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Subject: aus.motorcycles FAQ, part 3 of 3 [monthly post]

This article was archived around: Wed, 31 Jul 2002 14:09:27 +0000

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Archive-name: motorcycles/aus-faq/part3 URL: http://www.zip.com.au/~cs/moto/aus.moto/FAQ/ Maintainer: Cameron Simpson <cs@zip.com.au> Posting-frequency: monthly
___ __ __ _ _ / _ \ _ _ ___ | \/ | ___ | |_ ___ _ __ ___ _ _ ___| | ___ ___ | |_| | | | / __| | |\/| |/ _ \| __/ _ \| '__/ __| | | |/ __| |/ _ \/ __| | _ | |_| \__ \_| | | | (_) | || (_) | | | (__| |_| | (__| | __/\__ \ |_| |_|\__,_|___(_)_| |_|\___/ \__\___/|_| \___|\__, |\___|_|\___||___/ |___/ __ /-----\ __ _____ ___ ___ (__\/ _____ \/__) | ___/ _ \ / _ \ =( \___/ )= | |_ | |_| | | | | \ ___ / | _|| _ | |_| | | / _ \ | |_| |_| |_|\__\_\ \ || || / \|| ||/ (Living on the WWW at) \| |/ "http://www.zip.com.au/~cs/moto/aus.moto/FAQ/" |_| Overview ~~~~~~~~ The Aus.Motorcycles FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) comes in three parts. Part One contains introductory material for learners or new bike buyers. Part Two contains specific information about Australian touring, maintenaince, bike hire, gear, etc... Part Three covers the safety and everything else of clothing & gear. 1. 3.1 Gear & Safety Introduction 2. Gear & Safety Introduction Maintained by Colin Panisset <cmp@zip.com.au>. Currently version v0.2. 2.1 Disclaimer 2.2 This FAQ is provided as an general guide only. It is probably incomplete and therefore may be wildly apocryphal. All due care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the information presented, but under no circumstances should it be taken as the gospel truth. Oh, and my employers have nothing to do with this. They do not endorse, approve of, disapprove of or otherwise interact with this document at all. In fact, I'd be surprised if they know it existed. 2.3 About the Gear and Safety FAQ 2.4 This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) is provided in the hope that it'll be of use to all riders, on the net or off, new or old, who want to know a bit more about what's available in the way of safety gear. It covers (as you can probably tell from the Contents) everything from the top to the toes as well as providing information on the actual tests that some of the safety gear must go through to receive the various available certifications. Sections that have been taken (almost) verbatim from submitted material are marked with the author's name and email address. 2.5 Comments 2.6 Comments regarding this FAQ should be mailed to the current maintainer. Submissions may be edited for brevity and clarity. 2.7 Changes 2.8 0.0 -> 0.1 Heaps of additional material and huge rearrangements. After a couple more iterations, it'll get stuck in the regular aus.moto FAQ under section 7 (Gear). Of course, it might have to be trimmed a bit :-) 0.1 -> 0.2 Fixed up Contributors list. Added brief AS helmet info. Added ear plugs, foam padding and body armour info. Slight reformatting. Added dri-rider cleaning info. 2.9 Contributors 2.10 In no particular order: Nick Fitton <fitton@ned.dem.csiro.au> (the UrKotFAQ) Colin Panisset <cmp@zip.com.au> Carl Brewer <carl@oversteer.library.uwa.edu.au> David Craig <dcraig@eee.utas.edu.au> Tom Cohen <thos@cia.com.au> Tim Mills <t.mills@qut.edu.au> Nick Fitton <n.fitton@dem.csiro.au> Jonathan Dwyer <jonathan@psych.psy.uq.oz.au> Alvian Tam <atm@newt.phys.unsw.edu.au> Tim Marsh <tmarsh@ariel.ucs.unimelb.edu.au> Mike Cutter <mtc@arbld.unimelb.edu.au> John Tserkezis <jt@iform.com.au> 3. 3.2 Helmet and protective clothing laws 4. Helmet and protective clothing laws This section covers relevant legislation from the various states of Australia. It does not cover countries other than Australia. This is not legal advice, and should not be used as such. [ What must be worn | Australian Standards | Other Standards ] 4.1 What must be worn 4.2 By law in most (all?) states in Australia you are required to wear a helmet that complies to Australian Standard 1698. If the helmet has a visor (as all full-face helmets should), the visor must comply with Australian Standard 1609. Both helmet and visor must display the Australian Standards sticker or be embossed with the AS logo. The law apparently takes the view that if you are booked wearing a helmet without AS certification, then you are not wearing a helmet at all, and will be fined accordingly. This includes helmets bought overseas and imported personally, even if they are the same model as can be bought off the shelf here. States that mandate AS1698 and AS1609: NSW, Tasmania, [...] 4.3 Australian Standards 4.4 Currently, the only piece of protective gear that must be approved by an Australian Standard is the helmet. There are two standards which apply to helmets; one for the shell and one for the visor. The following extracts are from the ACEL Standards Index Plus (January 1995). Many thanks to Tim Mills <t.mills@qut.edu.au> for providing this info. visor -- AS 1609 (last updated 1981) Scope: This Standard specifies requirements for eye protectors for motor cyclists and racing car drivers. It deals with materials, construction, attachment, optical properties, testing, labelling and marking. The Standard incorporates the basic requirements for eye protectors capable of maintaining visibility and providing protection for the eyes of motor cyclists and racing car drivers. Abstract: Specifies material, optical quality and mechanical strength. Provision is made for the limited use of tinted lenses. Test methods are in appendices. shell -- AS 1698 (last updated 1988) Scope: This Standard specifies requirements for protective headgear for vehicle users, as designed to mitigate the adverse effect of a blow on the head. The Standard is written with particular reference to motor cyclists, but is equally applicable to users of other types of vehicle. Specific marking requirements are also included. NOTE: Recommendations for characteristics of materials used in the manufacture of protective helmets are provided in Appendix A. Abstract: Specifies minimum performance criteria and test requirements for protective headgear for vehicle users, designed to mitigate the adverse effects of a blow to the head. The primary intended use is by motor cyclists, but it is equally applicable to all vehicle users, including racing car drivers and racing motor cyclists under Australian conditions. Tests for impact attenuation, penetration resistance, strength of retention system and its attachments, and peripheral vision are prescribed by reference to AS 2512. Specific marking requirements are detailed. [ No doubt there are standards which relate to other bits of clothing. I'm interested. Send 'em in. ] Dr. Rod Woods of Cambridge has been developing standards for kevlar gear -- there are several different factors which affect the performance of a kevlar suit in a crash, including the coarseness of weave, thickness and length of fibres, and so forth. A kevlar suit which is not made of an appropriate material will apparently disintegrate very rapidly. [references to follow] 4.5 Other Standards 4.6 4.6.1 Snell 4.6.2 This standard was developed mainly for motor-sport helmets, and helmets which comply with the Snell standard do not necessarily comply with the necessary Australian Standards. That said, there are several helmets on the market which comply with both. The Snell standard tests point impacts at several locations over the helmet. It's designed to protect against penetration of the helmet rather than against crushing blows, such as your head hitting the pavement. 5. 3.3 What gear's available? 6. What gear's available? [ Helmets | Jackets | Gloves | Boots | Full Leathers | Body Armour | Other clothing ] 6.1 Helmets 6.2 There are two types of helmet shell currently available: resin-based composites and polycarbonate. Resin-based composites (such as fibreglass, kevlar/carbon fibre etc.) helmets use a coarse-weave cloth and resin construction. They used to be considered the toughest helmets, though with the advances in plastics technology that may have changed. They are generally heavier than polycarbonate helmets. The range of composite helmets includes the Shoei RF200, [...] Apparently, fibreglass helmets are more impact resistant than polycarbonate, and can in some cases spring back into the original shape without any *apparent* damage. Polycarbonate helmets are considerably lighter than composite helmets. The shell is basically injection-moulded plastic, and some polycarbonate helmets still have the moulding seam down the centre of the helmet. Polycarbonate helmets include the Laser, most (all?) Boeri helmets, [...] Tests have shown that polycarbonate helmets slide better than fibreglass on bitumen, thus reducing the possibility of whiplash. Manufacturers: Shoei RF200 ($low -> $high), RF700, TR50 (?), XR-8, [...] Arai Quantum ($low -> $high), Giga [...] Vemar [...] Boeri [...] Laser [...] AGV [...] Bieffe [...] Nolan [...] BMW (System III) [...] John Tserkezis <jt@iform.com.au> remarks that graphics will bump the price of a helmet significantly (on the order of $200) and supplied the following information from an article in the March 1998 issue of _Two Wheels_. Prices will accordingly be current as of about the start of 1998. AGV $low- Clarion, Strada, Arc, ArcSupersport $med- Q3 ARAI $med- Classic-R $high- NR-3, Quantum-E, RX-7RR3 AXO $med- RR1, RR3 $???- ZR5 (I believe this one to be in the $high range, but just) BELL $low- Starlite, Mag Ltd $med- Legacy, Streetstar BIEFFE $low- B4 Scatto, B12, B12R, Pole Position Classic, Pole Position $med- 3 Sport, BR15 BMW $high- System Helmet III DAINESE $???- Ergon (although I believe it to be in the $low range) ELDORADO $low- EXR/Classic, RXR F.F.M $low- Speed, AXE, $med- Endor, Superbike GP HELMETS $low- J300 HJC $low- FG3K $med- CL-11, LT-12 HARLEY-DAVIDSON $low- RPM $med- Pacesetter LAZER $low- Dragon, LZ5, Orlando $med- Falcon MDS $low- Skema $med- BK NOLAN $low- N27, N40/Trend, N60/Trend, N70 $med- Elan, N90GP, N92 SHOEI $med- S3, RJ101V, RFR $high- RF700/Python/Heat, RF800(98), RF800 Jag (98), X9, XS-P (98) THN $low- T-380, T7, T791 YES $low- JET- Thermoplastic, Vision, JET-TR1 $med- Diablo Touring, Diablo Scacchi, Diablo Carbon 6.3 Jackets 6.4 [ General | Impact Resistance | Abrasion Resistance ] 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 The key things to look for in a bike jacket are build quality and thickness of material. Make certain that all the seams are double-stitched (the seam looks like it's got piping sewn inside it) and that it's good quality. Note especially that dress leather jackets (fashion jackets) generally do *not* have double stitching, and are often made of thin and relatively flimsy leather. In crash tests, fashion leather jackets have been shown to be less useful than a solid denim jacket because they tear and disappear. The standard article on crash-testing protective clothing is "Torn in the USA". It's a comparison of leather vs. denim vs. waxed cotton etc., in a controlled gravel rash situation. [reference and possibly excerpts to follow] Check that the zippers used are good and solid. Metal is foremost, but top-class plastic/nylon zips (of the spiral variety) are just as good. Some zips lock, and pulling on the material won't make them open further, this is good as it allows you to have your jacket partially unzipped. The style of a jacket will affect its ability to protect you from rain, cold, wind and bugs. A Brando-style jacket (diagonal zipper with button-down lapel, standard shirt- style collar) is fine for summer riding and as a fashion accessory too, but the collar doesn't form a seal at your neck. Consequently, rain wind and small, hard, angry flying insects can be driven down towards your soft and sensitives. The other main style of bike jacket is the touring-style, possibly padded at shoulders and elbows and with a high collar that seals out the weather. This style of jacket is better for all-year round riding. 6.4.3 Impact Resistance 6.4.4 From Tom Cohen <thos@cia.com.au>. Padding is common amongst the touring-style jackets, but it may not be much use in the case of a crash. Most of the padding built into these jackets is low-density foam rubber, like the stuff you might find in a mattress. This foam compresses very easily and absorbs very little of the impact of a crash. Foam padding can work, but it must be high- density to be of use. A double layer of leather is of more use than low-density foam. Good impact resistance in jackets and boots is provided either by hard armour or closed-cell/high density foam. Some people have said that the edge of hard armour can cut in an accident if forced into the body. 6.4.5 Abrasion Resistance 6.4.6 From Tom Cohen <thos@cia.com.au>. Abrasion resistance is important, possibly more important than protecting against impact - low siding off the bike only drops you from about a metre anyway... There are a few different types of material that you can wear: [ Leather | Kevlar | Waxed Cotton | Nylon/Cordura | Denim | Price ] 6.4.6.1 Leather 6.4.6.2 Leather is still the king. Has been for years and is unlikely to lose the crown in a hurry. Lorica (an artificial leather), as used on mostly Italian boots, is not very good at all. Leather breathes, abrades slowly (depending on type) and is more or less showerproof. Great against the wind, but is hot in summer. Can be dyed to almost any colour, and there are a number of places around that make to measure. And it never seems to wear out (except against a road) - old jackets are just as good as new ones. 6.4.6.3 Kevlar 6.4.6.4 Close weave kevlar is effective but doesn't slow you down (the world is waiting for a kevlar suit with little moulded rubber lumps on it for braking). Unfortunately, most of the kevlar used in protective clothing is loose or open- weave type. This is not much good because the first impact with the ground destroys the weave of the kevlar and there is little left to protect the skin. If there are two layers then the performance is much better because the first layer protects the second layer which does the sliding. 6.4.6.5 Waxed Cotton 6.4.6.6 Good for sliding on once, possibly more. Warmer than leather and more waterproof, but gets dirty when hot. Can leave stains on other clothes. (more detail needed) 6.4.6.7 Nylon/Cordura 6.4.6.8 OK for strength, but the weave in the nylon can snag on rough surfaces and tear. Is waterproof, but doesn't breathe. Good for winter, Dri-Riders are made from this. A good range of colours too. 6.4.6.9 Denim 6.4.6.10 Not really a protective material. If you fall at 60km/h, denim should protect you for about 1.3m, after that you're on your own. Interestingly enough, older jeans are better (as long as they have no holes) because their material is smoother and slides better. Jeans with 'fashionable' holes in the knees are no protection at all, and if you fall off with these on you'll get no sympathy from me. 6.4.6.11 Price 6.4.6.12 Fully tailored jackets are available from most of the manufacturers mentioned in the Full Leathers section though (as is to be expected) they're more expensive than off-the-rack clothing. Check with the manufacturers for prices. Jackets range in price from ${low} to ${high} for Brando- style jackets and from ${low} to ${high} for touring-style jackets. 6.5 Gloves 6.6 Gloves are vital to prevent major injury to the hands in the event of a crash. Double thickness leather on the palms and the heels of the hands is a must, as these are the areas that touch down first and hardest. It's instinctive, and you can't help it. Protect them. Microsurgery is expensive. Waterproofing and wind resistance are also important, especially in winter. It's reported that wearing a pair of rubber or latex gloves over your bike gloves works very well in this regard. Most people keep two pairs of gloves -- one for summer and one for winter. Gloves aren't expensive (relative to surgery), so you may as well get yourself good ones. 6.7 Boots 6.8 [ This section could include things like Doc Martens, GP boots and so on, but for the moment let's keep it to bike- specific boots. ] Boots should have a solid, stiff sole (to prevent buckling), and cover at least your ankles. Boots that rise higher (over the shins) are even better. A number of manufacturers sell boots with little bits of inbuilt armour -- this mainly adds abrasion and penetration resistance in the case of an accident. Water resistance is important in a pair of boots -- look for boots without seams or laces at the front (on the outside) as these will let water in. Zippers and buttons should be on the inside of your leg, around the back where water can't easily run. See also the Jackets subsection WRT abrasion/impact resistance. The British magazine Performance Bikes tested thirteen different boots and a pair of sneakers in their October 1994 issue. The tests (performed by Dr. Rod Woods, Cambridge) were "designed to replicate the most common failures of real bike boots in real road accidents". It's nine pages long and full of pictures, so it can't be included fully here, but it's pretty comprehensive. [ distillation to be added ] Manufacturers: Alpinestars David Craig <dcraig@eee.utas.edu.au>: excellent boots. six years use, zips failed Colin Panisset <colinp@nms.otc.com.au>: The Gore-Tex boots with armoured bits. Great, really waterproof, warm all the time. Two years, soles coming a bit loose but still going. ($275 at time of purchase) Rossi David Craig <dcraig@eee.utas.edu.au>: good boots. four years use, soles worn out. current pair, two years use, no complaints. R-Jays Sidi 6.9 Full Leathers 6.10 R-Jays, Rivet, Stagg, Quin, Walden Miller, Mars, Tiger Angel, Crowtree (UK), Frank Thomas (UK), Dainese, [...] I don't know if the UK brands are available in Oz. Full leathers generally come in one of two styles -- the one-piece type with a single zip up the front, and the two- piece zip-together type. The two-piece consists of leather pants with an elastic waist and a zip where the belt would be, and a pretty standard bike jacket with a zip under the waist. You can wear the pants and jacket separately, or combine them for a full suit. 6.11 Body Armour 6.12 6.12.1 Back Protectors 6.12.2 An armadillo-shell of tough, impact-resistant plastic backed by foam to prevent edges cutting you if you crash. Usually held on by either a kidney belt or shoulder straps, it can also be incorporated into a string vest-like affair, with similar armour for other vulnerable areas like elbows and shoulders, or a full suit of similar material with knee protection as well. 6.12.3 Foam Padding 6.12.4 As mentioned in Section 2.2, for any foam to be useful in impact absorption it must be of the closed-cell, high- density type. You can check this just by grabbing the foam between thumb and forefinger and squeezing -- if it feels soft like foam rubber then it's no good; you may as well have nothing. Proper high-density foam should feel almost hard, but be slightly resilient. You shouldn't be able to bring your thumb and forefinger together through the foam. Padding can be bought and installed after your jacket/leathers -- one approach is to use velcro sewn inside the jacket and glued to the padding, which is better than using metal pop-studs that could damage you in the case of an accident. Padding can be bought to cover shoulders, elbows and knees. [ Back humps? lower backs? chest? groin? bum? I don't know yet...] Brands range in price from ${low} to ${high}. 6.13 Other clothing 6.14 6.14.1 Waterproof clothing 6.14.2 The ubiquitous Dri-Rider range -- pants, oversuits, Alpine Jackets. [ someone wanna blurb about them? ] 6.14.3 Warm stuff 6.14.4 6.14.5 Ear Plugs 6.14.6 They might seem like a strange thing to include in a protective gear FAQ, but if you've ever been for a decent ride in a helmet that generates lots of wind noise, or ridden a loud bike, or even just ridden a quiet bike a decent distance, you might want to use ear plugs. Ear plugs are available everywhere -- almost all chemists stock them, and they only cost a couple of dollars for a pack of six or so. There are a few types -- a squidgy foam sort, a wax type and an elasticey plastic sort. They all cut noise, generally across a wide frequency range and by around 20 dB or more. Try them next time you go on a Ride. You'll probably feel more rested when you arrive, and your ears won't be ringing either. 7. 3.4 What gear should I get? 8. What gear should I get? [ Helmets | Jackets | Gloves | Boots | Body Armour | Wet Weather Gear | Warm Gear ] 8.1 Helmets 8.2 Depends on what fits you best. Try a lot of different helmets in a shop, ones that haven't been worn by anyone else before. Try to find a helmet that puts an even pressure on all parts of your skull, without any tight spots. A brand new helmet should be a bit too tight -- like a pair of shoes, it'll bed in to the shape of your head (which is why you shouldn't make a decision based on what someone else has worn for two years). This is important as it will stop the helmet slopping around on your head later, and possibly stop your head slopping around the helmet in the case of a crash. You should also consider the weight of a new helmet. A heavy helmet can put undue strain on the neck muscles, even if you've got an upright riding position. There's also an argument against a heavy helmet with respect to whiplash -- something heavy on your bonce will make it worse. Different helmets also have different noise characteristics. At speed, wind noise can be quite noticeable in some helmets, even to the extent of blocking out engine noise (if the bike is quiet and you're going fast :-)). You can either buy a helmet that doesn't generate any wind noise (generally expensive) or use earplugs (the cheap foam ones from chemists are perfect). Some people suggest closing (or taping up) all vents -- it sometimes makes a difference. Other than that, price and colour are the next most important considerations, usually in that order. If order isn't a problem for you, then hooray -- but the first two points are really important. Don't buy a secondhand helmet. The foam can be crushed inside without any apparent exterior damage, and age causes it to harden anyway as the solvents outgas. Shells become more brittle with age, too. "If you can't wear a helmet in the shop for ten minutes then don't buy it. It won't bed in to your head. They say that you should take it home and watch a movie in it, but that's silly. It cuts out your peripheral vision and you have to turn the sound up." - Tom Cohen <thos@cia.com.au> 8.3 Jackets 8.4 Jackets should be able to provide good impact and abrasion resistance in the case of a crash, as well as keeping you warm and dry at all times. Fit is important. A good jacket won't constrict you when in a full crouch, especially under the arms and across the shoulders. Wrist zippers should be on the upper inside of the arm where they're less likely to get dragged along the road. The jacket should be long enough to cover your hips and extend over the small of your back when in a crouch. If any part of the jacket is too loose, then it is possible for that part to ride up when sliding along a rough surface (road, pebblecrete, really big pieces of sandpaper, etc) leaving you basically unprotected. "Personally I like the wrist to be nice and tight - my Quin jacket only allows me to get two fingers in the opening when zipped up - this makes it easier to seal out wind, and less likely for it to be dragged up the arm when sliding down the road." - Tom Cohen <thos@cia.com.au> 8.5 Gloves 8.6 From David Craig <dcraig@eee.utas.edu.au>. The usual need is warm, dry, flexible, gravel resistant, stay on while you fly over the Volvo, gauntlet style to stop those nasty draughts up your sleeve, maybe a soft bit on the left hand to wipe wet visors. Electric heated gloves may crack a mention, but hardly qualify as a _frequently_ asked question! 8.7 Boots 8.8 [ I'll try and dig out the Performance Bikes boot crash review ] Get something that fits properly. Boots with grippy soles have been recommended as well, because it's really embarrassing to drop your bike at a standstill when your feet slip out from underneath you. The boot material is very important. Don't get something made of silver lame, cos it just won't last in a crash. Leather works really well. Some claim that steel toecaps can amputate toes, but it might be worth the risk -- the chances are higher that the toecap will save the toes and not remove them. 8.9 Body Armour 8.10 8.11 Wet Weather Gear 8.12 8.13 Warm Gear 8.14 Wool. Thermal underclothes. Gore-Tex. 9. 3.5 The Care and Feeding of Your Gear 10. The Care and Feeding of Your Gear [ Helmets | Leather | Waterproof gear ] 10.1 Helmets 10.2 Wipe down every now and then with a damp cloth. Clean the visor frequently; every time it gets dirty is a good idea. A scratched visor reduces your vision during both day and night, and should be replaced. There are a number of good anti-fog preparations that can be applied to the inside of the visor without reducing visibility; they can be invaluable in rainy weather. If you drop your shiny new helmet from three feet or more onto a hard surface) you should throw it away and buy a new one. The ability of a helmet to protect your head from an impact is severely reduced by compression of the foam liner, and this will happen in the case of even a slight impact. Beware second-hand helmets! Even though they may seem okay, the only way to be certain is to cut them in half and look. Jonathan Dwyer <jonathan@psych.psy.uq.oz.au> writes that Airport and other security X-ray equipment is a cool way to check for otherwise invisible cracks in a helmet. Just be polite and ask if you can lean over and look at the screen as it goes through. Alvian Tam <atm@newt.phys.unsw.edu.au> notes that cleaning a helmet with NapiSan gets the liner very clean but destroys the shell coating. Don't try this at home! Hint: Mr. Sheen applied to the outside of your helmet and visor keeps it shiny and allows water droplets to bead and run off easily. It's transparent, too! 10.3 Leather 10.4 This includes jackets, boots, gloves, vests, jockstraps and so on. Most leather used for motorcycling gear is waterproof out of the shop, but can either lose that waterproof capability over time or has annoying leaks at the seams. Leather care products are good for increasing the appearance and suppleness of leather but aren't necessarily good at waterproofing, especially on seams and stitching. A good waterproofing product will also provide a measure of protection for the leather -- Sno-Seal is a good example. Hint: if you have cotton stitching, don't use Dubbin. It's reported to cause the stitching to disintegrate faster than compounds like Sno-Seal. 10.5 Waterproof gear 10.6 Even waterproof clothing can start leaking over time, generally at the seams. If applying Sno-Seal is impractical and re-stitching the seams doesn't work, it may be time to buy another set. Most wet-weather gear should last for many years, though. Tim Marsh <phil@insted.unimelb.edu> offers the following method for cleaning a Dri-Rider jacket: 1. Empty _all_ pockets. Dump your jacket in a bath with washing powder of your choice and fill enough to cover the jacket with water (lukewarm was fine with mine). 2. Push, prod and pummel the jacket until the water runs murky. I ended up hanging onto the shower rose and stomping all over the jacket. Efficient but slippery. 3. Drain the bath, fill with clean water. Repeat step 2. 4. Repeat step 3 until the water no longer becomes soapy or discolours. This could take a long while. Decide for yourself just _how_ clean you want your jacket to be. 5. Hang the jacket up to dry. Best to drape it over something. A wet dri-rider is bloody heavy. 6. Fill in the Name, address, blood group details again. If you're careful and don't use hot water, a washing machine on the gentle setting might save a lot of effort. YMMV, IMHO etc. 11. 3.6 An explanation of safety tests 12. An explanation of safety tests [ under construction ] 12.1 Australian Standards 12.2 AS 1609 AS 1698 12.3 Snell 12.4 " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "