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Subject: Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers (Part 2 of 6)

This article was archived around: 24 May 2006 04:22:38 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: linux/faq
All FAQs posted in: comp.os.linux.misc
Source: Usenet Version

Archive-Name: linux/faq/part2 URL: http://www.mainmatter.com/ Reply-to: rkiesling@mainmatter.com Posting-Frequency: weekly Last-modified: 12/04/2001
Additionally, here is a certainly incomplete list of Web pages devoted to Linux: * AboutLinux.com: http://www.aboutlinux.com/. * Adventures in Linux Programming: http://members.tripod.com/rpragana/. * Dave Central Linux Software Archive: http://linux.davecentral.com/. * debianHELP http://www.debianhelp.org/. * Erlug Webzine (Italian): http://www.erlug.linux.it/. * Free Unix Giveaway List: http://visar.csustan.edu/giveaway.html. Lists offers of free Linux CDs. Also available via E-mail: axel@visar.csustan.edu, with the Subject: send giveaway_list. * Information on Linux in corporate environments: http://www.smartstocks.com/linux.html. * Jeanette Russo's Linux Newbie Information: http://www.stormloader.com/jrusso2/index.html. * JustLinux.com: http://www.justlinux.com/. * Linux Cartoons: http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~conradp/linux/cartoons/. * LinuxArtist.org: http://www.linuxartist.org/. * Linuxinfor.com - Online Linux Resources: http://www.linuxinfor.com/. * linuXChiX.org: http://www.linuxchix.org/. * LinuxDevices.com: The Embedded Linux Portal: http://www.linuxdevices.com. * Linux Educational Needs Posting Page: http://www.slip.net/~brk/linuxedpp.htm. * Linux in Business: Case Studies: http://www.bynari.com/collateral/case_studies.html. * Linux Hardware Database Laptop Superguide: http://lhd.zdnet.com/db/superguide.php3?catid=18. * Linux Inside: http://linuxinside.org/. * Linux Links: http://www.linuxlinks.com/. * Linux Memory Management Home Page: http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/. * Linux Newbie Project: http://kusma.hypermart.net/. * Linux on the Thinkpad 760ED: http://www.e-oasis.com/linux-tp.html. * LinuxOrbit: http://www.linuxorbit.com/ * Linux Parallel Port Home Page: http://www.torque.net/linux-pp.html. * Linux MIDI & Sound Applications: http://sound.condorow.net/. * Linux Start: http://www.linuxstart.com/. * Linux Tips and Tricks Page: http://www.patoche.org/LTT/. * Linux Today PR: http://www.linuxpr.com/. * Mandrakeuser.Org: http://mandrakeuser.org/ * My Linux Contributions by Richard Gooch: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/. * Micro Channel Linux Web Page: http://www.dgmicro.com/mca/. * Parallel port scanners and SANE: http://www2.prestel.co.uk/hex/scanners.html. * Pascal Central: http://www.pascal-central.com/ * PegaSoft Portal: http://www.vaxxine.com/pegasoft/portal/ * PocketLinux. http://www.pocketlinux.com/. * Red Hat and ISDN4Linux: http://www.webideal.de/. * SearchLinux: http://www.searchlinux.com/. * The Free Linux CD Project: http://www.freelinuxcd.org/. * The Site for People Learning Perl: http://learn.perl.org/. * USB Linux Home Page: http://peloncho.fis.ucm.es/~inaky/uusbd-www/. * VLUG: The Virtual Linux Users Group: http://www.vlug.com/. Searching for "Linux" on Web Search Engines, like Yahoo! (http://www.yahoo.com/), Altavista (http://www.altavista.com/), or Google (http://www.google.com/) will provide copious references to Linux Web sites. Further information about about Web search engines is in the Web and Internet Search Engine Faq: http://www.infobasic.com/pagefaq.html. Refer also to the answer for: "What Other FAQ's and Documentation Are There for Linux?" 2.4. What News Groups Are There for Linux? Comp.os.linux.announce is the moderated announcements group. You should read this if you intend to use Linux. It contains information about software updates, new ports, user group meetings, and commercial products. It is the only newsgroup that may carry commercial postings. Submissions for that group should be e-mailed to linux-announce@news.ornl.gov. Comp.os.linux.announce is archived at: http://www.iki.fi/mjr/linux/cola.html, and ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/comp.os.linux.announce/. Also worth reading are the following other groups in the comp.os.linux.* and alt.uu.comp.os.linux.* hierarchies--you may find many common problems too recent for the documentation but are answered in the newsgroups. * alt.uu.comp.os.linux * alt.uu.comp.os.linux.questions * alt.os.linux * alt.os.linux.mandrake * comp.os.linux.admin * comp.os.linux.advocacy * comp.os.linux.alpha * comp.os.linux.answers * comp.os.linux.development * comp.os.linux.development.apps * comp.os.linux.development.system * comp.os.linux.embedded * comp.os.linux.hardware * comp.os.linux.help * comp.os.linux.m68k * comp.os.linux.misc * comp.os.linux.network * comp.os.linux.networking * comp.os.linux.portable * comp.os.linux.powerpc * comp.os.linux.questions * comp.os.linux.redhat * comp.os.linux.security * comp.os.linux.setup * comp.os.linux.test * comp.os.linux.x * comp.os.linux.x.video Remember that Linux is POSIX compatible, and most all of the material in the comp.unix.* and comp.windows.x.* groups will be relevant. Apart from hardware considerations, and some obscure or very technical low-level issues, you'll find that these groups are good places to start. Information about e-mail clients (MUA's), mail transfer agents (MTA's), and other related software are in the comp.mail.* groups, especially: * comp.mail.misc * comp.mail.pine * comp.mail.sendmail Questions and information about News reading software are in: news.software.readers. Please read "If this Document Still Hasn't Answered Your Question...." before posting. Cross posting between different comp.os.linux.* groups is rarely a good idea. There may well be Linux groups local to your institution or area--check there first. See also "How To Get Information without Usenet Access." Other regional and local newsgroups also exist--you may find the traffic more manageable there. The French Linux newsgroup is fr.comp.os.linux. In Germany there is de.comp.os.linux.*. In Australia, try aus.computers.linux. In Croatia there is hr.comp.linux. In Italy, there is it.comp.linux. A search of http://groups.google.com/ can provide an up-to-date list of News groups. [Axel Boldt, Robert Kiesling] 2.5. What Other FAQ's and Documentation Are There for Linux? There are a number of special interest FAQ's on different subjects related to system administration and use, and also on miscellaneous topics like Flying Saucer Attacks (the music) and support for recovering sysadmins. The official Usenet FAQ archives are: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/. The Internet FAQ Consortium provides a searchable archive at: http://www.faqs.org/. The site also maintains a current archive of Internet Request For Comment (RFC), Best Current Practices (BCP), and For Your Information (FYI) documents. Here are some FAQ's and documents that might be especially useful, and their network addresses: * A FAQ for new users: http://homes.arealcity.com/swietanowski/LinuxFAQ/. * AfterStep FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/astepfaq/AfterStep-FAQ.html. * BASH Frequently Asked Questions: ftp://ftp.cwru.edu/pug/bash/FAQ/. * de.comp.os.unix.linux.infos - FAQ: http://www.dcoul.de/. * Frequently Asked Questions about Open Source: http://www.opensource.org/faq.html. * Ftape-FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/ftapefaq/Ftape-FAQ.html. * GNU Emacs: http://www.lerner.co.il/emacs/faq-body.shtml. * GNU Linux in Science and Engineering: http://www.comsoc.org/vancouver/scieng.html. * GNU Troff (groff) Info: http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/gnu/groff/. * Gnus 5.x: http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/. * KDE FAQ: http://www.kde.org/faq.html. * GNU General Public License FAQ: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl-faq.html. * Linux PPP FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/pppfaq/PPP-FAQ.html. * Linux-Raid FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/raidfaq/index.html. * List of Periodic Information Postings: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/periodic-postings/. * News.newusers.announce FAQ http://web.presby.edu/~nnqadmin/nan/. * Online Linux Resources: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/docfaq.htm. * O'Reilly & Associates Openbook Project: http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/. * Sendmail: http://www.sendmail.org/faq/. * Sendmail: Installation and Operation Guide: Formatted and me source versions are in the doc/ subdirectory of Sendmail source code distributions. http://www.sendmail.org/. * Technical FAQ for Linux Users: http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-faq/?n-l-7261. * Web Internet Search Engine: http://www.infobasic.com/pagefaq.html * Wu-ftpd: http://www.wu-ftpd.org/man/ (really a collection of man pages), with HOWTO's at: http://www.wu-ftpd.org/HOWTO/ * XTERM--Frequently Asked Questions. http://dickey.his.com/xterm/xterm.faq.html. 2.6. Where Are the Linux FTP Archives? There are three main archive sites for Linux: * ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/OS/Linux/ (Finland). * ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/. Recently renamed to http://ibiblio.org/pub/linux/ with a nice WWW interface. (US). * ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/ (US). The best place to get the Linux kernel is ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/. Linus Torvalds uploads the most recent kernel versions to this site. Of the U.S. distributions, Debian GNU/Linux is available at ftp://ftp.debian.org/pub/debian/. Red Hat Linux's home site is ftp://ftp.redhat.com/, and Linux Slackware's is ftp://ftp.freesoftware.com/. The Small Linux distribution, which can run in 2 MB of RAM, is located at http://smalllinux.netpedia.net/. The contents of these sites is mirrored (copied, usually approximately daily) by a number of other sites. Please use a site close to you--it will be faster for you and easier on the network. * ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/pub/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa) * ftp://ftp.is.co.za/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa). * ftp://ftp.cs.cuhk.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong). * ftp://sunsite.ust.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong). * ftp://ftp.spin.ad.jp/pub/linux/ (Japan). * ftp://ftp.nuri.net/pub/Linux/ (Korea). * ftp://ftp.jaring.my/pub/Linux/ (Malaysia). * ftp://ftp.nus.sg/pub/unix/Linux/ (Singapore). * ftp://ftp.nectec.or.th/pub/mirrors/linux/ (Thailand). * ftp://planetmirror.com/pub/linux (Australia). (Also take a look at http://planetmirror.com/archives.php.) * ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/linux/ (Australia). * ftp://ftp.univie.ac.at/systems/linux/sunsite/ (Austria). * ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/UNIX/linux/ (Czech Republic). * ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux/sunsite/ (Finland). * ftp://ftp.univ-angers.fr/pub/Linux/ (France). * ftp://ftp.iut-bm.univ-fcomte.fr/ (France). * ftp://ftp.ibp.fr/pub/linux/sunsite/ (France) * ftp://ftp.loria.fr/pub/linux/sunsite/ (France). * ftp://ftp.dfv.rwth-aachen.de/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.germany.eu.net/pub/os/Linux/Mirror.SunSITE/(Germany). * ftp://ftp.tu-dresden.de/pub/Linux/sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/Linux/MIRROR.sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/mirrors/sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/pub/linux/mirror.sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.ba-mannheim.de/pub/linux/mirror.sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.uni-paderborn.de/pub/Mirrors/sunsite.unc.edu/(Germany). * ftp://ftp.uni-rostock.de/Linux/sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/pub/unix/systems/linux/MIRROR.sunsite/(Ge rmany). * ftp://ftp.uni-tuebingen.de/pub/linux/Mirror.sunsite/ (Germany). * ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/linux/(Hungary). * ftp://linux.italnet.it/pub/Linux/(Italy). * ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Italy). * ftp://giotto.unipd.it/pub/unix/Linux/ (Italy). * ftp://cnuce-arch.cnr.it/pub/Linux/ (Italy). * ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/mirror2/metalab.unc.edu/ (Italy). * ftp://ftp.nijenrode.nl/pub/linux/ (Netherlands). * ftp://ftp.LeidenUniv.nl/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Netherlands). * ftp://ftp.nvg.unit.no/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Norway). * ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/Linux/metalab.unc.edu/ (Poland). * ftp://ftp.rediris.es/software/os/linux/sunsite/ (Spain). * ftp://sunsite.rediris.es/software/linux/ (Spain). * ftp://ftp.cs.us.es/pub/Linux/sunsite-mirror/ (Spain). * ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/mirror/linux/ (Spain). * ftp://tp.etsimo.uniovi.es/pub/linux/ (Spain). * ftp://ftp.luna.gui.es/pub/linux.new/ (Spain). * ftp://ftp.metu.edu.tr/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Turkey). * ftp://unix.hensa.ac.uk/mirrors/sunsite/pub/Linux/ (UK). * ftp.maths.warwick.ac.uk/mirrors/linux/sunsite.unc-mirror/(UK). * ftp://ftp.idiscover.co.uk/pub/Linux/sunsite.unc-mirror/(UK). * ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/packages/linux/sunsite.unc-mirror/(UK). * (UK) * ftp://ftp.io.org/pub/mirrors/linux/sunsite/ (Canada). * ftp://ftp.cc.gatech.edu/pub/linux/ (US). * ftp://ftp.freesoftware.com/pub/linux/sunsite/ (US). * ftp://ftp.siriuscc.com/pub/Linux/Sunsite/ (US). * ftp://ftp.engr.uark.edu/pub/linux/sunsite/ (US). * ftp://ftp.infomagic.com/pub/mirrors/linux/sunsite/ (US). * ftp://linux.if.usp.br/pub/mirror/metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/(Brazil ). * ftp://farofa.ime.usp.br/pub/linux/ (Brazil). Please send updates and corrections to this list to the Linux FAQ the other "source" sites, and some have material not available on the "source" sites. 2.7. How To Get Linux without FTP Access. The easiest thing is probably to find a friend with FTP access. If there is a Linux user's group near you, they may be able to help. If you have a reasonably good email connection, you could try the FTP-by-mail servers at ftpmail@ftp.sunet.se, or ftpmail@ftp.uni-stuttgart.de. Linux is also available via traditional mail on CD-ROM. The file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO, and the file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Distribution-HOWTO contain information on these distributions. 2.8. How To Get Information without Usenet Access. A digest of comp.os.linux.announce is available by mailing the word "subscribe" (without the quotes) as the body of a message to linux-announce-REQUEST@news-digests.mit.edu. Subscribing to this list is a good idea, as it carries important information and documentation about Linux. Please remember to use the *-request addresses for your subscribe and unsubscribe messages; mail to the other address is posted to the news group. 2.9. What Mailing Lists Are There? The Linux developers now mainly use the Majordomo server at majordomo@vger.redhat.com. Send a message with the word "lists" (without the quotes) in the body to get a list of lists there. Add a line with the word, "help," to get the standard Majordomo help file that lists instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing to the lists. Currently, the kernel list is archived at: http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/, and http://www.lib.uaa.alaska.edu/linux-kernel/archive/ Please do not post off-topic material to the mailing lists. Most of them are used by Linux developers to talk about technical issues and future developments. They are not intended for new users' questions, advertisements, or public postings that are not directly related to the mailing list's subject matter. Comp.os.linux.announce is the place for all public announcements. This is a common Internet policy. If you don't observe this guideline, there's a good chance that you'll be flamed. There is a linux-newbie list where, "no question is too stupid." Unfortunately, it seems that few experienced users read that list, and it has very low volume. There are numerous Linux related mailing lists at http://www.onelist.com/. Go to the categories page and choose "Linux." There are also mailing list subscription links at: http://oslab.snu.ac.kr/~djshin/linux/mail-list/. The Mailing Lists Available in Usenet page is: http://paml.net/. The list information is also on: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/, and is posted to the groups: news.announce.newgroups, news.lists, and news.groups, among others. 2.10. Where Are Linux Legal Issues Discussed? On the linux-legal mailing list, of course. You can subscribe to it, as with many of the other Linux related lists, by sending a message with the word "help" in the body of the message to majordomo@vger.redhat.com. 2.11. Sources of Information for Unmaintained Free Software Projects. There are Web pages at: http://unmaintained.sourceforge.net, and: http://www.orphansource.org/. Please try to contact the original author(s) via e-mail, or the person who listed the software as unmaintained, before even thinking to place a license on the package. 2.12. Are the News Groups Archived Anywhere? The Usenet Linux news groups are archived at http://groups.google.com/. ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/linux-announce.archive contains archives of comp.os.linux.announce. These are mirrored from ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/, which also archives comp.os.linux, comp.os.linux.development.apps, and comp.os.linux.development.system. 2.13. Where To Find Information About Security Related Issues. There's a page of Linux related security information at: http://www.linuxsecurity.com/. Another site is: http://www.rootshell.com/, which has information about Internet security and privacy issues. For information about the Weekly Linux Security Digest email newsletter and numerous security related databases, look at http://securityportal.com/. 2.14. Where To Find Linux System Specifications. As a start, look at the Linux Standards Base, http://www.linuxbase.org/. The site contains information about test software, file system organization, and shared library naming conventions. 3. Compatibility with Other Operating Systems 3.1. Can Linux Use the Same Hard Drive as MS-DOS? OS/2? 386BSD? Win95? Yes. Linux uses the standard MS-DOS partitioning scheme, so it can share your disk with other operating systems. Linux has loadable kernel modules for (presumably) all versions of Microsoft FAT and VFAT file systems, including Windows 2000 and WindowsMe. In a correctly configured system, they should load automatically when the partitions are mounted. Note, however, that many other operating systems may not be exactly compatible. DOS's FDISK.EXE and FORMAT.EXE, for example, can overwrite data in a Linux partition, because they sometimes incorrectly use partition data from the partition's boot sector rather than the partition table. In order to prevent programs from doing this, it is a good idea to zero out--under Linux--the start of a partition you created, before you use MS-DOS--or whatever--to format it. Type: $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdXY bs=512 count=1 where hdXY is the relevant partition; e.g., /dev/hda1 for the first partition of the first (IDE) disk. Linux can read and write the files on your DOS and OS/2 FAT partitions and floppies using either the DOS file system type built into the kernel or mtools. There is kernel support for the VFAT file system used by Windows 9x and Windows NT. There is reportedly a GPL'd OS/2 device driver that will read and write Linux ext2 partitions. For information about FAT32 partition support, see http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/people/chaffee/fat32.html. See, ("What Software does Linux Support?") for details and status of the emulators for DOS, MS Windows, and System V programs. See also, "Can Linux access Amiga file systems? ", "Can Linux access Macintosh file systems? ", "Can Linux access BSD, SysV, etc., UFS? ", and "Can Linux access SMB file systems? " There are said to be NTFS drivers under development, which should support compression as a standard feature. 3.2. How To Access Files on a MS-DOS Partition or Floppy. Use the DOS file system, type, for example: $ mkdir /dos $ mount -t msdos -o conv=text,umask=022,uid=100,gid=100 /dev/hda3 /dos If it's a floppy, don't forget to umount it before ejecting it! You can use the conv=text/binary/auto, umask=nnn, uid=nnn, and gid=nnn options to control the automatic line-ending conversion, permissions and ownerships of the files in the DOS file system as they appear under Linux. If you mount your DOS file system by putting it in your /etc/fstab, you can record the options (comma-separated) there, instead of defaults. Alternatively, you can use mtools, available in both binary and source form on the FTP sites. ("Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?") A kernel patch (known as the fd-patches) is available which allows floppies with nonstandard numbers of tracks and/or sectors to be used; this patch is included in the 1.1 alpha testing kernel series. 3.3. Does Linux Support Compressed Ext2 File Systems? The ext2compr project provides a kernel patch Information about them is located at http://e2ompr.memalpha.cx/e2compr/. There is also a Web site for the e2compr patches. The code is still experimental and consists of patches for the 2.0 and 2.1 kernels. For more information about the project, including the latest patches, and the address of the mailing list, look up the URL at http://debs.fuller.edu/e2compr/. [Roderich Schupp, Peter Moulder] zlibc is a program that allows existing applications to read compressed (GNU gzip'ed) files as if they were not compressed. Look at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/libs/. The author is Alain Knaff. There is also a compressing block device driver, "DouBle," by Jean-Marc Verbavatz, which can provide on-the-fly disk compression in the kernel. The source-only distribution is located at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/patches/diskdrives/. This driver compresses inodes and directory information as well as files, so any corruption of the file system is likely to be serious. There is also a package called tcx (Transparently Compressed Executables), which allows you to keep infrequently used executables compressed and only uncompress them temporarily when in use. It is located at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/compress/. 3.4. Can Linux Use Stacked/DBLSPC/Etc. DOS Drives? Until recently, not very easily. You can access DOS 6.X volumes from the DOS emulator ("What software does Linux support? "), but it's harder than accessing a normal DOS volume via the DOS kernel option, a module, or mtools. There is a recently added package, dmsdos, that reads and writes compressed file systems like DoubleSpace/DriveSpace in MS-DOS 6.x and Win95, as well as Stacker versions 3 and 4. It is a loadable kernel module. Look at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/filesystems/dosfs/. 3.5. Can Linux Access OS/2 HPFS Partitions? Yes, but Linux access to HPFS partitions is read-only. HPFS file system access is available as an option when compiling the kernel or as a module. See the Documentation/filesystems/hpfs.txt file in the kernel source distribution. ("How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel.") Then you can mount HPFS partition, using, for example: $ mkdir /hpfs $ mount -t hpfs /dev/hda5 /hpfs 3.6. Can Linux Access Amiga File Systems? The Linux kernel has support for the Amiga Fast File System (AFFS) version 1.3 and later, both as a compile-time option and as a module. The file Documentation/filesystems/affs.txt in the Linux kernel source distribution has more information. See ("How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel.") Linux supports AFFS hard-drive partitions only. Floppy access is not supported due to incompatibilities between Amiga floppy controllers and PC and workstation controllers. The AFFS driver can also mount disk partitions used by the Un*x Amiga Emulator, by Bernd Schmidt. 3.7. Can Linux Access BSD, SysV, Etc. UFS? Recent kernels can mount (read only) the UFS file system used by System V; Coherent; Xenix; BSD; and derivatives like SunOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and NeXTStep. UFS support is available as a kernel compile-time option and a module. See, ("How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel.") 3.8. Can Linux Access SMB File Systems? Linux supports read/write access of Windows for Workgroups and Windows NT SMB volumes. See the file Documentation/filesystems/smbfs.txt of the Linux kernel source distribution, and ("How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel.") There is also a suite of programs called Samba which provide support for WfW networked file systems (provided they're for TCP/IP). Information is available in the README file at metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/network/samba/. The SMB Web site is http://www.samba.org/, and there is also a Web site at samba.anu.edu.au/samba/. 3.9. Can Linux Access Macintosh File Systems? There is a set of user-level programs that read and write the older Macintosh Hierarchical File System (HFS). It is available at metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/. Access to the newer, HFS+ file systems is still under development. 3.10. Can Linux Run Microsoft Windows Programs? WINE, a MS Windows emulator for Linux, is still not ready for general distribution. If you want to contribute to its development, look for the status reports in the comp.emulators.ms-windows.wine newsgroup. There is also a FAQ, compiled by P. David Gardner, at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/faqs/Wine-FAQ/. In the meantime, if you need to run MS Windows programs, the best bet--seriously--is to reboot. LILO, the Linux boot loader, can boot one of several operating systems from a menu. See the LILO documentation for details. Also, LOADLIN.EXE (a DOS program to load a Linux, or other OS, kernel is one way to make Linux co-exist with DOS. LOADLIN.EXE is particularly handy when you want to install Linux on a 3rd or 4th drive on a system (or when you're adding a SCSI drive to a system with an existing IDE). In these cases, it is common for LILO's boot loader to be unable to find or load the kernel on the "other" drive. So you just create a C:\LINUX directory (or whatever), put LOADLIN.EXE in it with a copy of your kernel, and use that. LOADLIN.EXE is a VCPI compliant program. Win95 will want to, "shutdown into DOS mode," to run it (as it would with certain other DOS protected-mode programs). Earlier versions of LOADLIN.EXE sometimes required a package called REALBIOS.COM, which required a boot procedure on an (almost) blank floppy to map the interrupt vectors (prior to the loading of any software drivers). (Current versions don't seem to ship with it, and don't seem to need it). [Jim Dennis] 3.11. Where Is Information about NFS Compatibility? This information is partly taken from Nicolai Langfeldt's excellent NFS HOWTO, and is current as of 10/1/1999. Most version 2.2.x kernels need a set of patches to install the knfsd subsystem, maintained by H.J. Lu, to communicate efficiently (if at all) with Sparc, IBM RS, and Alpha machines, and probably others. This package is actually a collection of patches to the kernel sources. Better support for non-Intel architectures is included in the 2.4 kernels. There is also a user-space server. Although it lacks remote file locking, it is easier to install. It may be equally efficient. In the Documentation/Changes of recent kernel distributions, there is a list of URL's for both the knfsd server and the user-space server. There is a CVS server available for the kernel-space NFS subsystem, as well as a NFS WWW page at http://www.linuxnfs.sourceforge.org/, although the URL requires a password for access. The relevant URL's are listed in the README.nfs file at ftp://ftp.us.kernel.org/, and other kernel archive sites, along with login information. Patches are at ftp://ftp.varesearch.com/pub/kernel/latest/patches/. The source archives of the user-space server and utilities currently reside on ftp://linux.mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de:/pub/linux/people/okir/. In the case of older Solaris releases, the lack of statd or lockd on a client or server machine may cause incompatibility. On some versions of Solaris, statd can be used to exploit features of the automounter. Sun released a patch to correct this, but statd still needs to be started by root on such systems. On recent Solaris systems, refer to the information in /etc/dfs/dfstab and the share(1M) manual page to enable volume sharing. In addition, the rpcinfo program can tell you if statd or lockd are available on the local or remote machines. The linux-kernel mailing list has on-and-off discussions of the status of the NFS subsystem, which appears to be changing rapidly. [Nicolai Langfeldt, Robert Kiesling, Anders Hammarquist] 3.12. Can Linux Use True Type Fonts? Yes. There are a number of True Type font servers for the X Window System. One of them is xfsft. Its home page is http://www.dcs.ed.ac.uk/home/jec/programs/xfsft/. There are also instructions for configuration. People have reported success with other True Type font servers. There are links from the xfsft Home Page to them as well. You can also compile True Type Font support into your X server directly. Again, refer to the xfsft Home Page for details. 3.13. Can Linux Boot from MS-DOS? If LILO doesn't work, and if the machine has MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows, you may be left with a computer that won't boot. This can also happen on an upgrade to your Linux distribution. Re-installing LILO is the last thing that the installation does. So it is vitally important when installing or upgrading Linux on a dual boot machine, to have a MS-DOS or Windows rescue disk nearby so you can FDISK -MBR. Then you can go about using LOADLIN.EXE instead of LILO. This config.sys file is one possible way to invoke LOADLIN.EXE and boot MS-DOS or Linux. [menu] menuitem=DOS, Dos Boot menuitem=LINUX, Linux Boot [LINUX] shell=c:\redhat\loadlin.exe c:\redhat\autoboot\vmlinuz vga=5 root=/dev [DOS] STACKS = 0,0 rem all the other DOS drivers get loaded here. This creates a menu where you can directly jump to LOADLIN.EXE before all of the MS-DOS drivers get loaded. The paths and options are peculiar to one machine and should be intuitively obvious to the most casual observer. See the LOADLIN.EXE docs for options. They are the same as LILO, and options are just passed to the kernel, anyhow. [Jim Harvey] 3.14. How Can Linux Boot from OS/2's Boot Manager? 1. Create a partition using OS/2's FDISK.EXE (Not Linux's fdisk). 2. Format the partition under OS/2, either with FAT or HPFS. This is so that OS/2 knows about the partition being formatted. (This step is not necessary with OS/2 `warp' 3.0.) 3. Add the partition to the Boot Manager. 4. Boot Linux, and create a file system on the partition using mkfs -t ext2 or mke2fs. At this point you may, if you like, use Linux's fdisk to change the code of the new partition to type 83 (Linux Native)--this may help some automated installation scripts find the right partition to use. 5. Install Linux on the partition. 6. Install LILO on the Linux partition--NOT on the master boot record of the hard drive. This installs LILO as a second-stage boot loader on the Linux partition itself, to start up the kernel specified in the LILO configuration file. To do this, you should put boot = /dev/hda2 (where /dev/hda2 is the partition you want to boot from) in your /etc/lilo/config or /etc/lilo.config file. 7. Make sure that it is the Boot Manager partition that is marked active, so that you can use Boot Manager to choose what to boot. There is a set of HOWTO's on the subject of multi-boot systems at the LDP Home Page, http://www.linuxdoc.org/. 4. File Systems, Disks, and Drives 4.1. How To Get Linux to Work with a Disk. If your disk is an IDE or EIDE drive, you should read the file /usr/src/linux/drivers/block/README.ide (part of the Linux kernel source code). This README contains many helpful hints about IDE drives. Many modern IDE controllers do translation between `physical' cylinders/heads/sectors, and `logical' ones. SCSI disks are accessed by linear block numbers. The BIOS invents some `logical' cylinder/head/sector fiction to support DOS. Older IBM PC-compatible BIOS's will usually not be able to access partitions which extend beyond 1024 logical cylinders, and will make booting a Linux kernel from such partitions using LILO problematic at best. You can still use such partitions for Linux or other operating systems that access the controller directly.