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Subject: FAQ: International E-mail accessibility

This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:22:06 GMT

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Archive-name: mail/country-codes Last-modified: 2003/02/01
Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Codes Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond E-mail: <ocl@gih.com> Release: 2003.02.1 Release Notes: a. .AERO and .PRO are now live. New Web links. b. FX - France (European Territories), deleted c. modified reference to ISO3166 list d. added APNIC Whois Web page info This document is Copyright 1994-2003 by Olivier Crepin-Leblond. Parts of this document may be reproduced in a commercial publication ONLY if prior permission has been granted by the copyright holder. It may however be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that this copyright notice, its headers "Archive-name", "Last-modified", and "Release" are not removed. If unsure, please E-mail ocl@gih.com This document answers the question: "Has country X got E-mail or Internet access ?". The following table is a guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to Internet or general E-mail services. The country codes have been derived from the International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 3166 found on: http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html A country code is taken as a top level domain once it is registered by ICANN, www.icann.org so *not* all country codes listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is also a section of general top level domains, based on the information available at ICANN. NOTES I. Description of codes FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp', and internet E-mail. B stands for BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork) access although the address may be in internet DNS (Domain Name System) format. Please note that this network is being dismantled and quickly replaced by Full Internet connectivity. * (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency. C stands for the "courtesy" top level domain. There may actually be no physical access as such in the country referenced by this top level domain, but E-mail and/or Web addresses can be obtained under it; in some cases, this is for an official Web server for that country, which is facility-managed elsewhere. In other cases, it is a courtesy domain provided for commercial reasons which may, or may not be seen as a legitimate use of that top level domain. Indeed some small countries have generated income by selling or letting their top level domain, and using the income for the development of their own internet infrastructure. PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) P stands for provisional connection. (+) (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true: - address not verified or lack of address - UUCP dialup not active - net connection possible but not officially announced - premature official announcement of connection F stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this case is stable and reliable. II. Networks which are not included Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Military's unclassified portion of the DDN - Data Defense Network) have computers all around the world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base, there will be a node reachable through gateways. Similarly, you can bet that whenever a Space Shuttle (Orbiter in NASA lingo), they're connected to NASA's Network. Worldwide Private company networks (banks, computer companies etc. that have their own worldwide corporate intra-net). Some networks based on X.400 E-mail, which offer high-cost networking access. While those types of network are fading fast due to their high cost compared to the Internet, some regions of the world are still reacheable only via such networks. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. Although you may be able to RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, you may not be able to reply to it. III. Updates The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international networking is such that the information contained in this document may be out of date by the time it reaches you. Please send me ( ocl@gih.com ) any updates, including an example address, for verification purposes. Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either Randy Bush <randy@nsrc.org>, Steven Huter <sghuter@nsrc.org> or me (or all three of us !). Alternatively, better still, please enter details directly on: http://www.nsrc.org/db/admin ,the provider update form. NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America. If you are a North American provider, then please DON'T contact us - there are already thousands of providers out there. IV. BITNET and .US sites There are are few BITNET nodes left in the US, but none have a name in the format `.US', hence the US domain is only FI and *. The slow shutting down of BITNET is nearly complete, with only a handful of nodes in existence, most of which are directly reacheable via the Internet under a DNS name. R.I.P. Bitnet ! V. .edu, .com, etc. The domains in this section are special in that some of them are used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet access are marked accordingly. VI. UK and GB domains UK stands for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. GB actually stands for Great Britain. GB is therefore a subset of UK. In reality, the GB top level domain has been used mainly for X.400 addressing of sites, while the UK top level domain is more commonly used. While in the early nineties, there was an emphasis towards X.400, and hence towards registration under the GB top level domain, this policy does not stand anymore, and relatively few sites in the UK are now registered under the GB top level domain. VII. Further information column While there was a time when it was possible to display all further information about a country's connectivity on this table, it is now impossible to do so. We suggest downloading the Web-based version of this document from http://www.nsrc.org/codes/country-codes.html and selecting the top level domain concerned - this will point to a wealth of further information. VIII. Where to find further information In addition to the Web form of this document, a number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers, and web information systems where further information can be found. - www.internic.net / Network Solutions www.networksolutions.com Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages" has registration records for top level domains. Whois can be accessed via the Web: http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois or using the "whois" command available on some computer systems: (whois -h whois.internic.net). Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain and those may hence be able to provide further information. Whois can also be accessible by E-mailing mailserv@internic.net and subject: whois <name/domain> - whois.ripe.net The Central European Registry run by RIPE, the co-ordinator for European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding European IP, etc. This is where the European WHOIS pages are found: http://www.ripe.net/perl/whois - whois.apnic.net The Asia Pacific Network Information Center, the co-ordinator for Internet sites in Asia and the Pacific area. http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois.pl - GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <lpress@isi.edu> and contains bookmarks for worldwide networking resources as well as papers and documents about connectivity. Access the archive as: http://som.csudh.edu/cis/lpress/devnat/ - Bitnet Network Information Center Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order, Transfer it from: ftp://ftp.lsoft.com/listserv-data/bitearn.nodes or: ftp://segate.sunet.se/listserv-data/bitearn.nodes Since BITNET is being shutdown slowly, the list is only updated when nodes are removed. Nodes remain in only 9 countries. - IANA, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority This site keeps a list of country code registries at: http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld-whois.htm Effectively, this is the Root-Zone Whois Information. It is very useful for getting in touch with registration services for each country. - ICANN, the Internet Central Authority for Network Numbers This organisation has taken over the process of Top Level Domain assignment from IANA, and the process of management from Network Solutions (the InterNIC). It is found on: http://www.icann.org - Internet Software Consortium/Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey. Every 6 months, a complete Internet Domain survey of the Internet is attempted, with host counts in all countries reacheable by the Net. For all information: http://www.isc.org/ds - www.nsrc.org This Web system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource Center contains perhaps the most comprehensive collection of historical information about country connectivity. It is housed at the University of Oregon Computing Centre. The information is maintained in a distributed database (mySQL and Java web server) that allows for friends and colleagues around the world to help maintain the data about their respective networks and countries. It's top level reference is: http://www.nsrc.org/ and the coloured maps held in http://www.nsrc.org/codes/bymap/world.html point to further information on http://www.nsrc.org/db. Many thanks to Randy Bush <randy@nsrc.org>, John Klensin <klensin@nsrc.org> and Steven Huter <sghuter@nsrc.org> for setting-up this site and this collaborative effort. IX. Archiving At each release, this document is archived in a number of archive sites around the world. Amongst them: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu:/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/ # ftp://ftp.uu.net:/usenet/news.answers/mail/ ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk:/usenet/news.answers/news.newusers.questions/ (#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access in some cases. The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by sending an E-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu , blank subject line and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using a simple mail-server robot: Send E-mail to: <robot@gih.com> with a subject: archive-server-request and the command: get mail/country-codes in the body of your message. The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to: country-codes-request@nsrc.org with the command in the body of the message: subscribe The whole collection of documents (monthly releases since 1992 !) is available on: http://www.nsrc.org/oclb X. World-Wide-Web (WWW) documents A Web document is available on the World Wide Web. It is based on this FAQ, and has links to further information for each domain: http://www.nsrc.org/codes/country-codes.html A set of clickable international colour-coded maps is available at: http://www.nsrc.org/codes/bymap/world.html The pages are kindly hosted by the Network Startup Resource Center computer at the University of Oregon. Web references for Top-Level information servers for a particular country should be sent to <ocl@gih.com>. Thanks to all who have helped ! XI. Internetology The Internet has exploded in size in the last few years. The present document has been edited monthly since 1993, and some Web pages have been put together to reflect on the continuing spread of Internet/E-mail in the world since that time, between 1993 and 1997, when most Internet development took place in terms of new countries getting connected. This section is called "Internetology". It provides a graphical history of the spread of the Net in developing countries, by taking snapshots of Internet connectivity every six months since November 1993. All of the maps tie-up with the information that is included with the FAQ on International E-mail accessibility. The reference for the Internetology pages is: http://www.nsrc.org/codes/bymap/ntlgy/ ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains. WARNING: The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a remote computer in such a country asking about the local weather report. Please think twice before sending such E-mail. Thank you! Code Connect Country Further information ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ AC FI * C Ascension Island AD FI * Andorra AE FI * United Arab Emirates AF P C Afghanistan(Islamic State) AG FI * Antigua and Barbuda AI FI * Anguilla AL FI * Albania AM FI * Armenia Ex-USSR AN FI * Netherland Antilles AO FI * Angola (Republic of) AQ FI * Antarctica intermittent AR FI * Argentina AS FI * American Samoa AT FI * Austria AU FI * Australia AW FI * Aruba AZ FI * Azerbaijan Ex-USSR BA FI * Bosnia-Herzegovina BB FI * Barbados BD FI * Bangladesh BE FI * Belgium BF FI * Burkina Faso BG FI * Bulgaria BH FI * Bahrain BI FI * Burundi BJ FI * Benin BM FI * Bermuda BN FI * Brunei Darussalam BO FI * Bolivia BR FI * C Brazil BS FI * Bahamas BT FI * C Bhutan BV Bouvet Island BW FI * Botswana BY FI * Belarus Ex-USSR BZ FI * C Belize CA FI B * Canada CC FI * C Cocos (Keeling) Islands CD FI * C Democratic Republic of Congo CF FI * Central African Republic CG FI * C Congo CH FI * Switzerland CI FI * Ivory Coast CK FI * Cook Islands CL FI B * Chile CM FI * Cameroon CN FI * China CO FI * C Colombia CR FI * Costa Rica CU FI * Cuba CV FI * Cape Verde CX C Christmas Island CY FI * Cyprus CZ FI * Czech Republic DE FI * Germany DJ FI * Djibouti DK FI * Denmark DM FI * Dominica DO FI * Dominican Republic DZ FI * Algeria EC FI * Ecuador EE FI * Estonia EG FI * Egypt EH Western Sahara ER FI * Eritrea ES FI * Spain ET FI * Ethiopia FI FI B * Finland FJ FI * Fiji FK FI * C Falkland (Malvinas) FM FI * Micronesia FO FI * Faroe Islands FR FI * France GA FI * Gabon GB FI * Great Britain (UK) X.400 & IP both use this TLD GD FI * Grenada GE FI * Georgia Ex-USSR GF FI * Guiana (French) GG FI * Guernsey (Channel Island) GH FI * Ghana GI FI * Gibraltar GL FI * Greenland GM FI * Gambia GN FI * Guinea GP FI * Guadeloupe (French) GQ FI * Equatorial Guinea GR FI * Greece GS C South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands GT FI * Guatemala GU FI * Guam (US) US domains GW FI * Guinea Bissau GY FI * Guyana HK FI * Hong Kong HM C Heard & McDonald Islands HN FI * Honduras HR FI * Croatia HT FI * Haiti HU FI * Hungary ID FI * Indonesia IE FI * Ireland IL FI * Israel IN FI * India IM FI * Isle of Man IO FI * British Indian Ocean Territory IQ FI * Iraq IR FI * Iran IS FI B * Iceland IT FI B * Italy JE FI * Jersey (Channel Islands) JM FI * Jamaica JO FI * Jordan JP FI * Japan KE FI * Kenya KG FI * Kyrgyz Republic Ex-USSR (in .su domain) KH FI * Cambodia KI FI * Kiribati KM FI * Comoros KN PFI P C St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla KP P Korea (North) KR FI * Korea (South) KW FI * Kuwait KY FI * Cayman Islands KZ FI * Kazakstan Ex-USSR LA FI * Laos LB FI * Lebanon LC FI * Saint Lucia LI FI * Liechtenstein LK FI * Sri Lanka LR FI * Liberia LS FI * Lesotho LT FI * Lithuania Ex-USSR LU FI * Luxembourg LV FI * Latvia Ex-USSR LY PFI * C Libya MA FI * Morocco MC FI * Monaco MD FI * C Moldova Ex-USSR MG FI * Madagascar MH C Marshall Islands MK FI * Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic Of) ML FI * Mali MM * Myanmar MN FI * Mongolia MO FI * Macau MP FI * C Northern Mariana Islands MQ FI * Martinique (French) MR FI * Mauritania MS C Montserrat MT FI * Malta MU FI * C Mauritius MV FI * Maldives MW FI * Malawi MX FI * Mexico MY FI * Malaysia MZ FI * Mozambique NA FI * Namibia NC FI * New Caledonia (French) NE FI * Niger NF FI * C Norfolk Island NG FI F Nigeria NI FI * Nicaragua NL FI * Netherlands NO FI B * Norway NP FI * Nepal NR Nauru NU FI * C Niue NZ FI * New Zealand OM FI * Oman PA FI * Panama PE FI * Peru PF FI * Polynesia (French) PG FI * Papua New Guinea PH FI * Philippines PK FI * Pakistan PL FI * Poland PM C St. Pierre & Miquelon PN Pitcairn PR FI B * Puerto Rico (US) PS FI * Palestinian Territories, Occupied PT FI * Portugal PW FI * Palau PY FI * Paraguay QA FI * Qatar RE FI * Reunion (France) RO FI * Romania RU FI * Russian Federation Ex-USSR RW FI * Rwanda SA FI * Saudi Arabia SB FI * Solomon Islands SC FI * Seychelles SD FI * Sudan SE FI B * Sweden SG FI * Singapore SH FI * C St. Helena SI FI * Slovenia SJ FI * Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands (in .no domain) SK FI * Slovakia (Slovak Republic) SL FI * Sierra Leone SM FI * San Marino SN FI * Senegal SO FI * Somalia SR FI * Suriname ST FI * C St. Tome and Principe SU FI * Soviet Union Still used. SV FI * El Salvador SY FI * Syria SZ FI * Swaziland TC FI * C Turks & Caicos Islands TD FI * Chad TF C French Southern Territories TG FI * Togo TH FI * Thailand TJ FI * C Tadjikistan Ex-USSR TK Tokelau TM FI * Turkmenistan Ex-USSR TN FI * Tunisia TO FI * Tonga TP FI * C East Timor TR FI * Turkey TT FI * Trinidad & Tobago TV FI * C Tuvalu TW FI * Taiwan TZ FI * Tanzania UA FI * Ukraine UG FI * Uganda UK FI * United Kingdom ISO 3166 is GB UM US Minor outlying Islands US FI * United States see note (4) UY FI * Uruguay UZ FI * Uzbekistan Ex-USSR VA FI * Vatican City State VC P St.Vincent & Grenadines VE FI * Venezuela VG FI * C Virgin Islands (British) VI FI * Virgin Islands (US) VN FI * Vietnam VU FI * Vanuatu WF Wallis & Futuna Islands WS FI * C Western Samoa YE FI * Yemen YT Mayotte YU FI * Yugoslavia ZA FI * South Africa ZM FI * Zambia intermittent ZW FI * Zimbabwe See Note [5] for the next top level domains (whois.internic.net): ARPA * used for reverse-mapping in IPv4 COM FI * Commercial whois.internic.net EDU FI B * Educational whois.internic.net GOV FI * Government whois.nic.gov INT FI * International field MIL FI * US Military whois.nic.mil NET FI * Network whois.internic.net ORG FI * Non-Profit Organization www.pir.org New Top Level Domains AERO FI * Air Transport Industry http://www.nic.aero BIZ FI * Businesses http://www.nic.biz COOP FI * Non-profit cooperatives http://www.coop INFO FI * Unrestricted Use http://www.afilias.info MUSEUM FI * Museums http://www.nic.museum NAME FI * For regist. by individuals http://www.nic.name PRO FI * Acct, lawyrs & physicians http://www.nic.pro +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information, this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could be pointed out to me and they will be corrected in the next release. The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed. -- Olivier MJ Crepin-Leblond, Ph.D. |--> Global Information Highway Limited Phone: +44 (0)7956 84 1113 | http://www.gih.com/ | E-mail: <ocl@gih.com> Fax : +44 (0)20 7937 7666 | Always 60 seconds ahead of the past...