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************************************************* FAQ: HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES ************************************************* Part II: -------- I: Real-Time Information J: Historical Information By Christopher W. Landsea NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, Florida 33149 landsea@aoml.noaa.gov 18 July, 1997 This is currently a two-part FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions report) that is in its second full incarnation (version 2.4). However, there may be some errors or discrepancies that have not yet been found. If you do see an item that needs correction, please contact me directly. Part I contains various definitions, answers for questions about names, myths, winds, records, forecasting, climatology and observation of tropical cyclones. This section (Part II) provides sites that you can access both real-time information about tropical cyclones, what is available on-line for historical storms, as well as good books to read and various references for tropical cyclones. Keep in mind that this FAQ is not considered a reviewed paper to reference. Its main purpose is to provide quick answers for (naturally) frequently asked questions as well as to be a pointer to various sources of information. Much of the on-line information is pulled from Ilana Stern's wonderful "Sources of Meteorological Data FAQ" and I acknowledge the time and effort she has put in in originally compiling this information. Also Gary Gray has put together a very comprehensive listing of tropical cyclone Web sites that I've included here with his permission. OUTLINE ------- I : REAL TIME INFORMATION I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones? I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and forecast fields? I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data? I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data? I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures? I6) Where can I get real-time radar data? I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance data? I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and intensity model forecasts? I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information? I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical cyclones? J : HISTORICAL INFORMATION J1) Where can I get historical data on tropical cyclones ? J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones ? J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones ? J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about tropical cyclones ? ************************************************************************** Subject: I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones? There are three good ways to get these. Either telnet to a site and peruse the advisories you would like to see via a menu, have the advisories sent directly to you via email, or visit sites via the World Wide Web. Option 1: Telnet to a site --------------------------- The site that has a very comprehensive listing is the Weather Underground at University of Michigan. Simply telnet to: downwind.sprl.umich.edu 3000 Make sure to include the '3000' at the end of the command. From there you have a simple menu driven system to get to the USA National Hurricane Center, the USA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the USA Joint Typhoon Warning Center products. Option 2: Advisories automatically sent to you ----------------------------------------------- WX-TROPL was created for people who want receive, as an email, tropical bulletins originating from the US National Hurricane Center, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. To get information as to how to sign up onto WX-TROPL, ftp to po.uiuc.edu and use anonymous FTP to retrieve the file WX-TALK.DOC from the directory "wx-talk". If you don't have ftp access, contact either Chris Novy <chris@siu.edu> or Charley Kline <cvk@uiuc.edu>. Option 3: Get the advisories via surfing the Web ------------------------------------------------- The World Wide Web is a great source for real-time tropical cyclone advisories. For brevity here are some reliable http sites (provided by Gary Gray): gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (good source) http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (everything) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (most info available) http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov/iwin/us/hurricane.html (full advisory list) http://lumahai.soest.hawaii.edu/Tropical_Weather/tropical.shtml (map) http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics.html (new stuff... looks great) http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (simple & excellent) http://www.ih2000.net/ira/bmt-wth.htm (strike probs & track maps) http://www.weather.brockport.edu/cgi-bin/hurricane (simple search) http://www.npmocw.navy.mil/npmocw/prods/jtwc.html (JTWC forecasts) http://www.gobeach.com/hurr.htm (forecasts & conditions of Caribbean) ************************************************************************** Subject: I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and forecast fields? (Provided by Gary Gray.) gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (lots of info) http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/fiorino/wxmap/wx.htm (Mike Fiorino's site) http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (most products) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (most info available) http://grads.iges.org/pix/trop.00hr.html (nice tropical graphics) http://lumahai.soest.hawaii.edu/Tropical_Weather/tropical.shtml http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (most products) http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (many products) http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter/ (links to tropical weather summary) http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (several products) http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (some unique maps) http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (good set of info) http://www.utmb.edu/hurricane.html (basic info) http://ws321.uncc.edu/data/wxp/aviation/trop (excellent!) ************************************************************************** Subject: I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (great source) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (good set of data) http://www.nws.fsu.edu/buoy (great graphic buoy/cman source) http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (nice ship, bouy, and wave data) http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (Gulf & W Atlantic) ************************************************************************** Subject: I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data? (Provided by Gary Gray.) gopher://gopher.ssec.wisc.edu:70/19/mcidas.d/other.d/.molly.gif http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (several products) http://ssec.ssec.wisc.edu/data/sst/latest_sst.gif (global SST image) http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (decent AVHRR SST maps) http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (analysis & anomaly) http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (a few different "styles") http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/images.html (several good SST maps) http://www.seaspace.com/images/goes8.gif (global SST image) http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (global SST image) ************************************************************************** Subject: I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://oldthunder.ssec.wisc.edu/ (Chris Velden's site) http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_products.html (Jeff Hawkins' site) gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/wxascii/gophergrafx/satpix http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (many good pix) http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_products.shtml (GOES 8 & 9, specials) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (a few good pix) http://clunix.cl.msu.edu:80/weather/ (lots of sat pix) http://grads.iges.org/listing/wx.html (nice GOES-8/9 full disk images) http://lumahai.soest.hawaii.edu/Tropical_Weather/tropical.shtml http://tuna@www.alw.nih.gov/weather.html (many pix have bad links) http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (the basics) http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (Bermudocentric & other sat pix) http://www.dibbs.net/%7Ejadkins/storm.html (Atlantic) http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (GOES-8 US & Atlantic & FL) http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (tropics) http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (several decent sat pix) http://www.t-e.k12.pa.us/~dbaron/satellite/ (tons of sat pix) http://www.cira.colostate.edu (GOES-8 & 9, and historical) ************************************************************************** Subject: I6) Where can I get real-time radar data? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (nice source) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (full set of rad pix) http://tuna@www.alw.nih.gov/weather.html (Mid-Atlantic sites) http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (decent selection) http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (Miami radar) http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (Mobile, AL radar) http://www.ih2000.net/ira/bmt-wth.htm (coastal TX radar only) http://www.satchmo.com/nolavl/storm.html (New Orleans radar) ************************************************************************** Subject: I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance data? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://www.hurricanehunters.com (info from the source) gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (good recon lists) http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (decent source) http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (excellent site) http://ws321.uncc.edu/data/tropical (simple recon report grabber) http://www.funet.fi/pub/dx/text/utility/Hurricane (decoding info) http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (TCPOD & recon reports) ************************************************************************** Subject: I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and intensity model forecasts? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://www.fnoc.navy.mil/noraps.html ("normal" model, but good for TS) http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (not models, but some forecasts) http://www.meto.govt.uk/sec2/sec2cyclone/sec2cyclone.html(old storms) http://www.ugems.psu.edu/~owens/trantech/ (Gary. Gray's model) http://web.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/user/z/u/zudark/www/earth.html ************************************************************************** Subject: I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information? (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://www.casualty.com/hcane.html (all the basic preparedness info) http://www.co.alachua.fl.us/%7Eacem/oemtest.html (Alachua Co., FL) http://www.fema.gov/fema/trop.html (FEMA) http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (several links) http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (general preparedness) http://www.insiders.com/boca/flweathe.htm (basic preparedness info) http://www.oo.com/%7Efrank/disaster.html (disaster preparedness) http://www.storm97.com (lots of preparedness info) http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (great preparedness info) ************************************************************************** Subject: I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical cyclones? (Descriptions kindly provided by Tom Berg and via the authors. Note that this does not constitute an endorsement of any product. "Low $" indicates less than $50, "Medium $" indicates between $50-$100, and "High $" indicates more than $100.) 1. HURRTRAK (Windows-based) --- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in Aviation and Weather Channel forums. Also on AOL. It is also available through the WeatherNet: http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/software.html The company is PC Weather Products P.O. Box 72723 Marietta, GA 30007-2723 770-953-3506 800-605-2230 Email: wxperson@pcwp.com Web: http://www.pcwp.com They primarily market their professional versions (high $), but still provide a hobbyist edition (medium $). The professional software allows for many additional capabilities such as plotting county lines & roadways, more detailed charts, detailed impact reports as well as animation and strike probabilities. See their WEB site at http://www.pcwp.com for more information. 2. STORM (DOS-based) ------ shareware, semi-functional available on AOL. The company is Utopia Software P.O. Box 420324 Houston, TX 77242 They offer a regular (low $) and enhanced version (medium $). What the enhanced offers special is the ability to enter and plot the forecasted positions from the NHC and to include offshore platforms or ships positions on the charts. 3. FORCE12 (Windows) ---- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in Aviation and Weather Channel forums and AOL. The company is Epperson Computing P.O. Box 1094 Baytown, TX 77522-1094 There is only one version (low $). 4. MERLIN (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in Aviation and Weather Channel forums. The company is T.M. Parker P.O. Box 1431 La Porte, TX 77572 There is only one version (low $). 5. GCANES (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in Aviation forum. The company is Robert Terwilliger 2398 SW 22nd Ave. Miami, FL 33145 There is only one version (low $). 6. HURRICANE FORECASTER (DOS) - shareware, semi-functional available on AOL. The company is Craig Rorrer 3809 Iola Ct. Virginia Beach, VA 23456 There is only one version (low $). 7. HURRICANE TRACKER (Windows) -- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve forum Aviation. The company is Nicheware P.O. Box 1312 Summerville,SC 29484-1312 There is only one version (low $). 8. HURRICANE WATCH! (Windows) --- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL. The company is SeaBorne Systems 414 Long Leaf Acres Dr. Wilmington, NC 28405 There is only one version (low $). 9. TRACKEYE (Windows) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve forums Aviation and Weather Channel. The company is GenCode Technologies 7907 N. Rome Ave. Tampa, FL 33604 There is only one version (low $). 10. TRAKHUR (DOS) --- I only found it advertised in Weatherwise magazine. The company is Bryan Lambeth, PE Hurricane Research Srvc P.O. Box 181032 Austin, TX 78718 There is a regular version (low $) and the TRAKHUR PRO version (medium $). 11. TRACKER (DOS) -- again, I found it through Weatherwise. The company is OceanSoft Inc. P.O. Box 1224 Largo, FL 34649 TRACKER (medium $) also includes something unique called Mapper, this allows you to build your own maps of any ocean and will show the map in Mercator, Azimuthal, and spread types. 12. WINSTORM --- shareware (no cost), semi-functional available on Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL. The company is Ingramation 2437 Bay Area Blvd. Suite 349 Houston, TX 77058 13. MCHURRICANE -- a hurricane tracking program for the Macintosh, posted on AOL, along with several shareware (low $) CDs. The company is William I. Chenault 149 Country Club Rd Shalimar, FL 32579 (904)-651-2276 ************************************************************************** Subject: J1) Where can I get historical data of tropical cyclones? -------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE BEVEN REPORTS ;-) For unofficial near-real time summaries of global tropical cyclone activity, Jack Beven of the USA National Hurricane Center/Tropical Prediction Center produces these on a weekly basis and has done so for over three years. Text copies of past weekly summaries can be retrieved via the Web at: <http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/iww/tropics>. If you'd like to obtain these near-real time summaries directly, simply email Jack at: beven@nhc.noaa.gov and ask him to start sending you the summaries. Note however that these are already posted on sci.geo.meteorology and WX-TALK. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- FREE DATA ftp hrd-type42.nhc.noaa.gov [] Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane best track data, 1886-1996. Every 6 hour intensity and position information in an ASCII file including a README documentation file (tra86to96.atl and README.atl). Also, Northeast/North-central Pacific tropical storm and hurricane data (1949-1996) are also provided (tra49to96.epc and README.epc). Provided by landsea@aoml.noaa.gov (Chris Landsea). http://wxp.atms.purdue.edu/hur_atlantic/ This best track information for the Atlantic has provided in seperate images for each years by some people at Purdue University. The tracks for the individual years have been provided in a color coded (for intensity) format. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- NOT-FREE DATA World Weather Disc ($295): Monthly temp, precip, pressure, sunshine data for about 2000 world stations for period of record. Daily weather data at hundreds of US stations. Data for some stations on temp, precip, freeze, drought, soil moisture, wind, storms. Frequency and movement of tropical cyclones. Contact: Cliff Mass, Dept. of Atmos. Sci. (AK40), University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. 206/685-0910. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Global Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas (GTECCA) ($100): This CD-ROM contains all global historic tropical storm track data available for five tropical storm basins. Periods of record varies for each basin, with the beginning as early as the 1870s and with 1992 at the latest year. Northern hemispheric extratropical storm track data will be included from 1965 to 1992. Tropical track data includes time, position, storm stage (maximum wind, central pressure when available). The user can display tracks, track data for any basin or user-selected geographic area, or tracks passing within a user-defined radius of any point. Narratives for all tropical storms for the 1980-1992 period will be included as well as basin-wide tropical storm climatological statistics. Contact: National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, NC 28801, USA. 704/271-4800, email orders@ncdc.noaa.gov. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Web Site Historical Data: (Provided by Gary Gray.) http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (1995 storm map) http://grads.iges.org/pix/allhurr.html (1995 track info) http://lumahai.soest.hawaii.edu/Tropical_Weather/tropical.shtml http://meridian.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/dmsp.html (Allison & Erin sat pix) http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (archive data) http://wxp.atms.purdue.edu/hur_atlantic/ (past tracks) http://vortex.plymouth.edu/home.html (some nice past sat pix/loops) http://www.aer.com/hurricane/hurricanes_95.html (great 1995 sat pix) http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (nice 1995 sat pix) http://www.fema.gov/fema/trop.html (some 1995 storm archives) http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (links to much past data) http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (Erin & Opal stories) http://www.insiders.com/boca/flweathe.htm (brief Andrew/Gordon info) http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/ols-app-hurr.html (a few old sat pix) http://www.storm97.com (1995 and 1996 archives) http://www.satchmo.com/nolavl/storm.html (LA storm archives) http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (1995 storm archive) http://www.terrapin.com/hurricane/Plotter (1995 plots... needs Java) http://www.vas-das.com/ (TONS of GOES-8 images... not just tropical) ************************************************************************** Subject: J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones? The American Meteorological Society publishes the _Monthly Weather Review_ which has annual summaries of Atlantic basin tropical cyclones, Atlantic basin tropical disturbances, and Northeast Pacific (east of 140W) basin tropical cyclones. These summaries have a substantial amount of data and analysis of the storms. _Weatherwise_ prints annual summaries of both the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific basins which are less technical that the _Monthly Weather Review_ articles, but come out months earlier. For just the tropical cyclones of the Southeast Indian/Australia and the Australia/Southwest Pacific basins, the _Australia Meteorological Magazine_ has a very thorough annual summary. The Indian journal _Mausam_ carries an annual summary of tropical cyclone activity over the North Indian Ocean. _Mariner's Weather Log_ has articles from all of the global basins in annual summaries. These are descriptive and non-technical. ************************************************************************** Subject: J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones? ************************* BEST NON-TECHNICAL BOOKS: _The Hurricane_ and ************************* _Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_ _The Hurricane_ For a excellent introductory text into hurricanes (and tropical cyclones in general), this book by R.A. Pielke provides the basics on the physical mechanisms of hurricanes without getting into any mathematical rigor. This first version is just 100 pages of text with another 120 pages devoted toward all of the tracks of Atlantic hurricanes from 1871-1989. Roger A. Pielke is a professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University (USA). The book's 1990 edition is available through Routledge Publishing, New York. (An updated version of this book should be forthcoming in 1997.) _Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_ For a concise mathematical description of hurricanes that has NO calculus and NO differential equations, then I would suggest obtaining a copy of this book by Rolland B. Stull (West Publ. Co., Minneapolis/St. Paul, 385 pp - Chapter 16 Hurricanes p289-304). This paperback book is designed to accompany C. Donald Ahrens' introductory book _Meteorology Today_. ******************** BEST TECHNICAL BOOK: _Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones_ ******************** This is the revised version of _A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_ and is the most current, detailed book available on the subject. This book provides the state of the science as of 1994. Improvements over the previous version include a chapter on the ocean response to tropical cyclones. This paperback book is written in 1995 by G.R. Foley, H.E. Willoughby, J.L. McBride, R.L. Elsberry, I. Ginis, and L. Chen with Elsberry serving as Editor and is available from the World Meterological Organization as Report No. TCP-38. Their address is: World Meteorological Organization Publications Sales Unit Case Postale 2300 CH-1211 Geneva 2 Switzerland ************************ BEST FORECASTING MANUAL: _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_ ************************ For the tropical cyclone forecaster and also of general interest for anyone in the field and those with a non-technical interest in the field, the loose-leaf book - _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_ (1993) by G.J. Holland (ed.), World Meteorological Organization, WMO/TD-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31 is a must get. (See above for address of the WMO.) ********************** OTHER BOOKS AVAILABLE: ********************** ______Atlantic Hurricanes_______ A classic book describing tropical cyclones primarily of the Atlantic basin, but also covering the physical understanding of tropical cyclone genesis, motion, and intensity change at the time is _Atlantic Hurricanes_ by Gordon E. Dunn and Banner I. Miller. Written in 1960, published by the Louisiana State Press, this book gives provides good insight into the knowledge of tropical cyclones as of the late 1950s. It is interesting to observe that much of what we know was well understood at this pre- satellite era. Gordon E. Dunn was the Director of the U.S. National Hurricane Center and Banner I. Miller was a research meteorologist also at the National Hurricane Center. ________Hurricanes, Their Nature and History______ Before Dunn and Miller's book, Ivan Ray Tannehill came out with an authoritative reference on the history, structure, climatology, historical tracks, and forecasting techniques of Atlantic hurricanes as was known by the mid-1930s. This is one of the first compilations of yearly tracks of Atlantic storms - he provides tracks of memorable tropical cyclones all the way back to the 1700s and shows all the storm tracks yearly from 1901 onward. The first edition came out in 1938 and the book went through at least nine editions (my book was published in 1956). Mr. Tannehill was engaged as a hurricane forecasts for over 20 years and also lead the Division of Synoptic Reports and Forecasts of the U.S. Weather Bureau. Princeton University Press, 308 pp (in 1956 version). ________A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_______ A very thorough book dealing with the technical issues of tropical cyclones for the state of the science in the mid-1980s: _A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_ (1987) by Elsberry, Holland, Frank, Jarrell, and Southern; University of Chicago Press, 195 pp. A revised version of this book has recently become available, see _Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones_ below. ________Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992_______ Researchers and those who follow Atlantic hurricanes should all have a copy of the atlas: _Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992_, by C.J. Neumann, B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, J.D. Elms; Asheville, NC, (1993), Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, in cooperation with the National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, FL, 193 pp. ________Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993, An Historical Survey_________ A recent book providing a historical perspective of Florida Hurricanes is _Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993, An Historical Survey_, F. Doehring, I.W. Duedall, and J.M. Williams, (1994), Tp-71, Florida Sea Grant College Program, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 118 pp. ________Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the Pieces_______ Twenty years after Cyclone Tracy, this book recreates, by interviews with survivors, the events during and after the cyclone that nearly destroyed Darwin, Australia: _Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the pieces_, B. Bunbury, (1994), Fremantle Arts Centre Press, South Fremantle, Australia, 148 pp. ________Hurricanes___________ An introductory text book for young readers on hurricanes by Sally Lee, Franklin Watts Publishing, New York, 63 pp. ************************************************************************** Subject: J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about tropical cyclones? At the ftp site: ftp hrd-type42.nhc.noaa.gov [] The files - TCpubs.1994, TCpubs.1995 and TCpubs.1996 - contain all known refereed publications concerning tropical cyclones that were in journals around the world with a print date for those years. Maintained by landsea@aoml.noaa.gov (Chris Landsea). ************************************************************************** Chris Landsea NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Voice: (305) 361-4357 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway Fax: (305) 361-4402 Miami, Florida 33149 Internet: landsea@aoml.noaa.gov ***************************************************************************** "The Florida straits were as dangerous as the Florida Indians. There [was]... the extraordinary danger of hurricanes in the tropic latitudes, that could blow up almost without warning from June to November, gray screaming whirlpools of wind more than a hundred miles an hour, dragging in their centers a mound of sea water and blowing before them the high ungovernable ships like dried leaves onto that deadly line of reef and rock." - _The Everglades: River of Grass_ - Marjory Stoneman Douglas - 1947