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Subject: Programming for Internationalization FAQ

This article was archived around: 25 Jul 1999 11:24:28 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: internationalization
All FAQs posted in: comp.unix.questions, comp.std.internat, comp.software.international, comp.lang.c, comp.windows.x, comp.std.c
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Archive-name: internationalization/programming-faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Version: 1.93
Programming for Internationalization Michael K. Gschwind DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHOR MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Note: Most of this was tested on a Sun 10, running SunOS 4.1.* - other systems might differ slightly This FAQ discusses topics related to internationalization. Simple i18n support for Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East might use of the ISO 8859-X based 8 bit character sets. For wider portability, a standard such as Unicode is in order. This FAQ discusses how to program applications which support the use European (Latin American) national character sets on UNIX-based systems and standard C environments, and discusses some choices with respect to character sets. INTRODUCTION Most of the information given here is independent of the character encoding used (e.g. DEC MCS, ISO Latin-X, etc.), but can be applied to any character set, providing the programming environment has provisions for this standard. 1. Which coding should I use for accented characters? Use the internationally standardized ISO-8859-1 character set to type accented characters. This character set contains all characters necessary to type (West) European languages. This encoding is also the preferred encoding on the Internet. ISO 8859-X character sets use the characters 0xa0 through 0xff to represent national characters, while the characters in the 0x20-0x7f range are those used in the US-ASCII (ISO 646) character set. Thus, ASCII text is a proper subset of all ISO 8859-X character sets. The characters 0x80 through 0x9f are earmarked as extended control chracters, and are not used for encoding characters. These characters are not currently used to specify anything. A practical reason for this is interoperability with 7 bit devices (or when the 8th bit gets stripped by faulty software). Devices would then interpret the character as some control character and put the device in an undefined state. (When the 8th bit gets stripped from the characters at 0xa0 to 0xff, a wrong character is represented, but this cannot change the state of a terminal or other device.) This character set is also used by AmigaDOS, MS-Windows, VMS (DEC MCS is practically equivalent to ISO 8859-1) and (practically all) UNIX implementations. MS-DOS normally uses a different character set and is not compatible with this character set. (It can, however, be translated to this format with various tools. See below.) Footnote: Supposedly, IBM code page 819 is fully ISO 8859-1 compliant. ISO 8859-1 supports the following languages: Afrikaans, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Faeroese, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Icelandic, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. (It has been called to my attention that Albanian can be written with ISO 8859-1 also. However, from a standards point of view, ISO 8859-2 is the appropriate character set for Balkan countries.) ISO 8859-1 is just one part of the ISO-8859 standard, which specifies several character sets: 8859-1 Europe, Latin America 8859-2 Eastern Europe 8859-3 SE Europe/miscellaneous (Esperanto, Maltese, etc.) 8859-4 Scandinavia/Baltic (mostly covered by 8859-1 also) 8859-5 Cyrillic 8859-6 Arabic 8859-7 Greek 8859-8 Hebrew 8859-9 Latin5, same as 8859-1 except for Turkish instead of Icelandic 8859-10 Latin6, for Lappish/Nordic/Eskimo languages Another nascent standard is UNICODE (ISO 10646). UNICODE is an extension of ISO 8859-1 (which itself is an extension of US-ASCII) to wide characters. Thus, most of the world's languages (including Japanese, Korean, Chinese...) can be covered. Unicode is advantageous because one character set suffices to encode all the world's languages. The degree of Unicode support available depends on the operating system and on application availability. However very few programs support wide characters. Thus, a `cheap' upgrade from 7 bit US-ASCII might be to only 8 bit wide character sets (such as the ISO 8859-X). Unfortunately, some programmers still insist on using the `spare' eigth bit for clever tricks, which will make conversion more difficult. Footnote: Some people have complained about missing characters, e.g. French users about a missing 'oe'. Note that oe is not a character, but a ligature (a combination of two characters for typographical purposes). Ligatures are not part of the ISO 8859-X standard. (Although 'oe' used to be in the draft 8859-1 standard before it was unmasked as `mere' ligature.) 2. Choosing the character set encoding Depending on your needs, you will probably want to choose different solutions. A quick shot i18n of US programs might simply be going to 8 bit and use one of the ISO 8859-X character sets. If you have a choice and start from scratch, you might want to consider Unicode. There are several aspects to choosing a particular character set (and you may want to decide on different character sets for different purposes): 1) what codeset should the application run in? 2) what codeset should files be saved in 3) what codeset is used as output (to screens etc.) and 4) should wide characters or multi-byte characters be used (this choice may be different for each of points 1-3) For example, if portability of your files across cultural borders is an objective, you might want to use some form of Unicode encoding to achieve this. If interaction with other tools in your environment is the main objective, and these tools use an encoding different from Unicode, this character set might be used instead. Using Unicode internally but writing a different format to files may sound funny (esp. if the output file format is only a subset of Unicode), but you would only have to adapt the file write and read functions and the same program will be able to execute in all countries your product might be used...) Also, terminals and/or which process Unicode may not be available (or you might have to support legacy hardware), so you might need to adapt the output format to a third standard. 2. Getting your environment right for ISO 8859-X To configure your environment such that you can enter, process and display 8 bit ISO characters, check out the ISO-8859-1 FAQ available via anonymous ftp from ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at in /pub/8bit/FAQ-ISO-8859-1. If you use a different encoding, you will probably also have to configure your system to fully support that encoding. 3. Setting your environment for ISO-C (ANSI-C) programs The ISO C Standard (ANSI C Standard 4.4) defines several functions for supporting localization. To set your international environment on program startup, you should make one or several calls to the setlocale functions. Calls to this function will predetermine the reaction of other localization functions according to your language/country environment. To configure a particular aspect of you environment, say the number representation, you would call -- setlocale (LC_NUMERIC, "Germany"); -- This call would set all number representation functions defined in the localization set to return numbers in the format used in Germany. If the call was successful, setlocale will return the name of your locale. A NULL return value indicates failure. Note that the environments are predetermined outside your C program by the system you run on. (So the example given here is likely to fail on all but a few systems.) Check the setlocale manual page or your system documentation to find out about the environments available. There are several LOCALE types available for different localization aspects (currency sign, number representation, characters sets). The value they can take is highly system dependent. Also, it should be up to the user to define the locale environment he needs. A C program inherits its locale environment variables when it starts up. This happens automatically. However, these variables do not automatically control the locale used by the library functions, because ISO/ANSI C says that all programs start by default in the standard C locale. To use the locales specified by the environment, The POSIX standard defines the following call: ----- setlocale (LC_ALL, ""); ----- Of course, you can only set part of your environment, by calling, say: ---- setlocale (LC_CTYPE, ""); ---- This only defines the character classification macros (defined in ctype.h). This is a list of local categories: Effect of Specifying Environment Variable category the Value Affected __________________________________________________________ LC_ALL Sets or queries LANG entire environment LC_COLLATE Changes or queries LC_COLLATE collation sequences LC_CTYPE Changes or queries LC_CTYPE character classifi- cation LC_NUMERIC Changes or queries LC_NUMERIC number format infor- mation LC_TIME Changes or queries LC_TIME time conversion parameters LC_MONETARY Changes or queries LC_MONETARY monetary information 4. Using the locale information for character classification If you write a program which supports international use, you should use the available standardized functions, as only these will be influenced by the setlocale call. Thus, if you want to convert a capital letter in c to a lower case letter in l, _don't_ write: l = c - 'A' + 'a'; While this will work for characters in the US-ASCII character set, it will not work with many other character sets. The following, standard-conformant code will: #include <ctype.h> .... l = tolower(c); Also note that the second code may actually be faster than even the full "C" locale functionality (for most implementations), as it replaces a complex expression ( (c<='Z' && c>='A')? c-'A'+a:c; )by a simple table lookup! Note that this ISO standard is independent of the character set encoding used! 5. Language independent messages There are two competing standards for language independent messages: one by X/Open, and another one propagated by Sun. The X/Open standard seems to have found a larger following as it has been around for a longer time. As of Solaris 2.x, Sun supports both the X/Open and Sun message standards. (they used to support only their own "standard".) 5.1 X/Open language independent messages X/Open defines a method for providing language-independent messages. Error messages are kept in a catalog which is opened upon program start with a locale specification. Then the message number and a set specification are used to index the message catalog. A default fourth argument is specified which will be printed if a particular message cannot be found in the catalog. Here is the world-famous C program using the language-independent X/Open message standard: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- #include <stdio.h> #include <nl_types.h> #define SET 1 #define MSG_HELLO 1 nl_catd catfd; int main (int argc, char **argv) { /* Open the message catalog. We use the basename of the program * as the catalog name. Of course, several programs can also * share a common catalog. */ catfd = catopen (basename (argv [0]), NL_CAT_LOCALE); /* catgets returns message MSG_HELLO from set SET from the * message catalog catfd. If catfd does not refer to a message * catalog, or the requested message cannot be found, the * catalog, or the requested message cannot be found, the * fourth argument is returned. */ printf (catgets (catfd, SET, MSG_HELLO, "hello, world\n")); catclose (catfd); return 0; } ------------------------------------------------------------------------- For catopen, specify the constant NL_CAT_LOCALE to open the message catalog for the locale set for the LC_MESSAGES variable; using NL_CAT_LOCALE conforms to the XPG4 standard. You can specify 0 (zero) for compatibility with XPG3; when oflag is set to zero, the locale set for the LANG variable determines the message catalog locale. Several utilities exist for generating message catalogs and for upgrading programs which contain hard-wired strings: * gencat is used to generate message catalogs [All other programs are OS-specific:] * Ultrix and OSF support the extract program which will extract string constants from the C source code, and has an option to replace these strings with calls to catgets. * HP/UX has a similar utility called findmsg. * Under OSF, message catalogs may be listed with the dspcat utility. * HP/UX calls a similar utility dumpmsg. 5.2 Sun/Uniforum Sun implements a different set of functions functions to support i18n of messages. This mechanism is now also used by the GNU project to support localized error messages: You can either use: ----------------------------------------------- main() { // get the message catalog named "helloprogram" // for the hello world program textdomain("helloprogram"); // get the translation for the "Hello, world\n" string printf(gettext("Hello, world\n")); } ----------------------------------------------- or you can roll all in one and write ----------------------------------------------- main() { // get the translation for the "Hello, world\n" string // from the message catalog "helloprogram" printf(dgettext("helloprogram","Hello, world\n")); } ----------------------------------------------- The LC_MESSAGES locale category setting determines the locale of strings that gettext() returns. The message catalogs are generated with either the installtxt or gencat commands. No opening of files as in the old SYS V and X/Open routines, and no handling of message numbers that you must have in a database to administer. However, this mechanism is only supported by Sun. Sun tried to push it into COSE, but without success. This mechanism is available eithe with the Xview environment (the source is available with the XView code), or from the GNU project at ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/gettext-0.7.tar.gz. 5.3 POSIX language independent messages Neither of the previous two mechanisms is in the POSIX standard. There was much disagreement in the POSIX.1 committee about using the gettext routines vs. catgets (XPG). In the end the committee couldn't agree on anything, so no messaging system was included as part of the standard. I believe the informative annex of the standard includes the XPG3 messaging interfaces, "...as an example of a messaging system that has been implemented..." They were very careful not to say anywhere that you should use one set of interfaces over the other. 6. Other localization aspects in ISO/ANSI C (and POSIX environments) For a more thorough discussion of localization and internationalization (aka. i18n), check your system vendors documentation, and the C library manual which comes with the FSF's glibc library (Chapter 19, 'Locales and Internationalization'). 7. Internationalization under X11 While X11 is farther than most system software when it comes to internationalization, it still contains many bugs. A number of bug fixes can be found at URL http://www.dtek.chalmers.se:80/~maf/i18n/. 7.1 Output To output text encoded with ISO 8859-1 under X11, simply invoke the X display routines with 8 bit characters as you would use them with 7-bit ASCII. You should however choose a font which contains bitmaps for these characters. You can use the xfd utility to display a font to verify that it contains a full set of characters. 7.2 Input If you use a national keyboard (that is a keyboard, which has distinct keys for your countries special characters), inputting accents is straight forward and you'll get the corresponding characters by using the X11 input functions. Sometimes it may be necessary to input characters for which there are no keys on your keyboard (e.g. if you want to enter the German 'ß' from a French keyboard). "X11R5 and X11R6 both have extensive support for i18n, but due to a variety of factors the R5 i18n was not well understood or widely used. Many people resorted to a work-around and might have been disappointed when R6 did not include this feature. It is important to recognize that the correct use of R5 and R6 i18n features will ensure maximum portability of your program." [X Consortium's view] Unfortunately, not even the xterm terminal emulator supplied with the X11R6 distribution by the X Consortium supports this input method mechanism. As of R6.1, xterm supports the new input methods, so you are strongly encouraged to upgrade and take advantage of this new feature. The lack of code samples (and support for this feature in some non-essential, but widely used X11 parts) may have contributed to a situation where few applications support the input methods available in R6. Hopefully, this situation will be rectified with the release of R6.1 X11 R5 and R6 support input methods for entering non-ASCII, and displaying and configuring text, menus etc. for a wide variety of languages. This input method has to be installed by the application by calls to the Xlib library (or an Xt toolkit call). [Under X11R5, some X servers (notably the Xsun server) will let you enter ISO characters by supplying a built-in escape mechanism, if no keys for these characters are on your keyboard, and will pass along and display ISO 8859-1. This hack obviated the need to install an input method, but was less flexible.] If you are using a toolkit, it is quite simple to support localization of your X11 code: If you're using a toolkit -- Xt and a widget set like Motif or R6 Xaw -- you need only add a single line of code to your source. Before any other calls to Xt, add a call to XtSetLanguageProc, e.g.: int main (int argc, char** argv) { ... XtSetLanguageProc (NULL, NULL, NULL); top = XtAppInitialize ( ... ); ... } The LANG and LC_xxx environment variables (see section 3) will then be used to determine the 'input method' for this X application. This input method is responsible for managing COMPOSE character sequences or any other input mechanism for this particular implementation. Also see section 9 of ftp://ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/pub/8bit/FAQ-ISO-8859-1, the FAQ on ISO 8859-1 usage. 7.3 Toolkits, Widgets, and I18N The preferred way of inputing national characters when a national keyboard is not available is one/several input methods. These input methods will then support various kinds of compose sequences to enter national characters. The environment variables LANG and/or LC_xxx select the language for the Input Method (IM), but if several input methods exist, the environment variable XMODIFIERS can be used to select a specific input method. Xlib, Xt and (partially) Xaw support IMs. Thus, applications written with Xlib or Xt can support IMs (see section 7.2 on how to install input methods under Xt). Motif 1.2 or greater automatically uses the R5/R6 input method APIs. Thus applications using Motif 1.2+ can be made to support IMs. Several Motif 1.[01] versions also had similar functionality added to them by the respective vendors, but these extensions are vendor-specific and not portable. Xaw i18n is based upon X11R5 i18n, not on R6. Thus, it supports R5 input methods. R6 added OUTPUT METHODS which are good for mainly R-to-L languages, and a few new INPUT METHODS (in-the-spot and I think one other) that Xaw might not support. Xaw does support over-the-spot, off-the-spot, and root-window conversion. To make this work, you might need to set "*international: True" in your resources. FOOTNOTE: If you can have comments/corrections for this section and on OpenLook, please let me know. 7.4 I18N under X11R6, General Information Background information from the X11R6 announcement: Internationalization (also known as I18N, there being 18 letters between the i and n) of the X Window System, which was originally introduced in Release 5, has been significantly improved in R6. The R6 I18N architecture follows that in R5, being based on the locale model used in ANSI C and POSIX, with most of the I18N capability provided by Xlib. R5 introduced a fundamental framework for internationalized input and output. It could enable basic localization for left-to-right, non-context sensitive, 8-bit or multi-byte codeset languages and cultural conventions. However, it did not deal with all possible languages and cultural conventions. R6 also does not cover all possible languages and cultural conventions, but R6 contains substantial new Xlib interfaces to support I18N enhancements, in order to enable additional language support and more practical localization. The additional support is mainly in the area of text display. In order to support multi-byte encodings, the concept of a FontSet was introduced in R5. In R6, Xlib enhances this concept to a more generalized notion of output methods and output contexts. Just as input methods and input contexts sup- port complex text input, output methods and output contexts support complex and more intelligent text display, dealing not only with multiple fonts but also with context dependencies. The result is a general framework to enable bi-directional text and context sensitive text display. The description of the X11R6 internationalization framework is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.x.org in /pub/R6untarred/xc/doc/specs/i18n. 8. Supporting I18N Network Protocols 8.1 MIME MIME is specified in RFC 1521 and RFC 1522 which are available from ftp.uu.net. There is also a MIME FAQ which is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.ics.uci.edu in /mh/contrib/multimedia/mime-faq.txt.gz. (This file is in compressed format. You will need the GNU gunzip program to decompress this file.) If you want to write applications which support the MIME protocol, there are several libraries/tools which can ease your task: 8.1.1 metamail Source for supporting MIME (the `metamail' package) in various mail readers is available via anonymous ftp from thumper.bellcore.com in /pub/nsb. This distribution consists of several utilities, which can be called by MIME applications to handle MIME types. 8.1.2 MIMElt A "lightweight" MIME library available via anon ftp from oslonett.no:Software/MsDos/Comm/Offline/mimeltXX.zip It is source code (ANSI C) packaged as a library to facilitate construction of a limited MIME facility (limited == handling only character-set aspects of MIME, not the multimedia-aspects). It includes hooks to recode character sets into whatever system you are running off (e.g. if you read mail on a MsDos platform using CP-850, MIMElite may be set up so that QUOTED-PRINTABLE ISO Latin 1 is recoded into CP-850 for reading and saving to file). It's main use is to provide programmers of so-called "off-line readers" (used by users who access Internet mail through dial-up service providers) with the tools needed to include proper support for QUOTED-PRINTABLE encoding in their product. The archive also contains a couple of sample applications that demonstrates how the library may be used. UNMIME is a stand-alone utility to decode MIME-encoded messages (e.g. it works like UUDECODE for binary files with BASE64 encoding), SENDMIME is a simple utility to send MIME-encoded messages if your service provider doesn't have PINE or similar tools. The current version (2.1) is limited to character set issues. I am about to release version 2.2, which will support additional Content-Types (e.g. "application/octet-stream"). 9. Programming in Prolog Quintus Prolog and SICStus Prolog accepts ISO characters as part of atoms, so you can even define goal names containing accented characters. I/O of 8 bit characters is (obviously) also supported. Quintus Prolog also can handle Kanji. 10. Unicode Support for wide characters has been incorporated in a number of new operating system offerings, including SVR4 compliat systems (e.g., Solaris 2.x, Unixware, IRIX5/6, Sony NEWSOS 6.x). Other systems which support wide characters are Digital Unix (nee OSF/1), DEC Ultrix (version 4.x), SunOS (as of version 4.1.x), HPUX 9 and 10, AIX 3 and 4, several public BSD versions (FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSD/OS) as well as Linux, although the Linux locale support is weak. Note that 'support for Unicode' means different things to different people. Thus, Unix vendors claim Unicode support if they fulfill the following: * They define wchar_t in stddef.h. * They have ANSI functions mblen, mbstowcs, wctomb, mbtowc, and wcstombs. * The remaining infrastructure (file names, program names, shells, systems programs, etc.) is still at 8 bit characters. Note that support for wchar_t and the mentioned ANSI functions is enough to write Unicode programs. You can even use Unicode characters in filenames, if you use an 8 bit file-system safe transformation for Unicode. Footnote: Transformations are Unicode magic: in order to comply with existing infrastructure, Unicode can be 'transformed' into a variety of encodings: 8 bit, 16 bit, file system safe, etc.etc. When needed, these transformations are then transformed back into a canonical Unicode form. However, you may not be able to process these filenames properly from within your other favorite programs, and they might not even display correctly, depending on you output devices. Thus, even simple operations such as 'mv', 'cp' or file redirection may be problematic! Wide character strings have no locale info associated with them so would be meaningless in the wrong locale. You never write files of wchar_t, you always convert the data to multi-byte format. The same rationale would apply to filenames in the file system, exec parameters, shells, etc. Since the API for doing these thing all use char or char* it would be very difficult to get wchar_t data to be used. The only OS I know of that uses Unicode is MS WindowsNT and this is one of the difficulties in exporting NTFS file systems to Unix. The APIs for things like (f)open, etc., are all ANSI, so the library or the kernel must convert the ASCII string into a Unicode wchar_t string. (NT doesn't have the exec* family of functions, it uses spawn*, which all take char or char* arguments.) All system calls under NT have ASCII and Unicode variations. Internally, the ASCII versions seem to translate to Unicode, but this is just a guess. I'm not aware of any Unix that has support for ISO-10646 (or Unicode) yet. X has preliminary support for it in R6, but it only supports CJK and ASCII at this point in time and it would be difficult, if not impossible to use given that there is no underlying OS support for it. ACK: Thanks to Kaleb Keithley who explained these concepts to me. All errors are mine. 11. ISO 8859-1 on non-UNIX systems 11.1 MS-DOS MS-DOS generally uses its own characters set. There are several code pages (one with the same symbols as ISO 8859-1, albeit at different character code positions, which can lead to problems with the transfer of data). If interoperability without data conversion is your goal, you can reconfigure your MS-DOS PC to use an ISO-8859-1 code page. Check out the anonymous ftp archive ftp.uni-erlangen.de, which contains data on how to do this (and other ISO-related stuff) in /pub/doc/ISO/charsets. The README file contains an index of the files you need. Most (all?) C compilers/libraries for MS-DOS have only minimal support for the ANSI/POSIX locale mechanism. The setlocale() and localeconv() calls (and stuff like strxfrm()) are generally hardwired. 11.2 MS Windows MS-Windows (using code page 1252) normally uses the first 256 characters of Unicode, which is (for all practical purposes) equivalent to ISO 8859-1. Thus, data representation and conversion for interoperability with other ISO 8859-1 compliant systems is not an issue. It seems that C libraries for MS Windows do not support the ANSI/POSIX locale mechanism. (If you have any experiences with that, please let me know.) There is a POSIX-like mechanism in some Microsoft platform services, but none in the compilers from any vendor. Windows NT supports Unicode, which is a super-set of ISO 8859-1. There does not seem to be support for the locale mechanism under Windows NT. 11.3 OS/2 Text mode OS/2 programs generally suffer the same limitations as do MS-DOS programs, because the display hardware is the same. Presentation Manager OS/2 programs using code page 1004 will order the font glyphs in the same sequence as ISO 8859-1 (although of course whether the glyphs will actually look anything like those from ISO 8859-1 depends entirely from the font). The IBM CSet++ compiler supports full internationalization, with several predefined locales. The Borland C++ compiler supports only the "C" locale. The Watcom C++ compiler supports only the "C" locale. The Metaware High C++ compiler supports only the "C" locale. It does, however, also support UNICODE, providing UNICODE character types and UNICODE versions of the appropriate parts of the standard library (including I/O). 11.4 Apple Macintosh MacIntoshes have their own non-standard character encodings; the first 128 characters are US-ASCII but the remaining characters are non-standard. If you connect to the rest of the world, NCSA telnet does support ISO 8859-1. Symantec's THINK C provides setlocale() is provided for ANSI C compatibility only. Only the minimal "C" locale is implemented. It doesn't change your program's locale. I do not know whether C libraries (for which compilers?) for the MacIntosh support the ANSI/POSIX locale mechanism. If you have any experiences with that, please let me know. In fact the Macintosh has very good i18n facilities, but they are accessed through non-ANSI-standard things like the Script Manager, so they are useless for people who want to write portable programs. 11.5 DEC OpenVMS (Alpha and Vax systems) DEC recently implemented support for the XPG4 world-wide portability interfaces as well as XPG4 message catalogs. You need DEC C V5.0 and OpenVMS V6.2 (for either Alpha or VAX systems) 11.6 Amiga The AmigaOS uses ISO-8859-1. As of OS version 2.1, Amiga-specific means of localization are available. 12. Home location of this document 12.1 www You can find this and other i18n documents under URL http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/i18n.html. 12.2 ftp The most recent version of this document is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at under the file name /pub/8bit/i18n-programming. ----------------- Copyright © 1994,1995 Michael Gschwind (mike@vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at) This document may be copied for non-commercial purposes, provided this copyright notice appears. Publication in any other form requires the author's consent. (Distribution or publication with a product requires the author's consent, as does publication in any book, journal or other work.) Dieses Dokument darf unter Angabe dieser urheberrechtlichen Bestimmungen zum Zwecke der nicht-kommerziellen Nutzung beliebig vervielfältigt werden. Die Publikation in jeglicher anderer Form erfordert die Zustimmung des Autors. (Verteilung oder Publikation mit einem Produkt erfordert die Zustimmung des Autors, wie auch die Veröffentlichung in Büchern, Zeitschriften, oder anderen Werken.) Michael Gschwind, Institut f. Technische Informatik, TU Wien snail: Treitlstraße 3-182-2 || A-1040 Wien || Austria email: mike@vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at PGP key available via www (or email) www : URL:http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/mike.html phone: +(43)(1)58801 8156 fax: +(43)(1)586 9697