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Subject: Hungarian electronic resources FAQ (Version: 1.50, Last-modified: 1996/07/04)

This article was archived around: 23 May 2006 04:24:21 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: hungarian
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.magyar, soc.culture.europe
Source: Usenet Version


URL: <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/> Archive-name: hungarian/faq Soc-culture-magyar-archive-name: faq Last-modified: 1996/07/04 Version: 1.50 Posting-Frequency: every fifteen days
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hungarian electronic resources FAQ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. News and discussion groups in English 1.1 News from the Open Media Research Institute 1.2 News from Central Europe Today 1.3 The Hungary Report 1.4 Hungary Online List (HOL) 1.5 MOZAIK 1.6 On USENET 1.7 'Hungary', the LISTSERV list 1.8 Hungary@glue.umd.edu, the Hungarian-American list 2. News and discussion groups in Hungarian 2.1 HIX (many groups and services) 2.2 BLA Sajtoszemle [press review] 2.3 "Nemzet" Magyar Internet Vilaglap [Hungarian Internet World Bulletin] 2.4 Other discussion groups 3. Interactive services 3.1 What's available on the World Wide Web 3.2 Gopher and other interactive services 3.3 ARENA 4. The Net in Hungary 4.1 BITNET/HUEARN 4.2 HUNGARNET 4.3 FidoNet 4.4 Finding out somebody's email address 5. Odds and ends 5.1 Traveling with a computer in Hungary 5.2 Conventions for coding Hungarian accents 5.3 Information sources about the rest of Central and Eastern Europe 5.4 Hungarian radio and television broadcasts available worldwide 6. Contributors to this FAQ 7. How to read this FAQ - what's in there < ~!@#$%^&* > - - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- I know this is very long, perhaps too long for human consumption ;-). One of the tasks for further editing is to make it more concise, perhaps drop some parts altogether (I'd like to hear any suggestions). You can search for the section titles listed above and skip what you don't want, and many Unix newsreaders would jump ahead to the next one with Ctrl-G (the format now follows the digest specification)! - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1. NEWS AND DISCUSSION GROUPS IN ENGLISH Note: commercial networks -- such as CompuServe or AOL -- may have their own in-house forums relating to Eastern and Central Europe. Be aware that those are only open to the subscribers of the particular service, unlike the discussion groups accessible by anyone via the Internet and Usenet! This file -- the hungarian-faq -- is mostly concerned with resources freely available netwide. See also the sections under 2. below which list services that carry occasional English material, some regularly, besides their primarily Hungarian language content. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.1 News from the Open Media Research Institute The Open Media Research Institute Daily Digest is available via electronic mail, at no charge. The Digest covers all of the former Soviet Union, East-Central and Southeastern Europe and is delivered in two parts, each roughly 15 kByte in size, Monday through Friday (except Czech holidays). You can subscribe by sending <mailto:LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU>. In the body of the message, type "SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L Yourfirstname Yourlastname" (leave out the quotation marks and be sure to substitute your own name where shown). You can get reposts of just the items related to Hungary by subscribing to Mozaik. See section 1.5. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.2 News from Central Europe Today Central Europe Today On-Line is a free daily news service covering the important events and business news in the region. To subscribe, send the word SUBSCRIBE <mailto:cet-online-request@eunet.cz>. For more detailed information, send a blank email message <mailto:cet-info@eunet.cz>. Again, these exceed Hungary in scope, but you can get excerpts pertaining to Hungary in Mozaik (see 1.4). - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.3 The Hungary Report The Hungary Report is a free weekly English-language online update of news and analysis direct from Budapest each Sunday. The Report consists of briefs, one feature story and an expert political opinion column. The briefs cover the most important and interesting developments in Hungary each week, while the feature stories address variously politics, business, economics, arts and leisure. The weekly political column, Parliament Watch, is written by Tibor Vidos, director of the Budapest office of GJW, a British political lobbying and consulting firm. To subscribe, send <mailto:hungary-report-Request@hungary.yak.net> containing (in the body of the message, not in the headers) the single word "subscribe" (no quotes). Or send the word "info" to the same address for further information. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.4 Hungary Online List (HOL) This discussion list is a "kind of Internet supplement" to the column of the same title in Budapest Business Journal; to subscribe, send the word "subscribe" <mailto:HOL-request@hungary.yak.net> (you'll get help from its Majordomo server, if needed). - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.5 MOZAIK This is actually one of the services of HIX, meaning there's a slight bit of Hungarian mixed in (the posts themselves are mostly in English, but the server speaks Hunglish ;-)). MOZAIK brings you original content (e.g. the schedule of DUNA TV, exchange rates), and digested reposts of those news items (originating from OMRI, CET and other sources) that bear directly on Hungary. You can subscribe by sending a blank email message to <mailto:subs.mozaik@hix.com> and unsubscribe by sending one to <mailto:unsubs.mozaik@hix.com>. See section 3 about searching the HIX archives. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.6 On USENET The Hungarian newsgroup in the worldwide hierarchy is <news:soc.culture.magyar>. It's mostly in English, sometimes bilingual, and occasionally Hungarian only. The group is archived by HIX (see its section for 'SCM') and is also readable under <http://www.hix.com/usenet/>. A similar archive is to be found at <http://mineral.umd.edu/usenet/> (see 1.8 below). For www/e-mail gateways see <http://www.siliconvalley.com/nemzetiforum.html> or the archives mentioned above. Since May 1995 Hungary has its own netnews hierachy, with the following groups created so far (hun.lists.* are email gateways): <news:hun.test> <news:hun.news> <news:hun.piac> <news:hun.comp> <news:hun.general> <news:hun.lists.hix.forum> <news:hun.lists.hix.hunet> <news:hun.lists.hix.moka> <news:hun.lists.hix.otthonka> <news:hun.lists.hix.szalon> <news:hun.lists.hix.tipp> <news:hun.lists.hix.vita> <news:hun.lists.hix.otthon> <news:hun.lists.hix.guru> <news:hun.lists.hix.kornyesz> <news:hun.lists.katalist> If you can connect to a remote news server (typically by setting the NNTPSERVER variable under Unix), then you can get hun.* directly from news.sztaki.hu or news.iif.hu (the former has been more stable lately). Fetching articles is much faster from a local source - ask you system administrator if they can get a feed! In the USA the first provider offering the hierarchy seems to be AltNet, <mailto:info@alt.net> to find out about that. There is a gopher interface to news: <gopher://mars.iif.hu:70/11/News> (the full URL to go straight to the hun.* groups is: <gopher://mars.iif.hu:70/1exec%3A-g%20hun%3A/bin/gonnrp>). For accessing groups in the international hierarchy from abroad via gopher the gateway in the Netherlands may be better: <gopher://g4nn.cca.vu.nl:4320/1g4nn%20group/soc.culture.magyar>. The hun.* groups are also archived by HIX (see its section for 'HUNGROUPS') and they are also readable under <http://www.hix.com/usenet/> as well as <http://mineral.umd.edu/usenet/>. HIX provides a universal posting gateway to the soc.culture.magyar and hun.* newsgroups. Use the addresses: <mailto:group-name-with-dashes@www.hix.com>, for example <mailto:soc-culture-magyar@www.hix.com>. A similar gatewaying service is also available for soc.culture.magyar via <mailto:majordomo@glue.umd.edu> (see 1.8 below), as well as via <mailto:nemzetiforum@magyar.siliconvalley.com> (see also 2.3). There are Hungarian local newsgroups available through <telnet://ludens.elte.hu>, login with username GUEST (no password), and enter NEWS to start the newsreader (you can use the VMS online help to learn about it). The guest account is set up for accessing <news:elte.diaklap> (students' journal at Eotvos U.), but other newsgroups are available as well. (But please be considerate to the strained network resources of Hungarian sites - from abroad for non-local news use other providers.) For ELTE-specific questions contact <mailto:hiik@ludens.elte.hu>. This server is also accessible via remote NNTP like the two mentioned above, but is often much slower than those. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.7 'Hungary', the LISTSERV list HUNGARY@GWUVM is a discussion group providing rapid communication among those with interests in Hungarian issues. Subscribe by <mailto:listserv@gwuvm.gwu.edu> using no subject and a message consisting only of SUBSCRIBE HUNGARY Yourfirstname Lastname. Once you have subscribed, any messages which you want to send to the group should be sent to the group address, <mailto:hungary@gwuvm.gwu.edu>. (This pattern of two addresses is standard: you turn your mail off and on at the "listserv" address, and you send mail to the listname address. For example, to unsubscribe, send the server the message SIGNOFF HUNGARY. You can temporarily turn off you mail by sending listserv the message SET HUNGARY NOMAIL. SET HUNGARY MAIL turns mail back on.) By default the listserv sends out messages as they arrive, maybe several ones on busier days. If you prefer daily digest format, you can issue the command SET HUNGARY DIGESTS (again by sending it to the LISTSERV address); alternatively you can subscribe to HUNGARY via HIX as mentioned in 2.1, and receive the same format as the other lists by HIX. LISTSERV has many useful features, most notably database search on the list archives - to learn more about it, send commands like SEND HELP, SEND HELP DATABASE. Note that the form of addressing LISTSERV lists such as Hungary may depend a great deal on your local network configuration and mailer software. For BITNET mailers you need GWUVM only; the local gatewaying to BITNET may be BITNET% for VAXMail installations and LISTSERV@GWUVM.BITNET at other places. Ask your local network administrator first if you're experiencing problems. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 1.8 Hungary@Glue.umd.edu, the Hungarian-American list The Hungarian-American List is an unmoderated discussion forum to promote communications between people with interest in modern Hungarian culture and Hungarian cultural heritage. The list brings you, among other things, news items originating from OMRI, CET, the Hungarian media and several other sources, that might be of interest for Hungarians and Americans. The WWW Home Page of the Hungarian-American list is <http://mineral.umd.edu/hungary/>. Subscribe by <mailto:majordomo@glue.umd.edu>, using no subject and a message consisting only of SUBSCRIBE HUNGARY. The Hungarian Usenet group - soc.culture.magyar is available for Hungarian-American List subscribers via email. You can subscribe to this news-to-mail-to-news service by <mailto:majordomo@glue.umd.edu>, using no Subject, in the body of the letter write SUBSCRIBE SOC-CULTURE-MAGYAR. The WWW address of the interactive soc.culture.magyar archive is <http://mineral.umd.edu/soc.culture.magyar/>. (Notice that this Maryland-based list is distinct from the older LISTSERV list mentioned in 1.7 that has a broader focus - mentioning 'the HUNGARY list' ususally refers to that latter one! Note also that the Majordomo server syntax is different from LISTSERV for many of their commands - see the help document sent by the server.) - - ------------------------------ Subject: 2. NEWS AND DISCUSSION GROUPS IN HUNGARIAN - - ------------------------------ Subject: 2.1 HIX HIX, or Hollosi Information eXchange, is a non-profit formation run and supported by several individuals and organizations. HIX was started in 1989/90 and now it reaches more than 10,000 readers in about 45 countries around the World. Its services, mostly in Hungarian, are abundant and change frequently, so it is best to obtain an up-to-date help file by sending an email message to <mailto:help@hix.com> (a recent copy of that also seems to be in <http://www.hix.com/hix/hixcore/senddoc/MAIN/HELP.ALL> - but please notice that there are superseded copies scattered in other parts in the archive on the one hand, and many of the other files in this same directory are outdated on the other hand; most notably, DO NOT TOUCH that ancient version of hungarian-faq found there!). Here's a list of what it currently offers in email digest format: HIR -- 'Hirmondo', current newspaper survey edited in Budapest NARANCS -- The Internet edition of the 'Magyar Narancs' weekly TIPP -- politics-free questions, tips etc. SZALON -- moderated political discussion forum FORUM -- unmoderated political discussion forum GURU -- computer-related questions RANDI -- moderated personals; anonymous submissions possible VITA -- moderated non-political discussion forum OTTHON -- issues around the home MOKA -- jokes, humor (Hungarian and other) MOZAIK -- semi-regular bits of news and other info, mostly in English, crossposts from the OMRI list, VoA gopher, CET and other sources HUNGARY -- daily digest of the Hungary LISTSERV list (see 1.7) SCM -- gatewayed email digest of the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.magyar The following is not available for email subscription from Hungary, but are accessible via the SENDDOC interface (or the 'finger new@hix.mit.com' service for the latest issues): HUNGROUPS - gatewayed email digest of the hun.* regional newsgroups Note that KEP (transcripts from the videotext news from Hungarian Television's Kepujsag) has been suspended indefinitely - despite what HIX' own HELP says. To subscribe (unsubscribe) to a particular email-journal, send email to subs.NAME@hix.com (unsubs.NAME@hix.com) where NAME is one of the above. The postings for the HIX discussion lists are sent out daily in digested form. You can send your own submission to NAME@hix.com, whatever NAME is (provided it's actually a discussion list). The volume for some of these lists is becoming rather high, e.g. TIPP often digests dozens of messages in hundreds of lines daily! You ought to try targeting your audience properly in order to find those who'd help with your questions; also keep in mind that readers often answer to the list rather than the individual even when personal reply is requested, so if you ask something it's a good idea to subscribe also (even though technically it's not required) instead of just addressing a list as a non-subscriber. A reminder to those who reply to a post: always remember that list messages get sent to several thousand readers, so consider personal email if the subject is not of general interest! If you answer through a list it's courteous to send a personal copy (Cc: with most mailers) as well - this may reach the addressee considerably earlier than the post distributed through the list. Notice the (undocumented) feature of the HIX mail-server: it only accepts submissions if its address is found in the 'To:' header field! It would quietly ignore incoming email Cc-d to it, so do not put the <name>@hix.com in the 'Cc:' (you can do so with other addressees). The HIX server can also send out archived files, see the SENDDOC function in its description. In case you have any problems or questions on the HIX services, please read through the automatic help response first. If you need human intervention you can reach <mailto:supervisor@hix.com> - but keep in mind that list managers have to do plenty other than answering things already laid out in the Fine Manual. You can also view the output of HIX interactively. See section 3. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 2.2 BLA Sajtoszemle Daily selection of articles from leading Hungarian newspapers by the Lajos Batthyany Foundation, published by the Hungary.Network. To subscribe (unsubscribe), send email to <mailto:subs.bla@hungary.com> (<mailto:unsubs.bla@hungary.com>). Also available in 123 accent notations from the <mailto:subs.bla1@hungary.com> address. It is also readable on the WWW under <http://www.hungary.com/bla/sajto/>. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 2.3 Nemzet Magyar Internet Vilaglap [Hungarian Internet World Bulletin] [This section is as provided by <mailto:joseph_toth@magyar.siliconvalley.com>] (1) (E-mail news bulletins) "Nemzet" Magyar Internet Vilaglap E-mail news digest, Mon-Fri, 25-55k. Comprises East-European regional news (by OMRI, in English), excerpts from Hungarian press (in Hungarian), and reports on newsworthy items (press, events, etc., mostly in Hungarian and occasionally in English) Subscription/Unsubscription: subs.nemzet@magyar.siliconvalley.com unsubs.nemzet@magyar.siliconvalley.com www: http://www.siliconvalley.com/nemzet.html Publisher and Editor in Chief: joseph_toth@magyar.siliconvalley.com (2) (usenet e-mail digest) "Nemzetiforum" Digest of "Soc.Culture.Magyar" by means of e-mail bulletin, filtering out all lists and postings beyond size 8k. Subscription/Unsubscription: nemzetiforum.subs@magyar.siliconvalley.com nemzetiforum.unsubs@magyar.siliconvalley.com www: http://www.siliconvalley.com/nemzetiforum.html Publisher and Editor in Chief: joseph_toth@magyar.siliconvalley.com (3) (www/e-mail gateway) E-mail message is acknowledged and posted to "Soc.Culture.Magyar", with your address and your subject-definition. Simply send contributions to nemzetiforum@magyar.siliconvalley.com Gateway maintained under direction of: joseph_toth@magyar.siliconvalley.com (5) Hungarian Papers on WWW (liberal to conservative) (a) 168 ORA http://www.atm.com.pl/COM/xlori/168/ora.html (b) KELET-MAGYARORSZAG http://www.bgytf.hu/public/keletm/ (c) UJVIDEKI NAPLO http://www.mediarange.com/media/huncor/organ/naplo/naplo.htm (d) DEMOKRATA http://www.siliconvalley.com/demokrata/ (e) NEMZET http://www.siliconvalley.com/nemzet.html (f) MAGYAR ELET http://www.mediarange.com/media/huncor/organ/magyarel/hunlife.htm (g) 24. ORA http://www.infobahnos.com/~jtoth/ - - ------------------------------ Subject: 2.4 Other discussion groups in Hungarian A number of email lists are available from servers located in Hungary, for directory see <gopher://HUEARN.sztaki.hu>. There are many college publications available online as well, check out the links from the HU homepage (see below). - - ------------------------------ Subject: 3. INTERACTIVE SERVICES If you are using Hungarian interactive services from abroad (or vice versa): please note that interactive Internet connections like WWW may be very slow, even timing out during peak hours - try times of lower network load when the response time is usually reasonable. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 3.1 What's available on the World Wide Web See the separate document "Hungarian WWW information FAQ", available at <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/web> as well as in the Usenet archives. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2 Gopher and other interactive services HIX has a server in the USA: <gopher://www.hix.com>. Its services form just a subset of what it offers as a WWW site. RaDir is sometimes useful for finding email-addresses, old or new friends on the Net. See also Section 4.4. HIX has a gopher in Hungary as well: <gopher://hix.elte.hu/11/HIX/HIX>, and another mirror at <gopher://gopher.bke.hu:71/11/hix> (notice that this latter uses a non-standard Gopher port number). Check also <gopher://gopher.elte.hu> and <gopher://gopher.sztaki.hu>. Note that gopher is essentially text-based (thus less satisfying than the Web) but often faster (therefore less frustrating). CET's gopher is called <gopher://gopher.eunet.cz>. HIX documents from the archives of www.hix.com are available via the (Unix) 'finger' protocol. Try 'finger info@www.hix.com' to see how it works. This may be the easiest and fastest access from some sites. There is an electronic library at <gopher://gopher.bke.hu:71/11/elibhu/> (notice the non-standard port) that has much Hungarian text material, including some classical poetry. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 3.3 ARENA An interactive chat service of HIX, run by the Hungary.Network. Similar to IRC, but it does NOT require any client software. Simply <telnet:hix.hungary.com> and you are there. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 4. THE NET IN HUNGARY Overview: historically, ELLA was the first home-grown X.25 email-system in Hungary. It survives till this very day. EARN was next, with its BITNET-like infrastructure (4.1). Full Internet connectivity is provided by HUNGARNET (see 4.2), which really comprises all academic, research and public non-profit sites. Here's a partial list of its domain names: bme.hu Technical University of Budapest sztaki.hu Computer and Automation Research Institute, Budapest elte.hu Roland Eotvos University of Sciences, Budapest bke.hu Budapest University of Economic Sciences sote.hu Semmelweis University of Medical Sciences, Budapest abc.hu Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Godollo gau.hu Godollo Agricultural University, Godollo klte.hu Kossuth Lajos University of Sciences, Debrecen jpte.hu Janus Pannonius University of Sciences, Pecs u-szeged.hu Members of the Szeged University Association bgytf.hu Gyorgy Bessenyei Teachers Training College uni-miskolc.hu University of Miskolc kfki.hu Central research Inst. of Physics, Budapest vein.hu University of Veszprem, Veszprem bdtf.hu Berzsenyi College, Szombathely szif.hu Szechenyi Istvan College, Gyor blki.hu Balaton Limnological Res. Inst. of Hung. Acad. Sci. A schematic map of its topology ('HBONE'): EBONE EMPB EMPB EBONE ^ ^ ^ ^ | | | | | | Microwave center ======= IIF Center ------- Miskolci Egyetem | | Budapest / Budapest Miskolc | | // || \\ / // | | | // || MTA-KFKI / // L--------------- BGYTF | | // MBK Budapest // | Nyiregyhaza | | // Godollo // | | BME MTA-SzTAKI// L--------------- KLTE | Budapest ########## Budapest | Debrecen | *** | | *** L--------------- GAMF L------BKE | Kecskemet Budapest | # \ L---------- Veszpremi Egyetem # \ | Veszprem ELTE \ | Budapest JATE L--------------- JPTE Szeged Pecs LEGEND *** 100 Mbps FDDI # 10 Mbps optical cable (Ethernet) = 2 Mbps microwave | 64 kbps leased line (that's 0.064 Mbps) Source: HUNGARNET/NIIF (URL <http://www.iif.hu/hungarnet.html>) FidoNet is described in section 4.3, and commercial networks/email/Internet Providers demand a separate document ('commercial.FAQ'), also see <http://www.sztaki.hu/providers/>. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 4.1 BITNET/HUEARN What follows is a listing of all EARN nodes in Hungary, with contact info. This information is also available on the following gopher: <gopher://cc1.kuleuven.ac.be/11/nodeearn/hungary.helpnode>. HUBIIF11 IIF Department Budapest, Hungary IIF;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Internet address : hubiif11.sztaki.hu User Info: Sandor Aranyi;IB001ARA@HUEARN;+36 1 1497984 Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUBIIF61 IIF Department Budapest, Hungary IIF;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Internet address : mars.iif.hu User Info: Istvan Polakovics;polakovi@mars.iif.hu;+36 1 1665644 Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUBME11 Technical University of Budapest Technical University;of Budapest;Muegyetem rkp 9. R. ep;H-1111 Budapest, Hungary Internet address : atlantis.bme.hu User Info: Sandor Kovacs;postmast@HUBME11;+36 1 4632422 Fax : +36 1 1665711 HUBME51 Technical University of Budapest Technical University;Muegytem Rakpart 9;H-1111 Budapest Internet address : bmeik.eik.bme.hu User Info: Laszlo Fekete;FEKETE@HUBME51;+36 1 1812172 Phone : +36 1 1812172 ; Fax : +36 1 1166711 HUBPSZ12 Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Internet address : hubpsz12.sztaki.hu ; User Info: Sandor Aranyi;IB001ARA@HUEARN;+36 1 1497984 Phone : +36 1 1497984 ; Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUBPSZ61 Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Net Operator: Sandor Aranyi;IB001ARA@HUEARN;+36 1 1497986 HUBPSZ62 Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Lagymanyosi ut 11;1111 Budapest Net Operator: Sandor Aranyi;IB001ARA@HUEARN;+36 1 1497986 Phone : +36 1 2698283 ; Fax : +36 1 2698288 HUEARN Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Internet address : huearn.sztaki.hu ; User Info: Miklos Pasztor;EARN@HUEARN;+36 1 2698286 Phone : +36 1 2698283 ; Fax : +36 1 2698288 HUECO University of Economic Sciences Budapest, Hungary University of Economic Sci;Computer Center;Kinizsi u 1-7;1092 Budapest Internet address : ursus.bke.hu ; User Info: Robert Vari;KSZK002@HUECO;+36 1 1175224 Phone : +36 1 1181317 ; Fax : +36 1 1175224 HUELLA Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Node admin: Gizella Raba;h1006pos@huella;+36 1 1497986 Phone : +36 1 1497984 ; Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUGBOX Computer and Automation Institute Budapest, Hungary Computer and Automation Inst;Hungarian Academy of Sciences;Victor Hugo 18-22;1132 Budapest Internet address : hugbox.sztaki.hu ; User Info: Miklos Pasztor;PASZTOR@HUGBOX;+36 1 1497532 Phone : +36 1 1497532 ; Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUGIRK51 University of Agriculture Sciences University of Agriculture;Pater Karoly ut 1;H-2103 Godollo Internet address : vax.gau.hu ; User Info: Zoltan Toth;PYMPO@HUGIRK51;+36 28 30200 -1015 Phone : +36 28 30200 -1015 ; Fax : +36 28 20804 HUKLTEDR Kossuth Lajos University Debrecen, Hungary Internet address : dragon.klte.hu ; User Info: Robert Nemkin;buci@dragon.klte.hu HUKLTE51 Kossuth Lajos University, Debrecen Kossuth Lajos University;Egyetem Ter 1; PF. 58;H-4010 Debrecen Internet address : huni7.cic.klte.hu ; User Info: Zoltan Gal;ZGAL@HUKLTE51;+36 52 18800 Phone : +36 52 18800 ; Fax : +36 52 16783 HUSOTE51 University of Medical Science Budapest, Hungary University of Medical Science;SOTE;Ulloi u. 26.;1085 Budapest Internet address : janus.sote.hu ; User Info: Gabor Magyar;maggab@husote51;+36 1 1141705 Phone : +36 1 1141705 ; Fax : +36 1 1297866 HUSZEG11 Jozsef Attila University, Szeged, Hungary Jozsef Attila University;Computer Centre;Arpad ter 2.;H-6720 Szeged;Hungary User Info: Ferenc Scherer;J20I0SF@HUSZEG11;+36 62 321022 Miklos Csuri;J20I0CM@HUSZEG11;+36 Phone : +36 62 321022 ; Fax : +36 62 322227 - - ------------------------------ Subject: 4.2 HUNGARIAN ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH NETWORK (HUNGARNET) This information is also available on <http://www.ripe.net/ripe/hungarnet.html>. Organisational Structure: HUNGARNET is an association and also the computer network of Hungarian institutes of higher education, research and development, libraries and other public collections. HUNGARNET funding comes from the R&D Information Infrastructure Program (IIF) sponsored by the Hungarian Academy of Science, the National Committee of Technological Development, the Ministry for Culture and Education and the National Science Foundation. About 500 organizations have access to HUNGARNET services. HUNGARNET as an association represents Hungary in international networking organizations (e.g. TERENA). Generic Services: HUNGARNET provides access to the Internet and several other national network services over leased lines and the public packet switched data network. Lot of different services (e.g. gopher, ftp, WWW, data bases) provided by member organizations are available on the net. Centrally supported and coordinated services are: - email (internet SMPT, EARN BSMTP, OSI X.400, UUCP, XXX ELLA) - email gateways between the different email systems above - distribution services (LISTSERV, news) - information services (ftp, gopher, WWW servers, data bases) - directory services (X.500) - individual accounts and login External Connectivity: HUNGARNET is subscriber to EBONE and EMPB/EuropaNET as well. There are two 64 kbps leased lines to EBONE (Vienna EBS). These two lines should be upgraded to a single 256 kbps line in the near future. HUNGARNET uses two 64 kbps interfaces on the EMPB/EuropaNET node in Budapest as well. These two interfaces should also be upgraded to a single 256 kbps interface very soon. Internal Connectivity: Internal connectivity of HUNGARNET is based partly on the public X.25 service of the Hungarian PTT and partly on the community's private IP backbone network (HBONE). The kernel of the HBONE infrastructure is in Budapest, where several important organizations are connected in different ways (64-256 kbps leased lines, 1-2 Mbps microwave links, 10 Mbps optical Ethernet, 100 Mbps FDDI). Several cities (regional centers) in the country are also connected to the network via 64 kbps leased lines (Miskolc, Nyiregyhaza, Debrecen, Kecskemet, Szeged, Pecs, Veszprem) and 2 Mbps microwave (Godollo). Now there are about 50 organizations directly connected to the backbone and about 50 others using IP over X.25. The number of the registered, connected hosts is about ten thousand. There is an ongoing development, new regional centers (Kaposvar, Keszthely, Szombathely, Sopron, Gyor) and several organizations in Budapest will be connected subsequently. Many users do not have IP connectivity yet but are connected to the public X.25 network. There are several services (e.g. individual login, mail, gopher, news) that are open for traditional XXX/X.25 access. Contact Persons: Miklos NAGY <mailto:h11nag@ella.hu> - head of the HUNGARNET/IIF coordination office Laszlo CSABA <mailto:h26csa@ella.hu> - HUNGARNET/IIF technical director Balazs MARTOS <mailto:martos@sztaki.hu> - HBONE project manager Nandor HORVATH <mailto:horvath@sztaki.hu> - Local Internet Registry, .hu top level domain contact IP address and domain administration: <mailto:hostmaster@sztaki.hu> Network management: <mailto:net-admin@sztaki.hu> - - ------------------------------ Subject: 4.3 FidoNet FidoNet connects through sztaki.hu, as indicated above. There are three FidoNet nodes: Budapest NET (2:371/0); West Hungary Net (2:372/0); and Tisza NET (2:370/0). If you want to write on the FidoNet, chances are you already know how. *PLEASE* find out what you are about to do instead of experimenting with the Hungarian net - don't add to the problems for the folks in Hungary having to deal with the underdeveloped phone system and outrageous international tolls ;-<. For further information I post a Fido-sheet separately from this FAQ, where there are also telephone numbers and further addresses, but again: try to verify that you are mailing to a valid address (the BBS situation may have changed since the copy you are reading got updated - look for current FIDO listing on the net, or better yet contact the person you want to reach by other means first)!. If you can send Internet email and have the FidoNet address, you can write to it by transforming it to appropriate .FIDONET.ORG format. Fidonet mail works with Hungarian BBS's but you have to know whom to reach. I will attempt to maintain a separate Fido posting to Usenet; please try to make sure you email to a valid address and in particular avoid using outdated sources on Hungarian BBS's (otherwise your misdirected trial will burden the Hungarian network coordinator!). - - ------------------------------ Subject: 4.4 Finding out somebody's email-address in Hungary The bigger academic domains have on-line directories (CSO phonebooks): Technical University, Budapest gopher://goliat.eik.bme.hu/11/engl/tel-adat/hazi-tele Budapest University of Economic Sciences* gopher://URSUS.BKE.HU:71/11/kozgaz/telefon (*under construction) Semmelweis University of Medical Sciences, Budapest <gopher://xenia.sote.hu:105/2> Central Research Inst. of Physics, Budapest <gopher://sunserv.kfki.hu:105/2> Members of the Szeged University Association <gopher://sol.cc.u-szeged.hu:105/2> Janus Pannonius University of Sciences, Pecs <gopher://ipiux.jpte.hu:1051/2> <http://ipisun.jpte.hu/cgi-bin/ph.pl> University of Veszprem <gopher://miat0.vein.hu:105/2> ELLA also has an on-line directory: <telnet://hugbox.sztaki.hu:203> (i.e. address a special port). Note that the opening screen uses special characters for the accented letters but the data records have combinations of vowel plus ',: or " instead (i.e. searching for hollo'si would retrieve a record, but hollosi won't)! If the person has registered him/herself with the RaDir database of HIX, you might try the following (note, however, that most parts of RaDir are badly out of date): - by <gopher://www.hix.com/11/HIX/radir> (a link to the same is offered by <http://www.hix.com/hix/> on the World Wide Web); from inside Hungary use <gopher://hix.elte.hu/11/HIX/HIX/radir>, or <http://hal9000.elte.hu/hix/radir.html> (this last one is a true HTML search form)). Under RaDir, you'll find the entire database cross-indexed by search keys. - by 'finger +whois:"SEARCHWORD"@www.hix.com' you can look up records containing "SEARCHWORD" string in the database - by email: send a blank message <mailto:radir@hix.com>. You'll receive, in several chunks, the entire database of users, their electronic and snail-mail addresses, etc. You'll need a decent editor to search what you're looking for. If you have some idea what institution to check at, you may find an online directory service -- many are available, and could be reached through the Hungarian gophers (or WWW sites) mentioned in section 3. Try contacting the (electronic) postmaster, usually postmaster@site.domain.name, or using 'finger' to inquire about users. As a last resort, send in your query to a discussion group. Readers of <news:soc.culture.magyar>, <mailto:HUNGARY@gwuvm.gwu.edu> discussion list (section 1.7), or some HIX-list (<mailto:tipp@hix.com> in particular, see 2.1) may be able to help. Be aware, though, that most participants are located abroad - especially in the case of the Usenet group! - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5. ODDS AND ENDS - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.1 Traveling with a computer in Hungary The electricity is 220 V, 50 Hz. The frequency, in fact, fluctuates a lot, but it doesn't cause any problem when operating computer devices. (Don't trust too much your plug-in clock radios though.) If you are from any country running on 110 V or around, due to complications in voltage conversion, a battery driven laptop or notebook is your best bet. However, if you decide to take your desktop system, printer, etc., you have a good chance that the device can also be operated on 220 V. Check it first before you go through unnecessary trouble. If not, you have to apply 220 V to 110 V AC converters (you might need more than one; check the power ratings of your devices & converters). WARNING! Your converters should be designed for *electronic/motorized devices*. Refuse any converter for *heating appliances* even if its power rating is much higher! These converters are not real transformers, and can cause major damages to your electronic devices. Also make sure you are able to connect to the Hungarian grounded power outlet, because that's what's recommended for your appliances. Therefore you should try to find grounded plug adapters and/or voltage converters. Connecting to ungrounded outlets causes possibly no harm, but for your own & your devices' safety grounded connections should be preferred. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2 Conventions & standards for coding Hungarian accents - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.0 Introduction & section overview During the evolution of teletypes and computers, two character tables survived, acquiring major importance in later computer systems. One is EBCDIC, primarily used in ancient IBM mainframes. The other one, ASCII, can be considered today's ubiquitous standard in computing worldwide. The rest of this section, therefore, pays attention to ASCII code, very unfairly ignoring EBCDIC, since none of the accent conversion programs support neither this code table nor the CMS environment. Since the language of computing has been English from the beginning, the original ASCII table was limited to the characters used in English: letters of the Latin alphabet, a few punctuation marks and some other special symbols. Since the number of all these characters, plus the unprintable "control" characters (located in the first 32 positions of the ASCII table, responsible for different control functions) doesn't exceed 128, the real 'brilliant' idea of representing the ASCII table in 7 bits spread like wild fire all over the computer world. No wonder, that most of the Internet mailers and Usenet hubs are also set up to forward documents in 7-bit ASCII only. (Read the rest of the section carefully to learn how to overcome these problems.) As computing and word processing started to rise up in the rest of the world, there was an increasing demand to represent these national characters as well. (A good example is Hungarian. The extra consonants [nonexistent in English] are formed by merely juxtaposing 2 (or 3 in case of dzs) regular Latin characters; so there is no problem here. However, the special vowels of the language are denoted by applying different accents on the Latin 'base-vowel', introducing new characters, the so called accented vowels.) It's an obvious idea to place these national characters and other fancy symbols utilizing codes 128 to 255, still remaining within the byte limit. Different character sets have been created by defining purpose- or language-specific characters for the upper half of the table, while keeping the 7-bit ASCII codes unchanged. (Note: Some character sets also re-use codes between 0 and 31, the domain of ASCII control characters, keeping some, or none of them. Using these codes, however, is pretty difficult, device- and implementation-dependent, etc. Therefore it wouldn't be wise to put accented characters here, but fortunately none of the sets listed below did it actually.) Hopefully Unicode will ultimately stop this confusion, but until then there's a long long way to go. At this point let's clarify the terminology: .. ASCII (also 7-bit or plain ASCII) data: Usually text (but not necessarily, see 5.2.5.1.), containing only 7-bit ASCII characters, including the control ones. .. 8-bit (extended) ASCII data: Text containing the uniform 7-bit ASCII characters, plus special characters (with code greater than 127) according to one of the 8-bit character sets. .. Binary data: Non-text data (executables, pictures, etc.) containing any 8-bit value. The different kludges accepted by Internet users to denote accented vowels in 7-bit ASCII are described in 5.2.1. The most important extended ASCII character sets are introduced in 5.2.2. 5.2.3 shows the accented character representations used by high-level formatting languages. The correct ways of transferring files among word processor [on the Net] are detailed in 5.2.4. If the data to be transferred is not 7-bit ASCII, 5.2.5 tells you what to do. Last, but not least, 5.2.6 introduces the programs in the HIX archives (and mentions some others) that address the problem of conversion between the various types of accent representation. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.1 House rules for plain (7-bit) ASCII If you are limited to the use of 7-bit ASCII, you have essentially the following choices to deal with the accented characters: 5.2.1.0 No accent marks at all Simple and sure-fire. In fact, the most common 'solution'. 5.2.1.1 The '~" coding (also called "marking notation" or "Babai-code") [Sometimes nicknamed as _repu~lo"_.] Here's a sample: O~t hu"to"ha'zbo'l ke'rtu~nk szi'nhu'st a'rvi'ztu"ro" tu~ko~rfu'ro'ge'p O~t sze'p szu"zla'ny o"ru~lt i'ro't nyu'z or, in the alternative ':" _repu:lo"_ format: O:t hu"to"ha'zbo'l ke'rtu:nk szi'nhu'st a'rvi'ztu"ro" tu:ko:rfu'ro'ge'p O:t sze'p szu"zla'ny o"ru:lt i'ro't nyu'z Quite readable, though a bit tricky to disambiguate mechanically: remember, the " or : or ' may also serve as punctuation marks. (This problem can be handled using Maxent's escaping capabilities, see 5.2.6.6.) Warning! Don't get confused: in TeX (see 5.2.3.1) " denotes umlaut! 5.2.1.2 The 123 coding (also "numerical notation" or "Pro1sze1ky-code") Here's the same text: O2t hu3to3ha1zbo1l ke1rtu2nk szi1nhu1st a1rvi1ztu3ro3 tu2ko2rfu1ro1ge1p O2t sze1p szu3zla1ny o3ru2lt i1ro1t nyu1z The only one that's both short and unambiguous, though it takes some getting used to. 1 stands for the stroke, 2 for the short umlaut, 3 for the 'Hungarian' or long umlaut (double acute). Very easily converted to other formats. (Also can be ambiguous, though with much smaller probability. E.g. U2, CO2, u21591@uicvm.uic.edu, etc.) 5.2.1.3 Telegraphic style. For example, Oet huetoehaazbool keertuenk sziinhuust aarviiztueroe tuekoerfuuroogeep Oet szeep szuezlaany oeruelt iiroot nyuuz Avoid it like the plague because 1. It's ambiguous. (Think of Goethe, Oetker, Eoersi, Csooori, poeen.) 2. Coding of o" & u" (o3 & u3) is not consistent: u3 = ue (fallback to u2), uue, uee, ueue 3. Absolutely not a pleasure to read. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.2 Fancy 8-bit character sets (extended ASCII) The following rollcall lists the most important character sets supported by the majority of hardware and software, including the accent conversion programs. The available Hungarian accented characters are detailed for each set. Notes: Henceforth when referring to an accented character, the numerical (Pro1sze1ki) notation will be used to maintain clarity. 5.2.2.1 PC-codepages (*) PC-437: Hardware The basic hardware character set of PC-compatible systems. Since it was supposed to contain many symbols (line drawing characters, some Greek letters, etc.), and be general, it's pretty poor in terms of accented characters. Missing Hungarian vowels: o3, u3 [substitute them with o^ & u^], A1 [substitute it with A-circle], I1, O1, O3, U1, U3. (*) CWI recommendation for Hungarian accents: A standard initiative to replace the many house rules of character code assignment for accents unavailable in PC-437. Codes are assigned as follows: o3->147 [o^], u3->150 [u^], A1->143, I1->141 [i`] or 140 [I^], O1->149 [o`], O3->167, U1->151 [u`], U3->153 [y~] (*) PC-850: Multilingual Contains all the accented vowels but ?3. Substitute them with ?^. Note: ? means o, u, O or U. (*) PC-852: Latin 2 Contains all the accented vowels. Try to use this if available. (*) PC-860: Portuguese (*) PC-863: Canadian-French (*) PC-865: Nordic These sets miss various Hungarian accents, esp. in upper case. Using them for a Hungarian text makes absolutely no sense. 5.2.2.2 ISO character sets These character sets are specified by ISO standards. As far as ALL (not only Hungarian) accented vowels concerned, ISO 8859/1, 2 & 9 is equivalent to Windows Latin 1, 2 & 5 respectively. (*) ISO 8859/1: (*) ISO 8859/3: Contain all the accented vowels but ?3. Substitute them with ?^. (*) ISO 8859/2: Contains all the accented vowels. Try to use this if available. Fonts for iso-8859-2 (and some other) character sets can be found at <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/font/> for various operation systems, and at <ftp://almos.vein.hu/ssa/kbd_es_font/> (mirrored at <ftp://ftp.vma.bme.hu/pub/ssa/kbd_es_font/> and <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/ssa/kbd_es_font/>) mostly for Unix. There is material for Hungarianizing the Linux (and possibly other Unix variant) operation system at <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/magyar/linux/>. 5.2.2.3 Others The following character sets are supported by various laser printers. Roman-8 bears special importance as being the default character set of many printers. (*) Ventura International & Roman-8: (*) MC Text: Contain all the accented vowels but ?3. Substitute them with ?^. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.3 Text formatting languages The text formatting languages listed below, beyond their powerful text formatting capabilities, also include the specification of [almost] all the accented characters. These languages give an alternative way of dealing with accents in 7-bit ASCII, especially if the software that can display, print or convert these representations is available. [Unlike notations in 5.2.1, the "raw" files of these languages are not intended to be read by ordinary users.] 5.2.3.1 [La]TeX. Invented by D. E. Knuth, TeX (pronounce as [tech]; 'X' denotes the Greek letter 'chi'), and the macro collection based on it, LaTeX, are today's most popular text formatting languages for document creation and DTP. To continue with the same example, \"{O}t h\H{u}t\H{o}h\'{a}zb\'{o}l k\'{e}rt\"{u}nk sz\'{\i}nh\'{u}st \'{a}rv\'{\i}zt\H{u}r\H{o} t\"{u}k\"{o}rf\'{u}r\'{o}g\'{e}p \"{O}t sz\'{e}p sz\H{u}zl\'{a}ny \H{o}r\"{u}lt \'{i}r\'{o}t ny\'{u}z This is meant to be printed with TeX or previewed as a dvi file. Wholly unambiguous, can be automatically converted to/from several other formats (see 5.2.6). Also check the babel system for LaTeX with the Hungarian specific option, available from FTP sites kth.se or goya.dit.upm.es. 5.2.3.2 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) Unfortunately, the HTML-2 standard still does not contain notation for Hungarumlaut (long umlaut, double acute). We use tilde or circumflex instead. The preferred notation is o with tilde &otilde; and u with circumflex &ucirc;. In the example above, &Ouml;t h&ucirc;t&otilde;h&aacute;zb&oacute;l k&eacute;rt&uuml;nk sz&iacute;nh&uacute;st &aacute;rv&iacute;zt&ucirc;r&otilde; t&uuml;k&ouml;rf&uacute;r&oacute;g&eacute;p &Ouml;t sz&eacute;p sz&ucirc;zl&aacute;ny &otilde;r&uuml;lt &iacute;r&oacute;t ny&uacute;z 5.2.3.3 RTF (Rich Text Format) This standard is widespread among Microsoft word processors. For non-ASCII characters it uses the following coding: \'XX where XX is the code of the given ISO 8859/2 (or PC-852 for Word for DOS) character in hexadecimal. 5.2.3.4 Adobe PostScript It is a universal standard for describing any kind of graphics, including fonts, but it is aimed at producing the final (typically printed) copy of documents and not at word-processing per se. For a starter document see <http://www.adobe.com/PS/PS-QA.html> or <ftp://wilma.cs.brown.edu/pub/comp.lang.postscript/FAQ.txt> or <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/comp.answers/postscript/faq/part1-4>. If one has the right accented fonts sets then, in theory, the output is transferable between different machines - but often we run into hurdles in practice. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.4 Microcomputer products: The word processors Different word processors on different microcomputers use several proprietary internal control sequences to handle accented characters, as much as other symbols, and other text formatting commands. If you want to transfer a document like this, you have to convert this [very probably] binary file (8-bit ASCII with all kinds of binary crap) to text (7-bit ASCII), see 5.2.5.1, unless your mailer can handle binary directly, see 5.2.5.2. Make sure, however, that the recipient of your document also possesses the same or equivalent word processor, or a word processor supporting the format you used. It might happen that you want to use your document in another word processing system, or a plain text editor. Today's word processors offer conversion to a few formats, and also pure text with different character sets (5.2.2). The resulting file, if necessary, can be converted further to 7-bit ASCII as shown in 5.2.6. (The output is already 7-bit ASCII in Microsoft's RTF, see 5.2.3.3.) - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.5 Switching binary to ASCII and vice versa 5.2.5.1 Uuencode & uudecode The easiest and most popular way of conversion between binary and ASCII is the use of the twin sisters uuencode and uudecode. These programs were created originally for Unix ('uu' stands for Unix to Unix), but today they are implemented under most platforms. Uuencode makes an ASCII file out of a binary one, forming 61 character long lines to avoid problems excessively long lines can cause in the different mailer agents. This conversion increases the size of the file by 40%. Warning! Understand the really goofy usage of uuencode. The parameters specify the local & remote BINARY filenames respectively. The encoded ASCII result is sent to the standard output, it has to be redirected into a file explicitly. (E.g. uuencode myface.gif myface.gif > myface.uue ) Uudecode converts the encoded ASCII file back to binary. It is smart: using the "begin" and "end" tags placed in the encoded file, uudecode is able to retrieve the encoded information automatically discarding everything before and after the tags (headers, signatures, other junk), even if it's inserted in the middle of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Its usage is also simple: only the input filename has to be specified; the original filename is restored from the "begin" tag. (E.g. uudecode yourface.mal ) 5.2.5.2 MIME support Many modern mailers support the MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) standard being able to transfer different file formats beyond plain text. In this case the ASCII/binary conversion is the mailer's internal affair. Some mailers make explicit calls to uuencode and uudecode, some others (e.g. PINE) have different built in conversion algorithms, trying to choose the most appropriate one for the given binary file. (One type of MIME encoding substitutes an unprintable character by its code in hexadecimal, preceded by an = sign. That's why you often see them splattered around.) In either case, however, the user is not responsible for the conversion, the mailer takes care of it automatically. 5.2.5.3 Binhex BinHex files are 7-bit ASCII text files, typically used for encoding Macintosh binaries. Conversion is done by various applications, see eg. <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/comp.answers/macintosh/general-faq>. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2.6 Translating between various accent formats From the HIX archives (see section 3) the following programs are available. The regular location is <http://www.hix.com/hix/hixcore/senddoc/info/programs/>, though you should also check <http://www.hix.com/hix/hixcore/senddoc/new/> for updates. At the time of this writing the SENDDOC archive is extremely ill-organized and outdated in many parts, including, unfortunately, the 'new' directory. Warning! From abroad always access the HIX archives via <http://www.hix.com/hix/hixcore/senddoc/>, <gopher://www.hix.com/11/HIX/senddoc>, <mailto:senddoc@www.hix.com>, or 'finger senddoc@www.hix.com' (the latter only works for text, and you may have to redirect it to a pager or file). The mirror at <gopher://hix.elte.hu> is updated only at certain periods of time, also there is a limited bandwidth on the lines connecting Hungary to the world (see section 4). 5.2.6.1 ekezettelenites Gabor Toth's UNIX shell script for deleting unwanted accents from mail files. 5.2.6.2 etex Gabor Toth's shareware C source code for converting the marking or numerical accent notation to TeX-format. It also claims to be capable of hyphenation. Supports the UNIX platform. 5.2.6.3 hion Peter Verhas's C source code. It's an improved version of etex, as it reduces the probability of incorrect hyphenation with some built-in exception library. Hion is able to do the conversion between the numerical (or, redefining each accent mark, also the marking) accent notation & TeX-format, and remove accents if the input is an accent notation. Read his documentation. Supported platforms: VMS, MS-DOS, UNIX. Available from <ftp://ftp.tarki.hu/pub/magyar/TeX/hion.tar.gz> or <ftp://ftp.digital.bme.hu/hion/>. 5.2.6.4 drtc.c Peter Verhas's freeware C source for conversion between text and RTF (Rich Text Format), character sets ISO 8852/2 (Latin 2), PC-852 (Latin 2) and CWI. The program attempts to find out the inbound format automatically, RTF or text as well as used character set. The outbound format is the same as the inbound format, the program changes only the character set. In other words, the program does not convert from RTF ot text or from text to RTF. Supported platforms: VMS, MS-DOS, & UNIX and other platforms supporting ANSI C. 5.2.6.5 hun.c Gabor Ligeti's freeware C source code for accent removal and conversion between the marking & numerical accent notation, TeX-format and PC-852 (Latin 2) codepage. Warning! Conversion capabilities are not orthogonal, type hun /? for the supported conversions. No platform limitations are indicated. 5.2.6.6 MAXENT.UUE_V6.0a Peter Csaszar's freeware C source code compressed with pkzip & encoded with uuencode (see 5.2.5.1). Warning! As of 6/12/95, the HIX gopher's /HIX/SENDDOC/info/programs directory still contains 'maxent.c', the very old version V1.4 of Maxent. Don't touch this file, go for version V6.0a, currently in <http://www.hix.com/hix/hixcore/senddoc/new/MAXENT.Z>. Maxent provides 100% orthogonality in conversion between any of the accent notations listed in 5.2.1 but telegraphic style, and any of the character sets listed in 5.2.2, allowing multiple notations in the input file. The domain of conversion includes 6 vowels and 6 accent types, applying therefore a house rule extension of the marking and numerical accent notations. (Hoping that this extension becomes widely accepted, no longer remaining a house rule.) Language accent profiles other than the default Hungarian can be selected. Further accent services include accent notation escaping & de-escaping (see 5.2.1.1), and flexible substitution of the o3 etc. characters. Beyond some little services, the rest of the major features provide comprehensive retabulation strategies, full newline conversion capabilities and script file execution (ideal for maintaining mail folders after download). The help given by the program can be saved into a file by typing maxent -h0 > maxent.hlp . Print this file for fancy bedtime reading. Maxent supports only the MS-DOS environment, and should be compiled by a Borland C compiler. This is the sacrifice for the extensive services provided. 5.2.6.7 ekezet.dot Via anonymous <ftp://bme-tel.ttt.bme.hu/pub/income/ekezetes/>, you can find Kornel Umann's WinWord template capable of many kinds of conversion. Also find other goodies in the directory above. 5.2.6.8 hixiso Olivier Clary's Unix scripts for converting accented text appearing on HIX are at <ftp://almos.vein.hu/ssa/kbd_es_font/hixiso.tar.gz>. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.3 Information sources pertaining to the rest of Central Europe This section is by no means to be comprehensive. For a big but dated (1992) list see <gopher://poniecki.berkeley.edu/00/archives/polish.archives/Network/EE-MotherList>. Both OMRI and CET cover the general region in their news. See Section 1.1 and 1.2, respectively. To complement the HUNGARY list (see Section 1.7), at the same listserv at Buffalo there exist the Middle European discussion list MIDEUR-L as well as POLAND-L and SLOVAK-L. Send the usual command to <mailto:LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU> (or simply LISTSERV@UBVM on BITNET): SUBSCRIBE listname-L Yourfirstname Yourlastname. On Usenet there is soc.culture.romanian, soc.culture.czecho-slovak, soc.culture.polish, and the gatewayed bit.listserv.mideur-l and bit.listserv.slovak-l; bit.listserv.hungary has been established, but many sites do not have it. The surest way to receive everything is via email. If you prefer using Usenet newsreaders you find HIX's HUNGARY digests posted to soc.culture.magyar (which group does not seem to suffer the poor propagation affecting some of the bit.listserv groups). Please notice that while the listserv groups are bi-directionally gatewayed, i.e. posts to them get propagated back to the original mailing list, the posts coming from HIX to soc.culture.magyar are mere copies of the mailing list messages - do not reply to the newgroups since your answer won't reach the email readers (who constitute a likely large majority). Speaking of limitations of distribution be aware that some commercial Internet connection providers (most blatantly American Online) established their own groups with topics overlapping existing Usenet hierarchy. The utility of these local groups is seriously limited since they are, unlike the open real Usenet newsgroups such as those mentioned above, unavailable to anyone but their own subscribers (i.e. a small domestic fraction of all the Internet/Usenet users worldwide). Please do not post to non-local groups saying how nice would be to use these specialized forums - we can not. Use the newsgroup soc.culture.magyar or the mailing lists! The Central European Regional Research Organization (CERRO) can be joined at <mailto:LISTSERV@AEARN.ACO.NET> with the command SUBSCRIBE CERRO-L Firstname Lastname. This is a scholarly group that deposits papers and the like in an electronic archive in Vienna. The archive is accessible with anonymous <ftp://wu-wien.ac.at>, or with <gopher://gopher.wu-wien.ac.at>. The Eastern Europe Business Network (e-europe@pucc.princeton.edu) is primarily remarkable for its size (1700+ subscribers). Messages tend to be brief bursts of announcements, questions and, unsurprisingly, calls for or queries about business. The list is administered by Yale's Civic Education Project (Chris Owen, <mailto:cep@minerva.cis.yale.edu>). To subscribe, send a message to the address <mailto:listserv@pucc.princeton.edu> that has subscribe e-europe YourFirstName YourLastName in its body. The repository for Voice of America material, accessible with <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>, also contains some information and news items relevant to the region. Check the NATO archive for goodies: <gopher://gopher.nato.int>. The Slovakia Document Store will answer all your questions about Slovakia: on the World Wide Web, <http://www.eunet.sk>, via <gopher://gopher.eunet.sk>, via <ftp://ftp.eunet.sk/slovakia/>, via gophermail: send a message with Subject: HELP <mailto:gophermail@slovakia.eu.net>. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 5.4 Hungarian radio and television broadcasts available See the separate document "Hungarian broadcast information FAQ", available at <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/broadcast> as well as in the Usenet archives. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 6. CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS FAQ (the order is alphabetical by last name) Beke Tibor <mailto:tbeke@mit.edu> general layout, 2.1, 5.3 Bruner, Rick <mailto:bruner@ind.eunet.hu> 1.3 Csaszar Peter <mailto:pcsaszar@eecs.uic.edu> 5.1, 5.2 Fabian Peter <mailto:fabian@icgeb.trieste.it> 3.1, 4.1, 4.4 Fekete Zoli <mailto:fekete@bc.edu> much of the rest Hewes, Cameron <mailto:hewes@traveller.cz> 1.2 Hollo Kriszta <mailto:hollo@sztaki.hu> 4.2 Saghi-Szabo Gotthard <mailto:gotthard@quartz.ciw.edu>, section 1.8 Toth, Joseph <mailto:joseph_toth@magyar.siliconvalley.com>, section 2.3 Umann Kornel <mailto:umann@hit.bme.hu> 5.2 Varnum, Ken <mailto:webmaster@omri.cz> 1.1 If you have a question or remark regarding some specific section, you may want to contact its author. The FAQ as such continues to be maintained by Zoli Fekete <mailto:fekete@bc.edu>. The keeper hereby expresses the many thanks we all owe to every contributor - and above all to Tibor Beke who brought about this cooperative effort, and took upon consolidating the whole (with Peter Csaszar who took over the next-to-last editing). Still, any errors (with the exception of the independently maintained section 2.3) are the responsibility of Zoli - who'd like to hear all corrections, recommendations or just comments readers may have! Acknowledgement is also due here to Jozsef Hollosi and Arpad Palotas, for providing webspace to this FAQ on the HIX server and helping to improve its homepage, respectively. - - ------------------------------ Subject: 7. How to read this FAQ - what's in there < ~!@#$%^&* > One of these days ;-) there will be a guide here about how to handle all the strange things that you may see embedded in this text; but in the meantime, if you don't know yet what URLs are and are not reading a copy thru a WWW browser that may show a selectable link: just do the sensible thing and use email to access 'mailto:' addresses, ftp for 'ftp:' and telnet for 'telnet:'... Updated versions of this document will be in <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/posted> or <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/hungarian-faq>. Notice that the canonical Usenet archive <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu> is often overloaded - if you can't get connected try one of the mirror sites (of which a list by countries can be found in <ftp://mirrors.aol.com/pub/rtfm/usenet/news.answers/news-answers/introduction> that is also available thru the RTFM mail-server shown below) - eg. <ftp://mirrors.aol.com/pub/rtfm/usenet/news.answers/hungarian-faq> in the USA! You can also retrieve it via <mailto:mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu> with the command "send usenet/news.answers/hungarian-faq" in the body of the message, or via 'finger hungarian-faq@www.hix.com'. A brief extract of hungarian-faq, concentrating on the email services, is also available now <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/hungarian-faq-pointer> or 'finger hungarian-faq-pointer@www.hix.com'. A separate document on network service providers in Hungary prepared independently by John Horvath <mailto:jhorv@mars.iif.hu> is available via email from its author or via <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/comm-providers>. This hungarian-faq is expected to be updated at least every couple of months, due to the rapid changes occuring on the net. If you are reading a copy whose 'Last-modified:' date shown on top is older than that then many parts may be out of date - in this case get the recent one from the sources listed above, and/or try to convince the administrator of the site keeping the old copy to freshen it. Please notice that retrieving from the Usenet archives is likely a lot faster than asking me personally (and most everything I can answer is already in here)! If you do write me <mailto:fekete@bc.edu>, then give a descriptive 'Subject:' line - keep in mind that much of my incoming email deemed unworthy by me is deleted unread in order to keep up with the high volume I am receiving (most of it from various mailing lists). The best way to ensure catching my attention - and to allow automatized pre-processing - is to start it with 'ZFIX:' (the name my mail-handler answers to is Zophisticated Free Information eXchange, in case you were wondering :-)). This work as a collection is copyright (1990-96) Zoli Fekete, and parts are copyright of their respective authors. Please do not redistribute substantial portions without contacting the maintainer. Since February 14, 1996 this document is authenticated by my secure public-key encrypted electronic signature (see <http://www.ifi.uio.no/pgp> for details), the public key for which is shown in the WWW link <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/pgp-key.asc> and is also attached to the end of the text available via 'finger magyar@world.std.com'! Unauthorized publishing in off-line media - such as printed, CD-ROM or magnetic databases - is explicitly prohibited! URL: <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/> Archive-name: hungarian/faq Soc-culture-magyar-archive-name: faq Last-modified: 1996/07/04 Version: 1.50 Posting-Frequency: every fifteen days - - -- Zoli fekete@bc.edu, keeper of <http://www.hix.com/hungarian-faq/> <'finger hungarian-faq-pointer@www.hix.com'> SELLERS BEWARE: I will never buy anything from companies associated with inappropriate online advertising (unsolicited commercial email, excessive multiposting etc), and discourage others from doing so too! -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: 2.6.2 iQB1AwUBMd2NNDF5HDDpzOB1AQHOfAL/XwreycBzUl4+D7RHa64GyI2aV+ZwfVyl oSo/F4l0P0HGK3zKuSidr7pc3ZOw+6MMF5fw5VHApxGFIBdFPNWmg9EFHqhSFdAg XykgrTJiJxzNXHtUe+IXUBrB59Fowuk3 =uhEU -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----