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Subject: HOLOCAUST FAQ: Auschwitz-Birkenau: Layman's Guide (2/2)

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Archive-name: holocaust/auschwitz/part02 Last-modified: 1999/12/23
Auschwitz: A Layman's Guide to Auschwitz-Birkenau Part Two 5.0 Administration.............................................15 5.1 Command Staff............................................15 5.2 Medical Staff............................................17 5.3 Selection................................................18 5.4 Tattooing................................................18 5.5 Medical Experimentation..................................19 5.5.1 Clauberg...............................................21 5.5.2 Mandel.................................................21 5.5.3 Mengele................................................22 5.5.4 Oberhauser.............................................22 5.5.5 Schumann...............................................23 6.0 Research Sources & Other Useful Appendices.................23 6.1 Recommended Reading......................................24 6.2 Abbreviations Used in Citations..........................27 6.3 Glossary.................................................27 6.4 Works Cited..............................................28 [Auschwitz] [Page 15] According to Snyder, Adolf Eichmann reported to Himmler, in 1944, that four million had been killed in the camps, and another million had been shot or killed by mobile units. (Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. 1989) Eichmann's report, which referenced _all_ the camps (most of which were in Nazi-occupied Poland), may have been the source of the Polish Communist government's figures. (Snyder is a Professor of History at the City College and the City University of New York.) During the war crimes trials, Hoess was asked if it was true that he had no exact numbers because he had been forbidden to compile them, and he agreed. He also agreed that Adolf Eichmann had told him that two and one half million people had been exterminated there. (von Lang, 120, and 'Wspomnienia Rudolfa Hoessa komendanta obozu oswiecimskiego,' Warsaw, 1965.) The Institut Fuer Zeitgeschichte, Munich, provided the following capsulated paragraph about Auschwitz in a March, 1992, letter of inquiry. (http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?orgs/german/ifz/ifz.report) The extermination camp in Birkenau, established in the second half of 1941, was joined to the concentration camp Auschwitz, existing since May 1940. From January 1942 on in five gas chambers and from the end of June 1943 in four additional large gassing-rooms gassings with Zyklon B have been undertaken. Up until November 1944 more than one million Jews and at least 4000 gypsies have been murdered by gas. (IFZ) While it is admittedly difficult to compile exact figures, since the Nazis did not maintain registration records for those who were to be exterminated immediately upon arrival at Auschwitz, it seems accurate to assert that the number of Jews killed fell somewhere between one and one-point-six million. Jews were not the only victims of the Auschwitz killing machine - estimates that from 200,000 (Gilbert, 22, Kendrick, 184) to 500,000 (Bubenickova, 190, Yoors, 34) Gypsies were ultimately destroyed are noted by Laska. Himmler signed the decree sending all of them to Auschwitz in 1942. In addition, an unknown number of homosexuals were sent to Auschwitz and executed. The Leuchter Report, which Foner alludes to extensively in his Spotlight article, has been thoroughly refuted. For detailed information about the report, see the Leuchter FAQ, published regularly in this newsgroup. (http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/leuchter/) 4.2 Estimates of dead by nationality [Work in progress] 4.2.3 Polish Christians The number of Polish Christians registered at Auschwitz is given as at 137,000, and "at least" 10,000 more were put murdered without registration. (Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, 69-70) Lucas tells us that historians disagree with regard to the total number of Polish Christians killed by the Nazis, Lukas, 88-95) and Bauer reportedly puts the figure at 83,000. (Steinfels, Peter. "Auschwitz Revisionism: An Israeli Scholar's Case," New York Times, 12 Nov. 1989 5.0 Administration 5.1 Command Staff Fritsch, Hauptsturmfu"hrer (Credited with the first use of Zyklon-B as means of exterminating human subjects. See Breitman, 202) Grabner, Maximillian. Head of Political Department [Auschwitz] [Page 16] Hoess, Rudolf Franz (1900-1947). Hoess joined the Nazi party in 1922. In 1923, he was implicated in a murder and imprisoned to serve a life sentence. He was released as a result of a general amnesty, in 1928. After training during service at Dachau and Sachsenhausen, he was rewarded for his loyalty with a promotion to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmfu"hrer (see Glossary) and the commandant's job at Auschwitz, where he remained until December of 1943, when he was promoted to chief of the Central Administration for Camps. (Sachar. http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/h/hoess.rudolf.ferdinand/hoess.01 http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/h/hoess.rudolf.ferdinand/hoess.02 http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/h/hoess.rudolf.ferdinand/hoess.03) According to Snyder, " He performed his job so well that he was commended in a 1944 SS report that called him "a true pioneer in this area because of his new ideas and educational methods." Hoess was captured on March 11, 1946, and was a key witness at Nuremberg (Kaltenbrunner, I.G. Farben et al). On May 25, he was extradited to Poland. During this period, he wrote his autobiography, "Commandant of Auschwitz: Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess." (Cleveland: World Publishing, 1959) His statement is available in the original German text, and in English translation. (Get http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/h/hoess.rudolf.ferdinand/hoess.statemen) According to Sachar, he, "...took pride in his exemplary family life, the devotion to his children and his pets. He recalled, wistfully, how he had been obliged to tear himself away from a Christmas gathering to attend to duties at the gas chambers. The daily death quota then was still a mere 1,500, but he was eager to make sure it was met. When one of his lieutenants was condemned to death for his part in the Auschwitz murders, Hoess and his family lamented `Such a compassionate man, too. When his pet canary died, he tenderly put the body in a small box, covered it with a rose, and buried it under a rose bush in the garden.'(Hoess, 25)(Sachar) During his trial, the evidence "...repeated...what he had written..." in his autobiography. "He described, with the dispassion of a robot, how he had gradually stepped up executions, beginning with a few hundred a day and then, as methods were perfected, rising to 1,200. By mid-1942, facilities had been sufficiently enlarged to dispatch 1,500 people over a twenty-four-hour period for the smaller ovens, and up to 2,500 for the larger ones. By 1943, ... a new daily peak of 12,000 was achieved. Hoess described the final routines of the extermination process. These were assigned to squads of Jewish prisoners, the Sondercommandos. They marched the victims to the gas chambers, helped to undress them, removed the corpses after the gassing, extracted gold from their teeth and rings from their fingers, searched the orifices of their bodies for hidden jewelry, cut off the hair of the women, and then carted the bodies to the crematoria. Usually after several weeks of such service they were executed, first because they were Jews but also so that they would not be witnesses if ever testimony were required." (Sachar) Hoess was tried in Warsaw, in March, 1947, and condemned to death. (Hanged on April 16, 1947, at Auschwitz.) [Auschwitz] [Page 17] Kramer, Josef. Commandant at Birkenau. Mandel, Maria. Head of the women's camp at Auschwitz after serving at Ravensbruck. 5.2 Medical Staff Testimony from German court records relating to the trials of SS men charged with medical killing at Auschwitz is now available from our archives. The source for this data, Nauman, is listed in Section 6.1, Recommended Reading. (http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/auschwitz/auschwitz.010) Clauberg, Karl. Pursued his experiments on live specimens in Auschwitz. Involved in sterilization projects there. (Laska, 222) Dr. Wladyslav Dering. Dering was a Polish prisoner Dr. Entress Gebhardt, Karl. Involved in vivisection projects at both Ravensbruck and Auschwitz. Shot as war criminal in 1948. (Laska, 225) Hantl Klehr Kremer, Johannes Paul. Vivisection. Sentenced to death in a Crakov trial, but later recieved amnesty. Mengele, Josef (1911- ?). Mengele was appointed chief doctor at Birkenau by the Camp Garrison Doctor in 1943. He joined Drs. Klein, Koenig, and Thilon in running the selection process. Bibliography: Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, "Mengele: The Complete Story", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986.(Snyder) Mengele is believed dead, but his fate remains unknown. (See the 1991 "Children of the Flames," for citations regarding Mengele's experimentation on twins) Muench, Hans. SS Untersturmfuehrer. The doctor and former SS-Untersturmfuehrer Hans Muench was among the 40 members of the Auschwitz camp personnel indicted and tried in Krakow in Poland 1946-1947. The trial led to some 20 death sentences, but Muench was acquitted. He had taken part in gassings but had refused to assist in the so-called selections. Some ex-prisoners also testified in his favour. After his release, Muench returned to Germany where he continued his medical practice. In 1964 he testified at the Auschwitz trial in Frankfurt am Main. He agreed to an interview with Swedish television in 1981, against the wish of his family. It has been broadcasted twice on Swedish TV, in 1982 and 1992. A translation of this television interview may be found at ftp.nizkor.org, in the directory pub/people/m/muench.hans, as swedish-television-interview (our thanks to a Swedish user for providing this text). Snippets from court testimony are also available in the same directory. [Auschwitz] [Page 18] Oberhauser, Herta. Scherpe Schumann, Horst. 5.3 Selection In a report entitled "Resettlement of Jews," SS-Sturmbannfu"hrer Gricksch provided the following information for SS-Col. von Herff and Reichsfu"hrer-SS Himmler, after inspection between the 14th. and 16th. of May, 1943. (Fleming, 142) The Auschwitz camp plays a special role in the resolution of the Jewish question. The most advance methods permit the execution of the Fuehrer-order in the shortest possible time and without arousing much attention. The so-called "resettlement action" runs the following course: The Jews arrive in special trains (freight cars) toward evening and are driven on special tracks to areas of the camp specifically set aside for this purpose. There the Jews are unloaded and examined for their fitness to work by a team of doctors, in the presence of the camp commandant and several SS officers. At this point anyone who can somehow be incorporated into the work program is put in a special camp. The curably ill are sent straight to a medical camp and are restored to health through a special diet. The basic principle behind everything is: conserve all manpower for work. The previous type of "resettlement action" has been thoroughly rejected, since it is too costly to destroy precious work energy on a continual basis. The report then describes the fate of those unlucky enough to have been considered incurably ill or unfit for slave labour, and provides some details with regard to the killing process. The results of this "resettlement action" to date: 500,000 Jews. Current capacity of the "resettlement action" ovens: 10,000 in 24 hours. 5.4 Tattooing Buszko (see above), writing in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, explains why some prisoners were tattooed, while others were not: Prisoners were registered and received numbers tattooed on their left arm upon leaving the quarantine in Birkenau for forced labor in Auschwitz or in one of the subcamps. The same procedure applied to those prisoners who were directed straight to Auschwitz I: 405,000 prisoners were registered in this way. [Ed. Note: Buszko later notes that only 65,000 of those so registered and tattooed survived. knm] Not included in any form of registration were the vast majority of the Auschwitz [Auschwitz] [Page 19] victims, those men and women who, upon arrival in Auschwitz II, were led to the gas chambers and killed there immediately. Also not included in the registration were those prisoners who were sent to work in other concentration camps not belonging to the Auschwitz system. ... Still another group of unregistered prisoners were those who were designated for execution after a short stay in the camp. That group consisted mainly of hostages, Soviet army officers, and partisans." (Encyclopedia, Vol. I, 110-111) 5.5 Medical Experimentation Several of the seventy or more medical-research projects conducted by the Nazis between the fall of 1939 and spring of 1945 were conducted at Auschwitz. These projects involved experiments conducted with human beings against their will, and at least seven thousand were so treated, based upon existing documents and personal testimonies; there were undoubtedly many more for which no documentation or personal testimony remains. About two hundred German medical doctors were involved in the concentration camp experiments, conducting 'Selektionen,' medical services, and research. They maintained close professional ties with the German medical establishment, and used the universities and research institutes in Germany and Austria in their work. Dr. Ernst Robert Grawitz, SS Chief Medical Officer, received all requests for authority to perform experimentation, and obtained two opinions before passing them to Himmler with his recommendation. Grawitz used Dr. Karl Gebhardt, Himmler's personal physician, for one opinion, and Richard Glu"cks and Arthur Nebe for the other. He then passed his report to Himmler, who took great interest in the experiments and often interfered with them. There were three broad classes of experiments. The German Air Force conducted experiments at Dachau (and elsewhere) dealing with survival and rescue, including research into the effects of high altitude, freezing temperatures, and the ingestion of seawater. Medical treatment constituted a second class, and involved research into the treatment of battle injuries, gas attacks, and the formulation of immunization compounds to treat contageous and epidemic diseases. Finally, there were racial experiments, including research into dwarfs and twins, serological research, and skeletal examination. It is this class of horrors that returns us to Auschwitz. (Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 957-958) [Auschwitz] [Page 20] During his interrogation of Adolf Eichmann, Israeli police Captain Avner Less brought up the subject of Eichmann's complicity in medical 'research' projects which had been approved by the Reichsfu"hrer-SS, Heinrich Himmler, and read three documents to him. What follows is the text of Less's interrogation at that point... LESS: I have some photostats of documents that were submitted in the first Nuremberg war crimes trial, the trial of the physicians. The sender of this letter is the business manager of Ahnenerbe. I'll read it to you. "Berlin, November 2, 1942. Secret. To SS-Obersturmbannfu"hrer Dr. Brandt. Dear Comrade Brandt: As you know, the Reichsfu"hrer-SS gave orders some time ago to the effect that SS-Hauptsturmfu"hrer Prof. Dr. Hirt should be supplied with everything he requires for his research. For certain anthropological investigations -- I have already reported to the Reichsfu"hrer-SS on the subject -- 150 skeletons of prisoners or Jews are needed, and these are to be made available by the Auschwitz concentration camp." Etc. etc. It's signed: "With comradely greetings, Heil Hitler, Yours, Sievers." The second document is a report by this Professor Hirt. "Re: Procurement of the skulls of Jewish-Bolshevistic commissars for scientific research at the University of Strassburg." I quote: "Extensive skull collections from nearly all races and people are in existence. It is only of Jews that so few skulls are available to science that work on them admits of no secure findings. The war in the East now offers us an opportunity to make good this deficiency. In the Jewish-Bolshevistic commissars, who embody a repulsive and characteristic type of subhuman, we have the possibility of acquiring a reliable scientific document by acquiring their skulls. The smoothest and most expeditious way of obtaining and securing this provision of skulls would be to instruct the Wehrmacht to hand over all Jewish-Bolshevistic commissars immediately to the military police. The person charged with securing this material (a young physician or medical student belonging to the Werhmacht or better still to the military police) is to prepare a previously specified series of photographs and anthropoligical measurements. After the subsequently induced death of the Jew, whose head must not be injured, he will separate the head from the trunk and send it, immersed in a preserving fluid, in well-sealed lead containers made especially for this purpose, to the designated address." And now the next document. A letter of June 21, 1943. From Ahnenerbe. Top secret. "To Reich Security Headquarters IVB4, Attention: SS-Obersturmfu"hrer Eichmann. Re: Skeleton collection. With reference to your letter of September 25, 1942, and the consultations held since then regarding the above-mentioned matter, we wish to inform you that Dr. Bruno Beger, our staff member charged with the above-mentioned special mission, terminated his work in the Auschwitz concentration camp [Auschwitz] [Page 21] on June 15, 1943, because of the danger of an epidemic. In all, 115 persons, 79 male Jews, 2 Poles, 4 Central Asians, and 30 Jewesses, were processed. These inmates have been placed, men and women separately, in the concentration-camp sick quarters, and quarantined. For the further processing of these selected persons, immediate transfer to Natzweiler concentration camp is desirable and should be effected as quickly as possible in view of the danger of infection in Auschwitz. A list of the selected persons is appended. You are requested to send the necessary instructions." And now for the last document. "The Reichsfu"hrer-SS Personal Staff, Field Headquarters, November 6, 1942. Secret. To Reich Security Headquarters IVB4. Attention: SS-Obersturmfu"hrer Eichmann. The Reichsfu"hrer-SS has ordered that Dr. Hirt, head of the Anatomy Department in Strassburg, should be supplied with everything needed for his research. In the name of the Reichsfu"hrer-SS, I therefore request you to help establish the projected skeleton collection. per. proc. SS-Obersturmbannfu"hrer Brandt." (von Lang, 169-171) Thus the German government's full complicity in the crimes committed at Auschwitz under the guise of "medical research" is clear, with a chain of evidence reaching all the way to Himmler. 5.5.1 Clauberg Professor Carl Clauberg performed experiments into sterilization at both Auschwitz and Ravensbru"ck. This was done on Hitler's initiative, as he had been convinced by several doctors that mass sterilization could provide a powerful weapon against Germany's enemies during total war. Clauberg injected chemical substances into wombs during normal gynochological examinations. Thousands of Jewish and Gypsy women were subjected to this treatment. Clauberg sought to answer Himmler's query about how long it would take to sterilize one thousand women, and eventually informed him that, using methods he developed, a staff of one doctor and ten assistants could do the job in a single day. The injections totally destroyed the lining membrane of the womb and seriously damaged the ovaries of the victims, which were then removed and sent to Berlin to test the effectiveness of the method. (Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 964) 5.5.2 Mandel ... after Ravensbruck ... was the head of the women's camp at Auschwitz; the prisoners referred to her as `the beast.' For her share in the selections for the gas chambers and medical experiments and for her torture of countless prisoners, she was condemned to death in 1947 as a war criminal. (Laska) [Auschwitz] [Page 22] 5.5.3 Mengele Mengele promoted medical experimentation on inmates, especially dwarfs and twins. He is said to have supervised an operation by which two Gypsy children were sewn together to create Siamses twins; the hands of the children became badly infected where the veins had been resected. (Snyder) Cohen tells us: "The only firsthand evidence on these experiments comes from a handful of survivors and from a Jewish doctor, Miklos Nyiszli, who worked under Mengele as a pathologist. Mengele subjected his victims - twins and dwarfs aged two and above - to clinical examinations, blood tests, X rays, and anthropological measurements. In the case of the twins, he drew sketches of each twin, for comparison. He also injected his victims with various substances, dripping chemicals into their eyes (apparently in an attempt to change their color). He then killed them himself by injecting chloroform into their hearts, so as to carry out comparative pathological examinations of their internal organs. Mengele's purpose, according to Dr. Nyiszli, was to establish the genetic cause for the birth of twins, in order to facilitate the formulation of a program for doubling the birthrate of the 'Aryan' race. The experiments on twins affected 180 persons, adults and children. Mengele also carried out a large number of experiments in the field of contageous diseases, (typhoid and tuberculosis) to find out how human beings of different races withstood these diseases. He used Gypsy twins for this purpose. Mengele's experiments combined scientific (perhaps even important) research with the racist and ideological aims of the Nazi regime. which made use of government offices, scientific institutions, and concentration camps. From the scanty information available, it appears that his research differed from the other medical experiments in that the victims' death was programmed into his experiments and formed a central element in it." (Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 964) 5.5.4 Oberhauser Dr. Herta Oberhauser killed prisoners with oil and evipan injections, removed their limbs and vital organs, rubbed ground glass and sawdust into wounds. She drew a twenty-year sentence as a war criminal, but was released in 1952 and became a family doctor at Stocksee in Germany. Her license to practice medicine was revoked in 1960. (Laska, 223) [Auschwitz] [Page 23] 5.5.5 Schumann Himmler, writing to SS-Oberfu"hrer Brack, on August 11, 1942, expressed an interest in sterilization experiments involving the use of x-rays (Get pub/camps/auschwitz/sterilization). In April of 1944, he received a report of the work of Dr. Horst Schumann "on the influence of X-rays on human genital glands" at Auschwitz. The report included the following statement: Previously you have asked Oberfuehrer Brack to perform this work, and you supported it by providing the adequate material in the concentration camp Auschwitz. I point especially to the second part of this work, which shows that by those means castration of males is almost impossible or requires an effort which does not pay. As I have convinced myself, operative castration requires not more than 6 to 7 minutes, and therefore can be performed more reliably and quicker than castration by X-rays. Schumann set up an X ray station at Auschwitz in 1942, in the woman's camp Bla. Here men and women were forcibly sterilized by being positioned repeatedly for several minutes between two x-ray machines, the rays aiming at their sexual organs. Most subjects died after great suffering, or were gassed immediately because the radiation burns from which they suffered rendered them unfit for work. Men's testicles were removed and sent to Breslau for histopathological examination. The frequently following ovariotomies were performed also by the Polish prisoner, Dr. Wladyslav Dering. Dering once bet with an SS man that he could perform ten ovariotomies in an afternoon, and won his bet. Some of his victims survived. Dering was declared a war criminal but eluded justice and for a time practiced medicine in British Somaliland. (Laska, 223. Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 965) 6.0 Research Materials & Sources Vera Laska notes that there are over ten-thousand printed sources relating to Auschwitz alone, and offers this guidance for those pursuing Holocaust research: Yad Vashem Martyrs' and Heroes' Memorial Authority in Jerusalem is a depository of documents and memoirs on the Holocaust, mostly in German, Hebrew and Yiddish. It also issues the Yad Vashem Studies on the European Jewish Catastrophe and Resistance. (The 1991 Yad Vashem English publications guide is now included in the Holocaust Almanac bibliographies. Get pub/holocaust/bibliography/biblio.05) [Auschwitz] [Page 24] The Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine in Paris and the Wiener Library in London are major sources of information. The Wiener Library's catalogue series published a bibliography, Persecution and Resistance Under the Nazis (London: Valentine, Mitchell, 1960). ... In the United States the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research (1048 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10028) houses several collections of ghetto documents and related primary source materials. It publishes the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science. Since 1960, Yad Vashem* and the YIVO** Institute have been engaged in preparing a multivolume bibliographical series on the Holocaust; one of the volumes, Jacob Robinson, ed., The Holocaust and After: Sources and Literature in English (Jerusalem: Israel University Press, 1973) is most helpful. * (URL: http:/yvs.shani.net/) ** (URL: http://www.ort.org/communit/yivo/start.html) The Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith (823 United Nations Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10017) supplies teaching materials at reasonable prices, for instance The Record - The Holocaust in History, 1933-1945, published in cooperation with the National Council for Social Studies in 1978. The Library of Congress and the National Archives are rich sources for researchers, containing among others the transcripts of war crime trials. This in itself is an immense documentation; for instance, the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial of twenty-three defendents alone takes up 11,538 pages in nineteen volumes. Indexes can be consulted about various concentration camps. ... In addition to the massive amount of information Laska notes, additional bibliographic sources are available through the Holocaust bibliographic files available on http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?bibliographies and elsewhere. In particluar, see the list of major research centres listed in EDUCATION RESEARCH.CNTRS, which was added to our archives in December, 1994. 6.1 Recommended Reading Our Holocaust archives are available via InterNet Gopher. To access this service, use the command "gopher jer1.co.il". The archives are also available via World Wide Web (URL: http://www.nizkor.org) and anonymous ftp (ftp.nizkor.org). [Auschwitz] [Page 25] Suggested reading related to Auschwitz, from the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust and elsewhere: Brugioni, Dino A., and Robert G. Poirier. The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex. (Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C.) February 1979. The paper includes aerial photographs of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex in operation during WWII. A summary of their analysis is included in the paper. These photos corroborate eyewitness accounts/Nazi documentation on camp operations. You can obtain a copy from the US gov't through the following sources: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 or: Photoduplication Service Library of Congress Washington, D.C. 20540 Use the report number(#st 79-10001) and the document number (NTISUBE28002) to speed service along. The document # is particularly important. Brewster, Eva. Vanished in Darkness. Edmonton: NeWest Publishers Limited, 1984. (First-person account of life within Auschwitz) Friedman, P. "Crimes in the Name of Science," in "Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust." Edited by A.J. Friedman. Philadelphia, 1980 Gilbert, M. Auschwitz and the Allies. New York, 1981 Gutman, Yisrael, and Michael Berenbaum, Ed. Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Bloomington and Indianapolis: 1994 Gutman, Y., and A. Saf, eds. The Nazi Concentration Camps: Structure and Aims; The Image of the Prisoner; The Jews in the Camps. Proceedings of the Fourth Yad Vashem International Historical Conference. Jerusalem, 1984 Hoess, R. Commandant of Auschwitz. London, 1959 Ja"ckel, Eberhard, and H. David Kirk, trans. David Irving's Hitler. Port Angeles, Washington: Ben-Simon Publications, 1993 Kielar, W. Anus Mundi: Fifteen Hundred Days in Auschwitz- Birkenau. New York, 1980 Kudlien, F., ed. A"rzte im Nationalsoczialismus. Cologne, 1985 [Auschwitz] [Page 26] Lagnato, Lucette Matalon and Sheila Cohn Dekel. Children of the Flames. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1991 (Mengele's experimentation with twins at Auschwitz) Langbein, H. Auschwitz-Prozess: Eine Dokumentation. 2 Vols. Vienna, 1965 Langbein, H. Menschen in Auschwitz. Vienna, 1972 Lifton, R.J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychiatry of Genocide." New York, 1986 Levi, P. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity. New York, 1981 Lukowski, J. Bibliografia obozu koncentracyjnego Oswiecim- Brzezinka. 5 vols. Warsaw, 1970 Mark, B. The Scrolls of Auschwitz. Tel Aviv, 1985 Mitscherlich, A., and F. Mielke. Doctors of Infamy: The Story of Medical Crimes. New York, 1949 Mu"ller, Filip. Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers. New York: Stein and Day, 1979 Nauman, Bernd. Auschwitz: A Report on The Procedings Against Robert Karl Ludwig Mulka and Others Before the Court at Frankfurt. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966 Piper, Franciszek, and Teresa Swiebocka, Ed. Auschwitz, Nazi Death Camp. Oswiecim, 1996. Book supplied by the Auschwitz State Museum. Piper, Franciszek. Auschwitz: How Many Perished - Jews, Poles, Gypsies... Oswiecim 1992. Proctor, R. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, Mass., 1988 Keys, Laurinda. Death Books of Auschwitz. K.G. Saur, 1995. (See http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/auschwitz/press/death-books.001 and ~/002 for information concerning the release of this work.) See also the Transcripts of the Trial of Adolf Eichmann http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/e/eichmann-adolf/transcripts/ Social Studies School Services offers an extensive list of teaching materials dealing with the Holocaust, and Auschwitz. For a list of books, videotapes, and photo histories, see http://www.nizkor.org/bibliographies/ssss.shtml. Of particular interest are the videotapes "Kitty: Return to Auschwitz," "Nazi Concentration Camps," the official film record of the Nazi death camps as photographed by Allied liberation forces in 1945, and "Holocaust: Liberation of Auschwitz." [Auschwitz] [Page 27] 6.2 Abbreviations Used in Citations The following abbreviations may be used throughout this document: IFZ.........Institut fu"r Zeitgeschichte, Munich IRR.........Investigative Repository Records NA..........United States National Archives RG 59.......NA Diplomatic Records RG 84.......Washington National Records Center, Diplomatic Post Records RG 153......Washington National Records Center, Records of the Office of the (Army) Judge Advocate RG 165......Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, Washington National Records Center RG 208......Office of War Information Records, Washington National Records Center RG 226......Office of Strategic Services Records RG 238......War Crimes EC Series NG........Microfilm T-1139 NI........Microfilm T-301 NO Series NOKW Series PS Series RG 242......NA Record Group 242 - Captured German Records RG 319......Records of the Army Staff T...........NA Microfilm Series If you note any that are not explained above, please let me know, and I will try to run them down for you. 6.3 Glossary Ahnenerbe: [Ancestral Heritage], The Institute for the Scientific Study of Ends and Purposes, located in Berlin. (http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/e/eichmann.adolf/eichmann.006) Einsatzgruppe: Battalion-sized, mobile, armed unit of police Einsatzgruppen: Battalion-sized, mobile, armed units of police, primarily Security Police and SD officials, which were used to attack and execute perceived enemies in conquered territories. (Brietman, 311) Einsatzkommando: Company-sized component of the Einsatzgruppen (Ibid., 311) Gauleiter: Supreme territorial or regional party authority(-ies) (The term is both singular and plural). The Nazi Party divided Germany and some annexed territories into geographical units called Gaue, headed by a Gauleiter. (Ibid., 311) General Government: The Nazi-ruled state in central and eastern Poland. Headed by Governor Hans Frank. (Ibid., 311) [Auschwitz] [Page 28] Final Solution: Euphemism for the extermination of European Jewry SD (Sicherheitsdienst): The SS Security Service Selektionen: (Selection) The process by which newly-arrived prisoners were divided into those capable of work, and those deemed unfit for work, i.e. those to be exterminated immediately. Sonderkommandos: Division of Einsatzgruppen, generally smaller than Einsatzkommando, but also a more general term for special commando units assigned particular functions. (Ibid., 311) Military rank - here's a list from Breitman (314) which lists SS ranks and the Western military equivalent: Oberstgruppenfu"hrer General Obergruppenfu"hrer Lieutenant General Gruppenfu"hrer Major General Brigadefu"hrer Brigadier General Oberfu"hrer between Brigadier & Colonel Standartenfu"hrer Colonel Obersturmbannfu"hrer Lieutenant Colonel Sturmbannfu"hrer Major Hauptsturmfu"hrer Captain Obersturmfu"hrer First Lieutenant Unterscharfu"hrer Corporal Rottenfu"hrer Private, First Class Sturmann Private SS-Mann no equivalent 6.4 Works Cited Borkin, Joseph. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben. New York: The Free Press, 1978, and London: Macmillan Publishing Company. Breitman, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. Bubenickova, Ruzena. Tabory utrpeni a smrti. (Camps of Martyrdom and Death) Prague: Svoboda, 1969 Conot, Robert E. Justice at Nuremberg. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. ISBN 0-06-015117-X Encyclopedia - See Gutman Feig, Konnilyn G. Hitler's Death Camps. LOC D810.J4 F36, 1981 Fenelon, Fania, with Marcelle Routier. Playing For Time. New York:Athenium, 1977. ISBN 0-689-10796-X [Auschwitz] [Page 29] Fleming, Gerald. Hitler and the Final Solution. Berkeley, 1984 Foner, Samuel P. "Major Historical Fact Uncovered" SPOTLIGHT Vol. XIX, Number 2, January 11, 1993) Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust, Maps and Photographs. New York: Mayflower Books, 1978. Gutman, Israel, ed. in Chief, et al. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1990. ISBN 0-02- 896090-4 (set) (Referenced in this FAQ as "Encyclopedia") Hoess, Rudolf. Commandant of Auschwitz: Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess. (As quoted in Sachar) Hilberg, Raul. Commandant of Auschwitz (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1959) Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Holmes & Meier, 1985. See 967-976. IFZ. The Institut Fuer Zeitgeschicthe, Munich, as quoted in their letter to Dr. Keren, March, 1992 Kenrick, Donald, and Grattan Puxon. Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. New York: Basic Books, 1972, as cited in Laska Klarsfield, Serge. The Holocaust and Neo-Nazi Mythomania, as quoted in Feig. Klee, Ernst, Willi Dressen, and Volker Riess, eds. `The Good Old Days' -- The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders. Forward by H. Trevor-Roper. The Free Press, A division of Macmillan, Inc, 1988, ISBN 0-02-917425-2 Langbein. Der Auschwitz Prozess. Vol. I, as quoted in Pressac. Laska, Vera, ed. Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust: The Voices of Eyewitnesses. London: Greenwood Press, 1983. LOC 82-12018, ISBN 0-313-23457-4 Lengyel, Olga. Five Chimneys. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1947, as cited in Hilberg. Lukas, Richard C. "The Polish Experience during the Holocaust" in Michael Berenbaum, ed. A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis (New York : New York University Press, 1990) Mu"ller, Filip. "Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers", as cited by both Feig and Hilberg. Museum w Oswiecimu. "KL Auschwitz seen by the SS Hoess, Broad, Kremer," 2nd. ed., 1978 Naumann,. Auschwitz. Nurowski, Roman. 1939-1945: War Losses in Poland (Poznan, 1960), as cited in Lukas. Poliakov, Leon. Harvest of Hate: The Nazi Program for the Destruction of the Jews of Europe. Syracuse University Press., 1956. [Auschwitz] [Page 30] Pressac, J. C. Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers. New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989 Rogers, Perry M., ed. Aspects of Western Civilization Sachar, Abram L. The Redemption of the Unwanted. New York: St. Martin's/Marek, 1983. Snyder, Dr. Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (New York: Paragon House, 1989.) Steinfels, Peter. "Auschwitz Revisionism: An Israeli Scholar's Case," New York Times, 12 Nov. 1989 von Lang, Jochen, in collaboration with Claus Sibyll. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. Translated from the German by Ralph Manheim. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983 Wiesel, Elie. Night. (New York, 1969), as cited in Hilberg. Yoors, Jan. A Journal of Survival and Resistance in World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971, as cited in Laska -- The Nizkor Project - An electronic Holocaust educational resource http://www.nizkor.org/faqs -- The Nizkor Project - An electronic Holocaust educational resource David Irving vrs. Deborah Lipstadt & Penguin Books Ltd: Judgment http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/i/irving-david/judgment-00-00.html http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/people/i/irving.david/libel.suit