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Subject: Finding Fonts for Internationalization FAQ

This article was archived around: 27 Jul 1999 12:17:30 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: internationalization
All FAQs posted in: comp.std.internat, comp.software.international, comp.fonts, comp.windows.x, comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.misc
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: internationalization/font-faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Version: 0.5
International Fonts, Fonts for ISO 8859-X DISCLAIMER: THE AUTHOR MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If you have any further information about *free* fonts which may be useful to others, please use the following URL to add a font to the FAQ http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/fonts Please try to fill out the form as accurately as you can! This document only covers fonts which are available free of charge, via the internet. This is NOT a free advertisement for commercial font founderies. (So if you are a commercial foundery, don't bother me about including pointers to your commercial products!) Unfortunately archives move a lot, appear or disappear. I cannot keep track of everything, so please let me know if you find errors. Also, since the material changes so often, formatting is not always up to snuff. (This is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, not to win any editing prizes...) 1. Which coding should I use for accented characters? Use the internationally standardized ISO-8859-X character sets to type accented characters. 8859-1 is also used by MS-Windows (Actually, MS-Windows uses UNICODE (ISO 10646) truncated to 8 bit, which gives an equivalent encoding.), VMS and (practically all) UNIX implementations. MS-DOS uses a different character set and is not compatible with this character set. (It can, however, be translated to this format with various tools. See section 7.) ISO 8859-1 supports the following languages: Afrikaans, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Faeroese, Finnish, French, German, Galician, Irish, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. (It has been called to my attention that Albanian can be written with ISO 8859-1 also. However, from a standards point of view, ISO 8859-2 is the appropriate character set for Balkan countries.) ISO 8859-1 is just one part of the ISO-8859 standard, which specifies several character sets, e.g.: 8859-1 Europe, Latin America 8859-2 Eastern Europe 8859-3 SE Europe 8859-4 Scandinavia (mostly covered by 8859-1 also) 8859-5 Cyrillic 8859-6 Arabic 8859-7 Greek 8859-8 Hebrew 8859-9 Latin5, same as 8859-1 except for Turkish instead of Icelandic 8859-10 Latin6, for Eskimo/Scandinavian languages For an overview of these fonts, see http://www.cs.tu-berlin.de/~czyborra/charsets/ 2. Font conversions Most of the font formats discussed here can be converted to the other formats in this FAQ. For information on how to achieve this check out the font FAQ posted regularly in comp.fonts and the comp.font www home page at http://jasper.ora.com:8080/comp.fonts. 3. Availability for the X Window System An overview of the ISO 8859-X fonts is available at http://www.cs.tu-berlin.de/~czyborra/charsets. You can also down-load these fonts as bdf fonts to install on your X window system. 8859-1 X Windows has several ISO 8859-1 character sets in the standard distribution (those whose names end in iso8859-1). If you are using X11R5, note that some fonts are labeled as ISO compliant fonts which they are not. 8859-2 The X11R6 release contains a font for this cxharacter set. More fonts can be found at URLs <ftp://ftp.vszbr.cz/pub/X11-fonts/ISO_8859-2> X11 <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/font/> various operation systems <ftp://almos.vein.hu/ssa/kbd_es_font/> mostly Unix/X11 <ftp://ftp.vma.bme.hu/pub/ssa/kbd_es_font/> (mirror of almos) <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/ssa/kbd_es_font/> mostly Unix/X11 ftp://ftp.vse.cz/pub/386-unix/linux/Czech/czech-0.12.tar.gz has X fonts for 8859-2 and Linux support for the Czech language. 8859-3 You can find fonts for 8859-3 at URL ftp://ftp.stack.urc.tue.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir. Not all the fonts are Latin-3. At least "adobe3.tar.gz" and "l3-tiparoj.tar.gz" contain Latin-3 BDF fonts. Also, there are fonts at URL ftp://ftp.vszbr.cz/pub/X11-fonts/ISO_8859-3. 8859-4 through 8859-10 You can find fonts for these character sets at URL ftp://ftp.vszbr.cz/pub/X11-fonts. 8859-5 Check out the ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/culture/russian/comp/fonts (esp. subdirectories .../fonts and .../xwin). It has a host of Russian fonts. Also, check out the fonts in ftp://cs.umd.edu/pub/cyrillic/xwin_fonts. This archive contains ISO 8859-5, Koi8 and Alt fonts (Alt is very popular on PCs.). If you use emacs, russian.el allows you to use one font for the buffer and another for the display. More fonts for Cyrillic scripts can be found at http://www.crec.mipt.ru/russify/index.html 8859-6 ISO 8859-6 fonts (insofar as glyph-encoded fonts can represent an abstract character set) are available from ftp://leb.net/pub/reader/unix/fonts. 8859-7 a set of Helvetica and Courier fonts can be found at ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/fonts/X11. Additional Unix fonts for Greek are available via http://www.hri.org/fonts/unix 8859-8 Several fonts for this character set family can be found in the metamail package. The `metamail' package is available via anonymous ftp from thumper.bellcore.com in /pub/nsb. These fonts are in bdf format and can be found in <metamail-root>/src/fonts. You will also need software which supports right-to-left writing, such as the MULE system for emacs. Information about MULE can be found on ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at in /pub/8bit/MULE. Fonts can also be found at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Jonathan_Rosenne/hebfont.htm 8859-10 There are a couple versions of an ISO_8859-10 font for X, the first version of which was based on the ECMA-144 standard and its depictions of the characters. The second version of this font was a revision of the first to improve the appearance of certain accented characters, and to modify the appearance of some of the Latin-6-specific characters to reflect their appearances from what printed material the author could find. Both of these BDF font files can be found by anonymous FTP ftp://ccsun.tuke.sk/pub/ These fonts should also end up at the X Consortium ftp server eventually. Other Fonts Languages Character set Font Thai TIS620 <MULE-root>/fonts/ETL.tar.gz Vietnamese VISCII ftp://media.mit.edu/pub/Vietnet/Viscii/Unix/X.tar.Z Vietnamese VISCII <MULE-root>/fonts/ETL.tar.gz Arabic MULE-ETL <MULE-root>/fonts/ETL.tar.gz Persian MULE-ETL <MULE-root>/fonts/ETL.tar.gz Persian ? ftp://tehran.stanford.edu IPA MULE-ETL <MULE-root>/fonts/ETL.tar.gz MULE-ETL is a MULE-specific character set, IPA stands for International Phonetic Alphabet. <MULE-root> refers to the root where you have installed MULE (MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs). More information on MULE and the MULE package can be found on ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule. 4. DOS IBM code page 819 is the same as ISO 8859-1. I believe that 850 is the code page that has all of the characters in different positions. IBM code page 912 is the same as ISO 8859-2, but 852 is the one that comes with (all versions of) DOS, which has all of ISO 8859-2's characters in different positions. Alternatively, you can reconfigure your MS-DOS PC to use publicly available, free ISO-8859-X code pages. Check out the anonymous ftp archive ftp.uni-erlangen.de, which contains data on how to do this (and other ISO-related stuff) in /pub/doc/ISO/charsets. The README file contains an index of the files you need. 5. MS-Windows There are different Windows code pages, just as there are different DOS code pages. The one used for western European languages is 1252, which is a superset of ISO 8859-1 (1252 makes use of the control characters from 0x80 to 0x9F). Similarly, 1250 is a superset of ISO 8859-2. (Some characters actually seem to have changed character code position, so it is not fully compatible!) " Unfortunately, there are significant diffrences between ISO 8859-2 and the Windoze CP1250. While most of the characters are identical, there are maybe a dozen that appear in different positions in CP1250 when viewing an iso-8859-2-encoded text, so once cannot say that it is truly a superset -- some translations still need to be done. The problem will be noticed if using, say, Netscape2.x for Windows and viewing a page which is delivered with ISO-8859-2 MIME charset tagging, when one has selected a CE (CP1250) font. The present beta versions of Netscape2.0 do not incorporate translation, nor do they recognize any Central European MIME charsets other than ISO-8859-2 and an unregistered Mac charset." There are also versions for Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, and Turkish, corresponding to ISO 8859-6, -7, -8, and -9. (The encoding of Cyrillic may be non-ISO-8859.) Latin-3 "ftp://ftp.stack.urc.tue.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir/lat3pttf.zip" contains several TTF fonts in Latin-3, as well as some keyboard utilities for MS-Windows. Greek Fonts http://www.hri.org/fonts This is part of the Hellenic Resources Network web site and contains a host of information and free material(fonts, software) for use with Greek character sets. Hebrew fonts (8859-8) http://www1.snunit.k12.il/heb.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Jonathan_Rosenne/hebfont.htm IPA International Phonetic Alphabet fonts ftp.sil.org will get you to the Summer Institute of Linguistics, who have IPA fonts in both T1 and TT. Various fonts ftp.uni-paderborn.de:/pub/windows/Cica/demo/accentwm.zip This is a demo version of Accent. But after installing (and deleting) the demo you still have four TrueType fonts: East European (Latin 2), Greek, Cyrillic, Turkish (Latin 5). Geaorgian Fonts http://www.clinet.fi/~bpg/grfntdoc.html Tibetan Font & Keyboard Software for PC's (Christopher J Fynn <cfynn@sahaja.demon.co.uk>) My TibKey software (a context sensitive Tibetan Keyboard for Windows 3.1x and '95), and one of my Tibetan fonts in TrueType format, along with associated documentation can be found at: ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/otherarchives/ asian-studies-archives/tibetan-archives/tibet-software/ tibkey-windows/zipped/TIBKEY.ZIP ftp://unix.hensa.ac.uk/mirrors/uunet/doc/papers/coombspapers/ otherarchives/asian-studies-archives/tibetan-archives/ tibet-software/tibkey-windows/zipped/TIBKEY.ZIP ftp://ftp.niif.spb.su/pub/tibet/software/windows/tibkey10.zip This software and font will allow you to enter Tibetan in most Windows applications. Freeware. Bengali Font A shareware Bengali TrueType font for Windows, available by FTP is at URL ftp://ftp.cica.indiana.edu/pub/pc/win3/fonts/sgaon.zip Indic Languages Roman Fonts with diacritics for transliterating Indic languages (Hindi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Bengali, etc., etc.): 1.=== > I have spent some hours recently making up a CS (Computer > Sanskrit) version of Adobe's font "Utopia". It is quite a nice > font, perhaps a little more of a "book-face" than the Bitstream > Charter that has been available for some time in CS encoding. > > The Utopia font is a professionally designed typeface which has > been officially released by Adobe Inc. for free distribution. > > I have made the following files available: > > adobe-utopia-font-CS-encoding-PS-10.zip > adobe-utopia-font-CS-encoding-PS-10.readme > and > adobe-utopia-font-CS-encoding-TTF-10.zip > adobe-utopia-font-CS-encoding-TTF-10.readme > adobe-utopia-font-CS-encoding-TTF-10.readme > > by anonymous ftp from > ftp.bcc.ac.uk in /pub/users/ucgadkw/indology/software > > or via your web browser at URL > http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgadkw/indology.html > (follow the links to INDOLOGY supplementary gopher -- software) 2. === > ftp://ftp.shore.net/members/india/ > > In the fonts directory you will be able to find Bitstream Charter > in Postscript (type 1) format, and some Macintosh True Type Fonts with > all the diacritics for Devanagari. Pinyin Fonts for Windows Pinyin TT fonts are availble at http://www.ucalgary.ca/~pcchang/dchu/font/index.html Egyptian Hieroglyphics There is a computer-assisted Egyptology centre at the University of Utrecht's Faculty of Theology. They have a WWW site offering hieroglyphics fonts for both Mac and PC (TrueType). About 900 glyphs are included. Their URL is http://131.211.68.206/ccer/ccer.htm Vietnamese VISCII TrueType/Type1 in ftp://media.mit/edu/pub/Vietnet/Viscii/Win3/ (vnfont1.zip, vnfont2.zip, t1font1x.exe, pdfot1.zip ...) ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/otherarchives/asian-studies-archives/vietnam-archives/viet-lang-software/viet-fonts/mit-viet-fonts/ ftp://unix.hensa.ac.uk/mirrors/uunet/doc/papers/coombspapers/otherarchives/asian-studies-archives/vietnam-archives/viet-lang-software/viet-fonts/mit-viet-fonts/ Cyrillic http://www.cica.indiana.edu/cgi-bin/checkftp or ftp://ftp.cica.indiana.edu ftp://oak.oakland.edu/win3/fonts ftp://ftp.techno.ru/pub/msdos/koi8/ http://sunsite.oit.unc.edu/sergei/cysoft.html http://www.pitt.edu/~mapst57/rus/russian.html Chinese True Type unknown encoding and whether simplified/traditional: ftp://oanet1.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ntuttf/CHINESE/NTU_FS.ZIP ftp://oanet1.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ntuttf/CHINESE/NTU_KAI.ZIP ftp://oanet1.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ntuttf/CHINESE/NTU_LI.ZIP ftp://oanet1.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ntuttf/CHINESE/NTU_TW.ZIP these are traditional Chinese for the Mac encoded in BIG5 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw//Chinese/ifcss/software/fonts/big5/mac/... .../NTU_black_medium.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_funSung.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_kai.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_lei.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_ming_medium.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_round_heavy.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_round_medium.sit.bin.gz .../NTU_thin.sit.bin.gz Korean (Hangul) Type 1 font http://shiva.snu.ac.kr/~setup/index.html also has a hangul to PS converter (h2ps) ftp://ftp.kaist.ac.kr/pub/hangul/font has an extensive set of X11 and PS fonts. At the same archive, there's another Hangul to PS translator hpscat in /incoming/hangul and /pub/hangul/print.(KAIST archive is mirrored at ftp://under3.kisa.org in the US,ftp://ftp.nuri.net in Korea and ftp://ftp.linguistik.uni-erlangen.de/pub/Hangul in Germany). Hangul fonts for TeX are available at CTAN archives(e.g ftp://ftp.dante.de and ftp://ftp.ctan.ac.uk) throughout the world in ~ctan-archive/font/korean where there are PS,metafont and PK images of several typefaces. 31 sets of Hangul fonts for TeX are also available at ftp://math-ftp.kaist.ac.kr (mirrored at ftp://ftp.kaist.ac.kr/pub/hangul/tex/htex ). On top of that, X11 R5 or later comes with three Hangul fonts in BDF format. Others Check out the Yamada library on http://babel.uoregon.edu/ 6. Printing 6.1 Adobe PS fonts To print text files on Postscript printers, you first have to translate them to Postscript programs. A number of utility programs exist which can perform this job. A very popular filter to perform this job is a2ps, which support files in ISO 8859-1 encoding when invoked with the -8 switch. There are a number of variants fopund on the net which support other encodings, such as Cyrillic. An alternative is to use the GNU enscript (genscript) program, which supports multiple character sets in one binary. genscript is found on the GNU mirror next to you. Alas, these filters rely on your Postscript fonts containing all the right characters. While most any font available today supports the full Latin1 set, East Block users are less fortunate. Most fonts found in printers do not support all their special characters. Two solutions exist: * you can download a font which does support all the right characters (the IBM Courier font which is publically available (e.g., in the X11R6 distributio contains all the required characters) * or you can assemble your own special characters. Note that most any Adobe font contains all the required accents marks, so all you have to do is tell the printer to put the right accent mark on the right character.... So far, so good. The principle is simple though the job does require considerable Postscript experience if you have to start from scratch. Alternatively, you can pick up all the tools you need to assemble your very own font from ftp://ftp.dcs.ed.ac.uk/pub/jec/programs/ogonkify.tar.gz which will take care of all the low-level Postscript stuff so that indeed all you have to say is how to put what accent mark where. 6.1.1 IPA Adobe Type1 * IPA fonts can be found on ftp://ftp.sil.org 6.2 Printing with MULE To print various characters supported by Mule, we provide a program `m2ps' which will be installed automatically while installing mule (just as etags, emacsclient). `m2ps' converts Mule's text to PostScript by using BDF files for getting glyphs of characters. This utility allows printing of all character sets supported by either your X11 distribution or found in the MULE distribution. 7. Latex For ISO 8859-1, you should use the inputenv package with the latin1 option: \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc} If you use pre 2e version of Latex, use isolatin.sty or isolatin1.sty instead. These are available from URL ftp://ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/pub/8bit. The ISO 8859-2 character set (ex-East Block), is supported by `latin2.sty': latin2.sty is available by ftp from the host ftp.uni-stuttgart.de as `/pub/tex/macros/latex/contrib/latin2.sty'. If you need a Fraktur font, check out ftp://ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/pub/tex/fraktur which contains a TeX/MF fraktur font. Vietnamese VISCII At ftp://media.mit.edu/pub/Vietnet/Viscii/Unix/... (Also contains groff fonts in .../groff_font.tar.Z) 8. ISO 10646 Everson Mono is a simple, elegant, monowidth font. I designed it primarily to make glyphs available in support of _all_ the non-Han characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane of ISO/IEC 10646-1 (BMP = Unicode, if you prefer), though I hope that users may find it a pleasant alternative to Courier and Monaco for general purposes, e-mail, and so forth. I have found it quite legible at sizes as small as 4 points. It is lighter and a bit looser than Courier. At the present time, these glyphs are available in 8-bit font modules. However, I have configured the font editor I use (Altsys' excellent Fontographer) to output TrueType fonts with correct 16-bit hex addresses, and the PostScript fonts with name unique, unambiguous aliases to 10646. The first half of each fonts is ASCII (Table 1, Basic Latin); I have had to resort to this (arguably wasteful) method of encoding because many applications display a font in its own face, rather than simply by name, potentially rendering the font name illegible. As 16-bit compatible technology becomes more available, I will be reencoding these glyphs to more convenient formats. (On the other hand, you could consider all these to be micro-subsets of 10646, and since subsets have to include Table 1, they're all conformant....) Everson Mono is also available in all Macintosh character set formats, suitable for use with Apple's WorldScript technology. Everson Mono is available as PostScript and TrueType fonts in Macintosh and PC formats, and as PostScript fonts in NeXT and Sun formats. Hand-tooled bitmaps for alphabetic characters are available in 9-, 10-, and 12-point sizes; hand-tooled 12-point bitmaps only may be available for some of the symbol characters. Everson Mono fonts are available by anonymous ftp at: dkuug.dk /CEN/TC304/EversonMono10646 midir.ucd.ie /mgunn/everson/EversonMono10646 ftp.nada.kth.se /pub/i18n/ucs/EversonMono10646 The most current version will always be on the Danish server. As of this announcement (1995-06-05) only the Macintosh (TT/PS), NeXT (PS), and Sun (PS) formats are available. The PC (TT/PS) fonts are not yet available because I am still trying to figure out just how the draconian xxxxxxxx.yyy naming conventions are supposed to work for all these outline and bitmap files. I will upload them as soon as I can. After that then each set of new Everson Mono fonts will be uploaded in all four formats. Another Unicode char set is at ftp://ftp.ifcss.org/pub/software/fonts/unicode/bdf/uni16m.bdf.gz USE xfed, bdftopcf, mkfontdir, fs, xset fp+ [fontpath], xset fp rehash SEE ALSO http://www.iss.nus.sg/RND/MLP/Projects/MASS/ftp_index.html ftp://ifcss.org/pub/software/fonts/unicode/bdf/ http://www.stonehand.com/unicode.html 9. Character Set Names A list of official character set names (for MIME and other internet purposes) can be found as RFC 1345 on ftp.uu.net. 10. Other sources for fonts The Multiplingual PC Directory discusses internet font sites under URL http://www.knowledge.co.uk/xxx/mpcdir/inetsite.htm. The fonts indexed there come in various fromats, but most can be adapted to whatever is needed by referring to the conversion methods described in the comp.fonts FAQ (URL http://jasper.ora.com:8080/comp.fonts). The Internet font archive is at http://jasper.ora.com/Internet-Font-Archive.html 11. Home location 11.1 www You can find this and other i18n documents under URL http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/i18n.html. The comp.fonts home page is at http://jasper.ora.com:8080/comp.fonts. 11.2 ftp This document is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at as /pub/8bit/i18n-fonts. ----------------- Copyright © 1994,1995,1996 Michael Gschwind (mike@vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at) This document may be copied for non-commercial purposes, provided this copyright notice appears. Publication in any other form requires the author's consent. (Distribution or publication with a product requires the author's consent, as does publication in any book, journal or other work.) Dieses Dokument darf unter Angabe dieser urheberrechtlichen Bestimmungen zum Zwecke der nicht-kommerziellen Nutzung beliebig vervielfältigt werden. Die Publikation in jeglicher anderer Form erfordert die Zustimmung des Autors. (Verteilung oder Publikation mit einem Produkt erfordert die Zustimmung des Autors, wie auch die Veröffentlichung in Büchern, Zeitschriften, oder anderen Werken.) Michael Gschwind, PhD, Institut f. Technische Informatik, TU Wien snail: Treitlstraße 1-182-2 || A-1040 Wien || Austria email: mike@vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at PGP key available via www (or email) www : URL:http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/mike.html phone: +(43)(1)58801 8156 fax: +(43)(1)586 9697