selection Guide --------------------------- A free book that lists all products manufactured by Motorola. Distributors should be able to provide a copy. Published periodically. Part # SG73/D. It is now on the Motorola WWW site and can be searched: http://www.motserv.indirect.com/cgi-bin/msg E) Motorola Addresses ----------------------- For lists of Motorola Field Offices and Literature centres around the world, consult the "Specs in Secs" file or under the /marketing directory in the ftp sites mentioned above. F) Literature Distribution Centres ------------------------------------ USA: Motorola Literature Distribution (800) 441-2447 P.O. Box 20912 Phoenix, Arizona 85036 Europe: Motorola Ltd. +44 908 614614 European Literature Center 88 Tanners Drive Blakelands, Milton Keynes MK14 5BP, England Asia-Pacific: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd. Silicon Harbour Center No. 2 Dai King Street Tai Po Industrial Estate Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong Japan: Nippon Motorola Ltd. 4-32-1 Nishi-Gotanda Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 141, Japan G) Training and Instructional Books ------------------------------------- Motorola runs technical seminars on various processor families. BR348AD/D (if available) outlines these programs. (602) 897-3665 (Phoenix, Arizona) There are many books available about Motorola processors. Check public libraries and universities (especially ones with Computer Science or Engineering faculties) for suitable texts in the QA76 area. Larger book stores often have some titles - look also under Macintosh computers. See the file texthelp.zip described above under 6) Literature. (dated material) The Motorola Literature Distribution Center has the following text books listed in BR135 with prices presumably correct, in US $ and plus shipping. TB303/D Using Microprocessors and Microcomputers: The Mot. Family.$49.80 TB320/D The M68000 Family, Vol 1. Architecture, Addressing Modes and Instruction Set. $36.25 TB322/D Vol 2. Applications and the M68K devices. $37.15 TB323/D The 68000 Book (Southern, 1990) $19.50 TB325/D The MC68332 Microcontroller. $46.75 TPURM/AD MC68300 Family Time Processor Unit (TPU) Reference Manual. $1.90 H) University Support: ------------------------ Motorola has two centres that provide support for university programs that feature Motorola products. These centres are geared towards providing assistance to professors but will help students. The Phoenix center focuses on discrete and logic devices while the Austin location handles microprocessors and D.S.P. products. Both locations are able to assist in each other's product areas. These centres can help provide literature, devices, training and equipment at low or no cost on a discretionary basis to qualified individuals or institutions. Motorola University Support Motorola Semiconductor Products Division 505 Barton Springs Road University Support Suite 100 Mail Drop 56-106 Austin, Texas 78704 P.O. Box 52073 phone (512) 505-8836 Phoenix, Arizona 85072 fax (512) 505-8883 phone (602) 952-3857 fax (602) 952-3621 I) Trade Journals and Magazines --------------------------------- Electronic News - This publication has a newspaper format and is published weekly. It contains marketing information about the microprocessor chip industry. Timely announcements from manufacturers. Very good quality. USA - $69/year, Canada $159/year. International Publications Corp 302 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 Computer Select - A CD-ROM that has numerous trade magazines in full text. This CD-ROM is easily searched by topic. Electronic Engineering Times: http://techweb.cmp.com/techweb/eet See VMEbus Systems magazine in the comp.arch.bus.vmebus FAQ for magazines about the VMEbus, VXIbus and Real-Time Systems Engineering and VITA's stuff. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ comments and corrections to r.boys@genie.geis.com Thanks to all those who have helped me with this document. Greg Hawley Wisconsin Ingo Cyliax Indiana Jeff Loeliger Scotland Ben Stuyts The Netherlands Mike Coughlin Massachusets Graham Wood Great Britain John Hauser California Frans Meulenbroeks The Netherlands Frank Sautter Deutschland John Rummel Canada Heiko Krupp Deutschland Toni Zollikofer Deutschland Paul Nelson Texas Robert Federle Deutschland Joel Sumner Texas Randy Sutherland Ontario, Canada Gerry Belanger Connecticut John Vickers England Chris Boys Ontario Carl Boys Ontario Thanks to Kees den Hartigh (Alberta) for sparing a few K on his hard drive for me. ....and all the posters on comp.sys.m68k and comp.arch.bus.vmebus ....and all those who I forgot to mention. <apologies> ....and the very busy volunteers at rtfm.mit.edu This FAQ would be a mess w/o all their i/p. Of course, thanks to all those at Motorola who have always helped me with procuring information and for being so friendly on the phone. ] Robert Boys Guelph, Ontario CANADA oops make that San Jose, California !!