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Subject: Flavouring the World, the FAQ about SPICES Ver. 1.1
This article was archived around: Sun, 19 Apr 1998 04:59:39 GMT
Last-modified: Jun 25, 1997.
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Frequently Asked Questions about Spices Ver. 1.1 (Jun 25, 1997.)
Changes since last version
* Patricia Rain address and email updated.
* 1 Introduction
* 2 Spices
+ 2.1 What are spices
+ 2.2 Why are spices so tasty?
+ 2.3 What is the difference between essential oils and
+ 2.4 Names of Spices
+ 2.5 What are some uses of spices (excluding the kitchen)
* 3 Pepper
+ 3.1 What is black pepper?
+ 3.2 Where is pepper native from?
+ 3.3 Where the name pepper comes from
+ 3.4 What is green pepper?
+ 3.5 What is white pepper?
+ 3.6 What is pink pepper?
+ 3.7 Are there any differences between white and black
+ 3.8 Storage
* 4 Cinnamon
+ 4.1 Where does Cinnamon come from?
* 5 Vanilla
+ 5.1 Where does Vanilla come from?
+ 5.2 What is Vanillin?
+ 5.3 Products
o 5.3.1 What is Vanilla Extract?
o 5.3.2 How do I differentiate between real and unreal
o 5.3.3 What is vanilla flavouring?
o 5.3.4 What is vanilla tincture?
o 5.3.5 What is concentrated vanilla extract and
concentrated vanilla flavouring?
o 5.3.6 What is Vanilla Oleoresin?
o 5.3.7 What is Vanilla Powder?
o 5.3.8 What is Vanilla-Vanillin Extract Flavouring
o 5.3.9 What is Perfumery Vanilla Tincture?
o 5.3.10 What is Vanilla Absolute?
+ 5.4 Major types of Vanilla
o 5.4.1 What are vanilla splits?
o 5.4.2 What are vanilla cuts?
o 5.4.3 What is Mexican Vanilla?
o 5.4.4 What is Bourbon vanilla?
o 5.4.5 What is Indonesian vanilla?
o 5.4.6 What is South American or West Indian Vanilla?
o 5.4.7 What is Tahiti vanilla?
o 5.4.8 What is Vanillons (Guadeloupe vanilla or
o 5.4.9 Is it safe to buy Mexican vanilla?
+ 5.5 For the do-it-yourselfer
o 5.5.1 How do I prepare Vanilla Extract?
o 5.5.2 How do I prepare vanilla sugar?
o 5.5.3 How do I store my cured vanilla beans?
o 5.5.4 How do I use vanilla in my kitchen?
+ 5.6 Further information
* 6 Saffron
+ 6.1 What is saffron?
+ 6.2 Why is saffron so expensive?
+ 6.3 Why should I not use wooden utensils to work with
+ 6.4 What is Mexican saffron?
+ 6.5 How do I store saffron?
+ 6.6 Where is saffron native from?
+ 6.7 Further information
* 7 What is coriander/cilantro/Chinese parsley?
+ 7.1 Where does the name coriander comes from?
+ 7.2 How do I store fresh cilantro?
* 8 Other Spices
+ 8.1 Is there any substitute to coconut milk?
* 9 Storing Spices
+ 9.1 Should I store my spices in the fridge?
+ 9.2 Bay leaves
+ 9.3 Ground spices
* 10 Others
+ 10.1 Disclaimer
+ 10.2 List of Contributors
This FAQ describes basic facts about spices: their nature, storage,
This FAQ is posted montly to the following newsgroups:
rec.food.cooking, rec.food.veg, rec.food.preserving, rec.answers, and
This FAQ is (C) Copyright 1995 Daniel M. Germán. This text, in whole
or in part, may not be sold in any medium, including, but not limited
to electronic, CD-ROM, or published in print, without the explicit,
written permission of Daniel M. Germán. This FAQ can be reproduced and
distributed electronically or in hardcopy as long as this is done for
free and it is kept intact.
If you have any comments about this document, please direct them to
The hypertext version of this FAQ is available at:
2.1 What are spices
Spices are the various strongly flavoured or aromatic substances of
vegetable origin, commonly used as condiments or employed for other
purposes on account of their fragance and preservation qualities
2.2 Why are spices so tasty?
Spices have two main components :
* Volatile oils. Also known as essential oils, they are responsible
for the characteristic aroma of spices.
* Oleoresins, or non volatile extracts, which are responsible for
the typical taste and flavour.
2.3 What is the difference between essential oils and oleoresins?
By David Soknacki, from Econ Manufacturing:
``Essential oils are generally produced by injecting the spice bed
with steam, and then separating the distillate into the essential
oil and water. On the other hand oleoresins are produced by soaking
spices in a solvent, whether a combination of ethanol and water in
your example for vanilla, or hexane in the case of many of our
spices. One of the final stages in processing is to remove the
solvent to acceptable levels (35 ethanol for vanilla, but under
25ppm for hexane in spices). What is left are all of the flavour
components dissolved by the solvent. Companies decide between
essential oils and oleoresins usually depending on the flavour
profile they require for their finished product.''
2.4 Names of Spices
The following table summarizes the common and scientific names of most
popular spices and the part of the plant they come from.
Common Name Scientific Name Part of the plant
Allspice Pimenta dioca Berries
Anise Pimpinella aisum Seed
Annato Bixa orellana Seeds
Basil Ocimum basilicum Leaves
Bay Laurus nobilis Leaves
Caraway Carum carvi Seeds
Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Seeds
Celery Apium graveolens Seeds
Cayenne Capsicum annuum Podlike berries
Chia Salvia columbariae Seeds
Chile Pepper Capsiums Berries
Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Bark
Chives Allium schoenoprasum Leaves
Chocolate Theobroma cacao Seeds
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bark
cloves Syzygium aromaticum Flower buds
Coffee Coffea arabica Seeds
Coriander Coriandrum sativum Seeds
Cumin Cuminum cyminum Seeds
Dill Anethum graveolens Leaves seeds
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Seeds
Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum
Garlic Allium sativum Bulb
Ginger Zaingiber offinale Rhizomes
Horseradish Armoracia rusticana Roots
Mace Myristica fragrans Seed coverings (arils)
Marjoram Sweet marjoram Leaves
Mint Mentha species Seeds
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Peeled seeds
Onion Allium cepa Bulbs
Oregano Origanum vulgare Leaves
Paprika Capsicum annuum Fruit pods
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Leaves
Pepper Piper nigrum Buds
Pimiento Capsicum annuum Fruits
Poppy seed Papaver somniferum Seeds
Rosemary Rosmarinus officialis Leaves or flowers
Safflower Carthamus tinctorius Flowers
Saffron crocus sativus Flowers stigmas
Sage salvia species Leaves
Savory Satureja species Leaves
Sesame Sesamum indicum Seeds
Shallot Allium cepa Bulbs
Star Anise Illicium verum Unripe fruits
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus Leaves
Thyme Thymus species Leaves
Turmeric Curcuma domestica Rhizomes
Vainilla Vanilla planifolia Seed pods
2.5 What are some uses of spices (excluding the kitchen)
Some examples on the use of spices:
* Antioxygenic properties. Some spices retard the oxydation of fat.
* Preserving action. Some spices contain essential oils that are
toxic to microorganisms :
+ Cloves contain plenty of essential oil (15 to 20%); its main
component --eugenol, 80 to 92%-- inhibits the growth of
+ At normal growth temperatures, the mustard's essential oil is
toxic to microorganism.
* Antimicrobial activity. Black pepper, garlic, cinnamon, nutmeg,
cloves, ginger, cumin, and caraway amongst others, are used in
India for correcting and a variety of intestinal disorders
In a study, Subrahmanyan, et.al  reported the
susceptibilities of E. coli to garlic: at a concentration of 20
mg/ml of garlic, the number of organisms per ml. were 17, 22, and
300 after 0, 6, and 24 hrs. respectively; for the same periods, at
a concentration of 0 mg/ml, the results were: 17, 3600, and 16800.
* Perfumery and cosmetics.
+ Oils from cardamon, cumin, celery, chive, juniper, and nutmeg
are used in different types of perfume .
+ The oil of cinnamon, dill seed, fennel seed, and nutmeg are
used in scenting soaps, dental preparations, hair lotions,
and others .
3.1 What is black pepper?
Black pepper is the whole dried immature fruit of the Piper nigrum.
3.2 Where is pepper native from?
It is native of the Western Ghats in India, where it is still
restricted as a wild plant. Nowadays, it can also be found growing
wild in north Burma and the hills of Assam.
3.3 Where the name pepper comes from
It is believed that the name comes from the Sanskrit pippali, which
was the name of the long pepper, P. longum, which is now never seen in
3.4 What is green pepper?
It is unripe, but fully developed, pepper which is artificially dried
or preserved in ``wet'' form, e.g. brine, vinegar, citric acid.
3.5 What is white pepper?
According to Pruthi , there are several methods to prepare it:
1. Water steeping and rotting technique
+ From ripening fresh berries. It is the oldest method. Fresh
berries are harvested when one or two berries start turning
yellow or red. There are submerged for several days, at the
eleventh the skin is removed by hand or mechanical methods.
The berries --without skin-- are washed and immerse in a
bleaching solution. After 2 days, then they are washed and
+ From dried berries. Pepper berries are dried for 7 to 10
days, then submerged for one or two weeks. Again they are
washed, bleached, washed and dried.
2. Steaming. Ripening green berries are steamed for 10 to 15 minutes,
then a machine removes the skin. Also, the berries are treated
with a bleaching solution, then washed and dried.
3. Decortication technique (also known as decorticated pepper) .
Created by decortication machines that remove the skin of the
dried black peppercorns.
3.6 What is pink pepper?
Pink pepper is the berry from the Schinus terebinthifolius, a South
American tree. They are midly toxic. 
3.7 Are there any differences between white and black pepper?
The only significant difference between white and black pepper is in
starch and fiber content. The belief that white pepper is milder in
flavour than black pepper does not seem to be confirmed by the
scientific data . However, there are some differences in
pungency --of black and white pepper-- due to geographical origin.
Pepper can be washed and re-dried before grinding. Store away from
sunlight at moderate temperatures and low humidity. Only ground pepper
needs to be stored in sealed containers.
Pepper loses more volatile oils the finer it is ground.
Dried bark of Cinnamomum verum (syn. C. zeylanicm).
4.1 Where does Cinnamon come from?
It is indigenous in Sri Lanka, which still produces the largest
quantity and best quality. Seychelles is the second largest producer.
Vanilla is the fully grown fruit of the orchid Vanilla fragrans
harvested before it is fully ripe; then it is fermented and cured. The
fruits are usually referred to as vanilla beans . Vanilla
production is regulated by ISO standard 5565.
5.1 Where does Vanilla come from?
Vanilla is native to Mexico, Guatemala and other parts of Central
America. At the present time, it grows also in Madagascar, the
Seychelles, Tahiti, Réunion and other tropical areas. The first
recorded use of the spice in European literature dates back to 1520,
when Moctezuma II offered vanilla flavoured chocolate to Hernán
Cortés. However, the use of tlilxochitl (Nahuatl for vanilla) is
earlier documented in the precolumbian literature.
5.2 What is Vanillin?
Vanillin is a crystalline phenolic aldehyde C_8H_8O_3 that is the
chief fragrant component of vanilla and is used especially in
flavouring and in perfumery .
Vanillin can now be produced synthetically, and it is much cheaper
than natural vanilla.
5.3.1 What is Vanilla Extract?
Vanilla extract is obtained by macerating the cured beans in a
solution of water and alcohol. It might contain sugar or glycerine as
sweeteners or thickeners .
Conventional vanilla extracts have a minimum ethanol content of 35%,
and contain the soluble extractives from 1 part by weight of vanilla
beans in 10 parts by volume of hydroalcoholic solution. .
5.3.2 How do I differentiate between real and unreal vanilla extract?
``The two best indicators of pure vanilla extract are alcohol content
and price. The alcohol content must be at least 35%; synthetics
usually have no alcohol or at most, about 2%. Any purchases that cost
less than US$25.00 a quart are most likely synthetic.''
5.3.3 What is vanilla flavouring?
It is similar to vanilla extract (see 5.3.1) but contains less
than 35% of ethanol per volume.
5.3.4 What is vanilla tincture?
It is used exclusively in pharmaceutical applications. It is prepared
by maceration from 1 part of vanilla beans by weight to 10 parts of
hydroalcoholic solution and contains added sugar. It differs from
vanilla extract (see 5.3.1) by having at least a 38% ethanol
5.3.5 What is concentrated vanilla extract and concentrated vanilla
They are prepared by removing the solvent from their regular
counterparts (see 5.3.1, 5.3.3).
5.3.6 What is Vanilla Oleoresin?
It is a semi-solid concentrate obtained by removing the solvent from
the vanilla extract. A solution of isopropanol is frequently used
instead of ethanol for the maceration. Vanilla oleoresin has lost part
of its aroma --hence its flavour-- during the removal of the solvent.
5.3.7 What is Vanilla Powder?
Powdered vanilla beans. It might be pure, but normally it is
adulterated with vanilla oleoresin, sugar, food starch, or gum acacia.
5.3.8 What is Vanilla-Vanillin Extract Flavouring and Powder?
A combination of synthetic vanillin and vanilla oleoresin to create
extract and flavouring (see 5.3.1, 5.3.3, 5.3.7).
5.3.9 What is Perfumery Vanilla Tincture?
Similar to vanilla extract (see 5.3.1) but prepared with perfumery
alcohol, with near 90% ethanol content. It is not intended for
5.3.10 What is Vanilla Absolute?
It is the most concentrated form of vanilla. ``It is 7-13 times
stronger than good-quality vanilla beans but it has less well-rounded
5.4 Major types of Vanilla
5.4.1 What are vanilla splits?
Whole bean that burst open during fermentation, and are frosted with
vanillin crystals .
5.4.2 What are vanilla cuts?
Beans that have been cut into pieces to accelerate the curing process.
This category might include small beans.
5.4.3 What is Mexican Vanilla?
It is supplied in 5 grades (or 7 if intermediate grades are included)
of whole beans and in the form of cuts. The top grades of Mexican
beans are rarely ``frosted'' with a surface coating of naturally
5.4.4 What is Bourbon vanilla?
``It has a deeper `body' flavour than Mexican vanilla, but less fine
aroma'' . It is produced in Madagascar, the Comoro Islands and
5.4.5 What is Indonesian vanilla?
The main source of Indonesian vanilla is Java. ``Java vanilla
possesses a deep, full-bodied flavour and is frequently used for
blending with synthetic vanillin'' 
5.4.6 What is South American or West Indian Vanilla?
More similar in properties to Bourbon than to Mexican vanilla.
5.4.7 What is Tahiti vanilla?
It is obtained from V. tahitensis and ``possesses a characteristic
aromatic odour and usually has a lower vanillin content than true
vanilla.'' . It generally has less flavour than true vanilla.
5.4.8 What is Vanillons (Guadeloupe vanilla or Antilles vanilla)?
It is obtained from V. pompona. ``Vanillons has a low vanillin content
and possesses a characteristic floral aroma, bearing similarities to
Tahiti vanilla'' . It has a poor flavour and it is normally
used in perfumery.
5.4.9 Is it safe to buy Mexican vanilla?
Mexican vanilla has one of the finest aromas, however, most of the
vanilla extract sold in Mexico is artificial. In México there is
almost a complete lack of enforcement of labeling laws for vanilla.
Furthermore, nowhere in the world you can expect to buy a liter of
real vanilla extract for a couple of dollars. As a good example of
this kind of problems, I have seen turmeric being sold as saffron in a
well known supermarket. So don't be cheap: if you want good vanilla,
pay the price of getting it from a reliable source; if you care for
price, use artificial vanilla.
5.5 For the do-it-yourselfer
5.5.1 How do I prepare Vanilla Extract?
Juan San Mames shared the following recipe :
Use one vanilla bean for every 120 ml. of any clear liquor (vodka
preferably). With a knife, split the bean open (always put your
finger behind the knife). If the bean is hard, just break it into
pieces. Then put the bean in the liquor.
Close the bottle and leave it for about two weeks or until the
vanilla bean aroma begins to come through.
When you use the extract, if you don't want the vanilla seeds to
show with the ingredients, use a coffee filter. You can return the
seeds to the bottle. If you make ice cream, you may want to show
the seeds in the finished ice cream.
Bruce Steinberg added :
You can shake the bottle several times a week to accelerate the
extraction. Brandy may also be used for interesting variations.
According to US regulations, 1 l. of vanilla extract must contain a
minimum of 100 gr. of vanilla beans (I reckon that each regular size
complete bean must weight between 3 and 5 gr.) of no more or 25%
moisture content. Commercial extracts also include sugar and
glycerine, to help to ``fix'' the aroma .
5.5.2 How do I prepare vanilla sugar?
Store 1 or 2 vanilla beans on an air-tight jar of granulated sugar.
Allow one month for the flavour to permeate. If the beans are always
topped with sugar, the beans last for years. Use this sugar in sweet
Storage temperature can be raised to 15-21 Celsius without detriment
to the flavour quality of the beans.
5.5.3 How do I store my cured vanilla beans?
Vanilla beans should be stored in open containers at a temperature of
about 10 C at a low humidity 
5.5.4 How do I use vanilla in my kitchen?
Use vanilla sugar to give a nice flavour to your drinks. It also
enhances the flavour of chocolate .
Almost any sweet dish will improve its flavour with a touch of vanilla
5.6 Further information
An excellent treatment of the topic can be found at .
The ``Vanilla Cookbook'' by Patricia Rain is a complete book from a
more practical point of view. This book is out of print and a new
edition is being written. You can contact her to get a notice whenever
the new edition of the book is available.
Patricia Rain's "The Vanilla Cookbook" covers the use of vanilla
from basic extracts through liqueurs, desserts, souffles, and
baking of all kinds, to full-tilt savoury recipes such as
"Seafood-Pecan Salad with Vanilla Mayonnaise", "Rice with Coconut,
Vanilla, Dates, and Lemon" and "Fresh Tuna Grenobleoise with
The Patricia Rain's Vanilla Information Hotline is available at (408)
476-9111 --fax (408) 476-9112-- for any vanilla questions, to request
a basic vanilla FAQ (by fax or snail mail), or to get further info on
ordering Tahitian and Bourbon beans, extracts.
6.1 What is saffron?
Saffron is the dried stigmas of the crocus sativus. It is of orange
color and has a strong perfume and a bitter taste. Saffron production
is regulated by ISO with standard 3632.
6.2 Why is saffron so expensive?
Every plant has on average 3 flowers; each flower only 3 stigmas. It
takes between 200,000 and 300,000 stigmas to make 1 kg. of saffron
. Pure saffron, however, has a strong flavour and a pinch is
sufficient for most dishes.
Avoid buying powdered saffron, it might be adulterated.
6.3 Why should I not use wooden utensils to work with saffron?
Wood has an absorbing property. Since saffron is expensive you don't
want to waste it.
6.4 What is Mexican saffron?
Mexican saffron is the flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. which is an
annual herb grown in the temperate regions of Central México. Its
quality is quite inferior to real saffron but it has similar coloring
properties. It is far cheaper.
6.5 How do I store saffron?
Saffron is sensitive to light and moisture. Keep it in a dark
container away from sunlight. It will last for years.
6.6 Where is saffron native from?
It is believed that it is native of Asia Minor.
6.7 Further information
Vanilla, Saffron Imports prints a pamphlet called Cooking and & with
Saffron, they also have a WWW page ( http://www.saffron.com/ )
with some facts about saffron, including a photospectrometry report.
They can be reached at ``Vanilla Saffron Imports, 949 Valencia Street,
San Francisco, CA 94110''.
7 What is coriander/cilantro/Chinese parsley?
Coriander is the common name for coriandrum sativum (fam.
umbelliferae). It is an annual plant similar to parsley. It has erect,
furrowed solid, branched stems. The alternate bright green leaves are
pinnate or bipinnate, the lower ones are broader leaflets than the
upper ones, which are finely divided. Coriander seeds are cream to
brown spheres of 1-1.5 mm. in diameter. In the culinary argot, it is
common to refer to the plant as cilantro and to the seeds as
7.1 Where does the name coriander comes from?
"There is uncertainty about the [source of the ]generic name,
Coriandrum; it might be derived from the Greek word "koris" (= bug), a
reference perhaps to the plant's smell and the apperance of the
7.2 How do I store fresh cilantro?
Different people have suggested different methods. Here is a list of
the most common ones.
* ``bouquet'' in the fridge. Cover loosely with plastic.
* ``bouquet'' in the window.
* ``airtight container'' in the fridge.
* ``wrapping'' in damp towels, inside a plastic bag.
Sophie Laplante (email@example.com) performed some experiments on
these different methods for storing cilantro. She found that the
airtight container seemed to keep it edible[sic] for the longest time
8 Other Spices
8.1 Is there any substitute to coconut milk?
You can probably find coconut milk in an Asian store, either in liquid
or powdered form. If you have no other choice, you can follow this
* Take a handful of shredded coconut and pack it in the bottom of a
* Pour boiling (and I mean really boiling) water just to cover the
packed coconut and let stand until the water is cool.
* Strain the coconut shreds and press them in the bottom of the
strainer get as much liquid as possible.
The liquid is very close to coconut milk and will impart the flavor
9 Storing Spices
3 factors affect the quality of stored spices:
* Light. Spices containing color pigments (such as capsicums,
saffron, green cardamoms, turmeric) and chorophyll (dryed herbs)
need protection from light. For instance, the color of capsicums
is mostly due to carotenoids, which are photosensitive and oxidate
in the presence of light.
* Humidity. Since most spices are sold dry, they tend to attract
water and mold.
* Oxygen. The essential oil of spices oxydates in the presence of
atmospheric oxygen, specially at high temperatures. However, most
whole spices are protected by a pericarp and their natural
antioxidants which they contain.
Torricelli (cited in ), studied the loss of essential oil in
the following spices: anise, cardamon, coriander, fennel, cumin, sweet
marjoram, mace, cloves, pepper, allspice, and cinnamon. When the
spices where kept in small paper bags (containing 1 to 5g), in the
dark for 5 years, they lost 47% essential oil on the average. In case
of powder spices, they lost an average of 62% and up to 90%. The same
spices, when kept, during six years in dark glass containers, lost 24%
of their essential oils on the average. When the containers were
hermetic, and the spice filled the container, the loss was from 0 to
5%, whether the spice was powdered or whole.
So keep your spices in dark, sealed containers. Fill each container
completely. Put them in a fresh place (some people use the fridge, see
9.1) and away from light. And your spices will long enough
(whatever that means to you).
9.1 Should I store my spices in the fridge?
Some people store spices inside the fridge. The fridge keeps the
spices in a dark, low temperature environment, hence protecting them
from light and rapid oxidation. There is only one problem, whenever
you open the spice container, humidity immediately condenses on the
surface of the spice and the container, then you close the container
and the moisture is kept captive. Humidity is a natural enemy of most
The fridge suits the bill if you do keep big containers there, from
which you regularly fill small-daily use ones. Nonetheless, for the
majority of the spices, it is more practical to buy small amounts of
each spice every once in a while, which in effect, guarantees their
Some people freeze small sealed envelopes, each one storing a
``dose''. Therefore, they don't have the condensation problem.
9.2 Bay leaves
Bay leaves lose approximately 30% of their volatile oil and 40-60% of
their chlorophyll during one year of storage. A good way to evaluate
the quality of the leaf is to determine how bright its color is.
9.3 Ground spices
Ground spices, with greater surface exposed, tend to lose their
volatile oils. They also deteriorate faster than whole spices.
The needs for packaging vary from spice to spice. In general, follow
the next guidelines:
* Use dark, air tight containers.
* Fill the container as much as you can.
* Avoid buying ground spices. Grind them yourself using a mortar.
This FAQ is provided as is without any express or implied warranties.
While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the
information contained in this article, the maintainer assumes no
responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from
the use of the information contained herein.
10.2 List of Contributors
* Hall, Andrew S. (firstname.lastname@example.org), for his recipe
to prepare coconut milk.
* Laplante, Sophie (email@example.com), for her research on
* Pforzheimer, Andy (firstname.lastname@example.org), for his corrections
regarding vanilla extract and vanilla splits.
* San Mames, Juan (VMPK89A@prodigy.com), for sharing his knowledge
* Stafford, Maureen (email@example.com), for proofreading
the first draft (version 0.1) of this document.
* Steinberg, Bruce (bruces.com), for his comments on how to prepare
1 Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2nd ed.,
2 J. S. Pruthi, Spices and Condimentes. Chemistry, microbiology,
technology. Academic Press, 1980.
3 V. Subrahmanyan, K. Krishnamurthy, and M. Swaminathan, ``The
effect of garlic in certain intestinal bacteria,'' Food Sci.,
vol. 7, no. 223, 1958. as cited in .
4 J. Mulherin, Spices & Natural Flavourings. Tiger, 1988.
5 J. Purseglove, E. Brown, C. Green, and S. Robbins, Spices,
Volume 2. Longman, 1981.
6 Webster Dictionary. Webster, 1994.
7 P. Rain, The Vanilla Cookbook.
8 Pforzheimer, Andy <firstname.lastname@example.org>, ``Personal
communication,'' Nov. 1995.
9 San Mames, J. <VMPK89A@prodigy.com>, ``USENET Article.'' in
rec.food.cooking, Feb. 1995.
10 Steinberg, Bruce <email@example.com>, ``USENET Article.'' in
rec.food.cooking, Feb. 1995.
11 J. Merory, ``40 % more flavour in improved vanilla process,''
Food End., May 1956.
12 S. Bunney, ed., The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs.
Chancellor Press, 1984.
13 Hall, Andrew S. <firstname.lastname@example.org>, ``USENET
article.'' in rec.food.cooking, Nov. 1995.
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Daniel M. Germán "My friends would think I was a nut,
Peter Gabriel --> turning water into wine"