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Subject: comp.sys.mac.comm FAQ (v 2.2.8) Aug 1 2001 [2/3]

This article was archived around: Tue, 31 Jul 2001 15:59:17 -0600

All FAQs in Directory: macintosh/comm-faq
All FAQs posted in: comp.sys.mac.comm
Source: Usenet Version


=====================================================================- [3] Macintosh File-transfers ============================
[3.1] What is the difference between a commmunication and an Internet connection? -------------------------------------------------------------------- A commmunication connection was the original way home computers remotely connected to other computers. It basicly consisted of a direct connection between the personal computer to the computer on the other end of the phone line. Originally each communication program had its own method and interface but then Apple created the Communications Toolbox (CTB) as a standard interface for programmers writing communications programs. In addition, specific "tools" that interfaced with modems, provided terminal emulation, or handled file transferring could be implemented as external add-on features to CTB-aware programs. The protocals most commonally associated with commmunications software are (in order of preferance): Zmodem, YModem, Xmodem, and finally Kermit. However because it was a direct connection you could only do one thing at a time and the interface tended to be at best a Command Line Interface. By contrast Internet connections grew out of the development of personal computers. Originally Internet computers were directly connected to each other providing information to the user via dumb termanals. With the development of personal computers a need to allow dial in connections developed with SLIP and PPP (see [5.3]) being the result. These additional protocals allowed personal computer users to use such Internet protocals as FTP, Gopher, and SMTP. Most importantly via PPP Internet connections allowed multiple connections through one modem allowing the user to perform several tasks at once. Due to this multifunction ability continued development of communication programs has fallen off in favor of the more robust Internet programs though they are still the best way to connect to a local BBS. Since support for Internet connections was rolled into the MacOS beginning with System 7.5 it has become the defacto way to link a personal Mac to the outside world. [3.2] What communication programs are available? --------------------------------------------------------------------- This is a short list of shareware/freeware and commercial communication programs from the orginal list that are still available. As a matter of practicality only those programs that have been written or updated since 1993, support at least three of the standard protocols (Kermit, Xmodem, YModem, and Zmodem), and either are available or have web pages are listed. BN: Black Knight 1.0.7, $30 shareware, Raine Storm softworks <http://www.kagi.com/raine/products.html> CL: Communicate Lite, $50 SRP, Mark/Space Softworks, <http://www.markspace.com/comm_lite.html> MT: MacToPic Plus, $195, site licenses available, Carnation Software, <http://www.webcom.com/~carn/carnation/HT.Carn.Home.html> PT: ProTERM 1.5, $69.95 commercial, 30 day free trial, InTrec Software <http://www.intrec.com/proterm-mac/> VT: VersaTerm and VersaTerm Pro 5.0.6, $145 and $195 respectively Synergy Software <http://www.synergy.com/vt.htm> ZT: ZTerm 1.0.1, $30 shareware, $40 with disk, Dave Alverson, davea@xetron.com Shareware/freeware communications programs can be found in the /info-mac/comm/term directory of any Info-mac mirror. Table 3.1.1 summarizes file transfer capabilities of various Macintosh telecommunications programs. | Programs Protocols | BN CL MT PT VT ZT ------------------------------ XMODEM | X X X X X X YMODEM | X X X X X X ZMODEM | X X X X X X Kermit | X X X X QuickB | X B Plus | X CTB tools | X X X X FTP | X X Table 3.1.1 Table 3.1.2 summarizes the terminal-emulation capabilities of various Macintosh communications programs and Table 3.1.3 summarizes the scripting capabilities of various Macintosh telecommunications programs: | Programs | Programs Terminals | BN CL MT PT VT ZT Scripting | BN CL MT PT VT ZT ------------------------------ ------------------------------- TTY | X X X X Recording | X X X VT52 | X X If/Else | X a X VT100 | X X X X X X Loops | X a X VT102 | X X X X FileOps | X a X VT220 | X X Arithmetic | X a X PC/ANSI | X X X Variables | X a X X Tek 4010 | X User Input | X a X Tek 4014 | X Key Remaps | X * X Tek 4105/7| P Arrays | a X DG210/211 | X Wait/Send | X X X X CTB tools | X X AppleScript| X b Controls | X X X Viewpoint | X X a = capability is accessible Wyse 50 | X through AppleScript Prism | X Televideo | b = script commands can be fed to 910 | X the program via AppleScript 925 | P 950 | P * Allows programmable HeathktH19| X function keys LSIADM3a/5| X PTSE/A2 | X Table 3.1.2 Table 3.1.3 [3.3] What Internet programs are available? --------------------------------------------------------------------- The desire to get on the Internet has produced dozens of such programs many of which are listed at The Mac Orchard web page <http://www.macorchard.com/>. To help the fledgling Internet user I am listing the most commonly used programs below: E-mail Eudora <http://www.eudora.com/> is perhaps the best written and most popular e-mail program available for the Macintosh. Eudora is a complete and versatile e-mail package which can send e-mail via SMTP (see [5.4]) and receive e-mail via a POP server. It can even be used with UUPC 3.0 (as a mail reader and message generator, not a transport agent). Eudora can also be used to transfer arbitrary Macintosh files between computers through its BinHex 4.0 attachment features. Many accolades go to the author, Steve Dorner. Hank Zimmerman maintains the comp.mail.eudora.mac FAQ which can be found at <http://www.ka.net/eudora/faqs/> and the [Unofficial] Eudora Web Site can be found at <http://www.emailman.com/eudora/> Versions are: Eudora Lite 3.1.4 -- 68K version Eudora 5.0 (free and commercial) --- PowerPC version FTP clients The two most popular MacOS FTP clients are Interarchy (formally known as Anarchie) and Fetch. Interarchy is sharewhare and has a home site at <http://www.stairways.com/> and <http://www.interarchy.com/> Fetch 3.0.3 "is free to users affiliated with an educational institution or charitable non-profit organization; all other users may purchase a license." (<http://www.dartmouth.edu/pages/softdev/fetch.html>) Two releatively newer FTP clients are Vicomsoft FTP <http://www.vicomsoft.com/ftp_client/ftp.client.html> and NetFinder <http://www.ozemail.com.au/~pli/netfinder/sw_and_updts.html> FTP Servers The oldest and most popular FTP server for the mac is NetPresenz (formally FTPd) <http://www.macorchard.com/server.html>, <http://www.pism.com/chapt06/> News All Mac newsreaders make use of NNTP (see [5.4]). Newswatcher (2.2.1) by John Norstad and its close sister Multi-Threaded NewsWatcher (currently Version 3.0.0) by Simon Fraser are likely the most popular online Newsreaders. <http://www.macorchard.com/usenet.html> For offline browsing MacSOUP <http://home.snafu.de/stk/macsoup/index.html> by Stefan Haller is likely the most popular. Browsers The two most popular browsers are Netscape and MicroSoft Internet Explorer both of which support frames and other Internet goodies. The most recent versions (6.0.1 and 5.0 respectively) can be found at <http://www.netscape.com/> and <http://www.microsoft.com/> MacOS X MacOS X has at its heart UNIX which means in theory the old UNIX utilities like rn, tin, pine, and ssh would be available via the terminal program. paulf@panix.com stated that at least ssh is included in the public beta. [3.4] What is Telnet, and what MacOS Telnet Programs are there? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Telnet is a high speed terminal connection protocol designed with TCP/IP in mind. A Telnet program allows you to connect to computers that accept Telnet sessions (such as UNIX boxes) with interactive full-screen console input and output capabilities. There are several Telnet programs for the Macintosh. NCSA Telnet and succesors (BetterTelnet and MacTelnet) The most widely known and used is the freeware NCSA Telnet for which developement stopped January 1, 1996. The last 'offical' version was 2.6 though there is a 2.7b4 available. There are serveral succesor programs which improve on the NCSA Telnet code. One such freeware successor is Sassy Software's BetterTelnet (Version 2.0fc1) <http://www.cstone.net/~rbraun/mac/telnet/> which uses the 2.7b5 code and provides many bug fixes, an improved interface, and additional features. Both of these programs support TEK 4105 graphics, provide both an FTP server *and* client, and can do session logging. About the only drawback is that these programs use Classic rather than Open Transport networking. MacTelnet <http://home.austin.rr.com/telnet/> is another such program and is one of the few that states plans to be MacOS X ready. dataComet dataComet <http://www.databeast.com/> is both the oldest (1986 as Cornell TN) and longest supported MacOS Telnet application. This shareware application supports PC-ANSI, VT220, & TN3270 terminal emulation, as well as serial connections and communications protocols (including ZModem) and suuports both 68K and PPC machines. Nifty Telnet Nifty Telnet <http://andrew2.andrew.cmu.edu/dist/niftytelnet.html> is a freeware Telnet program that supports Kerberous encrypting (US version only), has a clean interface, and is Open Transport native. ProTERM $69.95 commercial program by InTrec Software <http://www.intrec.com/proterm-mac/> with a 30 day free trial that also supports a communiction connection (see 3.2) tn3270 If you need to telnet to an IBM mainframe this program at version 2.5b5 this makes tn3270 more enjoyable. [3.5] What's the best compression program to use when uploading files to an archive? Are there any other guidelines I should follow? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Best Compression: (Revised 01/2001) ---- ----------- The shareware program DropStuff with Extension Expander (and its commercial sibling, StuffIt Deluxe) is generally regarded as providing the best compression performance of the many Macintosh compression utilities. StuffIt Deluxe has a fancy user-interface while DSEE has a very simple interface. StuffIt Expander (free) with DSEE ($30 shareware) seems to be the most comprehensive shareware package currently available for decompressing files. There is one special issue to be aware of though; StuffIt Expander (and Deluxe) does not seem to look -within- formats for the Macbinary format. As a result non-mac archive formats that have had Macbinary added -internally- to support the two fork Mac format ([2.4b]) do not always decompress properly resulting in the resource fork information being corrupted or loss. Fortunitly there are very few Mac files archived in this manner but considering I ran into this situation myself I though it best to alert people to the situation. The closest rival to the Stuffit programs was Compact Pro but it has two problems: 1) it has not been updated since April 1995 and 2) it cannot decompress the Deluxe .sit formats. As a result StuffIt has become the defacto king of Mac compression. Posting Macintosh Programs: (Revised 01/2001) ------- --------- -------- You should use either DropStuff or StuffIt Deluxe to compress Macintosh files you send to anonymous FTP sites and Web sites. While MacBinary internal versions of zip and LZH exist it is better to stick with sit for Mac files. Zip and LZH should at best be used for data fork only files intended for all computers. Regardless of which archiver you use, PLEASE DO NOT MAKE AN ARCHIVE YOU ARE POSTING SELF-EXTRACTING! The convenience of self-extracting archives is not worth the space they waste at anonymous-FTP sites and Web sites (where literally thousands of compressed files are stored) and the problems they create on other platforms. Self-extracting archives are useful in other contexts, but should be discouraged as a medium for posting to archives. Before you create your archive, set the Finder label of all files you plan to include in the archive to 'None'. Avoid using strange punctuation marks in filenames that you will distribute. Characters such as exclamation points, spaces, dollar signs, etc, are legal characters in Macintosh filenames but can be difficult to work with on non-Macintosh systems (where most Macintosh archives are stored). Since BinHex and MacBinary store your original Macintosh filename, removing strange characters from a BinHex'd or MacBinary'd file before distributing will not affect the original filename. As an example, MyFile-215.sit is a perfectly acceptable filename. After you have created the archive and named it appropriately, BinHex encode it (see [2.3]). Preface the resulting text file a short description of the archive you want to distribute, including any system requirements and problems. Do not bother with a signature. Finally, upload the text file (if necessary) and e-mail it to macgifts@info-mac.org. Your subject line should specify a suggested name with a suggested location in the text file. To: macgifts@info-mac.org Subject: myfile-215.hqx Mailing your archive to macgifts automatically submits it to the InfoMac archive and its active mirrors. [3.6] How can I transfer Macintosh files to/from my Macintosh and other non-Macintosh computers (eg: mainframes, UNIX boxes, PCs)? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Regardless of whether you are using a communications or Internet program the procedure you should follow will be the same. First the file should be compressed with StuffIt and then binhex encoded. Some programs like Eudora will do the binhexing for you so you can skip the encoding step. The reason you will want to use Binhex rather than MacBinary as your encoding format is that Binhex is useable in the 7-bit only areas of the Internet like Usenet and E-mail that MacBinary cannot go. For Internet programs downloading a file is very simple. For systems or programs that do not support Drag and Drop you simply click (or double click) on the file and it is downloaded for you. Drag and Drop aware programs allow you to drag the file to the desktop which results in it being downloaded. Uploading varies from program to program and some FTP sites only allow files to be E-mailed. Consult your program and destination site documentation for the proper procedures. Communication downloading and uploading is a little more complicated. This is because the remote computer is usially running a totally different OS that the Mac user must interact with. As a result the remote computer must be first be told that a file is being sent or received and then the Mac commmunications program told the same thing. Since Unix shell accounts were the most common remote OS they are used as example but it should be noted that many BBSes use a different interface and therefore different commands. For a unix shell account the command consists of two parts: % method filename 'Filename' is the name of the file on the remote machine and 'method' is the protocal and whether the file is being sent or received. The methods are generally as follows: Kermit XMODEM YMODEM ZMODEM ------- ------ ------ ------ sending kermit sx sb sz receiving kermit rx rb rz As one goes from left to right in the chart above the protocal's speed increaces. As a result as early as 1994 some communication programs were not supporting Kermit. With Internet connections becoming more accessable communication software and its protocols are rapidly fading into the mists of history. [3.7] Is there a newsgroup for mac binaries? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Yes there is; it is called comp.binaries.mac. But due to the nature of Usenet it has become impractical to post today's larger MacOS programs. In any case this is the *only* proper mac newsgroup to post a MacOS program binary. Any as explained in section [2.2] any MacOS program intended for comp.binaries.mac must be in BinHex 4.0 format following the step described in section [3.5]. As far downloading what few programs do appear on comp.binaries.mac use a NewsWatcher baced newsreader and simply select extract binaries. This will do the tedious task of joining up a multipart binary for you. Otherwise there is not much reason to bother with comp.binaries.mac. ===================================================================== [4] Networking basics [4.1] What are AppleTalk, LocalTalk, Ethernet, EtherTalk, TCP/IP, etc? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- When attempting to describe networking terms, a distinction should be drawn between networking _protocols_ (such as AppleTalk and TCP/IP) and networking _hardware_ (such as LocalTalk, Ethernet, and TokenRing). In most cases, a specific protocol can be used over more than one hardware medium. In order to help understand the interaction of these disparate parts in a real-world network, we can adopt the useful analogy of multi-layer cake with the physical wire at the very bottom and the software which you are running at the very top. Thus, we can think of LocalTalk, Ethernet and TokenRing as being the layers at the bottom, AppleTalk and TCP/IP in the middle and programs like NCSA Telnet, NFS/Share and Netscape at the top. The following terms describe protocols (software descriptions) common to the Macintosh networking world: AppleTalk A proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple Computer, Inc. that provides for near-transparent network connections between Macintosh computers. However, over the years AppleTalk has been ported to other OSes including UNIX, VMS and DOS. Questions about the AppleTalk protocol are probably best posed in the newsgroup comp.protocols.appletalk. EtherTalk and TokenTalk The drivers which allows AppleTalk protocols to be transported by Ethernet and over IBM TokenRing networks respectively. TCP/IP A suite of protocols developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) whose purpose is multi-platform connectivity. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, because these are the two most widely used protocols in the suite. However, TCP/IP includes the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) and others. TCP/IP drivers are available for almost all of the computer platforms in use today, including micros, minis, main-frames and supercomputers. The following terms describe hardware (the physical link such as the wire(s) connecting computers) common to the Macintosh networking world: LocalTalk One type of hardware over which AppleTalk protocols can be transported. LocalTalk has a throughput of 230.4 Kbps second, or roughly a quarter of a Mbps. PhoneNet Another type of hardware commonly used to transport AppleTalk packets. PhoneNet mates LocalTalk hardware with ordinary (unused) telephone wire. PhoneNet is probably the cheapest way to connect widely separated Macintosh computers within a single building. Ethernet A network medium over which AppleTalk, TCP/IP and other protocols travel, often simultaneously. Ethernet's maximum throughput is 10 Mbps. FastEthernet offers 100 Mbps. TokenRing A network medium developed (and patented) by IBM based on a topology of a ring of nodes connected serially by a single cable. Each node, or computer, speaks on the cable only when it has posession of a token. TokenRing technology can demonstrate throughputs of ranging from 4 to 16 Mbps. [4.2] What is Open Transport? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Basicly Open Transport is Apple's complete revision to the Macintosh's network system software. Originally the Mac's only native protocol was AppleTalk and anything else had to be added on. In addition thanks to the AppleTalk Manager (which resided in the ROM of most 68K Macs) AppleTalk got privileged access. As a result network software developers not only had to write each and every non-AppleTalk protocol they wanted to use but they had to contend with AppleTalk. After Open Tranport came out this method became known as Classic networking (not to be confused with the Classic enviroment In MacOS X). Open Transport which has been part of the OS since 7.5.3 changed this situation by using industry standard Application Programing Interfaces (APIs). Not only did the APIs eliminate the need for developers to reinvent the wheel but they put all the protocols on an equal standing. In addition Open Transport is Power Mac native resulting in speed ups in both AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Open Transport has been the the default networking system since System 7.6 with support for Classic Networking formally disappearing with System 8.0. Classic and Open Transport networking are different enough that programs written for just one generally will not work with the other. Futhermore given the age of Classic Networking it is iffy that programs only written for it will work under MacOS X. So read the documentation of any networking software you plan to use to make sure it is compatable with your networking method and OS. More details on Open Transport can be found at Apple's web site <http://developer.apple.com/dev/opentransport/> [4.3] How can I change the Chooser "user" and name of my Macintosh? Also: Why can I no longer change the name of my hard-disk? ------------------------------------------------------------------- To change the owner and name of your Macintosh under System 7, select "Controls Panels" from the Apple Menu and double-click on the "Sharing Setup" Control Panel. The Chooser "user" is the "Owner name:". Change it like any standard edit field. The name of your Macintosh is the "Macintosh name:". Also on this Control Panel is a button to turn File Sharing on and off. When File Sharing is on, you cannot change the name of shared disks. If you are trying to change the name of your hard disk but cannot get the name to turn into an edit field, File Sharing is probably on. Use the Sharing Setup Control Panel to turn File Sharing off, change your hard disk name, and then turn File Sharing back on (unless you have no need for it).