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Subject: rec.heraldry FAQ

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Archive-name: heraldry/faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 2000/01/25 URL: http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/heraldry.faq
The rec.heraldry Frequently Asked Questions File ================================================ Although rec.heraldry isn't a very high-volume newsgroup, there are several questions often asked by those new to heraldry. This is an attempt to collect them, and their answers, in one posting which can be distributed regularly. You'll soon find that there's lots of nonsense written about heraldry. Always remember that the origins of heraldry are lost in antiquity, that many writers on heraldry have simply copied each other's mistakes, and that there is much disagreement among heralds. Remember, too, that a "rule" which applies in one place at one time may not travel well to another time or place. This FAQ file was initially written by Gordon Findlay (gordon@chmeds.ac.nz). It is now maintained by François Velde (http://www.heraldica.org/contact.html) and posted monthly. A weekly posting called the rec.heraldry MFAQ answers the question: "My name is Smith, what are my arms?" It can be found at http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/mfaq Table of Contents ================= 1: What is rec.heraldry? 2: What other newsgroups and mailing lists are there? 3: How can I find my coat of arms or my family's coat of arms? 4: What about those outfits in the malls that'll sell me my arms? 5: What is the difference between a coat of arms and a crest? 6: How do you blazon a coat of arms? 7: What's the SCA? How does it relate to rec.heraldry? 8: What do arms mean? 9: How inviolable is the rule of tincture? 10: Is the Court of Chivalry dead? 11: What heraldic software is available? 12: How do I unzip Blazons? 13: Is there a computerised Ordinary available to download? 14: Where can I find heraldic clip-art on the net? 15: What are some books I can turn to to learn more? 16: What tartan should I wear, and other tartan stuff. 17: Addresses of national heraldic and genealogical associations. 18: Distribution 1: What is rec.heraldry? ======================== The rec.heraldry newsgroup exists for the discussion of coats of arms, the work and history of heralds, and related topics such as flags, seals, ceremony and precedence. 2: What other newsgroups and mailing lists are there? ===================================================== For genealogical matters, see the newsgroups soc.genealogy.* and alt.genealogy. For matters royal and aristocratic, there is alt.talk.royalty For the SCA (see question 7) there are rec.org.sca and alt.heraldry.sca (although the latter group is badly propagated). There is also the mailing list SCAHRLDS@listserv.aol.com@listserv.aol.com. More generally, the SCA's Web site is at http://www.sca.org. There is a mailing list devoted to flags; this description was provided by its first maintainer: "The scope of the FLAGS mailing list is to create a worldwide, real-time updated database about all kinds of flags: (inter)national, (un)official, ethnical, political, religious, movements' flags; to discuss symbols and colours used on flags, in order to find common or unique meanings of them; and to gather informations about flags' history." If you want to subscribe, send a message to <flags-subscribe@yahoogroups.com> The Flags of the World Web site is at <http://www.fotw.ca/flags/> François Velde maintains a Web page at http://www.heraldica.org/ which contains articles on a number of interesting heraldic topics. There are World Wide Web pages at http://www2.ncsu.edu/eos/users/s/sfcallic/SCA/Heraldy.html http://www.tiac.net/staff/zach/east.html http://www2.ecst.csuchio.edu:80/~rodmur/sca/ which are fairly SCA oriented, but check them out; there is a lot of real-world heraldry information as well. Another SCA resource is the Academy of Saint Gabriel, which provides consultation to Society members on choosing names and armory for Society use: http://www.s-gabriel.org/ The British Heraldic Archive WWW pages are at http://www.kwtelecom.com/heraldry/index.html and contains information about the Heraldry Society, indices to "The Coat of Arms" and articles of interest. 3: How can I find my coat of arms or my family's coat of arms? ============================================================== This is a difficult question to answer; it requires a great deal of research and skill. In most countries in the world, you can bear any arms you want. This is the way in which arms were originally adopted, before codification and regulation by European heralds and rulers. However, many people consider it wrong to adopt someone else's arms. In some countries, notably Scotland, this is not only dishonourable but illegal. In particular, there are no laws regulating the use of _non-governmental_ arms in the US. The American government neither grants nor recognizes armory. You can adopt any arms you choose and use them however you want (unless you infringe on someone's trademark, which is an entirely different subject that has been beaten to death on this newsgroup so please don't ask about it); but you have no particular right to those arms or any other. If you are descended from someone who was granted arms by some heraldic authority then you may have some claim to those arms within the jurisdiction of that authority. The chances are very good that you do not have any claim on any actual arms. Most people in the world do not. Exactly what conditions you have to meet to establish such a claim vary considerably from one country to another. At the very least, you will have to prove that a recognized holder of the arms is your ancestor. In some countries, you would have to prove that you are the legal heir of that person. Getting an official recognition of your claim is likely to be expensive and time-consuming; in England, for example, it costs thousands of pounds. *** Your last name has nothing to do with the matter. *** Arms are not associated with surnames, but with individuals and, in some countries, with families. The important thing is who your ancestors are, not what surname you happen to bear. The fact that your name happens to be "Smith", for example, gives you no claim whatsoever on any of the thousands of arms borne throughout history by various people named "Smith." Unfortunately, there are lots of unscrupulous businessmen worldwide who are happy to promulgate false information about the subject of armory. They will happily take your money to tell you "Your Family Arms", which they supply simply by finding an armigerous family that happens to share your surname. We suggest that you avoid these companies; if you want anything more than a decorative wall-hanging, they are a waste of your money. And if you will be happy with any pretty picture to hang on your wall, you can save yourself the trouble of dealing with these companies, and simply choose arms that you like. See also the MFAQ at: http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/mfaq 4: What about those outfits in the malls that'll sell me my arms? ================================================================= See question 3. "Unless you pay them thousands of dollars, the companies [in the malls, and in advertisements in many publications] won't do that research; they'll just look in their books under your surname, and tell you what's there. All that will tell you is that there is (or once was) a person sharing Byour surname who bore arms. Suppose your name were "Jones"; it wouldn't be very significant to learn that there was once an English armiger named "Jones". - Josh Mittleman (mittle@panix.com) 5: What is the difference between a coat of arms and a crest? ============================================================= Many people mistakenly call a shield bearing arms a crest, for example in the phrase "my family's crest", which usually refers to the shield itself, or perhaps a badge. A full English coat of arms (an "achievement") consists of: - a shield (with arms painted on it, obviously); - above the shield, a helm or helmet; - hanging from the helm, the mantling, which represents a piece of cloth used for protection from the sun. The mantling is frequently arranged in decorative swirls around the shield, suggesting a tattered cloth hacked about in fighting; - a torse, or wreath, being twists of cloth wound around the helmet; - the crest, sitting on the torse. There may also be, if the bearer is entitled to them: - a supporter on each side of the shield (in some cases there may be only one supporter); - a compartment for the supporters to stand on; - one or more collars of orders of knighthood surrounding the shield, or symbols of office (eg batons) behind it. Not all the elements have to be present; the essential part is the shield. There may also be other bits and pieces, such as mottos, badges or war cries. Achievements in other countries frequently differ: for example the torse is not very common on the continent, and coronets are commonly found in French heraldry. Any book should have illustrations of many different achievements, with different selections of these elements. 6: How do you blazon a coat of arms? ==================================== Coats of arms are described in a technical language, devised over the centuries by heralds, with the aim of describing even the most complex coats concisely and unambiguously. This language cannot be summarised usefully in the space of a FAQ. The books in the bibliography cover this in detail: those by Moncreiffe, Franklyn, Boutell (Brooke-Little) and Friar are particularly useful in my opinion. 7: What's the SCA? How does it relate to rec.heraldry? ====================================================== The SCA (Society for Creative Anachronism) is an international living-history society which researches and recreates many elements of medieval life, from battles to feasts. It has an active group of heralds, kings-of-arms and so on, who exercise considerable influence over the heraldry used in the SCA's activities. There are other such groups, but the SCA is by far the largest. Many SCA heralds participate in rec.heraldry, but please keep SCA-specific discussion in more appropriate fora (see question 2). 8: What do arms mean? ===================== Without knowing the circumstances of the original grant, it is difficult to say whether a coat means anything at all, except that someone (grantee or herald) liked the design. Some arms ("canting" arms) contain a charge whose name is related to the surname of the bearer (e.g. de Trumpington: Azure, crusily, two trumpets pileways Or). This can be taken to the extent of becoming a rebus puzzle -- the Borough of Congleton bears Sable, on water in base barry-wavy azure and argent, on a tun between two conger eels argent, a lion statant-guardant Or, which decodes to Conger-Leo-Tun. In the Middle Ages, bestiaries, popular tales and folklore contributed greatly to the association of specific animals with specific characteristics or virtues, some of which persist to this day (owls are wise, elephants have memory, etc). It is quite possible, for any given coat, that the original bearer chose an animal with such associations in mind. Often a coat will contain charges alluding to the original grantee's career or interests; for example medieval merchants and guildsmen often included the tools of their trade. These may become less appropriate as the coat is passed down through the generations, or their significance is forgotten. Quite elaborate schemes can be developed: a former Governor General of New Zealand has a coat based on the theme "a cat among the pigeons", which is apparently how she sees her career. Some charges were taken from the arms of a bearer's feudal lord or protector as a mark of loyalty. For example, the Maltese cross in the arms of several towns in Switzerland is a reference to the Knights of Malta, who were once sovereign in that area. The frequency with which the bar, a type of fish, appears in coats of arms of the former duchy of Bar in Eastern France can only be explained in this way. Also, imperial eagles which appear in many Italian coats were originally meant as a sign of allegiance to the Imperial party in the conflicts which tore medieval Italy. 9: How inviolable is the rule of tincture? ========================================== The "colours" used on shields are strictly called tinctures; there is a limited range which varies somewhat from place to place and time to time. These tinctures are divided into two groups: gold and silver, which are called the metals, and all the others, which are called the colours. In Woodward's words, it is a "primary heraldic canon" that colour is not placed on colour, nor metal on metal. This rule was used to ensure that coats of arms could be easily recognised at a distance or in the heat of battle. It is commonly said that the arms of Jerusalem (Argent, a cross potent between four crosses Or) are the only counterexample. However, Woodward quotes several examples from continental heraldry in which the "rule" is broken: e.g. Grasse (Azure, ten stars Gules, 1, 2, 3 and 4) and Doro (Argent, a lion Or). Augmentations of honour sometimes breach the rule as well, and a chief of colour is often, especially in continental heraldry, placed on top of a simpler coat, giving an appearance of colour on colour. What _is_ certain is that colour on colour or metal on metal is exceedingly uncommon or non-existent in English, French and Scottish heraldry, and that the Kings of Arms in Scotland and England would not grant such an arrangement today. In other countries the rule is less rigidly followed, and in some, such as Hungary, colour on colour is very common. Most of the books in English reflect English or Scottish heraldic practice and ignore the heraldry of other nations. 10: Is the Court of Chivalry dead? ================================== The Court of Chivalry is a leading contender for "flame-bait of the year" award in rec.heraldry. In mediaeval times heraldry was strictly regulated, and in England there was a Court of Chivalry to deal with heraldic jurisdiction. This court had a chequered history, going into abeyance more than once. This English Court of Chivalry most recently sat in 1954, after a long period of disuse. During that judgement (a case of assumption of another's arms) it was declared that the Court should sit only in very exceptional circumstances. There have been changes in the English legal system since 1954 which would make it difficult for the Court to sit again without legislation. Notwithstanding this, the current (1994) Somerset Herald and Norroy and Ulster King of Arms have both stated their opinion that the Court could still sit. The situation is quite different in Scotland: Lyon Court functions as it always has. 11: What heraldic software is available? ======================================== There are two Windows95 shareware progams, different in spite of similar names: (1) Blazon and Blazon95, written by Peter Barrett for educational purposes, are available at <http://petebarrett.members.beeb.net/blazon.htm>. (2) Blazons! written by Bob Billard, is available at <http://www.blazons.com/>. For Macintosh,Steven Solomon has written a program called Heraldry Primer. It is shareware, and version 1.1 is available at <http://members.aol.com/grammarman/grammarstuff/aboutheraldry.html>. 12: How do I unzip Blazons? =========================== This comes up very, very frequently. There are lots of ways of doing this, but this one at least works. I'll use drive C:, substitute the letter of your hard drive if necessary. Step by step then: - obtain the file BLAZONS.ZIP. If you FTP it yourself, remember to use binary mode . - move BLAZONS.ZIP into the ROOT directory of drive C: - obtain a copy of PKUNZIP.EXE, if you don't already have one. Put it in any directory on your path. Most people have a UTILS or UTILITY directory. - type PKUNZIP -D BLAZONS (Enter) The -D is critical: it forces pkunzip to create the correct directories. If all goes well, you will have a directory called BLAZONS, and in it several files, and a subdirectory called PICTS. You can now delete BLAZONS.ZIP, or at least move it someplace more appropriate than the root directory. Run the program from the BLAZONS directory. There is a documentation file BLAZONS.DOC in that directory as well. If the unzip operation fails check that: - you have a recent version of pkunzip. Version 2.04g certainly works, so should any later versions. Earlier versions MIGHT work. - you did ftp BLAXONS.ZIP in binary mode. - you remembered the -D switch. 13: Is there a computerised Ordinary available to download? =========================================================== (An Ordinary is a reference book which lists shields of arms by the charges they contain, which obviously helps identify an unknown shield.) The SCA has one, but it covers only SCA heraldry. It is available by ftp from: vela.acs.oakland.edu (, /pub/heralds/armorials nimbus.gp.cs.cmu.edu (, /usr/kvs/pub Other SCA armorials can be searched from the Web pages mentioned in question 2. 14: Where can I find heraldic clip-art on the net? ================================================== It is said that CorelDraw versions 4 through 7 has some heraldic clip-art. Also, there are some links to clip-art at <http://digiserve.com/heraldry/clipart.htm>. 15: What are some books I can turn to to learn more? ==================================================== The following are a few of the many books on heraldry and the work of heralds. The list is specifically aimed at the beginner, but includes the most often quoted references (Papworth, Woodward, Fairbairn). See also the annotated bibliography at <http://www.heraldica.org/biblio/>. Heraldry books can be hard to track down. One very good source is: Heraldry Today, Parliament Piece, Ramsbury, Wiltshire SN8 2QH, ENGLAND. Get to know your local second-hand book dealer too! Bedingfeld, H. and Gwynn-Jones, P. _Heraldry_. London, Magna Books, 1993. Boutell, C. (Revised J.P. Brooke-Little) _Boutell's Heraldry_. London, 1863 (latest edition 1983). Brooke-Little, J.P. _An Heraldic Alphabet_. London, 1973 (revised edition 1985). Burke, Sir Bernard. _The General Armory of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales_. Heraldry Today, first printed 1842; final edition 1884; reprinted 1984. Dennys, R. _The Heraldic Imagination_. London, 1975. Dennys, R. _Heraldry and the Heralds_. London, 1982. Elvin, C.N. _A Dictionary of Heraldry_. Heraldry Today, 1889; reprinted 1977. Evans, I.O. _The Observer's Book of Flags_. Fredrick Warne and Co., London, 1975. Fairbairn, J. _Fairbairn's Book of Crests of the Families of Britain and Ireland_. 1905, reprinted 1983. Fox-Davis, A.C. (revised and annotated J.P. Brooke-Little). _A Complete Guide to Heraldry_. London, 1909; revised edition 1985. Franklyn, J. _Shield and Crest_. MacGibbon and Kee, London, 1960; revised edition 1967. Friar, S. (ed) _A New Dictionary of Heraldry_. Alphabooks, London, 1987. Friar, S. and Ferguson, J. _Basic Heraldry_. Herbert Press, London, 1993. MacKinnon, C. _The Observer's Book of Heraldry_. Fredrick Warne and Co, London. Moncreiffe, Sir Iain, and Pottinger, D. _Simple Heraldry_. London, 1953. Neubecker, O. _Heraldry: Symbols, Sources and Meaning_. London, 1976. Papworth, J. _Ordinary of British Armorials: An Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms Belonging to Families in Great Britain & Ireland_. Heraldry Today, Bath 1884, reprinted 1977. Scott-Giles, C.W. _The Romance of Heraldry_. London, revised edition 1967. von Volborth, C.A. _Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles_. Poole, 1981. von Volborth, C.A. (ed. D.H.B. Chesshyre) _Heraldry of the World_. London, 1973. Wagner, Sir Anthony. _Heraldry in England_. London, 1946. Woodcock, T. and Robinson, J.M. _The Oxford Guide to Heraldry_. OUP, Oxford, 1988. [An excellent general introduction, with much material not found in the other introductions listed here, but much more reliable on English heraldry than any other countries] Woodward, J. and Burnett, G.A. _Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign_. 1891, reprinted 1969, with new introduction by L.G. Pine, Charles E Tuttle Co., Rutland, Vermont. A very large and scholarly bibliography of heraldic references was compiled by David Sanders (ae766@yfn.ysu.edu). It covers the entire world, and several centuries. It is available for anonymous FTP in ZIP format from ftp.heraldica.org as /pub/heraldry/faqs/sanders.zip (alternate URL <http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/sanders.zip>). 16: Which tartan should I wear, and other tartan stuff. ====================================================== This subject frequently rears its head in rec.heraldry; it is however well off charter! More appropriate newsgroups are soc.culture.scottish, soc.culture.celtic, and alt.scottish.clans (which is badly propagated). Just remember that there is even more nonsense talked about tartan than is talked about heraldry. 17: Addresses of national heraldic and genealogical associations. ================================================================= The following are addresses of heraldic associations and authorities. Only national associations are listed; there are numerous local and regional societies in many countries and the national societies should be able to put you in touch with them. Some of these are undoubtedly out of date. PLease forward any corrections to the FAQ-keeper. Australia (current as of 1/2006): Heraldry Australia Inc. C/- Stephen M Szabo Hon. Secretary PO Box 107 Lawson NSW 2783 Australia heraldry_aust@optusnet.com.au http://members.optusnet.com.au/~gold_gryph/heraldry/index.htm The Armorial & Heraldry Society of Australasia Inc. PO Box 352 World Trade Centre Melbourne, VIC 3005 The Honourable Company of Armigers Inc. (Australian Chapter) The Chancellor PO Box 11 Armadale, Vic Australia 3143 home page http://expage.com/page/armigers South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society Inc. GPO Box 592 Adelaide, SA 5001 Australia home page http://saghs.mtx.net/ Heraldry & Genealogical Society of Canberra GPO Box 585, Canberra, ACT 2601 Australia home page http://www.hagsoc.org.au/ Austria: Heraldisch-Genealogische Gesellschaft "Adler" Universitätsstraße 6, Flat 9b, A-1096 Vienna email: society.adler.vienna@chello.at (they give advice on genealogical and heraldic research) Belgium: Association Royale Office Généalogique et Héraldique de Belgique Avenue Charles Thielemans, 93 B -1150 Bruxelles Tél. et Fax: 02 / 772.50.27 http://www.oghb.org/home.htm Vlaamse Vereniging voor Familiekunde The VVF has a "Heraldic College" that registers arms: http://users.skynet.be/sky60754/familiekunde/vvf/vvfheraldcollege.htm Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority Rideau Hall 1 Sussex Drive Ottawa, ON K1A 0A1 http://www.gg.ca/heraldry/index_e.asp Royaly Heraldry Society of Canada P.O. Box 8128 Terminal T Ottawa, ON K1G 3H9 Canada http://www.heraldry.ca Denmark: Heraldisk Selskab c/o Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard (president), Tesdorpfsvej 59, DK 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark e-mail: kurrild-klitgaard@heraldik.org Nordisk Flaggselskap [society] & Nordisk Flaggskrift [journal] c/o Lisbeth Stilling (secretary) Stilling Flag Sorgenfrivej 14 DK Lyngby Denmark Web site: http://w1.150.telia.com/~u15003985/nordflagg/ E-mail: Stilling@danbbs.dk England and Wales: The College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street, London, EC4V 4BT. Web site: http://www.college-of-arms.gov.uk/ The Heraldry Society, PO Box 32, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 3FD Web site: www.kwtelecom.com/heraldry/hersoc Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies, Northgate, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1BA. Web site: http://www.ihgs.ac.uk/ Finland: Suomen Heraldinen Seura / Heraldiska Sällskapet i Finland The Heraldry Society of Finland P.O. Box 48 FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland Genealogiska Samfundet i Finland Elisabetsgatan 16 A FIN-00170 Helsingfors, Finland France: Fédération Française de Généalogie Histoire des Familles, Héraldique, Sigillographie 3 rue de Turbigo - 75001 Paris tel : +(33) 1 40 13 00 88 fax : +(33) 1 40 13 00 89 La Société Française D'Héraldique et de Sigillographie, 60, rue des Francs-Bourgeois, 75003, Paris. La Société du Grand Armorial de France, 179, Boulevard Haussman, Paris. Conseil Français d'Héraldique http://www.karolus.org/org/assoc/as-fr/as-fr-na/h-cfh.htm c/o Dr Jean-Marie THIÉBAUD 30, rue de la République B.P. 181 25303 PONTARLIER CEDEX Germany: Der Herold, Archivstraße 12-14, D-14196, Berlin (Dahlem) 33. Genealogisch-Heraldische Gesellschaft, Postfach 2062, D-37010, Göttingen. Wappen Herold, Deutsche Heraldische Gesellschaft Postfach 556, D-7000, Stuttgart 1. Hungary: (tentative) Magyar Heraldikai es Geneologiai Tarsasag Elte University of Budapest, Budapest, v. Pesti Barnabas Utca 1. Iceland: Icelandic Heraldry Society, Bolstadarhild 16, Reykjavic. International: Académie Internationale d'Héraldique, 4 bis, Bvd de Glatigney, F-78000, Versailles, France. Confédération Internationale de Généalogie et d'Héraldique, 24, rue St-Louis-en-l'ile, 75004 Paris, France. International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Studies, Harmignies, Rue Martin Lindehens, 57, B-1150 Bruxelles, Belgium. International Fellowship of Armorists (Heraldry International), Werastr. 105, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, West Germany. International Genealogical Institute, Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, 50 East Smith Temple St, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ireland: The Chief Herald of Ireland's Office, 2 Kildare St, Dublin. The Heraldry Scoiety of Ireland, Castle Matrix, Rathkeale, Co. Limerick. Italy: Aradico Collegio, 16 Via Santa Maria dell'Anima, Roma. Istituto Italiano di Genealogia ed Araldica, Palazzo della Scimma, 18 Via dei Portohesi, Roma. Japan: The Heraldry Society of Japan, 3-88-26 Higashi Toyonaka, Toyonaka, Osaka. Luxemburg: Conseil Héraldique de Luxembourg, 25 Rue Bertholet. The Luxembourg Society of Genealogy and Heraldry P.O.Box 118 L-7502 Mersch Luxembourg Web site: http://www.luxembourg.co.uk/genealog.html Netherlands: Koninklijk Nederlandsch Genootschap voor Geslacht- en Wapenkunde, 5 Bleijenburg, Den Haag. Web site: http://www.knggw.nl/index.html Central Bureau voor Genealogie, PO Box 11755, 2502 The Hague. Web site: http://www.cbg.nl/hoofd.htm The Bureau has a registry of Dutch coat of arms New Zealand: The Heraldry Society of New Zealand, 60 Sayegh St, St Heliers, Auckland. The Heraldry Society (New Zealand Branch), PO Box 68-051, Newton, Auckland. Web site: http://www.geocities.com/heraldry_society/ Norway: Norsk Heraldisk Forening, PO Box 958-Oslo Sentrum, N-0104 Oslo 1 Den Norske Våpenring c/o Cappelen P.O.Box 1633 Vika, N-0119 Oslo Norsk Slekthistorik Forening, P.O.Box 59 Sentrum, N-101 Oslo Poland: Polskie Towarzystwo Heraldyczne (The Polish Heraldic Society) Rynek Starego Miasta 29/31 PL 00-272 Warszawa, POLSKA (=Warsaw, POLAND) tel.(48-22) 831 02 61, fax (48-22) 831 36 42 Polen Polish Genealogy and Heraldry Society Wodna 27, Palac Gorkow 61-781 Poznan Web site: http://feehs.org/pol/frg-pghs.html Portugal: Institutio Portuges de Heraldica Convento do Carmo, Largo do carmo, P-1200 Lisboa. Scandinavia: Societas Heraldica Scandinavica c/o Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard (president), Tesdorpfsvej 59, DK 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark Web site: http://www.heraldik.org e-mail: kurrild-klitgaard@heraldik.org Scotland: Lord Lyon King of Arms, and the Court of Lord Lyon, H.M. New Register House, Edinburgh EH1 3YT. The Heraldry Society of Scotland, 25 Craientinny Cres., Edinburgh EH7 6QA. Web site: http://www.heraldry-scotland.co.uk/ The Scottish Genealogy Society 15 Victoria Terrace Edinburgh, EH1 2JL Web site: http://www.scotsgenealogy.com/ South Africa: The address of the South African Heraldic authority is: The State Herald Bureau of Heraldry Private Bag X236 Pretoria 0001 Tel : +27-12-323-5300 Fax : +27-12-323-5287 The Heraldry Society of Southern Africa, PO Box 81011, Parkhurst 2120.. Spain: (as of 1997) Exc.mo Sr D. Alfonso de Ceballos-Escalera y Gil, Marques de la Floresta Cronista de Armas de Castila y Leon Quintana 28 Madrid 28008 SPAIN Sweden: Swedish state herald: Henrik Klackenberg Riksarkivet - Heraldiska sektionen Box 12 541 S - 102 29 Stockholm http://www.ra.se/-RA/heraldik.htm There are two heraldry societies, the larger one (300 members) is the Svenska Heraldiska Föreningen, the smaller one (60 members) is Heraldiska Samfundet. Svenska Heraldiska Föreningen (Heraldry Society of Sweden) Jesper Wasling, Secretary Sämgatan 10 S - 507 45 Borås e-mail: jesper@heraldik.se http://www.heraldik.se Other contacts: Henric Åsklund, Chairman Ekoxevägen 9 S - 247 35 Södra Sandby e-mail: henrik@heraldik.se Heraldiska Samfundet c/o Per Nordenvall Börjegatan 8 B S - 753 13 Uppsala e-mail c/o ERIC BYLANDER: eb@mensa.se http://www.heraldik.se/hs Skandinavisk Vapenrulla (SVR) (Scandinavian Roll of Arms) http://www.hem.fyristorg.com/monitorförlaget/svr.html c/o Tor Flensmarck Graagården i Vä S - 291 65 Kristianstad (Also editor for Vapenbilden, magazine for the Heraldry Society of Sweden) Svenska Nationalkommitten for Genealogi och Heraldik, Bernadottebiblioteket Kungliga, Slottet S-111 30, Stockholm. (This is the address of the royal family's library) Västra Sveriges Heraldiska Sällskap, Förtroligheten 4, S - 412 70 Göteborg. or: Tanneskarsgatan 277, S - 421 60 Västra Frölunda. (not active at present, I am told) Riddarhuset Box 2022 S - 103 11 Stockholm http://www.riddarhuset.se (The noble house of Sweden, assembly of the nobility) Genealogiska Föreningen (Genealogical Society) Box 2029, S - 103 11 Stockholm Switzerland: Heraldische Schweizersche Gesellschaft, Luzern, Lutzelmasstraße, 4. United States of America: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 99-101 Newbury Street, Boston, MA 02116. North American Institute of Heraldic and Flag Studies, North Planet Road, Box 88, Boston, MA 02666. American College of Heraldry, 1836 Ashley River Road, Suite 396, Charleston, SC 29407-4817 http://www.americancollegeofheraldry.org/ American Heraldry Society 8104 Mansanillo Ct Arlington, TX 76002 http://heraldrysociety.us/ The Augustan Society Inc, 1510 Cravens Avenue, Torrance, CA 90501. Web site: http://www.augustansociety.org/ Genealogical and Heraldic Institute of America, 111 Colombia Heights, Brooklyn, NY 11201. National Genealogical Society, 4527 17th St. North, Arlington, VA 22207-2363. 18: Distribution: ================ The document is posted to rec.heraldry at the beginning of each month. The latest version is available for anonymous ftp at ftp://ftp.heraldica.org/pub/heraldry/faqs/heraldry.faq or http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/heraldry.faq This document is a compilation of material from many sources and readers of rec.heraldry. Please feel free to redistribute it any way you like. This document is now available in Belorussian: http://blog.1800flowers.com/international/heraldica-questions-be/ -- François R. Velde velde@nospam.org (replace by "heraldica") Heraldica Web Site: http://www.heraldica.org/