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Subject: Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers (Part 5 of 6)

This article was archived around: 24 May 2006 04:22:39 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: linux/faq
All FAQs posted in: comp.os.linux.misc
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-Name: linux/faq/part5 URL: http://www.mainmatter.com/ Reply-to: rkiesling@mainmatter.com Posting-Frequency: weekly Last-modified: 12/04/2001
If the system uses Red Hat-style configuration files, the respective time zone info files are /usr/share/zoneinfo and /etc/localtime. The manual pages for tzset or tzselect describe setting the time zone. Some programs recognize the "TZ" environment variable, but this is not POSIX-correct. You should also make sure that your Linux kernel clock is set to the correct GMT time. Type date -u and check that the correct UTC time is displayed. ("The Computer Has the Wrong Time.") 7.11. Dial-up PPP Configuration. This information is mainly for people who do not have a wrapper utility like kppp or pppconfig, or are not able to get those utilities to work correctly. If you need to manually configure PPP to dial in to your ISP, you will need the following information: * The port that your modem is connected to: /dev/ttyS0-/dev/ttyS3, which correspond to COM1-COM4 under MS-DOS. * The phone number of your ISP's data connection. * The user name and password that your ISP gave you. * The IP addresses of the primary and possibly secondary Domain Name Service that you will use when dialing in to the ISP. This assumes that you will not be using a DNS that you installed on your system. When you have all of this information, make sure that the programs pppd and chat, at the very minimum, are installed correctly. In most current distributions, they are installed in the /usr/sbin/ directory, and you will need to be logged in as root to use them. In addition, the following programs are also useful for configuring network connections, determining network status, and diagnosing problems: /sbin/ifconfig, /sbin/route, /bin/ping, /usr/sbin/traceroute. These are the basic steps that you need to follow to configure PPP. You must be logged in as root. * Make sure that the serial port and modem are operating correctly. Using a program like minicomm or kermit, you should be able to send AT commands to the modem and receive the OK string in response from the modem. * Enter the primary and possibly secondary Domain Name Server IP addresses in the /etc/resolv.conf file, using dotted quad notation, with the nameserver label. For example: order hosts,bind nameserver 196.182.101.103 nameserver 196.182.101.104 The nameserver addresses in the example above are examples only. They don't correspond to actual network hosts. The first line, order hosts,bind, tells your networking software, when it resolves network domain addresses, to first look in the /etc/hosts file, and then use the bind service; i.e., the DNS servers, which are specified on the lines that begin with nameserver. * Locate the chat script that PPP will use to dial the modem and connect to your ISP. In many systems, this is either in the /etc/chatscripts or /etc/ppp directory, and will be called provider or something similar. You can store a chat script anywhere, provided that you tell pppd to use it rather than the default script. Refer to the chat and pppd manual pages, and the information below, for details. Here is a sample chat script: ABORT BUSY ABORT "NO CARRIER" ABORT VOICE ABORT "NO DIALTONE" "" ATDT<your_isp's_phone_number> ogin <your_user_name> word <your_password> This is a chat program for a simple, script based login. The chat program uses the pair of strings on each line as a match/response pair. When it starts, it sends the string "ATDTyour_isp's_phone_number," where you have substituted the actual phone number of course. It then waits for the string ogin (a substring of the word login) and sends your user name. It then waits for word (a substring of password) and sends your password. If your ISP uses a different login and password prompts, and any additional prompts, you will need to edit the script accordingly. Again, refer to the chat manual page for details. If your ISP uses PAP or CHAP authentication, you will need to edit the pap-secrets or chap-secrets files in /etc/ppp directory as well. Refer to the manual pages for these files, as well as the instruction in the files themselves. * The configuration of pppd, the program that maintains the actual connection, is usually contained in two or three separate files. The first is usually /etc/ppp/options, which contains options that all of your system's PPP connections will use. (Yes, you can have more than one; as many as your computer has serial ports, generally.) Here is a sample /etc/ppp/options file: # /etc/ppp/options asyncmap 0 auth crtscts lock noipx # ---<End of File>--- The options may be given on one line or each on a separate line. Many options files are much longer, and come with a description of each option. Here, the options mean, in order, don't remap any characters between the PPP client and server; always use password, PAP, or CHAP authentication when making a connection; use the modem's hardware handshake lines for flow control; lock the serial port when in use so no other programs can access it; and do not use the IPX network protocol. * For connection set-up on each individual serial port or PPP host, there will either be an /etc/ppp/options.ttyS1, for example, options file for /etc/ttyS1, or a file for your ISP in the /etc/ppp/peers directory. The default is often called /etc/ppp/peers/provider. Here is a sample of the default provider file: noauth connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/chatscripts/provider" defaultroute /dev/ttyS1 38400 persist There might be an explanation of these and other options in the /etc/ppp/peers/provider file itself. You can also refer to the pppd manual page for details. Briefly, they mean: do not use PAP authentication for this connection; use the chat program and the /etc/chatscripts/provider script, which is described above, to dial the phone and log in; set the network default route to the PPP connection (so when your network software needs to resolve an network address that is not on your local machine(s), it will use the PPP connection to the Internet); use /dev/ttyS1 as the serial port for the connection; set the modem speed to 38400; and keep the pppd daemon running even if the connection fails. * That is all of the configuration you need. To actually start and stop PPP, there are often /usr/bin/pon and /usr/bin/poff scripts (in Debian), or something similar, and they are usually very simple, and only contain the command: $ /usr/sbin/pppd call ${1:-provider} This will start pppd and use the call option to call the server that you type on the command line, or the provider given in the /etc/ppp/peers/provider file if you do not specify a remote server. After making the call and logging in (about 30 seconds), you should be able to use the /sbin/ifconfig program to determine that the connection really did establish a PPP interface (the first will be ppp0, the second will be ppp1, etc., depending on how many simultaneous PPP connections you have. If something goes wrong, you can look at the /var/log/ppp.log file to determine what happened. You can also view the log as the connection is being made, by "tailing" it in another window; that is, viewing it as pppd logs the connection's status information. To do this, use the command (again, as root): $ tail -f /var/log/ppp.log On some systems the PPP output is directed to /var/log/messages, in which case your system may not have a dedicated PPP log file. You should be also able to ping one of your ISP's domain names (e.g., mail.isp.com) and receive a response. These are the most basic steps for configuring a PPP connection. You will also need to take into account what other network connections may be present (for example, if there's an Ethernet connection that has already been assigned the default route), as well as various security measures at your ISP's end. If you're having trouble making the dial-up connection, usually the best way to determine what may be going wrong is to use Seyon, minicomm, kermit, or some other program to dial and log in manually to the ISP, and determine just exactly what you have to do to log in, then duplicate that in the PPP scripts. Most Linux documentation also has additional instructions for configuring PPP connections. Refer to ("Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?") ("Where Is the Documentation?") 7.12. What Version of Linux and What Machine Name Is This? Type: $ uname -a 7.13. What Is a "core" File? A core file is created when a program terminates unexpectedly, due to a bug, or a violation of the operating system's or hardware's protection mechanisms. The operating system kills the program and creates a core file that programmers can use to figure out what went wrong. It contains a detailed description of the state that the program was in when it died. If would like to determine what program a core file came from, use the file command, like this: $ file core That will tell you the name of the program that produced the core dump. You may want to write the maintainer(s) of the program, telling them that their program dumped core. [Eric Hanchrow] 7.14. How To Enable or Disable Core Dumps. By using the ulimit command in bash, the limit command in tcsh, or the rlimit command in ksh. See the appropriate manual page for details. This setting affects all programs run from the shell (directly or indirectly), not the whole system. If you wish to enable or disable core dumping for all processes by default, you can change the default setting in linux/sched.h. Refer to definition of INIT_TASK, and look also in linux/resource.h. PAM support optimizes the system's environment, including the amount of memory a user is allowed. In some distributions this parameter is configurable in the /etc/security/limits.conf file. For more information, refer to the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. ("Where Is the Documentation?") 7.15. How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel. See the Kernel HOWTO or the README files which come with the kernel release on ftp.cs.helsinki.fi/pub/Software/Linux/Kernel/ and mirrors. (See "Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?") You may already have a version of the kernel source code installed on your system, but if it is part of a standard distribution it is likely to be somewhat out of date (this is not a problem if you only want a custom configured kernel, but it probably is if you need to upgrade.) With newer kernels you can (and should) make all of the following targets. Don't forget that you can specify multiple targets with one command. $ make clean dep install modules modules_install Also remember to update the module dependencies. $ depmod -a This command can be run automatically at boot time. On Debian/GNU Linux systems, the command is part of the /etc/init.d/modutils script, and can be linked appropriately in the /etc/rcx.d/ directories. For more information on depmod, see the manual page. Make sure you are using the most recent version of the modutils utilities, as well as all other supporting packages. Refer to the file Documentation/Changes in the kernel source tree for specifics, and be sure to consult the README file in the modutils package. Remember that to make the new kernel boot you must run lilo after copying the kernel into your root partition. The Makefile in some kernels have a special zlilo target for this; try: $ make zlilo On current systems, however, you can simply copy the zImage or bzImage file (in arch/i386/boot/ to the /boot/ directory on the root file system, or to a floppy using the dd command. Refer also to the question, How do I get LILO to boot the kernel image? Kernel version numbers with an odd minor version (ie, 1.1.x, 1.3.x) are the testing releases; stable production kernels have even minor versions (1.0.x, 1.2.x). If you want to try the testing kernels you should probably subscribe to the linux-kernel mailing list. ("What Mailing Lists Are There?") The Web site http://www.kernelnotes.org/ has lots of information and links to other sites that provide information about Linux kernel updates. Also refer to the questions, "The PCMCIA Card Doesn't Work after Upgrading the Kernel." and "How To Get LILO to Boot the Kernel Image." 7.16. Can Linux Use More than 3 Serial Ports by Sharing Interrupts? Yes, but you won't be able to use simultaneously two ordinary ports which share an interrupt (without some trickery). This is a limitation of the ISA Bus architecture. See the Serial HOWTO for information about possible solutions and workarounds for this problem. 7.17. Configuring Emacs's Default Settings. Create a file in your home directory named .emacs with the Emacs Lisp commands that you want to run every time Emacs starts up. You won't see the file in the directory listing. (The leading '.' tells ls not to display it, unless you use the -a command line switch with ls.) Any kind of Emacs Lisp statement will work in the .emacs file, including entire defuns. Emacs uses lisp variables and statements extensively, and many of the editing functions are written in Emacs Lisp. For example, to enable word wrapping whenever you edit a file that ends with .txt, add the following statement. This is from the Emacs Texinfo help document ( F1-i, then m Emacs Return): (add-hook text-mode-hook '(lambda () (auto-fill-mode 1))) This adds a statement that calls a hook function whenever a text editing mode is entered for that buffer. The value of text-mode-hook, which is a variable, to auto-fill-mode, which is a function. If you want to turn off the menu bar at the top of each Emacs frame, add this statement: (menu-bar-mode -1) And if you want to include an Emacs Lisp program that someone has written, like msb.el (an enhanced, pop-up buffer menu), make sure the lisp file is in a directory where Emacs can find it (usually it will be named Site-lisp), and add these statements in the .emacs file: (require 'msb) (msb-mode 1) Most tasks have several possible solutions in Emacs Lisp. Any task that can be programmed in Emacs Lisp is valid in the .emacs file. For more information, consult the Texinfo documentation. There is also a FAQ list for Emacs (refer to: What other FAQ's are there for Linux? ). 7.18. How To Make a Rescue Floppy. Make a file system on it with bin, etc, lib and dev directories--everything you need. Install a kernel on it and arrange to have LILO boot it from the floppy (see the LILO documentation, in lilo.u.*.ps). If you build the kernel (or tell LILO to tell the kernel) to have a RAM disk the same size as the floppy the RAM disk will be loaded at boot time and mounted as root in place of the floppy. See the Bootdisk HOWTO. 7.19. How To Remap a Keyboard to UK, French, Etc.? For recent kernels, get /pub/Linux/system/Keyboards/kbd-0.90.tar.gz from ftp://metalab.unc.edu/. Make sure you get the appropriate version; you have to use the right keyboard mapping package for your kernel version. For older kernels you have to edit the top-level kernel Makefile, in /usr/src/linux/. You may find more helpful information in The Linux Keyboard and Console HOWTO, by Andries Brouwer, at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/. 7.20. How To Get NUM LOCK to Default to On. Use the setleds program, for example (in /etc/rc.local or one of the /etc/rc.d/* files): for t in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 do setleds +num < /dev/tty$t > /dev/null done setleds is part of the kbd package ("How do I remap my keyboard to UK, French, etc.? "). Alternatively, patch your kernel. You need to arrange for KBD_DEFLEDS to be defined to (1 << VC_NUMLOCK) when compiling drivers/char/keyboard.c. 7.21. How To Set (Or Reset) Initial Terminal Colors. The following shell script should work for VGA consoles: for n in 1 2 4 5 6 7 8; do setterm -fore yellow -bold on -back blue -store > /dev/tty$n done Substitute your favorite colors, and use /dev/ttyS$n for serial terminals. To make sure they are reset when people log out (if they've been changed): Replace the references to getty (or mingetty or uugetty or whatever) in /etc/inittab with references to /sbin/mygetty. #!/bin/sh setterm -fore yellow -bold on -back blue -store > $1 exec /sbin/mingetty $@ [Jim Dennis] 7.22. How To Have More Than 128Mb of Swap. Use several swap partitions or swap files. Linux kernels before version 2.2 supported up to 16 swap areas, each of up to 128Mb. Recent versions do not have this limitation. Very old kernels only supported swap partition sizes up to 16Mb. Linux on machines with 8KB paging, like Alpha and Sparc64, support a swap partition up to 512MB. The 128MB limitation comes from PAGE_SIZE*BITSPERBYTE on machines with 4KB paging, but is 512KB on machines with 8KB paging. The limit is due to the use of a single page allocation map. The file mm/swapfile.c has all of the gory details. [Peter Moulder, Gordon Weast] How To Prevent Errors when Linking Programs with Math Functions. Older run-time libraries included the math library in the C run-time library. It was not necessary to specify the math library separately when compiling. If the compiler generates a message like this when linking a program that uses math functions: /tmp/ccDUQM4J.o: In function `main': /tmp/ccDUQM4J.o(.text+0x19): undefined reference to `sqrt' collect2: ld returned 1 exit status You need use the -lm option with GCC to link with the math libraries: # gcc -o program program.c -lm Make sure also to use the statement #include <math.h> in the source file. [Florian Schmidt] 8. Miscellaneous Information and Questions Answered 8.1. How To Program XYZ Under Linux. Read the manuals, or a good book on Unix and the manual pages (type man man). There is a lot of GNU Info documentation, which is often more useful as a tutorial. Run Emacs and type F1-i, or type info info if you don't have or don't like Emacs. Note that the Emacs libc node may not exactly describe the latest Linux libc, or GNU glibc2. But the GNU project and LDP are always looking for volunteers to upgrade their library documentation. Anyway, between the existing Texinfo documentation, and the manual pages in sections 2 and 3, should provide enough information to get started. As with all free software, the best tutorial is the source code itself. The latest release of the Linux manual pages, a collection of useful GNU Info documentation, and various other information related to programming Linux, can be found on metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/man-pages/. 8.2. What's All This about ELF? glibc? See the ELF HOWTO by Daniel Barlow. Note that this is not the file move-to-elf, which is a blow-by-blow account of how to upgrade to ELF manually. Linux has two different formats for executables, object files, and object code libraries, known as, "ELF." (The old format is called "a.out.") They have advantages, including better support for shared libraries and dynamic linking. Both a.out and ELF binaries can coexist on a system. However, they use different shared C libraries, both of which have to be installed. If you want to find out whether your system can run ELF binaries, look in /lib for a file named, "libc.so.5." If it's there, you probably have ELF libraries. If you want to know whether your installation actually is ELF you can pick a representative program, like ls, and run file on it: -chiark:~> file /bin/ls /bin/ls: Linux/i386 impure executable (OMAGIC) - stripped valour:~> file /bin/ls /bin/ls: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1, stripped There is a patch to get 1.2.x to compile using the ELF compilers, and produce ELF core dumps, at ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/packages/GCC/. You do not need the patch merely to run ELF binaries. 1.3.x and later do not need the patch at all. The GNU glibc2 libraries are essentially more recent versions of ELF libraries that follow most of the same processes for dynamic linking and loading. Upgrade information is contained in ("How To Upgrade the Libraries without Trashing the System.") 8.3. How To Determine What Packages Are Installed on a System. For distributions that use RPM format packages, use the command: $ rpm -qa You need to be logged in as root. You can save the output to a text file for future reference, a command like: $ rpm -qa >installed-packages For Debian systems, the equivalent command is: $ dpkg -l 8.4. What Is a .gz File? And a .tgz? And .bz2? And... ? gz (and .z) files are compressed using GNU gzip. You need to use gunzip (which is a symlink to the gzip command that comes with most Linux installations) to unpack the file. taz, .tar.Z, and .tz are tar files (made with tar) and compressed using compress. The standard *nix compress is proprietary software, but free equivalents like ncompress exist. tgz (or .tpz) is a tar file compressed with gzip. bz2 is a file compressed by the more recently introduced (and efficient) bzip2. lsm is a Linux Software Map entry, in the form of a short text file. Details about the LSM project and the LSM itself are available in the subdirectory on ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/. deb is a Debian Binary Package--the binary package format used by the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. It is manipulated using dpkg and dpkg-deb (available on Debian systems and from ftp://ftp.debian.org//). rpm is a Red Hat RPM package, which is used in the Red Hat and similar distributions. sit is a compressed Macintosh archive made with StuffIt, a commercial program. Aladdin Systems Inc., the manufacturer of StuffIt, has a free expander utility that will uncompress these archives. You can download it at http://www.aladdinsys.com/expander/. The file command can often tell you what a file is. If you find that gzip complains when you try to uncompress a file, you probably downloaded it in ASCII mode by mistake. You must download most things in binary mode: "get," to download the file. 8.5. What Does VFS Stand For? Virtual File System. It's the abstraction layer between the user and real file systems like ext2, Minix and MS-DOS. Among other things, its job is to flush the read buffer when it detects a disk change on the floppy disk drive. VFS: Disk change detected on device 2/0 8.6. What is a BogoMip? "BogoMips" is a combination of Bogus and Mips. MIPS stands for (depending on who you ask) Millions of Instructions per Second, or Meaningless Indication of Processor Speed. The number printed at boot time is the result of a kernel timing calibration, used for very short delay loops by some device drivers. According to the BogoMips mini-HOWTO, the rating for your machine will be: Common BogoMips Ratings Processor BogoMips Comparison Intel 8088 clock * 0.004 0.02 Intel/AMD 386SX clock * 0.14 0.8 Intel/AMD 386DX clock * 0.18 1 (definition) Motorola 68030 clock * 0.25 1.4 Cyrix/IBM 486 clock * 0.34 1.8 Intel Pentium clock * 0.40 2.2 Intel 486 clock * 0.50 2.8 AMD 5x86 clock * 0.50 2.8 Mips R4000/R4400 clock * 0.50 2.8 Nexgen Nx586 clock * 0.75 4.2 PowerPC 601 clock * 0.84 4.7 Alpha 21064/21064A clock * 0.99 5.5 Alpha 21066/21066A clock * 0.99 5.5 Alpha 21164/21164A clock * 0.99 5.5 Intel Pentium Pro clock * 0.99 5.5 Cyrix 5x86/6x86 clock * 1.00 5.6 Intel Pentium II/III clock * 1.00 5.6 Intel Celeron clock * 1.00 5.6 Mips R4600 clock * 1.00 5.6 Alpha 21264 clock * 1.99 11.1 AMD K5/K6/K6-2/K6-III clock * 2.00 11.1 UltraSparc II clock * 2.00 11.1 Pentium MMX clock * 2.00 11.1 PowerPC 604/604e/750 clock * 2.00 11.1 Motorola 68060 clock * 2.01 11.2 Motorola 68040 Not enough data (yet). AMD Athlon Not enough data (yet). IBM S390 Not enough data (yet). If the number is wildly lower, you may have the Turbo button or CPU speed set incorrectly, or have some kind of caching problem (as described in ("When Adding More Memory, the System Slows to a Crawl.") For values people have seen with other, rarer, chips, or to calculate your own BogoMips rating, please refer to the BogoMips Mini-HOWTO, on ftp://metalab.unc.edu/. ("Where Is the Documentation?") [Wim van Dorst] 8.7. What Online/Free Periodicals Exist for Linux? There are a number of recent additions to the list of periodicals devoted to Linux and free software: * geek news. http://geeknews.cjb.net/. Headlines for articles about Linux, like the comp.os.linux.announce and Techweb postings, and general interest, like Associated Press stories. * Linux Gazette. http://www.linuxgazette.com/. This is the longest-running of the on-line periodicals, and the only one that publishes source code. * Linux Today. http://www.linuxtoday.com. News and opinion related to the Linux community, updated daily. * Linux Weekly News. http://lwn.net. News about the Linux community, updated weekly. * Slashdot. http://www.slashdot.org. News about the free software community and culture. * Freshmeat. http://www.freshmeat.net/. Notices of new and updated software for Linux and other free OS's. Please send additions to this list to the FAQ maintainer. [Jim Dennis, Robert Kiesling] 8.8. How Many People Use Linux? Linux is freely available, and no one is required to register with any central authority, so it is difficult to know. Several businesses survive solely on selling and supporting Linux. Linux news groups are some of the most heavily read on Usenet. Accurate numbers are hard to come by, but the number is almost certainly in the millions. However, people can register as Linux users at the Linux Counter project, which has been in existence since 1993. In August, 1998, the project counted more than 70,000 users. Visit the Web site at http://counter.li.org/ and fill in the registration form. If you don't want to use the Web, send E-mail to counter@counter.li.org with the subject line, "I use Linux at home," or "I use Linux at work." The current count is posted monthly to comp.os.linux.misc, and is always available from the Web site. [Harald Tveit Alvestrand] 8.9. How Many People Use Linux? (Redux.) In 1999, International Data Corporation released its first commercial forecast of Linux sales. The report quantifies Linux vendor sales in 1996, 1997, and 1998, and forecasts through the year 2003. To obtain the report, contact IDC at ctoffel@idc.com. Their Web site is http://www.itresearch.com/. 8.10. What Is the Best (Distribution|SCSI Card|Editor|CD-ROM Drive|....) The "best" of anything depends on your particular needs. Discussions like these frequently occur on Usenet. Most often they're flame bait. Answering is generally a waste of time. Free software licensing is unrestrictive enough, that, with a little experience, you can perform your own testing on your own hosts. A better way to phrase a specific inquiry might be: "Where can I find...." 8.11. How Does One Pronounce Linux? This question produces an outrageous amount of heated debate. If you want to hear Linus himself say how he pronounces it, download english.au or swedish.au from ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux/PEOPLE/Linus/SillySounds/. If you have a sound card or the PC-speaker audio driver you can hear them by typing $ cat english.au >/dev/audio The difference isn't in the pronunciation of Linux but in the language Linus uses to say, "hello." For the benefit of those who don't have the equipment or inclination: Linus pronounces Linux approximately as Leenus, where the "ee" is pronounced as in "feet," but rather shorter, and the "u" is like a much shorter version of the French "eu" sound in "peur" (pronouncing it as the "u" in "put" is probably passable). 9. Frequently Encountered Error Messages 9.1. Modprobe Can't Locate Module, XXX, and Similar Messages. These types of messages mostly occur at boot time or shutdown. If modprobe, insmod, or rmmod complain about not being able to find a module, add the following to the /etc/modules.conf or /etc/modutils/aliases file, whichever is present on your system. $ alias <module-name> off And use the name of the module that appears in the error message. [J.H.M. Dassen] 9.2. Unknown Terminal Type "linux" and Similar. In early kernels the default console terminal type has changed from "console" to "linux." You must edit /etc/termcap to change the line reading: console|con80x25:\ to linux|console|con80x25:\ (there may be an additional "dumb" in there--if so it should be removed.) To get the editor to work you may need type: $ TERM=console (for bash and ksh), or $ setenv TERM console for csh or tcsh. Some programs use /usr/lib/terminfo instead of /etc/termcap. For these programs you should upgrade your terminfo package, which is part of ncurses. The same is true for X terminal displays. If your distribution sets the TERM to something strange like xterm-24-color, you can simply reset it to a generic value from the command line: $ TERM="xterm"; export TERM 9.3. INET: Warning: old style ioctl... called! You are trying to use the old network configuration utilities. The new ones can be found on ftp.linux.org.uk/pub/linux/Networking/PROGRAMS/NetTools/ (source only, I'm afraid). Note that they cannot be used just like the old-style programs. See the NET-2 HOWTO for instructions on how to set up the old-style networking programs correctly. Even better, see the NET-3 HOWTO and upgrade your networking software. 9.4. ld: unrecognized option '-m486' You have an old version of ld. Install a newer binutils package that contains an updated ld. Look on tsx-11.mit.edu in