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Subject: soc.feminism References (part 1 of 3)
This article was archived around: 11 May 2006 04:21:20 GMT
Last-modified: 15 February 1993
This posting contains useful feminist references for the newsgroup
Copies of this FAQ may be obtained by anonymous ftp to
/pub/usenet/news.answers/feminism/refs1. Or, send email to
in the body of the message, leaving the subject line empty.
Summary of changes:
Marked with |'s at beginning of lines.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Academia and Sciences.
2. Families and Work.
3. Feminism and Psychology.
(incl. sexualization, socialization, gender roles).
5. Feminist Theory and Overviews.
7. Gendered Communication and Language.
8. Gender Differences.
[9-16 continued in part II, 17-24 continued in part III]
This post contains commonly cited and/or useful references on various
topics that come up in this newsgroup. Because of the nature of these
discussions, it is helpful if you are familiar with at least some of
the materials listed under the topic. This is NOT a "You Must Read
Every Book On This List Before Participating In Soc.feminism" mandate,
but be aware that some familiarity with books on a particular topic
makes the ensuing discussion less frustrating for our regular readers
who have seen many similar discussions before.
** In particular, if you have a question along the lines of "What **
** can you tell me about <topic>?" you would do better to check the **
** sources listed here first before trying to garner explanations **
** over the newsgroup. **
This list is undergoing continual modification and I welcome
additional references for inclusion. In particular, I would like a
wide variety of feminist opinion on each topic. I would also like
your input on what "must reads" should be included under particular
topics. Most of these books focus on feminism in the US; I would love
more references to Canadian, British, European, Asian, African and
Latin American feminism. If you have any corrections to point out, by
all means, let me know if I've misspelled names or misattributed
References marked with an asterisk are incomplete entries that I was
unable to verify in the on-line catalogue. In most cases, I think
these are references to articles in magazines or books. Any help with
these would be appreciated.
Disclaimer: The presence of any particular book in here does not
necessarily reflect my views. There are often short blurbs
contributed by many people along with the references; no guarantee is
made as to their accuracy. If you wish to comment on any entry in
here, please feel free to do so.
I hope you are inspired to pick up any of these works and start reading!
1. Academia and Sciences.
1989 National Survey of Women Engineers, The Cooper Union.
Available on request from the Albert Nerken School of Engineering, 51
Astor Place, New York, NY 10003.
*See New Scientist, P. 8, 9/26/92, volume 135 for story on fighting
sexism in astronomy.
"Survey of Graduate Students", Presidential Committee on Women
Students Interests, Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1987.
"A Celebration of Women in Science," _Discover_, December 1991.
Contains eleven profiles of successful women in a wide range of
fields including Donna Cox in computer graphics. This is a great
thing for us to read, to get young women and girls to read or to
give as a gift to anyone you'd like to know about what women are
"Still a 'Chilly Climate' for Women?" _Science_, pp 1604-1606. June
Discusses the situation for women in physics and astronomy. It
includes some pipeline statistics and results of a survey on the
kinds of discrimination women perceive and men notice. Summary:
blatant discrimination isn't so much a problem as a "pattern of
_Notices of the American Mathematical Society_. No. 7, Sept. 1991.
A special issue on women in mathematics. A variety of issues are
"Women and Computing", _Communications of the ACM_, ( Nov. 1990
vol. 33, no. 11.).
"Women in Science and Engineering", Sept-Oct 1991 issue of the
"American Scientist" (published by the Sigma Xi Scientific Society)
Abramson, Joan. _Discrimination in the Academic Profession_.
Jossey-Bass, Inc., San Francisco. 1975.
Aisenberg, Nadya and Mona Harrington. _Women in Academe: Outsiders in
the Sacred Grove_. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst. 1988.
Baum, Eleanor, "Recruiting and Graduating Women: The
Underrepresented Student", IEEE Communications Magazine,
December 1990, 47-50.
Bernstein, D, "Comfort and experience with computing: are they the
same for men and women?", SIGCSE, 23(3), 1990.
Bernstein, D, "Understanding spreadsheets: Effects of computer
training on mental model acquisition", _Proceedings of the American
Society for Information Science Conference_, 164-172, 1990.
Betz, Nancy E, "What stops women and minorities from choosing and
completing majors in science and engineering", edited transcript of a
Science and Public Policy Seminar given on June 15, 1990. Copies can
be obtained from the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and
Cognitive Sciences, 1200 Seventeenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
20036. (202) 955-7758, fax no: (202) 955-7608, bitnet address: fed@gwuvm.
Bruer, John T., Jonathan R. Cole, and Harriet Zuckermann. _The Outer
Circle: Women in the Scientific Community_. W. W. Norton & Co, New
York. 1991, 351 pp.
Presents the status of women in science today, as well as the
reasons for this standing.
Brush, Stephen G. "Women in Science and Engineering", _American
Scientist_ 79, (Sep-Oct).404-419, 1991.
This is an ambitious article. In about 12 pages (not including
the list of 102 references), Stephen Brush discusses factors
relevant to young girls through senior professionals, across a
wide range of scientific disciplines.
Butcher, D. and W. Muth. "Predicting performance in an introductory
computer science course", _Communications of the ACM_, 27(11), 263-
Campbell, P. and G. McCabe. "Predicting the success of freshmen in a
computer science major", _Communications of the ACM_, 27(11), 1108-
Casserly, Patricia Lund. "Helping Able Young Women Take Math and
Science Seriously in School", The College Board, New York. 1979.
Reprinted, with revisions, from Colangelo Zaffrann, ed., _New Voices
in Counseling the Gifted_. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque,
Dambrot, F., M. Watkins-Malek, S. Silling, R. Marshall, and J. Garver.
"Correlates of sex differences in attitudes toward and involvement
with computers", _Journal of Vocational Behavior_, 27, 71-86, 1985.
Dijkstra, E. "On the cruelty of really teaching computer science",
_Communications of the ACM_, 32(12), 1397-1414, 1989.
Erkut, Sumru. "Exploring Sex Differences in Expectancy, Attribution,
and Academic Achievement", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9
Ernest, John. "Mathematics and Sex", _The American Mathematics
Monthly_, October 1976, 83:595-615.
Ferry, Georgina and Jane Moore. "True Confessions of Women in
Science", _New Scientist_ 95 (July 1, 1982), 27-30.
Fidell, L. S. "Empirical Verification of Sex Discrimination in Hiring
Practices in Psychology", in R. K. Unger and F. L. Denmark, eds.,
_Women: Dependent or Independent Variable_ Psychological Dimensions,
New York. 1975.
Franklin, Phyllis, et al. "Sexual and Gender Harassment in the
Academy: A Guide for Faculty, Students and Administrators",
Commission on the Status of Women in the Profession, The Modern
Language Association of America, New York, NY. 1981.
Frenkel, Karen A. "Women and Computing", _Communications of the
ACM_, November 1990, 34-46.
Gerver, E. "Computers and Gender". In Forester, Tom, ed. _Computers in
the Human Context_. pp481-501. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Basil
Blackwell, Oxford, 1989.
Gilbert, Lucia A., June M. Gallessich, and Sherri L. Evans. "Sex of
Faculty Role Model and Students' Self-Perceptions of Competency",
_Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9 (1983) 597-607.
Gornick, Vivian. _Women in Science: 100 Journeys into the Territory_,
Touchstone, Simon & Schuster, New York. 1990.
Grinstein, Louise S. and Paul J. Campbell, eds. _Women in Mathematics.
A Bibliographic Sourcebook_. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.
Describes ~50 women who were prominent in mathematics. Computer
science is considered part of math since Grace Hopper and Ada
Lovelace are included. The editors wanted to give a historical
perspective of women's role in mathematics so they have only
considered women born before 1930.
Gries, David, and Dorothy Marsh. "The 1989-90 Taulbee Survey",
_Communications of the ACM_, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1992.
A survey of professors across the nation. Statistics. In
particular, addresses what the survey tells us about women in
Gries, David and Dorothy Marsh. "CS Produced 734 Ph.D.s in 1989-90;
CE Adds 173 for a Total of 907", _Computing Research News_, January
Gross, Jane. "Female Surgeon's Quitting Touches Nerves at Medical
School", The New York Times, July 14, 1991, page 10.
Hacker, Sally L. _Doing it the hard way_. Unwin Jyman, Boston. 1990.
Hacker, Sally L. _Pleasure, power and technology_. Unwin Hyman,
Hacker, Sally L., "Mathematization of Engineering: Limits on Women and
the Field", in Joan Rothschild, ed., _Machina ex Dea: Feminist
Perspectives on Technology_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1983. pages 38-
Hess, Robert D. and Irene T. Miura. "Gender Differences in Enrollment
in Computer Camps and Classes", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 13
Hill, T., N. Smith, and M. Mann. "Role of efficacy expectations in
predicting the decision to use advanced technologies: The case of
computers", _Journal of Applied Psychology_, 72, 307-313, 1987.
Holland, Dorothy C. and Margaret A. Eisenhart. _Educated in
Romance: Woman, Achievement, and College Culture_. The
University of Chicago Press. 1990.
Homans, Hilary. "Man-made Myths: The Reality of Being a Woman
Scientist in the NHS", in Spencer, Anne and David Podmore, eds,
_In a Man's World: Essays on Women in Male dominated Professions_.
Tavistock Publications, London and New York. 1987.
Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds.
_Body Politics: Women And The Discourses Of Science_. Routledge, NY, 1990.
Kass-Simon, G. and P. Farnes, eds. _Women of Science. Righting the
Record_. Indiana University Press. 1990.
Reviewed in the March issue of IEEE Spectrum. A collection of 10
articles about women who have made important contributions to
science and technology. Unclear that a computer scientist is
included. Women mentioned in the review are Bertha Lamme, Edith
Clarke, Jenny Rosenthal, Mildred Dresselhaus, Lillian Gilbreth,
Marie Curie and Irene Curie. An encouraging aspect of these
women's lives is that many of them were married and had families.
Also includes a discussion of the differences in how men's and
women's work are remembered.
Keith, Sandra Z. and Philip Keith, eds. _Proceedings of the National
Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences_. St. Cloud,
MN: St. Cloud University, 1990.
Keller, Evelyn Fox. _Reflections on Gender and Science_. Yale
University Press, New Haven, 1985.
Examines how images of sex and gender have influenced the
philosophy of knowledge and the progress of science, going back to
Kelly, Alison, "Why Girls Don't Do Science", _New Scientist_, May 20, 1982.
On women's lack of participation on science. "Teachers put extra
effort into teaching boys to read to make up for any deficiency,
whether its origin is biological or social. The same could be
done to boost the spatial ability of girls if the problems were
considered equally serious." (pg 497).
Kelly, Alison, ed. _Science for Girls?_. Open University Press,
London and Philadelphia. 1987. ISBN 0-355-10294-8.
Kerr, Barbara A., Ph.D. _Smart Girls, Gifted Women_.
Ohio Psychology Press. ISBN 0-910707-07-3 (paperback, $13.95).
Why is it that so many gifted & talented girls STILL aren't
realizing their ful l potential, despite the Women's Movement?
More to the point, what exactly is it that a gifted girl needs but
society or individual circumstances may fail to provide? The
answers may surprise you. (I'm not just saying that to be arch; I
really WAS surprised at some of them.)
Kiesler, Sara, Lee Sproull, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. "Pool Halls, Chips,
and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing", _Psychology of
Women Quarterly_, 9 (1985) 451-462.
Koblitz, Neal, "Are Student Ratings Unfair to Women?", _Newsletter of
the Association for Women in Mathematics_, September-October 1990.
Kramer, Pamela E. and Sheila Lehman. "Mismeasuring Women: A
Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance", _Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society_ 16 (1990) 158-172.
*Leveson, Nancy, "Women in Computer Science: A Report of the NSF
CISE Cross-Disciplinary Activities Advisory Committee"
Lockheed, Marlaine E. "Women, Girls, and Computers: A First Look at
the Evidence", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 13 (1985) 115-122.
Martin, Dianne, ed. "In Search of Gender-Free Paradigms for
Computer Science", NECC, Eugene, OR., 1991.
Ogozalek, Virginia Z. "A Comparison of Male and Female Computer
Science Students' Attitudes Toward Computers", SIGCSE Bulletin,
June 1989, volume 21, number 2, 8-14.
Pearl, Amy, Martha E. Pollack, Eve Riskin, Becky Thomas, Elizabeth
Wolf, and Alice Wu. "Becoming a Computer Scientist", _Communications
of the ACM_, November 1990, 47-57.
*Perry, Ruth and Lisa Greber. "Women and Computers: An
Pryor, Sally. "Thinking of Oneself as a Computer", _Leonardo_, Vol.
24, Issue 5 (1991).
A very interesting and provocative article about the basic
conflict between our gender-identity as women and our professional
identity as computer professionals.
Rossner, S. _Teaching science and health from a feminist perspective:
A practical guide_, Elmsfor, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1986.
Rothschild, Joan. _Machina Ex Dea: Feminist Perspectives on
Technology_. Pergamon Press. 1983.
Rothschild, Joan. _Teaching Technology From a Feminist Perspective: A
Practical Guide_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1988.
Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone (for the Women's Action
Alliance). _The Neuter Computer_. Neal-Schuman Publishers, New York.
1986. ISBN. 1-555-70006-3 (paper).
Spertus, Ellen. _Why Are There So Few Female Computer Scientists?_,
An in-depth examination of the many reasons there is a dearth of
women in computer science. Available via ftp from ftp.ai.mit.edu
under pub/users/ellens/womcs*.ps in postscript format. For
information on receiving the bound version of the report (which is
$8 + shipping costs), contact email@example.com with your
mailing address (to compute shipping costs) and a request for AI
TR 1315. A very useful, annotated bibliography as well.
Tidwell, Jenifer, "Hackers in the Garden: A Case Study of Women in
Computer Engineering", unpublished, 1990.
Tijdens, K., M. Jennings, I. Wagner, & M. Weggelaar, "Women, Work,
and Computerization: Forming New Alliances", Amsterdam: North-
Tobias, Sheila. "They're Not Dumb, They're Different. Stalking the
Can be purchased from Science News Books, 1719 N St., NW,
Washington, DC 20036. The first copy is $2 and additional copies
are $.50 each.
Turkle, Sherry and Seymour Papert, "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles
and Voices within the Computer Culture", Signs: Journal of Women
in Culture and Society, 16 (1990), 128-157.
Turkle, Sherry, "The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit",
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
Van Nostrand, Catharine Herr, "Gender-Responsible Leadership: Do
Your Teaching Methods Empower Women?", pages 186-191 Sage
Publications, Inc., in Spring 1991. Direct inquiries, with a SASE, to the
author at: 36854 Winnebago Road, St. Cloud, MN 56303.
Widnall, Sheila E. "AAAS Presidential Lecture: Voices from the
Pipeline", _Science_ 241 (September 30, 1988), 1740-1745.
*Widnall, Sheila, "Voices from the Pipeline"
Wilson, Meg, ed. _OPTIONS for Girls. A Door to the Future_.
Foundation for Women's Resources.
The Anthology has been developed over the past 6 years. The best
1000 articles, books and studies [from an earlier project] were
reviewed and pared down to a readable set of articles that described
the problem of why girls don't take more science and math AND that
describe strategies to overcome this problem. Between citations
within articles and the supplemental reading list the anthology also
presents a substantial bibliography. The target audience includes
parents, teachers, school board members, community leaders and girls
themselves. The anthology is $22 (includes shipping and handling,
no tax assessed). Write to: Pro-Ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin,
TX 78758, attn. Linda Brown. Discounts available for large orders.
Wolpert, Lewis and Alison Richards. _A Passion for Science_. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. 1988.
Zappert, Laraine T. and Kendyll Stansbury, "A Comparative Analysis
of Men and Women in Graduate Programs in Science, Engineering and
Medicine at Stanford University", Working Papers, Institute for
Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University, 1985.
Single copies are available at no cost from the Institute for
Research on Women and Gender, Stanford, University (415-723-1994).
2. Families and Work.
Alcott, Louisa May. _Working_. Schocken Books. 1977. ISBN
Beneria, Lourdes and Catharine R. Stimpson, eds. _Women, Households
and the Economy_. Series: The Douglass series on Women's Lives and
the Meaning of Gender. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
Collection describing interrelationship between family and work,
patriarchy and capitalism. Also often used as a text.
Campbell, Bebe Moore. _Successful Women, Angry Men: backlash in the
two-career marriage_ Random House, 1986. ISBN: 0-394-55149-4.
It's less academic than _The Second Shift_, but gains a sense of
immediacy Hochschild lacks. _SW, AM_ discusses how the realities
of marriage have changed (mostly talking about the upper middle
class) and how the expectations and social and technical education
of both genders has failed to keep up.
Cockburn, Cynthia. _Machinery of Dominance. Women, Men, and
Technical Know-How_. Pluto Press, London and Dover, NH. 1985.
Northeastern University Press, Bostion. 1988.
A discussion of job segregation in the workplace and its
relationship to gendered assumptions, patriarchy, and technology.
Fassel, Diane. _Working Ourselves to Death: The High Cost of
Workaholism, the Rewards of Recovery_. Harper, San Francisco. 1990.
Dedication: "This book is for all those who struggle with the
insidious killer disease called workaholism. It is for those who
know that facing the reality of work addiction is to meet the
wrath of society. It is for all who long for life-giving
workplaces and a saner society." Sample chapters. -- Workaholism.
Reality & Myths -- Women & Workaholism -- The Workaholic
Organization -- Why Are We Doing This to Ourselves?
Hertz, Rosanna. _More Equal Than Others: Women and Men in Dual-Career
Marriages_. University of California Press. 1986. 0-520-05804-6.
Blurb: "...offers a provocative glimpse of changing marital styles
among young corporate couples. Frofessor Hertz describes with
perception and wit the negotiations and ad hoc accommodations
entailed as dual-career families succumb to the seduction of
success. This book will surely give pause to those who believe
that ideological commitments to gender equality will stimulate or
sustain marriage and childrearing patterns in the post-feminist
era. Rather, one detects the awesome power of corporations to
shape the private lives of even the most privileged employees."
Hochschild, Arlie and Anne Machung. _The Second Shift_. Viking Press.
A well-reasearched look at the two-pay-check marriage, sheds a
great deal of light on why so many men are still unwilling to
share the housework and childcare.
|Jeffreys, S., ed. _The Sexuality Debate_.
| A collection of the major articles that fueled the feminist
| campaigns and helped bringh about significant reforms in the area
| of secual abuse of women and domestic violence. [British]
Lang, Susan S. _Women without Children: The Reasons, the Rewards, the
Regrets_. Pharos Books. 1991. ISBN 0-89687-532-3.
Lang examines the issue of childlessness through a series of
interviews as well as citations from the social science
literature. She presents various reasons women don't have
children, then cites the statistics on the financial and personal
strains on a couple having children, the disproportionate amount
of work women do for their kids, the freedom childfree living can
bring, the fact that a majority of mothers are ambivalent about
motherhood. She tries to debunk stereotypes of childless women as
selfish, lonlier in their old age, less well off financially, etc.
While many of the older women she interviewed said they went
through a difficult period when they realized they would remain
childless, they all seemed to adapt well and go on to find other
sources of satisfaction in their lives.
Milwid, Beth. _What You Get When You Go For It_. Dodd, Mead, New
Women in the professions (USA).
Milwid, Beth. _Working with Men: Professional Women Talk about Power,
Sexuality and Ethics_. Revised edition. Beyond Words, Hillsboro, OR.
Okin, Susan Moller. _Justice, Gender, and the Family_. BasicBooks,
Harper Collins, Publishers. 1989. ISBN: 0-465-03703-8.
Feminist critique of modern political theory that shows why and
how, in order to include all of us, theories of justice need to
apply their standards to the family itself. Fascinating reading.
Contains an interesting demolition of libertarian philosophy.
|Paul, Ellen Frankel. _Equity and Gender: the Comparable Worth
| Begins by explaining how comparable worth -- or pay equity
| imposed by law -- is a full frontal assault on the free market by
| those who scoff at the market's ability to provide justice, and
| argues that the free market, not the state, is the better ally of
Ruggie, Mary, _The State and Working Women: A Comparative Study
of Britain and Sweden_. Princeton Princeton University Press, 1984.
Sayers, Dorothy L. _Are Women Human?_. Reprint. Eerdmans, Grand
This may be the actual reference for the next entry, which I
*Sayers, Dorothy L. _Not Quite Human_.
This does a very good job of showing what it would be like for men
to be judged on the basis of their gender the way that women are.
Although it was written a long time ago, it is unfortunately still
Schenkel, Susan, "Giving Away Success: Why Women Get Stuck and
What to Do About It"
Stephenson, June. _The Two-Parent Family Is Not The Best_.
The book is a fairly academic report on a survey of adults who
were raised in a variety of circumstances: by biological parents,
single parents and biological/step parents. It evaluates both
their perceptions of their happiness as children and a more
objective evaluation of their current status as happy,
well-adjusted adults. It presents extensive statistical reporting
and analysis of the results of the survey. Some interesting points:
Children in a two-parent family were more likely to have a parent
who used alcohol excessively (with implied negative effects) and
who abused them physically or sexually.
"Negative impact on children's self-esteem was affected by parents
not spending much time with their children, and greatly affected
by persistent family discord."
It appears that a child is better off with a single, interested
parent than with one interested and one disinterested parent.
"There are also indications that children growing up in two parent
families where the mother does not work outside the home, may
develop excessive dependency."
"A family with a father and a mother who does not work outside the
home represents only 8% of the families today."
Stromberg and Harkess, eds. _Women Working: Theories and Facts in
Perspective_. Mayfield Publications, Palo Alto, CA. 1978.
Commonly used text in sociology of women and work classes.
Discusses women and work across life course and by race and
ethnicity and class, and proposals for change.
Ward, Kathryn. _Women Workers and Global Restructuring_. ILR Press,
School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca,
Impact of multi-national corporate structure on women in
Weitzman, Lenore. _The Divorce Revolution: The Unexpected Social and
Economic Consequences for Women and Children in America_. The Free
Press/Mac Millian, 1985.
Author is currently a member of the faculty at Harvard. Includes
statistics on differences in standards of living after divorce
(73% decline for women, 42% rise for men). Well documented and
contains sociologically sound analysis.
Williams, Christine L.. _Gender Differences at Work (Women and Men in
Nontraditional Occupations)_ (University of California Press, 1989.
A lucid discussion of occupational sex-segregation.
3. Feminism and Psychology.
Benhabib, Seyla. "The Generalized and Concrete Other: The
Kohlberg-Gilligan Controversy and Moral Theory" in Kittay, Eva Feder;
Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_, Rowman and Littlefield,
Totowa, NJ, 1987.
Seyla Benhabib suggests that a functioning ethical system needs to
recognize both the concrete and the generalized other in order to
function. She uses the Kohlberg-Gilligan controversy as a
reference in the discussion.
Cancian, Francesca M. _Love in America: Gender and Self-Development_.
Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0-521-39691-3 (trade paperback).
Blurb: "In the last 25 years, Americans have gained considerable
freedom in their personal lives. Relationships are now more
flexible, and self-development has become a primary goal for both
men and women. Most scholars have criticized this trend to
greater freedom, arguing that it undermines family bonds and
promotes selfishness and extreme independence...she [instead]
shows that many American couples succeed in combining
self-development with commitment, and that interdependence, not
independence, is their ideal. In interdependent relationships,
love and self-development do not conflict but reinforce each other."
Chodorow, Nancy. _The Reproduction of Mothering_. UC Press, 1978.
This is a psychoanalytic account of how boys and girls establish
different gender identities. The work focuses on the consequences
of the fact that mothering is done by women in our society. This
is an academic book, which means its by no means easy-going, and
readers who are unsympathetic to Freudian and object relations
psychology will dismiss it out of hand. Chodorow's book is really
the seminal work on "relational" vs. "instrumental" differences in
wo/men--concepts that are core to later writers like Gilligan,
Daly, Mary. _Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism_.
Beacon Press, Boston. 1978.
Includes sections titled. "American Gynecology. Gynocide by the
Holy Ghosts of Medicine and Therapy" "Nazi Medicine and American
Gynecology: A Torture Cross-Cultural Comparison."
Devor, Holly. _Gender Blending_. Indiana University Press, 1989.
Examines women who are often mistaken for men and discusses the
impact on the women and reviews their childhood. An *excellent*
book for anyone desiring to understand the differences between
gender, gender roles and gender identity.
Fransella, Fay and Kay Frost. _On Being a Woman_. Tavistock
Publications, London and New York. 1977.
A review of research on how women see themselves. Focuses on what
women have to say about themselves, rather than what others say
about them. The authors are interested in what it means to a
woman to be a women; they also make people aware of the fact that
it is uncommon to ask women what they think of themselves.
Gilligan, Carol. _In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and
Women's Development_. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 1982.
Standard, well known text on different modes of moral development
between men and women. Widely cited, widely criticized.
Gilligan, Carol. "Moral Orientation and Moral development" in Kittay,
Eva Feder; Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_, Rowman and
Littlefield, Totowa, NJ, 1987.
The article discusses the question of relationship between the
care perspective and the rights perspective in moral development.
Gilligan also continues her research begun in
_In a Different Voice_.
Golden, Carla. "Diversity and Variability in Women's Sexual
Identities" in _Lesbian Psychologies_. Chicago: University of
Illinois Press, 1987. p. 28.
Graddol, David and Joan Swann. _Gender Voices_. B. Blackwell, Oxford
and New York. 1989.
In particular, chapter 9, Problems of Power discusses male dominance
of conversation in the classroom.
Griffin, Susan. _Woman and Nature_. 1978.
Author gives a description of the figurines on Freud's study
together with ironic comments on his interpretation of myth and
irrational "rationalism". It is a contrast of the voices of
patriarchy with the voices of women done in a dramatic, poetic
Harragan, Betty Lehan, _Games Mother Never Taught You_. Warner
Books, New York. 1987.
Haug, Frigga, ed. _Female Sexualization_. Verso, 6 Meard Street,
London W1V 3RH. 1987. ISBN: 0-86091-875-0.
Examines the way women are taught to see themselves as 'feminine'
through the investment of parts of the body with a whole range of
social and psychological significance. Originally published as
_Sexualisierung: Frauenformen 2_, 1983.
Heatherington, Laurie and Judith Crown, Heidi Wagner, and Scott
Rigby, "Toward an Understanding of Social Consequences of
`Feminine Immodesty' About Personal Achievements", _Sex Roles: A
Journal of Research_, 20 (1989) 371-380.
Heilbrun, Carolyn G.. _Toward A Recognition of Androgyny_.
A search into myth and literature to trace manifestations of
androgyny and to assess their implications for today.
Horner, Matina S., "Femininity and Successful Achievement: A Basic
Inconsistency", in Judith Bardwick, et al, eds. _Feminine Personality
and Conflict_. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1970.
Johnson, Miriam M.. _Strong Mothers, Weak Wives_. UC Press, Berkeley.
Hypothesis is that the mother's role derives from a position of
strength, while the wife's role reflects a position of weakness.
Examines socialization and societal construction within this
Kundsin, Ruth B., ed. _Women and Success: The Anatomy of
Achievement_. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1974.
Lorber, Judith and Susan A. Farrel, eds. _The Social Construction of
Gender_. SAGE publications, Newbury Park, CA. 1991.
Broad collection of writings. "Principles of Gender Construction",
"Gender Construction in Family Life", "Gender Construction in the
Workplace", "Feminist Research Strategies", "Racial Ethnic
Identity and Feminist Politics", "Deconstructing Gender."
Masters, William H. and Virginia E. Johnson. _Human Sexual Response_.
Boston, Little, Brown, 1966.
Debunked the Freudian dichotomoy of vaginal vs. clitoral
Mednick, Martha Tamara Shuch, Sandra Schwartz Tangri, and Lois Wladis
Hoffman, eds. _Women and Achievement: Social and Motivational
Analyses_. Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York. Distributed by
Halstead Press. 1975.
Meyers, Diana T. "The Socialized Individual and individual Autonomy"
in Kittay, Eva Feder; Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_,
Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, NJ, 1987.
Meyers defends the position exponents of the care perspective can
be morally autonomous.
Miller, Jean Baker, MD. _Toward a New Psychology of Women_. Second
edition. Beacon Press, Boston. 1986.
Blurb: On the tenth anniversary of the original publication of
this revolutionary book, Dr. Jean Baker Miller reflects on where
women are today, addressing both the enormous progress in some
areas and the challenges still to be met. Celebrating the
questions that have been raised and the actions women have taken,
as well as looking toward future change, Miller affirms the
strength and diversity of women.
Raymond, Janice G. _The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the
She-Male_. Beacon Press, Boston. 1979.
Subjects: Lesbians, sex roles, sex change, medicine (philosophy).
Rheingold, H. L. and K. V. Cook, "The Contents of Boys' and Girls'
Rooms as an Index of Parents' Behavior", _Child Development_, 46
Rich, Adrienne Cecile. _Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and
Institution_. 10th anniversary ed. Norton, New York, 1986.
Original copyright 1976. A book with a fine rage against
patriarchy and ambivalence toward men, who are its most obvious
standardbearers. (Rich recounts how she thought of herself as a
fiery feminist until she went to France. When she told one woman
their that she had three sons, the response was a contemptuous
"Vous travailez pour l'armee, madame?")
Riger, Stephanie. "Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science,
Social Values, and the Study of Women," in _American Psychologist_,
A well-written article: Riger reviews several very important
issues pertaining to women and social science (experimental
psychology in particular). She calls for "a new vision of the
psychological study of women that construes gender as a product of
social interaction and links women's agency with the shaping power
of the sociocultural, historical, and political context." Riger
notes that an extended version of this paper will appear in
_Psychology of Women: Biological Psychology and Social
Perspectives_; that paper is "in preparation."
Schaef, Anne Wilson. _Women's Reality: An Emerging Female System in the
White Male Society_. New edition. Harper and Row, Publishers. 1985.
From blurb: "_Women's Reality_ is one of the few books that is
supportive of women's changing roles without putting men down. It
allows men and women to see each other as friends rather than
enemies...A brillian dissection of the psycho-social differences
between male and female experience."
Schaef, Ann Wilson, _The Addictive Organization_. Harper and Row,
San Francisco, 1988. ISBN 0062548417.
*Schaef, Ann Wilson, "White Male System"
Shainess, Natalie. "A Psychiatrist's View. Images of Women -
Past and Present, Overt and Obscured," 1969.
Reprinted in _Sisterhood is Powerful_ ed Robin Morgan (1970) It
references the earlier work of Karen Horney from 1926, and Clara
M. Thompson from 1942, which suggests *someone* has been asking
questions about Freudian relevance, esp. for women, for a long
Steinem, Gloria. _Revolution form Within_.
This has been panned, and probably misjudged, as a woozy exercise
in New Age thumb-sucking, but it is more about developing a good
sense of self. A good thing about this book is that it keeps
self-esteem firmly in context; she evidently recognizes that it is
difficult to feel good about oneself if one has nothing of oneself
to feel good about.
Stern, Marilyn and Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker. "Sex Stereotyping
of Infants: A Review of Gender Labeling Studies", _Sex Roles: A
Journal of Research_, 20 (1989) 501-522.
Ussher, Jane. _The Psychology of the Female Body_. Routledge, London
and New York. 1989.
Examines the role of the female body in women's identity and
experience. the way menarche, menstration, pregnancy, and
menopause affect women's lives, the ways the female body and
reproduction have been used to confine and control women, and
psychological evidence is given to refute many myths surrounding
women's bodies. Originally part of Ph.D. thesis.
Adelman, Clifford. "Putting Women's Education to Work Could Enrich
U.S. Economy," _Los Angeles Times_, October 28, 1990, Opinion Section.
Author is a senior associate in the Office of Research, US Dept. Ed.
Fascinating discussion on the US Department of Education's study
of the high-school class of 1972.
Antler, Joyce and Sari Knopp Biklen, eds. _Changing Education: Women
as Radicals and Conservators_. 1990.
In particular, chapter 10: The Impact of Higher Education upon
Career and Family Choices: Simmons College Alumnae, 1906-1926
deals with working/middle class women vs. elite.
Astin, A.W. _From Critical Years: Effects of College on Beliefs,
Attitudes and Knowledge_. 1977.
Bennett, Sheila Kishler, "Student Perceptions of and Expectations for
Male and Female Instructors: Evidence Relating to the Question of
Gender Bias in Teaching Evaluation", _Journal of Educational
Psychology_, 74 (1982), 170-179.
Block, J.H. "Gender Differences and the Implications for Educational
Policy," in Block, J.H. _Sex Role Identity and Ego Development_, 1984.
Burstall, Sara A. _The Education of Girls in the United States_. 1984.
Clarke, Hansen and Michael Meyers. "Should States Support Single-sex,
Black Schools?" in _State Government News, 35(1), Jan. 1, 1992, p16.
Brown vs. Board of Education / segregation argument.
Clark, Shirley M. and Mary Corcoran. "Perspectives on the
Professional Socialization of Women Faculty: A Case of Accumulative
Disadvantage?", _Journal of Higher Education_, Vol. 57, No. 1,
Edwards, Elizabeth. "Educational Institutions or Extended Families?
The Reconstruction of Gender in Women's Colleges in the Late
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," in _Gender and Education_,
1990 2(1), pp 17-35.
Women's colleges in Victorian Britain.
Fennema, Elizabeth, and M. Jane Ayer. _Women and Education_. 1984.
Graham, P.A. "Women in Higher Education: A Bibliographical Inquiry,"
at New York: Columbia University, Barnard College. 1974. ERIC
Reproduction Document Service No: ED095742
Hall, Roberta M., with Bernice R. Sandler. "The Classroom Climate: A
Chilly One for Women?", Copyright 1986 by the Project on the Status
and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges, Washington,
Hanzot, Elizabeth. _Myths of Coeducation_. 1984.
Harrington, Susan Marie. "Barriers to Women in Undergraduate
Computer Science: The Effects of the Computer Environment on the
Success and Continuance of Female Students", PhD Thesis, Division of
Teacher Education, University of Oregon, 1990.
Howe, Florence. _Gender in the Classroom_.
Huff, C. and J. Cooper. "Sex Bias in Educational Software: The Effect of
Designers' Stereotypes on the Software They Design", _J. Applied Soc.
Psych._, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 519-532, 1987.
Jimenez, E. and M.E. Lockhead. "The Relative Effectiveness of
Single-sex and Coeducational Schools in Thailand," in _Education
Evaluation and Policy Analysis_, Summer 1989, 11(2) 117.
Compares math achievement.
Jimenez, Emmanuel and Marlaine E. Lockhead. "Enhancing Girls'
Learning Through Single-sex Education: Evidence and a Policy
Conundrum," in _Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Summer '89,
Figures socio-economic factors into data.
Kersteen, Z., M. Linn, M. Clancy, and C. Hardyck. "Previous
experience and the learning of computer programming: The computer
helps those who help themselves", _Journal of Educational Computing
Research_, 4(3), 321-333, 1988.
Kierstead, Diane, Patti D'Agostino, and Heidi Dill. "Sex Role
Stereotyping of College Professors: Bias in Students' Ratings of
Instructors", _Journal of Educational Psychology_, 80 (1988), 342-344.
Klein, S.S, ed. _Handbook for Achieving Sex Equity Through
Education_, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1985.
Lee, V.E., and A.S. Bryk. "Effects of Single-sex Secondary Schools on
Student Achievement and Attitude," in _Journal of Educational
Psychology_, 78(5), 1986.
One of the more well-known studies.
Lee, Valerie E. and Helem M. Marks. "Sustained Effects of Single-sex
Secondary School Experience on Attitudes, Behaviors and Values in
College," in _Journal of Educational Psychology_, 82(3), Sept 1, 1990,
Re-examines subjects of '86 study in college.
Lee, Valerie E. and Marlaine E. Lockhead. "The Effects of Single-sex
Schooling on Achievement and Attitiudes in Nigeria," in _Comparative
Education Review_, 34(2), May 1, 1990, p209.
Same conclusions as Bryk & Lee '86 for USA.
Leveson, Nancy, "Educational Pipeline Issues for Women",
_Computing Research News_, October 1990 and January 1991.
McPhie, Laura E. "Viability of Single-sex Education" in _Initiatives_,
Falll 1990, 53(3), 23.
Describes parallel histories of Amherst & Smith colleges.
Marsh, Herbert W. "Effects of Attending Single-sex and Coeducational
High Schools: Achievement, Attitude, Behaviors and Sex Differences,"
in _Journal of Educational Psychology_, Mar 1, 1989, 81(1), p70.
Concludes that coeducation and single-sex are same
Marsh, Herbert W. "Public, Catholic Single-sex and Catholic
Coeducational High Schools: Their Effects on Achievement, Affect and
Behaviors," in _American Journal of Education_, 99(3), May 1, 1991, p320.
Contradicts Bryk & Lee; single sex = coeducation.
Martin, Elaine. "Power and Authority in the Classroom: Sexist
Stereotypes in Teaching Evaluations", _Journal of Women in Culture
and Society_, 9 (1984), 482-492.
Ndunda, Mutindi Mumbua Kiluva. "'Because I am a Woman': Young Women's
Resistance to Science Careers in Kenya," in Thesis, Queen's
University, Canada, Jul 1990. ERIC Reproduction Document Service No:
Boys & girls science experience differs in gender related ways
Ott, Mary. "Female Engineering Students-- Attitudes, Characteristics,
Expectations, Responses to Engineering Education", Final report for
NSF grant #SMI-75-18013A01, ERIC Document #ED 160400.
Pallotta-Chiarolli, Maria. "The Female Stranger in a Male School,"
_Gender and Education_ 1990 2(2), pp 169-183.
Girls have higher level of gender awareness
Riordan, C. "Public and Catholic Schooling: The Effects of Gender
Context Policy," in _American Journal of Education_, v5, 1985.
Weeds out "the catholic school effect" in data.
Rubenfeld, Mona I. "Relationship Between College Women's Occupational
Interests and a Single-sex Environment," in _The Career Development
Quarterly_, 40(1), Sept. 1, 1991, p64.
Sandler, Bernice R., with the assistance of Roberta M. Hall, "The
Campus Climate Revisited: Chilly for Women Faculty, Administrators,
and Graduate Students", Copyright 1986 by the Project on the Status
and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges,
Washington, DC, 1986.
Sandler, Bernice R., "The Classroom Climate: Chilly for Women?",
Deneef, et al, editors, The Academic Handbook, Durham: Duke
University Press, 1988, pages 146-152.
Sexton, Patricia. _Women in Education_. 1976.
History of discrimination against women throughout all aspects of
Schneider, Frank W., Larry M. Coutts, and Meyer W. Starr. "In Favour
of Coeducation: The Educational Attitudes of Students from
Coeducational and Single-sex High Schools," in _Canadian Journal of
Education_, Fall 88, 13(4), p479.
Questionaire based research
Sidner, Candace L. "On Being a Woman Student at MIT or How to
Miss the Stumbling Blocks in Graduate Education", Unpublished
Speck, Phoebe. "Jack Captured the Crown and Jill Came Tumbling After:
The Gender Factor in Curriculum Policy..." in Paper Presented at the
Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Apr
1991. ERIC Reproduction Document Service No: ED331189
Role of gender in curriculum development
Stables, Andrew. "Differences Between Pupils From Mixed and
Single-sex Schools in Their Enjoyment of School Subjects and in Their
Attitudes to Science and to School," in _Educational Review_, 1990
42(3), pp 221-230.
Polarization of attitudes in mixed English schools.
Statham, Anne, Laurel Richardson, and Judith A. Cook. _Gender and
University Teaching_. A volume in the SUNY Series in Gender and
Society, Cornelia Butler Flora, ed. State University of New York
Press. 1991. ISBN: 0-7914-0704-7.
Examines university teaching from several perspectives: what
female and male professors do in the classroom, their perceptions
and feelings about teaching, and how students respond.
Stoecker, Judith L. and Ernest T. Pascarella. "Women's Colleges and
Women's Career Attainments Revisited" in _Journal of Higher
Education_, Jul-Aug 1991, 62(4), pp 394-406.
Explores influence of women's college on career attainment
Stowe, Laurence G. "Should Physics Classes be Single-sex?" in
_Physics Teacher_, Sept. 1, 1991, 29(6), p 380.
Tidball, M.D. and V. Kistiakowsky. "Baccalaureate Origins of American
Scientists..." in _Science_ 1976, V 193, pp646-652.
Tidball, M.D. "Women's Colleges and Women Achievers Revisited" in
_Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society_, 1980, V 5, pp 504-515.
This is one of the studies that claims the infamous "X% of all
successful women came from women's colleges"
Vedantham, Anu, "A Hostile Educational Environment", MIT, 6.001,
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, in Spring, 1990,
Wood, Sherree F. "Educational Access for Women in the United States,"
in _Community College Quarterly of Research and Practice_, Apr-Jun
1991, 15(2), pp225-233.
Compares Bryn Mahr/Wellesley to Oberlin/U of Mich.
5. Feminist Theory and Overviews.
Bowles, Gloria and Renate Duelli, eds. _Theories of Women's Studies_.
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and Boston. 1983.
Standard, well known text on feminist research methodology.
Begins the debate.
Bowles, Gloria and Renate Duelli-Klein, eds. _Theories of Women's
Studies II._ Women's Studies, University of California, Berkeley. 1981.
Castro, Ginette. _American Feminism: A Contemporary History_. New
York University Press. 1990. ISBN: 0-8147-1448-X.
From a french point of view, an overview of feminist history
and emerging though in the United States. Originally published in
French as _Radioscopie du fe'minisme ame'ricain_ in 1984.
de Beauvoir, Simone. _The Second Sex_. Translated and edited by H.M.
Parshley. Vintage Books, New York. 1989.
Original copyright in 1952.
Echols, Alice. _Daring To Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975_.
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 1989.
Covers radical and cultural feminist development.
French, Marilyn. _The Women's Room_. Summit Books, New York, 1977.
Jove Publications, New York, 1978.
French, Marilyn. _Beyond Power: On Women, Men, and Morals_. Cape,
London, 1985. Summit Books, New York, 1985. Ballantine, New York, 1986.
*French, Marilyn. "Do You Have to be a Lesbian to be a
Unions are valid only when both participants are free to make
them, and that a woman who is economically supported by a man,
whose children are economically supported by a man, whose house is
owned by a man, and whose life revolves around a man is bound
several ways, whether or not she actively chose that life. The
freer she can be, the more powerful her choice to stay with her
partner, male or female.
Friedan, Betty. _The Feminine Mystique_. Norton, New York, 1963.
20th anniversary edition with new introduction and afterword by
author. Dell Publishing Co., New York, 1984.
A strong and angry book that stimulated many women who had hitherto
accepted their lot into asking whether their lives could be improved.
Friedan, Betty. _The Second Stage_. Revised edition, Summit Books,
New York, 1986.
This book, written 20 years later, advocates partnership between
women and men in the ongoing development of feminism.
Frye, Marilyn. _The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory_.
Crossing Press, Trumansburg, New York. 1983.
Grimshaw, Jean. _Feminist Philosophers_ (subtitle: Women's
Perspectives on Philosophical Traditions). Harvester Wheatsheaf,
London, 1986. ISBN 0-7108-0791-0. Published in the U.S. as
_Philosophy and Feminist Thinking_ by University of Minnesota Press.
"This book is an exploration into some tensions in feminist
thinking and their relationship to philosophy." [from the
preface] The book introduces feminist thinking to traditional
philosophy, and summarizes the results. Extensive bibliography.
Harding, Sandra, and Merrill B. Hintikka, eds. _Discovering Reality:
Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and
Philosophy of Science_. D Reidel, Boston and Holland. Sold and
distributed in the USA and Canada by Kluwer Boston. 1983.
Harding, Sandra. _The Science Question in Feminism_. Cornell
University Press, Ithaca, New York. 1986.
Critique of "knowledge," centering on three major epistemological
approaches, feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint, feminist
Harding, Sandra, ed. _Feminism and Methodology: Social Science
Issues_. Indiana University Press, Bloomington; Open University
Press, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. 1987.
Harding, Sandra, and Jean F. O'Barr, eds. _Sex and Scientific
Inquiry_. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1987.
Harding, Sandra. _Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from
Women's Lives_. Open University Press, Milton Keynes; Cornell
University Press, Ithaca, New York. 1991.
Hooks, Bell. _Feminist Theory From Margin To Center_. South End
Press, Boston MA. 1984.
An excellent survey of different feminist philosophies and their
relationships to one another.
Jaggar, Alison M. _Feminist Politics and Human Nature_. Rowman &
Allanheld, Totowa, New Jersey. 1983.
What is human nature? Is there a "feminine" and a "masculine"?
Looking at radical, liberal and socialist feminist perspectives in
addressing this question.
Jaggar, Alison M. and Paula Rothenberg Struhl. _Feminist Frameworks:
Alternative Theoretical Accounts of the Relations between Women and
Men_. Second edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1984.
A worthwhile though incomplete reader that sorts out various
schools of feminist thought.
Jaggar, Alison M. and Susan R. Bordo, eds. _Gender/Body/Knowledge:
Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing_. Rutgers University
Press, New Jersey. 1989.
Writings on feminist methodology.
Koedt, Anne, Ellen Levine and Anita Rapone. _Radical Feminism_.
Quadrangle Books, New York. 1973.
An anthology of radical feminist work.
Komisar, Lucy. _The New Feminism_. F. Watts, New York. 1971.
La Follette, Suzanne. _Concerning Women_. Reprint. Series: American
Women: Images and Realities. Arno Press, New York. 1972.
Originally written in 1926. Espouses individualist feminism.
*Leoff, Constance. _Bluff Your Way in Feminism_. ISBN: 8-948456-29-9.
Provides an overview of (British) feminism; brief, amusing,
occasionally mildly scurrilous, well researched and covers a lot
of ground. May be hard to find.
McElroy, Wendy, ed. _Freedom, Feminism and the State. An Overview of
Individualist Feminism_. Second edition. Holmes & Meier, New York, 1991.
Anthology of works by historical feminists as well as contemporary
feminists expressing the individualist point of view.
MacKinnon, Catharine. _Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and
Law_. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 1987.
MacKinnon, Catharine. _Toward a Feminist Theory of the State_.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 1989.
The book, really, is an attempt to answer the question. "What
would a form of government which is actively feminist be like?"
Here the word 'feminist' is used in the sense of 'radical
feminism.' The book and the analysis are definitely influenced by
Marxist theory --- indeed the author calls it 'postmarxist'. In
the same way as would a similar analysis of a Marxist state, some
aspects of the hypothetical feminist state are incompatible with
Mitchell, Juliet and Ann Oakley, eds. _The Rights and Wrongs of
Women_. Penguin, Harmondsworth, New York. 1976.
Mitchell, Juliet and Ann Oakley, eds. _What Is Feminism? A
Re-Examination_. Pantheon Books, New York. B. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 1986.
Morgan, Robin, ed. _Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings
from the Women's Liberation Movement_. Random House, New York, 1970.
Morgan Robin, ed. _Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's
Movement Anthology_. Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 1984.
Pateman, Carole and Elizabeth Gross, eds. _Feminist Challenges. Social
and Political Theory_. Northeastern University Press, PO Box 116,
Boston, Mass. 02117. 1986. ISBN: 1-55553-004-4.
New and established scholars demonstrate the application of
feminism in a range of academic disciplines including history,
philosophy, politics, and sociology.
Raymond, Janice G. _A Passion for Friends: Toward a Philosophy of
Female Affection_. Beacon Press, Boston (also Women's Press, London).
Sherwin, Susan. "Philosophical Methodology and Feminist Methodology:
Are They Compatible?" in Code, Lorraine; Mullet, Sheila; Overall,
Christine, (eds.) _Feminist Perspectives, Philosophical Essays on
Method And Morals_, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1988.
Susan Sherwin discusses why a paper of hers submitted to the
Canadian Philosophical Association was rejected. She concludes
feminist methodology is a valid methodology for philosophy.
Smith, Dorothy E. _The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist
Sociology_. Northeastern Universty Press, Boston. 1987.
Explication of standpoint epistemology.
Taylor, Joan Kennedy. _Reclaiming the Mainstream: Individualist
Feminism Rediscovered_. 1992.
"... reclaims feminism from the socialists and collectivists and
what Taylor calls the 'appeal of victimization'. 'We feminists
who believe in the inspiring history and classical liberal
mainstream of American feminism should not give up our claim to
the name _feminist_,' she writes, 'any more than institutions
supporting limited government should give up their claim to the
name liberal.' Taylor scrutinizes and reframes feminism from Mary
Wollstonecraft to Anita Hill. I was struck by her generosity of
spirit in dealing with the issues raised: most particularly her
chapter on 'The Temptation of Political Expediency:
Antipornography.' Hers is a thorough and satisfying examination
of the attitudes surrounding this explosive issue. And she
covers all the potentially divisive issues: abortion, comparable
worth, rape, discrimination real and imagined. "Taylor 'holds it
important to support the full flowering of the individual life'
and calls for the advocacy of individual rights as a proper
political stance for feminists." [Andrea Millen Rich]
Winders, J. A. _Gender, Theory, and the Canon_. University of
Wisconsin Press, 1991.
Carter, Angela, ed. _The Virago Book of Fairy Tales_. Virago Press,
London, 1990. (American edition may have different title?)
A collection of "adult" fairy tales, all focusing on heroines,
from all around the world. On back. "This stunning collection
contains lyrical tales, bloody tales, hilariously funny and ripely
bawdy stories, from countries around the world. And no drippy
princesses or soppy fairies. Instead girls, women, crones, wise as
serpents, gentle as doves and occasionally daft as brushes."
Cole, Babbette. _Princess Smartypants_. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New
Children's book, where the princess rejects the prince.
Munsch, Robert. _The Paper Bag Princess_. Annick Press Ltd.,
Toronto, Canada. 1980.
Children's book, where the princess rejects the prince.
Zipes, Jack, ed. _Don't Bet on the Prince_.
Zipes is a folklorist who has collected feminist fairy tales in
this book and provided some analysis. Some are entirely new tales,
others are new takes on old tales.
7. Gendered Communication and Language.
Barreca, Regina. _They Used to Call Me Snow White, But I Drifted_.
Viking Penguin/Penguin Books, New York. 1991.
Examines the differences in how women and men use humor. The
book itself is a very engaging and humorous read.
Bratenberg, Gerd, _Egalias_dotre_ (in Norwegian Pax forlag/Ascheroug
forlag). It is also available in English: _Egalia's_Daughters_,
published in the U.S. by The Seal Press, Seattle, Wash., and in the
UK by The Journeyman Press, London. (Also available in Swedish,
German, Italian, Danish and Dutch.)
The book turns the language and social stereotypes upside down.
It is really interesting to see how easily one, as reader, gets
used to the "unusual" language. This also illustrates how
powerful the sexism of the language is.
Cherry, Louise. _Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance_.
Teacher-child interaction in pre-schools.
Hofstadter, Douglas. _Metamagical Themas: Questing for Essence of Mind
and Pattern_. Bantam, New York. 1985.
Contains a chapter ("Changes in Default Words and Images,
Engendered by Rising Consciousness") with an effective argument
for gender inclusive speech.
Frank, Francine and Frank Anshen. _Language and the Sexes_. State
University of New York Press, Albany. 1983.
Lakoff, Robin. _Language and Woman's Place_. Harper & Row,
Publishers, New York. 1975.
Miller, Casey and Kate Swift. _The Handbook of Non-Sexist Writing_.
Second edition. Harper & Row, New York, 1988.
A practical how-to book that also contains examples of how "men"
has *not* included "women" in recent history.
Miller, Casey and Kate Swift. _Words and Women_. Anchor Press,
Garden City, New York. 1976.
States the argument for gender neutral language
much more forcefully.
Penelope, Julia. _Speaking Freely: Unlearning the Lies of the
Fathers' Tongues_. Athena Series, Pergammon Press. 1990.
A radical feminist treatise on all sorts of sexist aspects of
language, including but not limited to the discussion of gender
Persing, Bobbye Sorrels. _The Nonsexist Communicator_.
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1983.
Rothschild, Joan. _Turing's Man, Turing's Woman, or Turing's Person?
Gender, Language, and Computers_. Wellesley College, Center for
Research on Women, Welleseley, MA. 1986.
Spender, Dale. _Man-Made Language_. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.
Tannen, Deborah. _You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in
Conversation_. Morrow, New York. 1990.
Gender differences in communication, anecdotal.
8. Gender Differences.
Benbow, Camilla Persson. "Sex differences in mathematical reasoning
ability in intellectually talented preadolescents. Their nature,
effects, and possible causes," _Behavioral and Brain Sciences_,
Talks about the reasons in variations on math scores between males
and females. Her paper is nice in that it also reviews a lot of
Benderly, Beryl Lieff. _The Myth Of Two Minds: What Gender Means and
Doesn't Mean_. Doubleday, New York, 1987.
Benderly had heard of scads of new research claiming to have
proven innate biological differences between the brains of men and
women, and decided to do a comprehensive overview of them. She
was surprised to find that *none* of this research proved what it
Deaux, K. and T. Emswiller. "Explanations of Successful Performance
on Sex-Linked Tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female",
_Journal of Personality and Social Psychology_, 29 (1974), 80-85.
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. _Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about
Women and Men_. Basic Books, New York. 1985.
Describes the methods used in research purporting to support
intrinsic differences in women and men. Includes a clear
explanation of intra-group variability: even if there are more men
on the high end of the bell curve in math, the bell curves overlap
so much that this makes no significant difference in the amount of
mathematical aptitude of the sexes when compared against each
other and tells nothing about a given woman and a given man.
Frieze, Irene H. _et al_. _Women And Sex Roles: A Social Psychological
Perspective_. Norton, New York. 1978.
This is a social psychology textbook, and is a handy
resource available for debunking all kinds of sexist claims about
men and women.
Gould, Steven Jay. _The Mismeasure of Man_. Norton, New York. 1981.
A lucid description of how researcher expectations can influence
experimental findings (gender issues is peripheral, but the
analogies are clear).
Halper, Diane F.. _Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities_. Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdate, NJ. 1986.
The author presents the hypotheses and research that point to the
roles of nature and nurture in explaining differences in cognitive
ability; final chapter has an excellent summary.
Holloway, Marguerite, "Profile: Vive la Difference", _Scientific
American_, October 1990, 18-42.
Kimura, Doreen. "Sex Differences in the Brain," in _Scientific
American_ September 1992.
Based on her experiments and others', she concludes that
intellectual differences in men and women cannot be purely
environmental, because of the effects that sex hormones have on
brains, even before puberty.
Lewontin, Richard, Stephen Rose and Leon J. Kamin. _Not In Our Genes:
Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature_. Panthon Books, New York. 1984.
The authors are on a mission to dismantle biological determinism
entirely, right down to its underpinnings in reductionist
materialist philosophy. One needn't agree with them to the same
extent to see the validity of the debunking. Check out the chapter
on "The Determined Patriarchy."
Medzian, Miriam. _Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link between
Masculinity and Violence_.
It's a fascinating book, and if you're concerned about the problem
you should read this. She cites some fascinating studies; for a
teaser, let me mention a study by Hilda and Seymour Parker of the
University of Utah on child abuse. They found a significant
correlation between lack of involvement in child care and
nurturance, and child abuse. This supports a major thesis of the
book, which is that the willingness to commit unprovoked violent
acts arises from inability to connect emotionally with others.
Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. _Brain Sex: The Real Difference between
Men and Women_. Carol Publishing Group, 1991.
This book makes the same assertion as Kimura's article and
discusses how the brain of a fetus is "imprinted" with a certain
sex based on exposure to hormones at a certain critical time in
its development in the womb (about six or seven weeks after
conception). It goes on to explain how the brains of men and
women actually function differently, e.g., men tend to use the
right side of their brain when working on an abstract problem
while women use both sides.
Montagu, Ashley. _The Natural Superiority of Women_. Macmillan
Publishing Company, New York. c1952. New Revised Edition, 1974.
[Author is male.] From foreword: "This book is designed to bring
the sexes closer together, not to set them apart by placing one
above the other. If in these pages the natural superiority of
women is emphasized, it is because the fact has thus far received
far too little attention, and the time is long overdue that both
men and women become aware of it and fully understand its
superiority." The author makes a distinction between *natural*
or biological superiority and social equality of women and men.
Petersen, Anne C. "Biopsychosocial Processes in the Development of
Sex-related Differences", Jacquelynne E. Parsons, ed. _The
Psychobiology of Sex Differences and Sex Roles_. Hemisphere
Publishing Company, Washington. 1980. 31-56.
Pomerleau, Andree, Daniel Bolduc, Gerard Malcuit, and Louise Cossette.
"Pink or Blue: Environmental Gender Stereotypes in the First Two Years
of Life", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 22 (1990) 359- 367.
Travis, Carol. _The Mismeasure of Woman_. Simon and Schuster. 1992.
The theme is that women are criticized for being too female, or
not female enough - but are mismeasured - by how well they fit
into a male world. Further that the social system dislikes
*angry* women, and that men avoid the responsibility for changing
laws and economic or political policies that hurt women. Travis
takes a thoughtful rather than combative approach and is more
likely to poke fun rather than harshly criticize.
[continued in part II]
Please mail in comments, additions, corrections, suggestions, and so
on to firstname.lastname@example.org.
--Cindy Tittle Moore
"If an aborigine drafted an IQ test, for example, all of Western
Civilization would probably flunk."