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Subject: Esperanto FAQ (Oftaj demandoj) Part 2/2

This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:23:21 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: esperanto/faq
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.esperanto
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: esperanto/faq/part2 Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-Modified: 1999-06-23 URL: http://www.esperanto.net/veb/faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for soc.culture.esperanto and esperanto-l@netcom.com (monthly posting) PART I: THE LANGUAGE ESPERANTO 1. What is Esperanto? 2. How easy is Esperanto to learn? 3. Where does Esperanto's vocabulary come from? 4. What about Esperanto's grammar and word-order? 5. How many people speak Esperanto? 6. How can I use Esperanto once I've learned it? 7. Where do I find classes, textbooks, etc.? 8. How come Esperanto doesn't have <favourite word or feature>? 9. What are some common objections to Esperanto? How do speakers of Esperanto respond to them? 10. Are there any famous Esperanto speakers? 11. What about other "artificial" languages like Loglan, Ido, etc.? 12. What are PAG, PIV, PMEG, PV, TEJO and UEA? 13. How do you say "I love you" in Esperanto? PART II: ESPERANTO, COMPUTERS AND THE INTERNET 14. How can I type and display Esperanto's accented characters? 15. How can I represent these characters in E-mail or on Usenet? 16. What Esperanto material is available on the Internet? 17. What Esperanto material is available on other (non-Internet) on-line services? ------------------------------------------------------------------------ PART II: ESPERANTO, COMPUTERS AND THE INTERNET 14. HOW CAN I TYPE AND DISPLAY ESPERANTO'S ACCENTED CHARACTERS? Esperanto has six letters with accents: c, g, h, j, and s can have a circumflex accent (^), and u can have a breve accent (similar to the lower half of a small circle). All modern operating systems, word processing programs, etc., can handle these characters. Usually all that is required is to type some combination of keys to represent them. However, "dumb" terminals generally cannot overstrike accents with arbitrary characters, and so cannot display Esperanto's accented characters, or any other language with accents. Macintosh: (Thanks to Arnold Victor and Dmitri Horowitz for preparing the following information.) Fonts with Esperanto's accented characters are available for use under Mac OS. Due to the lack of a generally accepted standard encoding, several encodings are currently in use; however, ISO 8859-3 (also called "Latin-3") is becoming more and more common. Apple has proposed a different standard encoding called "MacEsperanto". To type Esperanto's accented characters conveniently, use an Esperanto keyboard layout. Each encoding corresponds to a particular keyboard layout; thus, if you are using a Latin-3 font, you must also use the Latin-3 keyboard layout. Fonts are installed as follows: - Quit all applications first. - Put the Esperanto font files in the Fonts folder in the System Folder. (Or drag-drop the font file on the System Folder icon and it will automatically be placed in the right folder.) Keyboard layouts are installed as follows: - Quit all applications first. - Put the keyboard layout file in the System suitcase in the System Folder. (Or drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder icon; when the dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in the right folder.) To use Esperanto fonts in an application, do the following: - Use the Keyboard control panel (under Control Panels in the Apple menu) to select the appropriate keyboard layout. Esperanto keyboard layouts are usually symbolized by a green star or by the Esperanto flag (a green flag with a star in the upper left corner). - Choose an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout in the application. With most keyboard layouts, including Latin-3, the accented characters are typed by pressing the Option key together with the letter to be accented. For example, Option and lowercase c will type the accented letter c^, Option and uppercase C will type the accented letter C^, and so on. With some keyboard layouts, the accented character u^ is placed under Option-w. You can check the location of the accented characters as follows: - Make sure the appropriate keyboard layout is selected. - Open the Key Caps desk accessory in the Apple menu. - Select an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout from the Key Caps menu. - Check the keyboard layout displayed with the Option key, with the Shift key, and with both the Option and Shift keys pressed. A keyboard menu will let you switch between keyboard layouts more conveniently. It appears on the menu bar to the left of the application menu, which is itself on the outer right. It can be recognized by the small flag which shows the selected keyboard layout. With Mac OS version 8, a keyboard menu appears automatically when more than one keyboard is selected in the Keyboard control panel (under Control Panels in the Apple menu). If you are using Mac OS version 7.x, you must install a system extension to have the keyboard menu. A shareware extension called "Outboard Keyboard" (5 USD) can be downloaded as part of the package Carpetbag from http://www.jwwalker.com/pages/carp.html Install it as follows: - Put the extension in the Extensions folder in the System Folder. (Or drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder icon; when the dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in the right folder.) - Restart the computer. Esperanto fonts with matching keyboard layouts can be downloaded from http://www.esperanto.be/FontE.hqx ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir/ http://www.indigo.ie/egt/earra_bog/apple/ http://www.indigo.ie/egt/emono/em8859.html The following resources are useful when using Esperanto in Internet applications: - Plug-in tables for the popular mailing program Eudora which allow you to send and receive messages in MacEsperanto, Latin-3, and Code Page 853. Bitmap fonts and a keyboard layout are included. See ftp://mirror.apple.com/mirrors/info-mac/comm/ inet/mail/edr/eudora-esperanto.hqx - A detailed description of how to convert Unicode TrueType fonts from MS-Windows to MacEsperanto. The fonts are freely available from Microsoft. See ftp://mirror.apple.com/mirrors/info-mac/info/ convert-esperanto-fonts-14.hqx DOS: WordPerfect 5.1 natively supports Esperanto's accented characters. To display the Esperanto characters, select the 512-character screen from the Setup menu: do Shift-F1, 2, 1, 5. To type an accented character, type Ctrl-V and the code (including the comma) as listed in the file CARACTER.DOC: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Letter: C c G g H h Code: 1,100 1,101 1,122 1,123 1,126 1,127 ^ ^ ^ ^ - - Letter: J j S s U u Code: 1,140 1,141 1,180 1,181 1,188 1,189 You can also type Ctrl-V followed by the character and the accent mark; for example, Ctrl-V, C, ^, gives C-circumflex. However, there is no breve on the keyboard, so u-breve cannot be done this way. Lowercase circumflexed j looks lousy in most fonts, so many users prefer to use a regular j and overstrike a circumflex accent: Shift-F8, 4, 5, 1, j, ^ (you may have to press the ^ key twice for the symbol to appear), Return, Return, Return. Your editor finds it convenient to use a macro called Alt-c to type c-circumflex, Alt-g to type g-circumflex, and so on. The letters can then be converted to upper case if desired by using Block (Alt-F4, or F12) and then Switch (Shift-F3, 1). If you wish to type and see the accented characters with a program that does not natively support them, for example, a text editor, then you can use the freeware programs VGA-ESP and Klavint. VGA-ESP makes the 12 accented characters available on the monitor. The only requirement is to have an EGA, VGA or Super VGA video card -- any computer bought after 1985 should be fine. Klavint provides an easy way to type these characters in applications that don't support them natively. Once Klavint is installed, you can type the accented characters by using the semi-colon key. For example, ;c will give the letter c^ and ;g will give the letter g^. Other options are also available, as explained in the documentation. VGA-ESP and Klavint are available at ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/software.dir/iloj.zip Source code in assembler is provided; the programs are copyrighted but free. Windows 3.1 and Windows 95: Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 are very similar in this respect, so we'll deal with them at the same time, indicating any differences. Many fonts with the necessary accented characters are available at http://www.esperanto.be/tiparoj.html ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir/ To view True Type fonts without having to install them, use the freeware program Trowser, available at ftp://ftp.ntu.edu.au/pub/fonttools/trows101.zip Esperanto fonts are also included with the commercial program WordPerfect for Windows. To install new fonts under Windows 3.1, go to the group Main, open Control Panel, then open Fonts. Choose "Add", indicate the font's location, and choose OK. Under Windows 95, go to the Control Panel and open Fonts. In the File menu, choose "Install New Fonts", indicate the font's location, and choose OK. Another option is to use the freeware program Supersigno, which automatically adds the necessary characters to your existing fonts. This program is available at ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/software.dir/ss41zip.exe To type the accented characters, use the "Character Map" program, located in the Accessories group. Choose your font, then click on the character. You can either use Double-Click, Copy and Paste to copy the character to your application or, more simply, use the keystroke combination indicated in the bottom right corner of the Character Map display. Almost all Esperanto fonts use the Latin-3 coding. Here are the keystrokes for these fonts. In all cases, press and hold the Alt key, type the code using the numeric keypad (not the numbers on the top row of the alphabetic keypad), and release the Alt key. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Letter: C c G g H h Code: 0198 0230 0216 0248 0166 0182 ^ ^ ^ ^ - - Letter: J j S s U u Code: 0172 0188 0222 0254 0221 0253 Under Windows 3.1, you may find it easier to use the Recorder application (in Accessories) to create macros for these keystroke combinations. Recorder is no longer included with Windows 95, but you can copy it from a Windows 3.1 installation and run it under Windows 95. Remember that Recorder must be running to replay a macro. Here's how to create a macro that will automatically type c-circumflex when you press Ctrl-C. (These instructions are adapted from the on-line help for Recorder.) 1. Position the cursor in the application where you want to start recording the macro. 2. Switch to Recorder. 3. From the Macro menu, choose Record. 4. In the appropriate boxes, specify a macro name (for example, c-accent) and the shortcut key (Ctrl-C). You can also type a description, if you want. 5. To begin recording the macro, choose the Start button. 6. Type the keystrokes for c-circumflex (Alt-0230). [This only works for me if I type the keystroke combination twice. I have no idea why. -- Ed.] 7. To stop recording, click the Recorder icon, or press Ctrl-Break. 8. Select the Save Macro option and choose the OK button. 9. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the macro. Another way to type the accented characters is to use the freeware program Keys, available at http://iap.ethz.ch/users/szp/keys/ This program provides a convenient way to remap the keyboard. Yet another option is to use the program Supersigno mentioned above, which also provides an easier way to type the accented characters. [To do: Evaluate and add Ek, available at http://www.esperanto.mv.ru/Download/ek.zip for Windows 95/98.] Unix: (Thanks to Konrad Hinsen for the following information.) It is sometimes possible to install a font with Esperanto's accented characters on a Unix system not using the X Window System, but the procedure to do so is different for each Unix system and possibly for each terminal type. Look in your documentation, or ask your system administrator. In the case of Linux, there is a fairly standardized procedure if you are working on an EGA/VGA screen. Check the documentation of the command setfont, which is part of most Linux distributions. If you are using a Unix system with X11 (by far the most popular windowing system for Unix), you must install a text font with ISO 8859-3 encoding (also known as "Latin-3"). Several such fonts are listed at http://www.esperanto.be/tiparoj.html A good font set is ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir/adobe3.tar.gz which contains ISO 8859-3 versions of the Adobe fonts Courier, Times, Helvetica, and New Century Schoolbook in several sizes. It also contains installation instructions. Once you have installed an appropriate font, you must tell your programs to use it. Most X11 programs, e.g. xterm or emacs, accept the option "-fn fontname" to specify the font to be used. X11 font names can be rather long and complicated; use the program "xfontsel" to select a font and obtain its full name. Note that some older Unix programs are not "8-bit clean", which means that they do not recognize characters with codes over 128 as letters. Such programs cannot be made to work with ISO 8859-3 fonts, but neither with the common ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) fonts used for Western European languages. To write in Esperanto, you must also be able to type accented characters. Unfortunately, this is a much more difficult problem. The X11 input system is, well, rather messy, and details differ between versions and vendors. Another problem is that different keyboards are used in different countries, and that you probably want to keep all the characters on your keyboard accessible. So there are two problems: deciding how you want to type the additional characters, and persuading X11 to arrange the keyboard correctly. Basically, the options for typing Esperanto characters are: 1) Via some unused keys or key combinations. Keys that are often unused are the function keys or the shifted numeric keypad keys. Assigning the Esperanto characters to such unused keys is rather straightforward, and will be explained below. 2) Via the standard keys plus a modifier. Modifiers are keys such as Shift, Control, Meta, or Alt. The Shift combinations are usually all taken, and Control, Meta and Alt are used by many programs for command entry, so in most cases this option is difficult to realize. 3) Via the compose key. X11 supports the entry of accented characters via a special "compose" key. Unfortunately, many programs don't work correctly with the compose key, and most X11 implementations support it only for the ISO 8859-1 character set. You may be able to work around these obstacles, but no general recommendations can be given. The first option is implemented as follows: 1) Create a file called .xmodmaprc in your home directory, containing the following lines: == File .xmodmaprc ==================================================== ! Define Esperanto accented characters on shifted function keys ! ccircumflex keysym F1 = F1 ae ! Ccircumflex keysym F2 = F2 AE ! gcircumflex keysym F3 = F3 oslash ! Gcircumflex keysym F4 = F4 Ooblique ! hcircumflex keysym F5 = F5 paragraph ! Hcircumflex keysym F6 = F6 brokenbar ! jcircumflex keysym F7 = F7 onequarter ! Jcircumflex keysym F8 = F8 notsign ! scircumflex keysym F9 = F9 thorn ! Scircumflex keysym F10 = F10 THORN ! ubreve keysym F11 = F11 yacute ! Ubreve keysym F12 = F12 Yacute == End of .xmodmaprc ================================================== 2) Execute the command xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc To have this command executed automatically, you must put it into a special file, which might be called .xinitrc, .xsession or something else; you will have to ask your system administrator for assistance. The keyboard definition shown above will put the 12 special Esperanto characters on the 12 function keys when used together with the Shift key. *** *** I'd like to add information on other operating systems, *** especially OS/2 and Windows NT. Please contact me if you wish *** to help with this. *** TeX and LaTeX: (Thanks to Edmund Grimley-Evans for this information.) TeX and LaTeX are professional typesetting systems, available as free software for most computers. Though they are not always easy to use, they are extremely flexible; they are the standard tool for typesetting scientific articles and are often used for complex typesetting in the humanities. With TeX or LaTeX any diacritic can be applied to any character, so it is no harder to produce c-circumflex (\^c) than e-acute (\'e), say. A large number of "style files" exist to facilitate the use of particular languages; "esperant.sty" and "espo.sty", available at ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk/tex-archive/macros/latex209/contrib/misc/ and elsewhere, both allow Esperanto's diacritics to be entered as "^C ... ^u", and the same convention is used by the Babel package for LaTeX2e which supports about 30 language, including Esperanto. The programs produce "^j" by putting a circumflex onto a dotless j. Although TeX's default Computer Modern font has a dotless j (\j), most commercial fonts, including those that are built into laser printers, do not. There is a work-around, available as "dotlessj.sty", that involves blanking out the dot on an ordinary j; see http://www.rano.demon.co.uk/dotlessj.html Note that the Babel package does not include a hyphenation table for Esperanto so it is usually best to discourage automatic hyphenation (\hyphenpenalty=5000) and specify the hyphenation of particular words where required (\hyphenation{Esp-er-anto}). 15. HOW CAN I REPRESENT THESE CHARACTERS IN E-MAIL OR ON USENET? Accented characters are not included in standard, 7-bit ASCII. Since only 7-bit ASCII can be reliably transmitted over the net, this leads to problems when trying to use Esperanto in E-mail and Usenet news. These problems are not unique to Esperanto; all languages with accents have them. Two approaches are possible: using ASCII to represent the accented characters, or using 8-bit codes and sending them somehow over the net. Using Standard ASCII: There are two major work-arounds to represent Esperanto's accented letters using standard 7-bit ASCII: using the letter "h" to represent the circumflex, and using the letter "x" to represent all accents. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - Esperanto letter: c g h j s u "h" method: ch gh hh jh sh u "x" method: cx gx hx jx sx ux The "h" method is canonical in Esperanto since the "Fundamento de Esperanto", which forms the basis of the language, expressly provides for it. Note that "u with breve" is represented by "u" alone, not "uh". The "x" method is a recent coinage and first appeared among computer users; it is used only on the Net. The following arguments are made in favour of the "x" method: - The "h" method is ambiguous. Is the letter "h" really supposed to be there, or is it supposed to represent an accent? The letter "x" doesn't exist in Esperanto, so there is no ambiguity: any "x" in an Esperanto text must represent an accent. Rebuttal: This kind of confusion never happens in practice. "Flughaveno" can only be the Esperanto word for "airport", since "flug^aveno" isn't a word. - The "x" method is more suitable for machine treatment of text (sorting, indexing, etc.). In Esperanto, letters with accents are different from letters without accents: the alphabet is A, B, C, C^, D, etc. Since "x" is very close to the end of the alphabet, sorting algorithms will almost always put the accented letters in their proper alphabetical order. Rebuttal: These are highly specialized needs. People who must make their texts machine-treatable can use whatever method suits their requirements, but this is irrelevant for the vast majority of Esperanto speakers. The "x" method was very popular in the early years of the net, but the "h" method has clearly been gaining ground recently, as more "ordinary" Esperantists (as opposed to professional computer users, etc.) have started using the net. Either method may be used with confidence. The "x" method is perhaps more suitable for beginners, since it removes all ambiguity, so that a beginner won't try to look up "flug^aveno" in the dictionary. Other methods are also used, such as typing a circumflex accent (^) before or after the accented letter, but these are rarer. These work-arounds should only be used when one is restricted to 7-bit ASCII. It is wrong to use them when the real characters are available. All word processing programs can handle the accented letters correctly; most typewriters (especially electronic typewriters) can also do so. It is also wrong to use these work-arounds when hand-writing. Using 8-bit Codes: Esperanto is covered by the 8-bit encoding known as Latin-3 (ISO 8859-3:1988). Since 8-bit codes usually cannot be reliably transmitted over the net, some "data massaging" is necessary. For E-mail, a standard known as MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extension) converts 8-bit characters to 7-bit ASCII for transmission, and converts the message back to 8 bits upon reception. Many E-mail programs can do this conversion automatically; however, users with shell accounts (especially students) often cannot see MIME messages properly. For this reason, one should ensure that the recipient's system supports MIME before sending messages in this format. The use of MIME in Usenet is neither specifically permitted nor expressly prohibited. Most newsreaders can't handle postings in MIME, so it is best not to use it in Usenet. Some users post messages in soc.culture.esperanto and other Usenet groups using "raw" Latin-3 codes, without attempting to "protect" them with a 7-bit encoding. This has lead to some heated discussions between those who say that they can receive the original 8-bit Latin-3 codes, and those who say that they often (or always) receive gibberish. Even if the codes are transmitted properly, they can only be viewed as Esperanto characters if a Latin-3 font is used; users whose language requires the use of an incompatible 8-bit font (e.g. Russian and Japanese) will have problems viewing these characters in any event. Esperanto's accented characters are covered by the incipient "wide character" standard Unicode (ISO 10646-1:1993), so these problems will be solved if and when Unicode is widely adopted and implemented. Unicode is a widely endorsed 16-bit character code covering all languages, including non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese and Japanese. Recommendations: For everyday use, it is probably best to use either the "h" method or the "x" method, both for E-mail and for Usenet news. These methods are widely used and recognized, and both work well in practice. If one is sure that the recipient can handle MIME messages, then this format can be used for E-mail. No satisfactory 8-bit solution exists today for Usenet. Either the "h" method or the "x" method should be used for Usenet news. 16. WHAT ESPERANTO MATERIAL IS AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET? Usenet: The main Usenet newsgroup devoted to Esperanto is soc.culture.esperanto. It has an estimated readership of several tens of thousands. The group's charter specifies that postings may be in Esperanto on any topic, or about Esperanto in any language (e.g. informational postings or requests for information). The preferred language of soc.culture.esperanto is Esperanto. Beginners are ESPECIALLY ENCOURAGED to post in Esperanto, or maybe bilingually in Esperanto alongside their native tongue. The complete text of the charter is available at: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/news.announce.newgroups/ soc/soc.culture.esperanto If you are cross-posting articles to other newsgroups, please do NOT post in Esperanto, unless English (or the usual language of that newsgroup) is also included, preferably as the primary language. Aside from being rude, such postings have tended to create a lot of unwanted cross-posted response traffic, usually of an anti-Esperanto inflammatory nature. Similarly, while it may sometimes be appropriate to mention Esperanto in other newsgroups, continued discussion of Esperanto in inappropriate groups like comp.lang.c will generate more heat than light, and should be avoided. For those who cannot read the newsgroup, there is a "news to mail gateway" which sends the postings to subscribers by E-mail. All correspondence related to the mailing list should be sent to: esperanto-l-request@netcom.com Every message sent to the mailing list is forwarded to soc.culture.esperanto, and every article from soc.culture.esperanto is forwarded to the mailing list. Thus, if you are reading the newsgroup, you do not need to be on the mailing list. To UNsubscribe from the mailing list, again send a message to: esperanto-l-request@netcom.com The newsgroup is also gatewayed to the FidoNet echo Esperanto (see below under FidoNet). Incidentally, the link between the newsgroup and the mailing list means that mailing list members will sometimes see strange messages having nothing to do with Esperanto, caused when some lackwit cross-posts a message to all the soc.* newsgroups. These people do not read the newsgroup anyway, so replies sent to the mailing list (rather than the original sender) will not reach them. The newsgroup alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc should deal in principle with Esperanto instruction ("UU" stands for "Usenet University"), but it is little used in practice. Still, it is an appropriate place for beginners' questions, information on learning Esperanto, etc. The two groups just mentioned -- soc.culture.esperanto and alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc -- have existed for several years. Very recently, some new groups have been created in the alt.* hierarchy. Because of the rules which apply to that hierarchy, alt.* groups are often created without any real need and with no clear purpose. There is some traffic in alt.talk.esperanto, mostly articles cross-posted from soc.culture.esperanto or other groups. There are also several groups in the newly-created alt.esperanto.* hierarchy, but their propagation is poor and they are hardly used, except perhaps for alt.esperanto.beginner. In short, soc.culture.esperanto (and its corresponding mailing list) is appropriate for all posts in or about Esperanto. If desired, questions about learning Esperanto, help for beginners, and the like may be posted instead in alt.uu.lang.esperanto.misc or, perhaps, in alt.esperanto.beginner, but they are still entirely appropriate in soc.culture.esperanto. It is probably best to ignore the other groups. FTP Archives: The following FTP archive has a major Esperanto collection: ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/: esperanto-texts.dir: Texts in Esperanto fonts.dir: Esperanto fonts for Macintosh, DOS, Unix hypercourse.dir: HyperCard course for Macintosh introductions.dir: General information about Esperanto other-tongues.dir: Comparisons between Esperanto and other auxiliary languages software.dir: Programs related to Esperanto word-lists.dir: Dictionaries and glossaries An FTP archive is also being prepared at ftp://ftp.esperanto.org/ but was not yet set up at the time of writing. WWW: There is now A LOT of material about Esperanto on the Web. Here are some resources which should help you find what you want. Mult-lingva inform-centro (Multilingual Information Centre): http://www.esperanto.net/ Information on Esperanto and links to Esperanto resources in 35 languages. Lists of Esperanto associations with WWW pages: http://www.esperanto.net/veb/land.html Links to national Esperanto organizations with WWW pages. In Esperanto, but each country is represented by its flag, so it should be easy enough to find the information you're looking for. http://www.esperanto.net/veb/org.html Links to international Esperanto organizations with WWW pages. In Esperanto. http://www.uea.org/ Home page of the World Esperanto Association and of the World Organization of Young Esperantists. In Esperanto and English. The following pages are entirely in Esperanto: "Yellow Pages": http://www.esperanto.net/veb/flavaj-pagxoj.html List of Esperanto resources on the Web. Maintained by Martin Weichert. Much of the information in this section of the FAQ is taken from the "Yellow Pages". Virtual Esperanto Library: http://www.esperanto.net/veb/ Links to information about Esperanto, organizations, culture and science, and computers. Maintained by Martin Weichert. See also the usual WWW search services, for example Yahoo at: http://dir.yahoo.com/Social_Science/ Linguistics_and_Human_Languages/Languages/Constructed_Languages/ International_Auxiliary_Languages/Esperanto/ If you're feeling adventurous, try simply searching for "Esperanto" with Alta Vista (700 000 references), Infoseek (25 000 references), or Deja News (48 000 references using "Power Search"). Mailing Lists: Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.esperanto is available as a mailing list. See under "Usenet", above. Other mailing lists include: BJA-LISTO: On planned languages with a social base, or "social interlinguistics". To subscribe, send "subscribe bja-listo your_name@your_address" to majordomo@helsinki.fi. See also the WWW pages at http://infoweb.magi.com/~mfettes/bja-angla.html http://infoweb.magi.com/~mfettes/bja-listo.html DENASK-L: Esperanto as a home language or first language. Most active subscribers seem to be parents raising their children in Esperanto. Mail to Jouko Lindstedt <jouko.lindstedt@helsinki.fi> to subscribe. See also the WWW page at http://www.helsinki.fi/~jslindst/denask-l.html ESPER-L: General discussion in Esperanto. To subscribe, send "subscribe esper-l" to listserv@vm.ege.edu.tr. VERDVERD: About ecology. To subscribe, send "subscribe verdverd your_name@your_address" to listserv@tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl. Maintainer: Andrzej Zwawa <zb@zb.most.org.pl>. Internet Relay Chat (IRC): Channel #esperanto: Tuesday, 15:00 - 17:00 UTC, and Monday, 3:00 - 6:00 UTC Esperanto instruction: Thursday, 2:00 UTC Other Internet Resources: Enrique Ellemberg <enrike@aol.com> coordinates an Esperanto penpal service. For more information, see http://members.aol.com/enrike/eksang.htm http://members.aol.com/enrike/ekspeto.htm or send mail to Enrique. Some libraries have on-line listings of their Esperanto holdings. On the Internet, try: Library of Congress, USA (550 titles): http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog/ telnet locis.loc.gov Limited hours during week-ends University of California, USA (640 titles): telnet melvyl.ucop.edu Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands (475 titles): http://opc.ubn.kun.nl/cgi-bin/wwwlibmenu telnet opc.ubn.kun.nl username "opc" Universitaet des Saarlandes, Germany (535 titles): telnet opac.ub.uni-sb.de Internationale Esperanto-Museum Wien, Austria (18 000 titles, of which about 1000 are currently listed in the on-line catalogue): http://www.bibvb.ac.at/verbund-opac.htm 17. WHAT ESPERANTO MATERIAL IS AVAILABLE ON OTHER (NON-INTERNET) ON-LINE SERVICES? Several Bulletin Board Systems (BBSes) provide Esperanto services. In North America: USA: Microdot BBS, (812) 944-3907, New Albany, Indiana (near Evansville) Part of the WWIV network of BBS systems. WWIV systems may subscribe to the Esperanto group "La Samideanoj". USA: Satronics TBBS, (215) 464-3562 (1200-2400 bps 8-N-1), (215) 698-1905 (28 800 bps 8-N-1) Sysop: Mark F. Miller <Mark.F.Miller@mail.tju.edu> Has an Esperanto forum. No telnet or WWW access. Satronics TBBS is a non-commercial, community-supported BBS. In South America: Brazil: EducNet BBS, +55 61 347 24 83; area no 5 is in Esperanto Sysop: Erasmo Gagliardi <gagliard@brnet.com.br> In Europe: Netherlands: Esperantlingva Bultenejo Saluton!, tel. +31-53-4326886. FidoNet 2:283/323. Sysop: Wim Koolhoven <wim@saluton.iaf.nl> Devoted entirely to Esperanto. Italy: AGORA' telematiko, Torre Argentina Societa' di Servizi S.p.A. tel. 39-6-6892828 (10) 300/1200/2400 MNP5 N81 39-6-6832366 (10) 300 > 9600 MNP5 N81 V42 V42bis USRobotics 1421 (Easy Way Itapac) Itapac NUA 26500016 (32) 1200 N81 S71 DNIC 0222 Tymnet login: agora (16) 2400 N81 S71 Internet telnet: agora.stm.it Sysop: "Esperanto" Radikala Asocio <E.R.A.@agora.stm.it> FidoNet: International echo: ESPERANTO (same as Usenet group soc.culture.esperanto), Mario Mueller, 2:241/200.9 Dutch echo: ESPERANTO.028, Wim Koolhoven, 2:283/323 Portuguese echo: ESPERANTO_36, Ze Manel, 2:361/1 (Or Fausto Karvalo, 2:361/1? Still works?) Common, partly in Russian: ESPERANTO.RUS, Anatoli Gulidov, 2:5020/388.1 Courses, for speakers of Russian and Ukrainian: DR.ESPERANTO, Va Milushnikov, 2:465/101.2 Bitnet: The mailing list ESPER-L mentioned above is also available in Bitnet. Send "subscribe esper-l" to listserv@trearn. (Use this address only if mailing from a Bitnet account. If mailing from an Internet account, use the address listserv@vm.ege.edu.tr, as mentioned above.) Minitel, France: 3615 ESPERANTO (1,27 FRF/min): General information, contacts, upcoming events 3614 CNX*#ESPERANT (0,36 FRF/min): Discussion group, personal mailboxes 3614 CNX*#JEFO (0,36 FRF/min): Reserved for members of JEFO (French Organization of Young Esperantists) 3614 PING Online chat and mailbox service in four languages (French, Esperanto, Italian, and English) 3614 RIBOUREL "300 pages about/in Esperanto" Compuserve: CompuServe Information Service (CIS) has an Esperanto board in its Foreign Languages Education Forum. CIS subscribers can type GO FLEFO for further information. Prodigy: There is an Esperanto forum in the section "Foreign Languages". America On Line (AOL): America Online has about 140 members whose list of interests include "Esperanto", but no specific Esperanto forum exists. GEnie: GEnie has some discussion of Esperanto in the Public Affairs Roundtable board, Category 15 -- International Affairs, Topic 29. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ This FAQ was written by Mike Urban <urban@netcom.com>. It was brought up to date and is now maintained by Yves Bellefeuille <yan@storm.ca>. Principal contributors: Ken Caviness <caviness@southern.edu>, Alan Gould <agolincs@agolincs.demon.co.uk>, Edmund Grimley-Evans <edmundo@rano.demon.co.uk>, Don Harlow <don@donh.vip.best.com>, Konrad Hinsen <hinsen@cnrs-orleans.fr>, Dmitri Horowitz <horowitz@xs4all.nl>, Arnold Victor <arvimide@mars.superlink.net>, Martin Weichert <martinw@cs.chalmers.se>, and David Wolff <dwolff@world.std.com>.