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Subject: soc.culture.japan FAQ [Monthly Posting] [1/3]

This article was archived around: Mon, 03 Apr 2000 14:07:45 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: japan/faq
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.japan.moderated, soc.culture.japan
Source: Usenet Version

Archive-name: japan/faq/part1 Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: Mar 5, 2000 URL: <http://www2.gol.com/users/shimpei/scjfaq/>
------------------------------ Subject: (1.0) Table of Contents (1.0) Table of Contents (2.0) Copyright and Redistribution (2.1) Credits (2.2) Any mailing list for soc.culture.japan? (2.3) How to obtain the latest version of this FAQ (2.4) Format of this document (3.0) About soc.culture.japan (3.1) History of the groups (3.2) What topics are appropriate for discussion here? (3.2.1) Binary posts (3.2.2) Commercial posts (3.2.3) Spamming (3.2.4) soc.culture.japan.moderated (3.3) What to do before posting (3.4) How to use kill files (3.5) Some frequently argued topics (3.5.1) Japan's involvement in World War II (3.5.2) Is "Gaijin" a derogatory term? (3.6) Why are there so few Japanese posters in SCJ? (4.0) Bibliography (5.0) Japanese culture and customs (5.1) Japanese Films and TV Programs (5.1.1) Japanese pop music (5.2) Language (6.0) Traveling and living in Japan (6.1) Finding a job (for non-Japanese) (6.1.1) JET (6.1.2) Other English teaching jobs (6.2) Travel Info (6.3) Gifts to and from Japan (6.4) Taking electronics to Japan (6.5) Lodging (6.5.1) Home stays (6.6) Money (6.6.1) Bank accounts and services for foreigners (6.6.2) Credit cards for foreigners (6.6.3) Currency exchange; sending cash to/from Japan (6.7) What are the laws for Japanese citizenship at birth? (7.0) Japanese information processing (7.1) How to get Internet access in Japan + (7.2) Finding an email address for XXX in Japan (7.3) How can I read or write Japanese on my computer? (7.3.1) Japanese on the Macintosh (7.3.2) Japanese on MS-DOS and Windows (7.3.3) Japanese on UNIX, X-Windows (7.4) Internet resources on Japan (7.4.1) FTP/gopher sites (7.4.2) WWW sites (7.4.3) Newsgroups (7.4.4) Mailing lists (8.0) Japanese media (8.1) Japanese short-wave radio (8.2) Overseas subscriptions to Japan Times (99.0) Miscellaneous topics [+] revised entry [!] new entry This list is maintained by Shimpei Yamashita <shimpei+scjfaq@gol.com> ------------------------------ Subject: (2.0) Copyright and Redistribution Last update: 5/98 This document copyright (c) 1994-1998 by Shimpei Yamashita <shimpei@socrates.caltech.edu>. Portions copyright (c) 1987 through 1995 by Jerry Blanton, Norman Diamond, Mike Fester, KASEGAWA Masataka, Satoru Miyazaki, Mike Rosenlof, and Michiaki Masuda. All rights reserved. This document may be quoted freely for non-commercial purposes; please make appropriate acknowledgment when doing so. "From the soc.culture. japan FAQ" will be sufficient. This document may be freely redistributed by electronic or printed means provided that no money is charged for its distribution and that this copyright and redistribution notice remains attached. Any modification to the original text must be explicitly documented. This document may not be redistributed commercially (e.g., on a CD-ROM) without an explicit written permission from the copyright owner. Any distributor that does obtain a permission will be required to keep this entire document intact, and explicitly notify its customers that the newest revisions of this document may be freely obtained from other sources. This document carries no guarantee of accuracy whatsoever. No mention of a product in this document constitutes a recommendation or an endorsement for its use by the authors. Some efforts have been made to provide varying degrees of accuracy of the information presented here, but some estimates have not been verified or updated with time. Should you find any mistakes, please contact the maintainer. ------------------------------ Subject: (2.1) Credits Last update: 7/97 As the editor, I have attempted to credit original authors wherever possible. Please inform me if you see any errors in the credits. ------------------------------ Subject: (2.2) Is there any mailing list for soc.culture.japan? Last update: 7/97 I get a fair number of emails asking me if there is any way to "subscribe" to soc.culture.japan and soc.culture.japan.moderated through mailing lists. To the best of my knowledge, no such mailing list exists (the fact that the group gets 200 posts a day doesn't really help). If there is one, I'd love to hear about it. Meanwhile, the only suggestion I can give to these people is to get an account with an Internet provider that gives access to Usenet. If you can telnet from another account, nyx.net will give you a free account (albeit a severely limited one in terms of resources and capability) that can be used to read news. zippo.com also gives out Usenet reading accounts, accessible over the web. There is, however, an ftp archive of posts to scj maintained at <ftp://kuso.shef.ac.uk/pub/News/soc/culture/japan/>. If you are looking for specific articles, though, it may be easier to useUsenet search engines like the one at <http://www.deja.com/>, which not only has a friendlier interface but also keeps articles far longer than kuso (to the best of my knowledge). ------------------------------ Subject: (2.3) How to obtain the latest version of this FAQ Last update: 7/97 This FAQ is posted on the 4th of every month to soc.culture.japan, soc.culture.japan.moderated, news.answers and soc.answers.It is available via anonymous FTP from <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/soc.culture.japan/> and via the World Wide Web from <http://www2.gol.com/users/shimpei/scjfaq/> and <http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/japan/faq/> In addition, many Japanese-oriented Web pages have links to the FAQ. ------------------------------ Subject: (2.4) Format of this document Last update: <11/95 This document is typeset in minimal digest format for easy navigation in newsreaders like trn. See <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/faqs/minimal-digest-format> for specifications of this format. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.0) About soc.culture.japan ------------------------------ Subject: (3.1) History of the groups Last update: 7/97 Soc.culture.japan started out as a BITNET mailing list that was administered from one of the machines at MIT. Sometime in or around 1987, the newsgroup soc.culture.japan was created, and the articles between scj and the mailing list were gated back and forth for quite a while. The mailing list apparently no longer exists, and the audience for scj has grown much wider since. In June 1996, a group of scj readers unhappy with the high noise level in scj created soc.culture.japan.moderated as an alternative to scj. The group's aim was to have a relatively low-noise forum for free The full version of scjm's history may be found in the scjm FAQ mentioned in section 3.2.4. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.2) What topics are appropriate for discussion here? Last update: 7/97 (This section mostly applies to s.c.j.moderated as well; the chief difference is that the moderators can and will enforce some of these policies, whereas s.c.j. relies on the honor system. Please read the s.c.j.m FAQ described in 3.2.4 for details.) At my site, s.c.j. is described as "Everything Japanese, except the Japanese language." What is meant by "Everything Japanese" is not entirely clear. Please use your judgment when posting. Like most other big newsgroups, s.c.j. has its share of regular flame fodders. These are discussed in more detail in section 3.4. If you would like to voice your opinion on these subjects, you would do well to lurk for a while to hear what others have to say about it. (This is a sound advice for any topic in any newsgroup, but people tend to forget it.) Customarily, posts to s.c.j. are in English. Many readers outside Japan have trouble reading posts written in kana (in fact, some readers have complained because their terminals go crazy when dealing with 8-bit characters), so it is advisable to post strictly with ASCII characters if you want everyone to read what your wrote. Many Japanese-literate posters circumvent this problem by writing in romaji when necessary. If you do not understand Japanese and would like to know what a particular post was saying, most posters would be happy to translate the passage for you if you email them and ask. Lastly, remember that many of the posts to s.c.j. are written by people who use English as their second language. As such, misunderstandings due to language difficulties are very likely. If you feel compelled to fix grammatical mistakes, please email the poster and save the rest of the net the agony of reading cheap grammar flames. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.2.1) Binary posts Last update: <11/95 In interest of people with small news spools, please refrain from posting binaries to this group. If you feel you have binaries worth sharing with us, please post them to alt.binaries.pictures.misc and post a pointer to scj. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.2.2) Commercial posts Last update: <11/95 Commercial posts are generally discouraged unless it has specifically to do with Japan and there is no other newsgroup more appropriate for the subject. Those posting about job opportunities in Japan are encouraged to add the string "Jobs offered" in the title so that those who are not looking for jobs can run kill files on them. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.2.3) Spamming Last update: <11/95 Two words: NO SPAMMING! (See the FAQ for alt.current-events.net-abuse for the definition of spamming.) It is a highly disliked activity on the Usenet, as well as an effective way to lose your account really fast. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.2.4) soc.culture.japan.moderated Last update: 11/96 soc.culture.japan.moderated is a moderated alternative to soc.culture.japan. A FAQ on the group's moderation policy is to be posted regularly to the group; the current maintainer is Akira Ijuin <aijuin@best.com>. The most important restriction is that the group allows no external cross-posting except to soc.culture.japan; the moderators do watch for off-topic posts but tend to be fairly generous in approving articles. Properly configured news servers will automatically forward any posts to moderated newsgroups to the appropriate moderators; if this is not the case at your site, you may submit posts by mailing them to <scjm@eyrie.org>. The moderators can be contacted at <scjmmod@eyrie.org>. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.3) What to do before posting Last update: 7/97 Read news.announce.newusers. Read the rest of this FAQ. Read up on Japan, and the issue you wish to discuss, before posting. Nothing kills a good discussion faster than ignorant generalizations by someone who has strong opinions about an issue with no facts behind them. Keep an open mind when reading the sources. Do the same when reading this newsgroup. The bibliography included in this FAQ should get you started. None of us like political correctness more than you do, but you should nevertheless refrain from using derogatory terms. "Jap" is a very strong derogatory term for "Japanese," and using "Gaijin" for "foreigner" is offensive to many foreigners. I included a short discussion about this in section 3.5. Is soc.culture.japan and/or soc.culture.japan.moderated the most appropriate group for posting? Below is a list of other newsgroups that may better fit what you want to talk about: soc.culture.asian.american soc.culture.korean soc.culture.china soc.culture.taiwan soc.culture.hongkong soc.culture.usa soc.culture.europe ... soc.history.world-war-ii sci.lang.japan rec.arts.manga rec.arts.anime comp.research.japan alt.japanese.text The fj hierarchy comes to some sites outside Japan, but you need to have a Japanese-capable terminal to read it. See section 8 for details. An exception is fj.life.in-japan, which is mainly in English. Should you post to soc.culture.japan or soc.culture.japan.moderated? The latter has much better signal-to-noise ratio and a more manageable traffic level, but the former allows crossposting to other groups and is unmoderated, which prevents moderators from rejecting your posts. If you feel that your post should be visible in both groups, you may crosspost between scj and scjm. Lastly, read all of section 3 one more time. This group represents a cross section of many different cultures with different attitudes toward Usenet. Remembering that not everyone is like you will go a long way toward preventing unnecessary quibbles. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.4) Kill files Last update: <11/95 Kill files are great for shutting out posts you do not wish to read in a high-noise group like s.c.j. This instruction is for rn(1) and trn(1) only. If you use another newsreader, check the manuals for instructions. In all of the examples below, strings for searches, those inside slash (/) characters may be regular expressions like those used in ed(1). Searches are generally NOT case sensitive. When reading articles from any newsgroup, control-K allows you to edit the KILL file for that newsgroup (note: that's control-SHIFT-k.) To discard articles with subject lines matching a string, add a line like /unwanted topic/:j the string within the slash characters is searched for on all article subject lines, and when found, the command 'j' (junk the article) is executed. If you add a ':=' to the end of the command it will print that subject line so you can go back and read it anyway if you like. /unwanted topic/:j:= To discard articles cross posted to a particular newsgroup, add a line like /Newsgroups:.*bad.group.name/h:j:= to be strictly correct, you would add a backslash (\) before the dots in the group name, but this is usually OK. To discard articles from a particular author, add a line like /From:.*Author Name/h:j:= or this works in my version of trn /Author Name/f:j:= This looks for the author's name as it's reported in the article header. The name can be either the real name or e-mail address. More detailed information can be found in the man page on rn(1) or trn(1). ------------------------------ Subject: (3.5) Some frequently argued topics Last update: <11/95 There is a document covering the Frequently Argued Topics (FAT) currently in the works. Contact Mike Fester <mfester@iisc.com> for details. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.5.1) Japan's involvement in World War II Last update: <11/95 This is a sticky issue that pops up periodically in this newsgroup and inevitably causes considerable flamage. I have attempted several times to write an objective overview of the issue, but it is simply too hard to write anything substantial on the issue without offending somebody. If you wish to discuss this topic, please make an effort to maintain constructive discussions (as opposed to finger-pointing and blanket accusations, which is prone to happen during heated debates). If you want a more controlled atmosphere, you may also want to try <news:soc.history.world-war-ii>, a moderated newsgroup. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.5.2) Is "Gaijin" a derogatory term? Last update: <11/95 This issue crops up occasionally as a heated debate in this newsgroup. Gaijin is a contraction of the word gaikokujin, and literally means "foreigner". The Japanese language has several cases of using "gai" (outside) with a noun to indicate one of <noun> from another country. Gaisha for foreign cars, gaijin for foreign people, gaika for foreign currencies. Some people are deeply offended by the word, saying that "gaijin" refers to outsiders rife with undesirable characteristics. There is no doubt that is one meaning of the word. "Gaijin" is also used in many cases where it is probably not intended as a negative statement. Consider that it is common in the Japanese language to address people whose names are not known, or even if names are known, by titles: omawari san, Mr. Policeman; sushiya san, Mr. Sushi Shop. It is not unusual for a Japanese speaker to call a non Japanese who is otherwise not known, "gaijin san". It should be noted that: The language also has much stronger words for cases where a speaker wants to discriminate or insult. and Non-Asian foreigners _will_ be called "gaijin" by many Japanese. ------------------------------ Subject: (3.6) Why are there so few Japanese posters in SCJ? Last update: 11/95 From: Michiaki Masuda (masuda@ncifcrf.gov) Some netters visit SCJ expecting that they may be able to find a number of Japanese netters to communicate with. However, they usually find that their expectation is rather betrayed. It would be safe to say that Japanese netters have never been a majority in this group despite its name. In 1991, when I started to read this group, there were only a couple of Japanese netters who post articles once in a while. Even though the number of Japanese SCJers has apparently increased since then, their number would be still too small for the group to live up to some netters' expectation. Since SCJ appears to have been initiated by some netters in the US as a mailing list for them to exchange information on Japan, its existence might not be known to many Japanese at first. However, this should no longer be the case. Today, a significantly large number of Japanese have USENET access, and quite a few of them are said to read SCJ. A number of Japanese are also actively communicating with each other in Japanese domestic groups, such as those under the "fj" hierarchy. There are probably three major reasons why they are not interested in actively speaking up in SCJ. [1] English problem Most of Japanese netters, like other netters, are under the impression that they have to use English in SCJ although there is no such restriction. In general, Japanese feel uncomfortable when they have to express themselves in English whether their English skills are actually passable or not. [2] Uninteresting topics Some of the topics often discussed in SCJ are not major interests or concerns of the Japanese netters, especially those living in Japan. They can find somewhere else to go to (e.g., fj groups) to talk about current issues more closely related to their life. It seems also true that some netters use SCJ to deliver their anti-Japan(ense) sentiment in a rather revealing manner. Whether those pieces of message are to the point or not, many Japanese may feel like staying away from them as a natural response. [3] Different argument styles Due to the larger number of American or European netters, it appears that the Western style of debate or argument is accepted as a general standard in SCJ. Although the Western style has its own virtue and merits, it may come out as something too straightforward, too explicit, too aggressive, or even too impolite to the eyes of Japanese netters. Obvioulsy, not many Japanese netters are willing to adapt themselves to a different standard. Since we cannot really hear from those Japanese netters who decide not to speak up in SCJ, we can only speculate about the reasons. However, those listed above seem to give us the most plausible explanation. Whether SCJ should encourage more Japanese netters to participate or not may be a controversial issue. If it should, however, netters -- both Japanese and non-Japanse -- may want to keep these factors in mind when they post an article or respond to others. ------------------------------ Subject: (4.0) Bibliography Last update: 2/97 There is a lot of material written about many aspects of Japanese culture, and available from many more authoritative sources than a computer news group. This bibliography lists a few widely available titles that are aimed toward general readers, not sociologists. Some of the books listed have their own bibliographies for further study. A search of any good library's catalog will list many more. Note: for sake of consistency, all Japanese names in this FAQ are written given names first. Japanese Society and Culture: The Japanese Mind; Robert C. Christopher A general introduction to Japanese society. Widely available. Includes a bibliography. Learning to Bow; Bruce Feiler An American teaching English at public jr. high schools in rural Japan. Describes the educational system, relations between Japanese and foreigners, and other aspects of current culture. Japanese Things; Basil Hall Chamberlain Describes Japan at the beginning of the Meiji era (from 1868). Some parts are dated, and therefore more of a historical reference, others still apply. The Book of Tea; Kakuzo (Tenshin) Okakura The book that made tea ceremony famous around the world. The book itself is rather old, but it is an overview of the tea culture that is insightful even to native Japanese. History: Japan; Edwin O. Reischauer A brief introduction to the long history of Japan. Not great, but widely available. History of Japan; Sir George B. Sansom A considerably more extensive history. 3 volumes. Literature: Yasunari Kawabata Snow Country Thousand Cranes _Snow_Country_ is one of the most famous novels in Japan. It describes the relationship of a teacher from Tokyo and a geisha at a small hot spring resort. Soseki Natsume Botchan Kokoro Sorekara (published in English as _And Then_) Soseki is considered by many to be Japan's greatest author, and _Kokoro_ is often considered his most important novel. Botchan is earlier in his career, a much more lighthearted story. Yukio Mishima Temple of the Golden Pavillion Mishima is perhaps, as famous for his 1970 storming of the Japan Self Defense Forces headquarters and subsequent suicide as for his writing. Many of his novels have been translated to English. Mishima is probably more popular outside Japan than at home. Junichiro Tanizaki The Makioka Sisters The Key Some Prefer Nettles Tanizaki lived through approximately the same time as Mishima, but was much more popular in Japan than Mishima. "The Makioka Sisters" and "Some Prefer Nettles" have the transition from traditional to modern (westernized) Japan. Widely available in English. Ryunosuke Akutagawa Rashomon The Hell Screen (Jigokuhen) Words of a Fool (Shuju no Kotoba) Akutagawa was active in the early 1900's. His short stories are often inspired by _Konjaku Monogatari_, a collection of stories from the Heian era. Akira Kurosawa's movie _Rashomon_ was inspired by his short story of the same name. His stories are available in English in the collections "Kappa," "Tales Grotesque and Curious," and "Rashomon and other stories." The following authors and collections represent modern Japan. They may never reach the stature as the authors listed above, but some are popular and all represent to some degree what's happening in Japan now. Kobo Abe The Woman of the Dunes Beyond the Curve (short stories) Abe is sometimes called the Edgar Allen Poe of Japan. Similar macabre or twisted type stories. Died in January 1993. Kenzaburo Oe Man-en Gannen no Futtoboru (English title: The Silent Cry) Kojinteki na Taiken (English title: A Personal Matter) Winner of the 1994 Nobel Prize in literature, Oe is said to be heavily influenced by Western writings; his bold style contrasts with the sensitive style pursued by Kawabata and others. Haruki Murakami A Wild Sheep Chase The Hard Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World Murakami is a current best selling author in Japan. These two novels are (sometimes wild) fantasy adventures. Shuusaku Endo Silence The Sea and the Poison Endo passed away in 1996. A devout Roman Catholic, Endo explored the problem of morality (and lack thereof) in contemporary Japanese society. He was also an excellent humorist, although few--if any--of his humorous works have been translated into English. The Showa Anthology; Van C. Gessel * Tomone Matsumoto Ed. Includes stories by some of Japan's most respected authors. New Japanese Voices; Helen Mistios Ed. More recent than _The_Showa_Anthology_. Monkey Brain Sushi; Alfred Birnhaum, Ed. Also very recent. 11 short stories by authors including Murakami, Masahiko Shimada, and Amy Yamada. Banana Yoshimoto Kitchen A popular female author. Economics and Business: Made In Japan ; Akio Morita Widely available in the U.S. Morita is the founder of Sony. Describes where Japan went right, and others. The Political Economy of Japan; K. Yamamura and A. Y. Yasuba, eds. Covers many aspects of Japanese economics and Politics, easy for non-specialists to read. Religion: On Understanding Japanese Religion; Joseph M. Kitagawa A collection of essays, on topics ranging from prehistoric background of Japanese religion, cross-cultural influences, folk religion, Shinto, Buddhism and Kobo Daishi, Confusiansim, and New Religions. H. Byron Earhart _Japanese Religion: Unity and Diversity_, 1982 H. Byron Earhart _Religions of Japan: Many Traditions within One Sacred Way_, 1984 Ichiro Hori _Folk Religion in Japan: Continuity and Change_, 1968 Ian Reader _Religion in Contemporary Japan_, 1991 The following are OK, but not great references. Shinto, The Kami Way Tuttle publishing. A brief overview of Shinto organization and practices. Japanese Pilgrimage; Oliver Statler Partly historical fiction, partly Statler's writing about walking a pilgrimage to 88 temples in Shikoku. Computing: Understanding Japanese Information Processing; Ken Lunde The author has been a frequent SCJ contributer in the area of Japanese text processing. It comes highly recommended from several sources. ------------------------------ Subject: (5.0) Japanese culture and customs ------------------------------ Subject: (5.1) Japanese Films and TV Programs Last update: <11/95 There are a number of books on Japanese film. The following is an introduction. Beverley Bare Buehrer, Japanese Films: A Filmography and Commentary, 1921-1989 Contains credits, plot synopsis and comments on a number of Japanese films that are available dubbed or with English subtitles. Akira Kurosawa and Kenji Mizoguchi are considered by many film critics to be the greatest of Japan's directors. Kurosawa's "The Seven Samurai" and Mizoguchi's "Ugetsu Monogatari" along with Yasujiro Ozu's "Tokyo Story" have at times appeared on the Sight and Sound magazine's once every ten years poll of film critics. Kon Ichikawa has directed a few movies that have made it to the U.S. and Juzo Itami has been popular for "Tampopo" and "A Taxing Woman". The following companies are sources of Japanese movies, some on film, some on video. Sony Video Software, 1700 Broadway, N.Y., NY 10019 Balzac Video, 1253 Tanager Lane, West Chester, PA 19382 Embassy Home Entertainment, 1901 Avenue of the Starts, L.A., CA 90067 Connoisseur Video Collection, 8455 Beverly Blvd., Suite 302, L.A., CA 90048 Video Yesteryear, PO Box C, Sandy Hook, Conn. 06482 New Yorker Films, 16 W. 61 St., N.Y., NY 10023 Historical Films, PO Box 29035, Chicago, IL 60629 Media Home Entertainment, 5730 Buckingham Parkway, Culver City, CA 90230 Pacific Arts, 50 N. La Cienega Blvd., Suite 210, Beverly Hills, CA 90211 Corinth Films, 34 Gransevoort St., N.Y., NY 10014 Republic Pictures Home Video, 12636 Beatrice St., L.A., CA 90066 In many larger cities, especially on the west coast of the United States, there are Video stores that rent tapes of movies and TV programs directly from Japan. These tapes are generally NOT subtitled, and TV programs have commercials and everything. Some of these rental outlets are in grocery or book stores that carry a lot of Japanese goods. ------------------------------ Subject: (5.1.1) Japanese pop music Last update: <11/95 Try <ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/> for graphics and other such stuff. There are two mailing lists available for discussion of Japanese pop music. 1) send the command subscribe jpop to majordomo@tcp.com 2) send the command subscribe to jpop-request@ferkel.ucsb.edu ------------------------------ Subject: (5.2) Language Last update: <11/95 Language issues come up regularly in this newsgroup. Even though language and culture are directly linked, the newsgroup sci.lang.japan is preferred for discussions about the language. The newsgroup is also linked to the NIHONGO mailing list. The FAQ for sci.lang.japan is posted from time to time. To subscribe to the list, send an e-mail message to: Listserv@mitvma.mit.edu or Listserv@mitvma.bitnet with no subject and the line SUB Nihongo <your REAL name> Please don't send messages for subscription or unsubscription to the addresses for posting on the list. To post an article or question, just send it as normal e-mail to: Nihongo@mitvma.mit.edu or Nihongo@mitvma.bitnet The article will be distributed to all the readers of the list and posted automatically in the newsgroup sci.lang.japan. Please don't send articles to the addresses of subscription and unsubscription. To do other things, send an e-mail message to: Listserv@mitvma.mit.edu or Listserv@mitvma.bitnet with no subject and the line HELP as the message The FAQ file has info on computer programs for learning Japanese, other Japanese-study information, and information about text processing on various computers that may or may not be more up to date than this FAQ. The sci.lang.japan FAQ is available at <http://www.mickey.ai.kyutech.ac.jp/cgi-bin/japanese> (Japan) or <> (Europe) ------------------------------