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Subject: comp.emulators.misc Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) [3/3]

This article was archived around: 25 Nov 1997 00:00:14 -0600

All FAQs in Directory: emulators-faq
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Archive-name: emulators-faq/part3 URL: http://www.why.net/home/adam/cem/ Posting-Frequency: semi-monthly (11th and 25th of each month) Last-modified: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 19:26:19 GMT
5.2 Atari 2600 Instructions on how to dump ROM images to disk are available: http://www.sponsor.net/~gchance/2600Stuff/2600Archiver PostScript schematic to accompany the above document: http://www.sponsor.net/~gchance/images/atari.zip There is also an Atari 2600 emulation FAQ: http://www.cs.unc.edu/~brownde/museum/texts/2600emu.faq Several game and hardware manuals are available from: http://www.sponsor.net/~gchance/2600Stuff/2600Docs/docsindex.html 5.2.1 A26 [MS-DOS] Very fast, all-assembly Atari 2600 emulator for MS-DOS. This emulator isn't finished yet; it has preliminary support for mid-line collisions and cartridge bank switching. Versions after 0.11 have a speed regulator. Supports paddles, console switches, and rudimentary sound effects. It can use PC joysticks. The program (which is incredibly small) is available for download from the homepage. Written by Paul Robson <autismuk@aol.com>. Homepage: http://users.aol.com/autismuk/a26home.htm 5.2.2 Activision Game Pack [MS-Windows, Mac OS] Activision has released three commerical game packs of old Atari 2600 games that run under MS-Windows and Mac OS. The games are images of the original ROM cartridges, being run on an emulator. The game packs include cartridge images of the following games: * Pack 1: Pitfall!, Kaboom!, River Raid, H.E.R.O, Chopper Command, Grand Prix, Boxing, Cosmic Commuter, Crackpots, Fishing Derby, Freeway, Frostbite, Seaquest, Sky Jinks, and Spider Fighter. * Pack 2: Dragster, Skiing, Tennis, Laser Blast, Stampede, Ice Hockey, Barnstorming, Megamania, Oink!, Dolphin, Keystone Kapers, Enduro, Plaque Attack, River Raid II, and Atlantis. * Pack 3: Checkers, Starmaster, Pressure Cooker, Private Eye, Double Dragon, Combat, Space War, Canyon Bomber, Breakout, Night Driver, Yar's Revenge, and Title Match Pro Wrestling. You can load other ROM images into this emulator; for the Windows emulator, this can be done by concatinating them to be 16k and copying them over one of the default images shipped with the action pack. Under MS-DOS, you can do this with the apropriate copy command: copy /b 4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin copy /b 8k.bin+8k.bin 16k.bin (Of course, you'd do 8 of the 2k.bin images...) If you have a 12k image, you should be able to pad it out to 16k by tacking on any random 4k image (ie copy /b 12k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin), but I haven't tried this. If you get this to work, send me mail about it. You will probably want to edit the .ini file to tweak some values. If you have problems with sprite collisions, reduce the ActiveLineMask value (it must be one less than even powers of 2... ie 1, 3, 7, 15, etc.). You might also have to tweak CollLineStart and CollLineEnd to specify on which lines collisions should be checked. The Macintosh version will take images of any size without modification. See the Atari 2600 emulation FAQ (listed in section 5.2) for more information on how to tweak the action pack emulator. Activision can be reached at +1 310/479-5644 or 1-800-477-3650. Homepage: http://www.activision.com/atari/home.html 5.2.3 Atari 2600 Emulation Project [MS-DOS, Unix & X] This project has been abandoned. Written by Adam Roach <adam@why.net> Homepage: http://www.why.net/home/adam/2600/ 5.2.4 PCAE [MS-DOS] 100% Assembly emulation of the Atari 2600. Provides emulation of one paddle (using the mouse) and two joysticks, along with several other controllers. Requires an 80486 or higher. Supports Atari 8k, Atari 16k, Super-chip, Parker Bros., CBS, and M-Network bank switching cartridges. has a built in disassembler for non-bank switched cartridges and a debugger for all cartridges. Written by John Dullea <jxd230@psu.edu>. Homepage: http://www.netcom.com/~itsbroke/2600/ 5.2.5 Stella 96 [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, PowerMac, Linux] Atari 2600 emuator for Unix & X. Screen shots are available from the homepage. The emulator is a work in progress. However, it works with most 2600 games. Version 0.4 is now available. The current release includes support for Linux (with SVGAlib), MS-DOS, Power Macintoshes, Unix and Windows (95 & NT). Version 0.4 is about twice as fast as 0.3 in most situations. Written by Bradford Mott <bwmott@unity.ncsu.edu>. Homepage/Distribution: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~bwmott/www/2600/ 5.2.6 Virtual 2600/Virtual VCS [Unix & X, MS-DOS] Virtual 2600 is an emulation of the Atari 2600; it is covered buy the Gnu Public License. A v2.0 Beta of Virtual 2600 is now available. It includes some sound support, dynamic resizing (under X), paddle emulation, and PC joystick support. There is also a Linux SVGAlib version of the emulator available. The MS-DOS port (also known as "Virtual VCS") is maintained by Dan Boris <dan.boris@coat.com>. Written by Alex Hornby <ahornby@zetnet.co.uk>. Homepage: http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/ahornby/v2600.html 5.2.7 VCS2600 [MS-DOS] 100% 80x86 assembly emulation of the Atari 2600 VCS. It's not currently released, but should be soon. Requires an 80386 or higher, although a Pentium is really required for full speed emulation. A Pentium 100 with a Mach 64 graphics card runs about 115% original speed. See the homepage for more information. Currently under development by Thomas Djafari <frogger@micronet.fr> Homepage: http://www.micronet.fr/~frogger/ 5.2.8 ??? (2) Currently under development by <topgoro@aol.com> 5.2.9 ??? (3) Portable 2600 emulator; currently under development. (Announcement made on 1996-Feb-28 in rec.games.video.classic). The author also eventually intends to adapt it for 7800 emulation. Written by Joseph Jason Welser <jayw+@cmu.edu>. 5.3 Atari Jaguar See section 6.1. 5.4 ColecoVision Sample cartridge images can be found on: ftp://ftp.komkon.org/pub/Coleco 5.4.1 ColEm [Unix & X, MacOS, PowerMac, MS-DOS, MS-Windows] ColEm is a portable emulator of the old ColecoVision videogame system written in C. The X version of ColEm has been tested under FreeBSD, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, and Linux. Ports to MacOS, MS-DOS and MS-Windows have been completed. Written by Marat Fayzullin <fms@freeflight.com>. Macintosh Ports by John Stiles <jstiles@cello.gina.calstate.edu> and Alan Steremberg <alans@cs.stanford.edu>. MS-Windows port by Neal Danner <neald@beta.datastorm.com>. MS-DOS port by Marcel de Kogel <m.dekogel@student.utwente.nl>. Homepage: http://www.freeflight.com/fms/ColEm/ 5.4.2 Mission [MSX-DOS] ColecoVision emulator for the MSX. Requires an MSX1 (although an MSX2 is suggested) with 64K of memory and MSX-DOS. Available in both PAL and NTSC versions. The program emulates a ColecoVision by patching the OS ROM; this can be done because of the similarity of architecture between the MSX and the Coleco Vision. It works on about 1/3rd of all games that the author has tested. Written by Marcel de Kogel <m.dekogel@student.utwente.nl>. Homepage: http://www.komkon.org/~dekogel/mission.html 5.5 GameBoy Instructions on how to dump GameBoy cartridges are available: http://www.freeflight.com/fms/GameBoy/Tech/GBCopier1.lha http://www.freeflight.com/fms/GameBoy/Tech/GBCopier2.lha Other technical information on the Gameboy, along with some public domain game images, are available from Jeff Frohwein's home page; this page contains pointers to TONS of gameboy related information, including a C compiler for cross-developing gameboy games: http://hiwaay.net/~jfrohwei/gameboy/ 5.5.1 Fondle GameBoy Emulator [MS-DOS] Described as "Very Beta" by the author. The eventual intention of this emulator is to provide full support for multiplayer gameboy play over a modem. Based on the Virtual GameBoy source code (see section 5.5.6). Homepage: http://www.zipcon.net/~ender42/emulators.html 5.5.2 !GameBoy [Acorn] Gameboy emulator for the Acorn RISC machines. Runs at full speed on an Acorn RISC 700. Dave Ward <dave.ward@argonet.co.uk> has hacked a version of this emulator that runs about 8 times faster, but can be slowed down to normal speed. Program: ftp://ftp.doc.ic.ac.uk/public/info/.arch/EXTRA3/archimedes/ collections/uni-stuttgart/riscos/emulator/gameboy.zip Faster version: http://www.chubb.demon.co.uk/Dave/ 5.5.3 GBSIM [MS-DOS] Gameboy Simulator/debugger for 80386 machines and higher. This is more for technichally curious people, since it starts in a deubgger, and has features for disassembling and tracing gameboy programs. Program: http://hiwaay.net/~jfrohwei/gameboy/gbsim.zip 5.5.4 PCBOY [MS-DOS] Another MS-DOS gameboy emulator. Written by Yvan Rivard <megaman_x@infoteck.qc.ca>. Program: http://fly.HiWAAY.net/~jfrohwei/gameboy/pcboy001.arj 5.5.5 ToyBoy [Amiga] Note that this IS NOT a GameBoy emulator! This program is a prototype that was designed with no access to the specs of the actual gameboy. It will not run gameboy cartridges, even if you get a good ROM dump. This prototype was developed by Argonaut, a UK development company, to determine how difficult programming for the GameBoy would be, once it came out. However, it is based on limited information about the GameBoy, so it has little in common with the real item. Program: ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/pub/aminet/misc/emu/Gameboy68000.lha 5.5.6 Virtual GameBoy [Unix & X, MS-Windows, Amiga, MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2] This emulator will run GameBoy cartridge images. The Unix version is freeware and comes with source code. The Windows version is Shareware; a demo can be downloaded from the homepage, but a US$35 registration fee is required for a fully registered version. It requires a 32 bit library and WinG. The Amiga version is available with source code. It is playable on an A4000 with a fast video card. The Unix version has been tested on SunOS, Solaris, and OSF/1. There is also a Linux version of VGB that uses the SVGA library instead of X. A new version (0.8b1) of the MS-DOS VGB is available; it fixes a few bugs, implements sprite priorities, and has a few extra features. The current release supports using GameGenie cheat codes. Anyone who wants to help on this project is welcome. Written by Marat Fayzullin <fms@freeflight.com>. The credits for the ports are extensive; see the homepage for a list. Homepage: http://www.freeflight.com/fms/VGB/ MS-DOS Homepage: http://www.komkon.org/~dekogel/vgb.html 5.6 Intellivision There are some complications in emulating the Intellivision; the first is that there are a set of ROM routines and bitmaps stored in memory on the Intellivision console itself. Of course, this information is still copyrighted by Matel. This "Executive ROM software" is, in fact, one of the stumbling blocks to development of a commercial emulator. To make the issue worse, very little technical information is available about the unit itself. Matel was hostile to other companies making games for the Intellivision, even going so far as to change the executive ROM to recognise and crash competitors' games. Consequently, there was no developer's kit ever released. Worse even, the "Blue Sky Rangers" (Matel's original design team) have been instructed to not cooperate with any efforts to create an emulator (since Matel is currently negotiating with a third party to produce a commercial emulator.) The upshot of this is that an independant emulator developer will have to reverse engineer the hardware as well as dump the executive ROM, reverse engineer THAT, and rewrite it. As mentioned above, though, plans are in the pipeline to release a commercial CD-ROM of an emulator and games (maybe even including some that were never released.) Some information can be found on the Blue Sky Rangers' page: http://www.webcom.com/~makingit/bluesky/ The Intellivision FAQ can be found at: http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~dzubera/FAQs/intv.faq 5.6.1 ??? Development on a non-commercial emulator is being done by Carl Mueller <simon17@ix.netcom.com>. An announcement was posted to rec.games.video.classic on 1996-Mar-18. Carl has announced that he doesn't know how to release it yet, since the EXEC ROM is (aparently) non-trivial to dump, and no-one has put together schematics for a simple cart-dumper yet. 5.7 NES/Famicom 5.7.1 iNES [Unix & X, PowerMac, MS-Windows, Linux] iNES has now been released. Due to the boatload of newbie gremlins that have come crawling out of the woodwork immediately after the gameboy and SNES emulators were released and discovered, Marat has made a decision not to release an MS-DOS version yet. An MS-Windows version is available an a registration basis only. More details are available on the homepage. Binaries are available for FreeBSD/80x86, Linux/80x86, and Solaris/Sparc. The Linux version also supports SVGALib access as well as sound and joystick support. Other Unix versions may be available; check the homepage. A diagram of schematics for a device to dump cartridge ROM images is available from the iNES homepage. An MS-Windows version is now available; you must register (for US$35) before receiving it. Contact Marat if you are interested. Written by Marat Fayzullin <fms@freeflight.com>. For those of you who have cartridge images for PasoFami (see section 5.7.4), Marat posted the following directions: 1. Create a 16-byte header: "N""E""S"$1A$xx$01$01$00$00$00$00$00$00$00$00$00 ^^^ this byte is either $01 for 16kB games or $02 for 32kB games and call it, let us say, mario.hdr 2. Do cat mario.hdr mario.prg mario.chr > mario.nes You have the .NES file now. And Kerry Lee High Jr <khigh01@saucer.cc.umr.edu> translated them to MS-DOS: C:\>debug -e 100 "NES" 1A XX 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 -rcx CX 0000 :10 -nmario.hdr -w Writing 00010 bytes -q C:\>copy /b mario.hdr+mario.prg+mario.chr mario.nes Homepage: http://www.freeflight.com/fms/iNES/ Linux Homepage: http://www.komkon.org/~dekogel/ines.html 5.7.2 LandyNES [MS-DOS] The original 80x86 version of the NES emulator that iNES has been based on. A limited demonstration is available from the Damaged Cybernetics pages. Written by Alex Kravisky (aka "Landy"). Demo: ftp://ftp.futureone.com/users/damftp/archaicftp/nes/dc-nes.zip 5.7.3 NESA [MS-DOS] 100% 80x86 assembly implementation of the NES system. It is very small and quite fast. The current version supports only 16k and 32k carts. It requires an 80386SX-40 or faster to run at any sensible speed. Written by Paul Robson <autismuk@aol.com>. Homepage: http://users.aol.com/autismuk/nesa.htm 5.7.4 PasoFami [MS-Windows] The documentation for this emulators is completely in Japanese. It appears to require WinG, although a version is included. From what I can discern, it requires an 80486 and 8 megs of RAM. Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be pulled from the net. 5.8 SNES Some SNES programs are available from: http://www.futureone.com/~damaged/Consoles/SNES/index.html#demo 5.8.1 Emplant [Amiga] See section 6.6.1. 5.8.2 SPW [Windows 95] This appears to be the real thing. Although many SNES functions are not supported, this emulator is suficently complete to run Super Mario, Contra, Castlevania IV, Gradius III, TMNT 4, and others... Unfortunately, the entire setup, documentation, menu, etc. is completely in Japanese. There is also a version which includes some english translation, although it's not a perfect translation, and it's only about half done. The program is said to run in 8 Megs of memory on a '486. Preliminary reports are that it's pretty buggy. Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be pulled from the net. !!!! ALSO NOTE that a version of this emulator, 1.4a, has been floating around on the networks. If you get ahold of this program, DO NOT RUN IT. It is a trojan horse; it removes vital files from your windows directory, and moves the remainder into a subdirectory called "X". 5.8.3 SFEM 1.11 (Hoax) This is a package that purports to be an SNES emulator for MS-DOS machines. It is, in fact, a zipfile of the following programs: SFEM .COM MSDOS v6.0 COMMAND.COM (Italian) 32BEXT .DTA Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian) DYNAMIC .DTA ??? from Quest Development / SLR Systems (Italian) FAST32B .DTA Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian) FAST32C .DTA Central Point Video Routines LIBRARY .DTA Bitmap (PBM) - modified with EXE signature VGAXMODE.DTA MORICONS.DLL [Thanks to Craig Jackson <cjackson@cybernetics.com> for this information.] These files contain the following copyright notices, which means that posession or distribution of this fake emulator is in violation of *at least* four different copyrights: (C) Copyright Quest Development Corporation 1991 Copyright (C) SLR Systems 1990-91 (c)1993 Central Point Software, Inc. (C)Copyright Microsoft Corp 1981-1993. (C)Copyright 1981-1993 Microsoft Corp Licensed Material 5.8.4 SNES 96 [Windows 95] Requires Direct-X. This emulator is in a very early stage of development. Has a 30-minute time limit. Written by Jerremy Koot<jkoot@mail.euronet.nl>. This project has been abandoned. Homepage: http://www.euronet.nl/users/jkoot/index.htm 5.8.5 SNES Professional [MS-DOS] Under development by Paradox Software <jwilkins@sprynet.com>. Homepage: http://home.sprynet.com/sprynet/jwilkins/Emulator.htm 5.8.6 Virtual Magicom [MS-DOS] This program appears to be an SNES emulator for MS-DOS; it is in a fairly early stage of development, however. Under the current version, mode-7 is partially supported, and a VGA card and 80386 processor are required. According to the author, the emulator is about full speed on a 100 MHz 80486. Also, a small set of commercial games now run on the emulator, including Wanderers from YSiii. The program needs .SMC files generated by a console backup unit in order to function. (Note that .SFC files are the same as .SMC files; they merely need to be renamed.) Written by "The Brain" <thebrain@iceonline.com>. Please don't bug him for ROM images. Homepage: http://www.iceonline.net/home/thebrain/vsmc/ :Virtual Super Wild Card [MacOS] SNES emulator that runs on the Macintosh machines. It's not yet released. Written by Ernesto Corvi <macsupport@overnet.com.ar> and Richard Bannister <titan@indigo.ie>. Homepage: http://aoife.indigo.ie/~titan/snes.html 5.8.7 XNES [Unix & X] A group-style SNES emulation project that got cancelled by legal threats from Nintendo. This is no longer active. It might be worthy to note that Nintendo actually has no legal foot to stand on in the way of shutting down this project; they just threw their weight around enough to worry the project coordinator into aborting the project. See appendix G. 5.9 Sega 5.9.1 SEGA-EM 1.01 (Hoax) This emulator is another hoax. While it does not seem to be malicious, it most certainly isn't an emulator. The file "sega-em.com" is a packed exe file generated by BASIC. The file "sega-em.ovl" is not a standard overlay file; it probably is pure trash never used by the program. 5.10 Sega Genesis Miscellaneous Genesis information is available from: http://www.clearlight.com/GameSite/ 5.10.1 Emplant [Amiga] See section 6.6.1. 5.10.2 EmulatorX [MS-DOS] This emulator evenually aims to support several different game systems; the first goal is to emulate the Genesis. Nothing is available yet. Written by Teego <supafly@california.com>. Homepage: http://www.california.com/~supafly/release.htm 5.10.3 GenEm [MS-DOS] Two versions are now available; an older, more stable engine that runs many games, and a newer, faster engine that runs only a few. GenEm requires a '486 and 8 Megs of RAM. See the homepage for a list of features. By Markus Gietzen <iig05-1@htw.uni-sb.de>. Don't mail him about ROM images. Homepage: http://myst.slcc.edu/~markus/genem.html 5.10.4 Kyoto [MS-DOS, Linux, MacOS] Kyoto is a Genesis emulator currently in development for MS-DOS based 486 or better computers. It is being written primarily in Assembly. Written by Haruki Ikeda <friendlyfire@geocities.com>. Homepage http://internetter.com/titan/kyoto/ 5.10.5 MegaDrive [MS-DOS] The current version of this emulator will not run any commercial images. Author unknown. Information: http://www.nfinity.com/~swhalen/genesis.htm 5.11 Sega Master System/GameGear (SMS) SMS information is available at: http://www.nfinity.com/~swhalen/sms.htm http://www.yab.com/~cdoty/console.html 5.11.1 Massage [MS-DOS] SMS and GameGear emulator. Written by James McKay <jmk@spuddy.mew.co.uk>. Homepage: http://www.users.dircon.co.uk/~dmckay/x128.html 5.11.2 MasterGear [Unix & X, MS-DOS, Macintosh] SMS and GameGear emulator. Includes limited sound support, Joystick support (for MS-DOS version), and battery backed RAM emulation (game saving). Source code is available. See the homepage for more information. Also, Ian Spielman <ispielman@uoknor.edu> has written a couple of code patches that provide usability on 16 and 24 bit displays, and allow window doubling, tripling, etc. Written by Marat Fayzullin <fms@freeflight.com>. Homepage: http://freeflight.com/fms/MG/ Color Depth/Window Size patches: http://hepserver.nhn.uoknor.edu/Emulation/ 5.11.3 ??? [MS-DOS] Dave Spicer <Dave@hubcap.demon.co.uk> has announced that he has begun work on an SMS emulator. No other information is available. 5.12 Sony PlayStation (PSX) Some PSX information is available from: http://stekt.oulu.fi/~flame/hware/index.html 5.12.1 PSXMooSim [Amiga, Solaris] "Very under construction," as per the author. Written by Jani Vaarala <flame@stekt.oulu.fi>. Homepage: http://stekt.oulu.fi/~flame/psxmoosim/index.html 5.13 Vectrex The Vectrex was a game console that was produced in the early '80's for abour four years. Unlike most consoles, it had a built in screen and displayed its graphics using vector instead of raster graphics. (Remember Tempest? Asteroids? Star Wars? Those are vector based graphics.) The game developers have given permission for the ROM images to be made available on the net; note that this is *very* *different* than releasing them into public domain. They are still very much copyrighted... you're just allowed to use them. Technical information and ROM images are available from: ftp://ftp.csus.edu/pub/vectrex/ Vectrex Newsgroup: news:rec.games.vectrex Various Vectrex Pages: http://users.aol.com/gb8b/vectrex/index.html http://videogames.org/VectrexStuff/VectrexIndex.html FAQ list: ftp://ftp.csus.edu/pub/vectrex/FAQ ftp://users.aol.com/gb8b/vectrex/vecfaq.txt http://www.gamesdomain.ru/games/vectrex.html 5.13.1 DVE [MS-DOS] A production version of this emulator is available. Source code is available, so other platform support may show up in the future. Version 1.0 supports sound and screen overlays. Written by Keith Wilkins <kwilkins@nectech.co.uk>. Homepage: http://www.parallax.co.uk/~lmw/ http://www.naples.net/~saturn/vectrex/dve/ 5.13.2 ??? [MS-DOS, Unix & X] Another vectrex emulator is under development. Written by Mark Woodward <woodward@ca.newbridge.com>. 6 - Hardware Solutions This section is comprised primarily of emulators which require plug-in cards in order to work. In most cases, these cards actually contain all of the components of the target system, minus some I/O. 6.1 Atari Jaguar Information about the Jaguar is available from the Atari website at: http://www.atari.com/ 6.1.1 Jaguar PC Card [80x86] There are rumors that Sigma Designs intends to develop a PC card which runs Jaguar CD software and acts as a ReelMagic MPEG card. It was supposed to be released in December of 1994, but no further information is available. Sigma Designs can be reached at: Sales: +1 510/770-0482 Tech Supp: 1-800-845-8086 Sales: +1 510/770-0100 Fax: +1 510/770-2640 Sigma Designs, Inc. 46501 Landing Pkwy Fremont, CA 94538 6.2 Atari ST TOS ROMs can be purchased from the following suppliers: COMPO mailto:<compo@cix.compulink.co.uk> System Solutions mailto:<ssolutions@cix.compulink.co.uk> 6.2.1 Gemulator [80x86] There are two versions of Gemulator available. Gemulator 3.0 has been out for three years now, and runs on on a 80386 or better under MS-DOS. This product lists around US$100 in the US and DM 300 in Europe. Gemulator 4.0 was (supposedly) released around June 1995; it runs under Windows 3.1 with win32s, Windows 95, and OS/2 Warp. It will list around US$150. Both versions require Atari ST ROMs, which you install on an 8-bit ISA card. March 1996 saw the release of Gemulator upgrades, which include support for MS-Windows 3.1, MS-Windows 95, and MS-Windows NT. They also support a cable which allows users to plug 8-bit Atari disk drives and printers into your PC. See the homepage, below, for more information. This emlulator reportedly has trouble with games that use copy protection schemes. From Darek Mihocka, developer: "The web page includes a link to a list of all our dealers in the U.K., Germany, Holland, France, and Australia. People in those countries can directly buy Gemulator from those dealers in addition to buying it from us." Homepage: http://www.halcyon.com/brasoft/ Information: mailto:<brasoft@halcyon.com> Brasoft 14150 N.E. 20th Street, Suite 302 Bellevue, WA 98007 U.S.A. +1 206/236-0540 Fax: +1 206/236-0257 6.2.2 Janus [80x86] Janus is a hardware-based Atari ST emulator. It includes a 16 bit ISA card with a 68000/16, TOS V2.06 ROM chips, and 2 SIMM slots (which will take up to 32M of RAM.) The emulation uses its own RAM (probably due to the endian differences between the processors), but uses the PC's I/O devices. The emulator functions in two modes: "dual mode," which uses the PC's CPU to assist the 68000, and "local mode," which uses the on-board 68000 exclusively. The program is available from VHF Computer GmbH (Germany): +49-(0)7031-75019-0 The program is also available from Edicta GmbH (Germany): Karl-Paff-Str. 30 70597 Stuttgart Tel: +49 711 763381 Fax: +49 711 7653824 Pricing: 698 DM for a 20 MHz version and 898 DM for a 25 MHz version. They also sell TOS 2.06 ROMs for 80 DM. Can anyone get me the address of a North American supplier for this card? 6.3 DG Nova/Eclipse See also section 4.12. 6.3.1 The Hawk [80x86] The Hawk is a PC add-in card which executes the Data General Nova and Eclipse machines. It includes a custom bitslice CPU and has optional support for the original chassis I/O and optional hardware floating point support. Produced by Strobe Data of Redmond, WA. See section 6.7.1 for a mailing address and phone numbers. Information: mailto:<strobe@strobedata.com> Homepage: http://www.halcyon.com/strobe/ FTP Site: ftp://ftp.halcyon.com/local/strobe/ 6.4 IBM-PC and Compatibles 6.4.1 A2088/A2286/A386SX-16/A386SX-25 [Amiga] These boards were manufactured by Commodore. They required a Zorro 2 slot on the Amiga. They included a 5.25" drive, and had room to add another floppy drive and an appropriate 8087 or 80x86 math coprocessor. The A2088 included a 4.77 8088 processor, and the A2286 included a 80286-10. The 386 cards were capable of holding more memory. All cards included bridgeboard support. 6.4.2 AtOnce Plus [Amiga] Mini-board with 80286 on board. Required the user to purchase MS-DOS. Produced by GVP. 6.4.3 AT Speed [Atari ST/TT] A 286 add-on board for the Atari ST computers. Produced by Compo Software. 6.4.4 DOS Compatibility Card [Macintosh, Power Macintosh] This is a plug-in card produced by Apple. The 680x0 version has an 80486SX-25 processor, while the Power Macintosh version has an 80486DS2-66 processor. Both plug in the Direct Processor Slot. The bios on these boards is from Chips and Technologies. The original board (code-named Houdini) came bundled only with MS-DOS 6.22, and lacked support for NetWare and Sound Blaster; it was later updated to address these shortcomings. The board for the Power Mac includes MS-DOS 6.22 and Windows 3.11. 6.4.5 DOS on Mac [Macintosh] DOS on Mac plugs into the Direct Processor Slot and can use an 80486 at speeds up to 100 MHz. Optional items include ethernet and soundblaster support. The card starts around US$500. Produced by Reply corporation. Reply Corporation U.S.: 1 800 801 6898 Phone: +1 408 942 4804 Fax: +1 408 956 2793 6.4.6 Falcon Speed [Falcon] An 80286-16 on a board; it plugs into the processor direct slot on the Atari Falcon. Emulates VGA graphics. 6.4.7 Golden Gate 486SLC [Amiga] These 80486 cards require a Zorro 2 slot. They come with 2 Megs of memory on the board, and can be expanded up to 8 Megs. All I/O is emulated through software. Supports CGA, VGA, and Monochrome graphics. Produced by Vortex Computersysteme GmbH. 6.4.8 OrangePC [Macintosh] This is the original PC plug-in board for the Macintosh. Orange Micro, Inc. has been manufacturing these since the late 80's. The most recent models plug into both 680x0 and Power Macintoshes, and have 80486 uProcessors at speeds up to 100 MHz, 128 kb cache and up to 32MB on-board memory. Options include PCMCIA suport. Orange Micro, Inc. can be reached at +1 714 779 2772. 6.4.9 PC286 [Amiga] These boards plugged into the GVP A500+'s proprietary slot. Included 80286 processor. 6.4.10 SideCar [Amiga] SideCar was a A1000 8088 add on module which attached to the right side of the A1000. It included a 5.25" floppy, and supported CGA, MGA, and Hercules graphics. It was manufactured by Commodore. 6.4.11 SunPC [Sparc] 80x86 card for Sparc Solaris machines. Can run MS-DOS and MS-Windows. Early versions of this product were software only, with an optional processor add-on; however, SunPC now requires a 486-66 card. See the homepage for more information. For 80x86 users, see Merge (section 3.5.8). Homepage: http://www.sun.com/sunsoft/solaris/products/sunpc/index.html 6.5 Macintosh 6.5.1 A-Max [Amiga] ReadySoft, the company which sold this emulator, neither sells nor supports this product; in fact, they may no longer exist. A-Max supposedly does not work well with the latest version of the Amiga OS. 6.6 Multiple Computers This is a special section basically created for the one oddball card that is listed here. 6.6.1 Emplant [Amiga] This emulator is produced by Utilities Unlimited. It emulates a variety of machines, including the PC, Macintosh, Apple II, Commodore 64 and 128, Atari ST, Atari 400 and 800, and even some game consoles, such as the Genesis and Super NES. You will need to acquire appropriate ROM images to use this emulator. According to my sources, this emulator does a good job of emulating the Mac II, IIx, and IIci, although it's a bit slow on its 80x86 emulation. You can contact Utilities Unlimited at the following numbers: Sales/Order: +1 520/680-9004 Tech Support: +1 520/680-9234 Fax: +1 520/453-6407 BBS: +1 520/453-3909 6.7 PDP-11 (See also software solutions in section 4.27.) 6.7.1 The Osprey [80x86] PDP-11 on-a-card solution from Strobe Data of Redmond, WA. Requires an 80x86 PC; uses one ISA slot. The card itself holds an actual PDP-11 CPU from DEC. The Osprey is also available with Unibus or Qbus options. You can contact Strobe Data at: Jerry Kennedy, VP Marketing Strobe Data Inc. 4320 150th Ave N.E. Redmond, WA 98052 USA +1 206/861-4940 +1 206/861-4295 FAX mailto:<strobe@strobedata.com> Homepage: http://www.halcyon.com/strobe/ FTP Site: ftp://ftp.halcyon.com/local/strobe/ 6.8 Sinclair QL (See also software solutions in section 4.33.) 6.8.1 QXL [80x86] QXL is a hardware emulator for the QL for 80x86 machines. It is a PC card with a 68040 and up to 8M of memory. Several variations of this card have been produced. The emulator is produced by Miracle Systems in Britian. Miracle Systems Ltd 20 Mow Barton Yate, Bristol BS17 5NF United Kingdom 7 - In-Circuit Emulators In-circuit emulators (ICEs) are not really "emulators" in the same sense as the above programs. They are actually hardware devices that fit between a microprocessor and control board; they monitor the signals sent to/from a CPU. I would surmise they are used almost exclusively for hardware design debugging, although a really ambitious assembly hacker could probably make use of one for realtime debugging. Due to the nature of ICE manufacturers, this section is organised differently; the headings are individual ICE manufacturers. For information on ICEs, you'll probably have better luck posting to: news:comp.arch.embedded 7.1 American Arium P5 Emulator [80x86] From an ad: "Our LA/ICE has 128K real-time bus trace - cache execution trace & breakpoints - trace and cache disassembly - C high-level debugger - multiple Pentium analysis w/time alignment true 66 MHz emulation." American Arium 14281 Chambers Rd Tustin, CA 92680 +1 714/731-1661 7.2 Applied Microsystems Corporation From the homepage, quoted with permission: "Founded in 1979, Applied Microsystems is a leading ISO9002-certified manufacturer and supplier of integrated development systems for embedded design. Our world-wide sales offices provide engineers with high-performance development tools, including CodeTAP(R) and CodeICE™ emulators with source-level debuggers, RTOS-Link™ real-time code debugging tools, NetROM communications gateway, and CodeTEST™ software test and verification tools. These tools help engineers develop products faster, more reliably, and at a lower cost." See the homepage for more information. Homepage: http://www.amc.com/ 7.3 Hewlett Packard HP provides ICEs for the following processors: Intel Processors 186EA/XL @25Mhz HP 64767A 186EB @25Mhz HP 64767B 186EC @25Mhz HP 64767C 386DX HP 64789A 386EX HP 64789C Motorola Processors 68000 Family HP 64744 and 64746 68331/332/F333/336 HP 64782 68340 HP 64751 Hitachi Processors H8/532 HP 64737F H8/250 HP 64738F H8/534/536 HP 64739A H8/510 HP 64732A H8/300 series HP 64784A and HP 64797A They also have Distributed Emulation solutions for Motorola PPC603, PPC603e and PPC860 processors. For more information, contact John Marshal <jsm@col.hp.com>. 7.4 Huntsville Microsystems Motorola Emulators [680x0] Huntsville Microsystems markets Motorola processor ICEs. You can contact them at: Huntsville Microsystems Inc. 3322 So. Memorial Dr. Huntsville, AL 35801 +1 205/881-6005 FAX: +1 205/882-6701 BBS: +1 205/881-7395 <sales@hmi.com> 7.5 Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH [680x0, 80x86, H8, others] Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH is the largest European manufacturer of ICEs. They can be reached vie e-mail at <info@lauterbach.com>. You can also contact them in Europe at: Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH Fichtenstr. 27 D-85649 Hofolding Tel. ++49 8104/8943-29 FAX ++49 8104/8943-30 Or in the US at: Lauterbach, Inc. 945 Concord Street Framingham MA 01701 Tel. (508) 620 4521 FAX (508) 620 4522 Homepage: http://www.lauterbach.com 7.6 Orion Instruments, Inc. [680x0, 68hc11, 80196, z80, H8, others] Orion Instruments makes ICEs for almost 200 different uProcessors; they can be contacted at <info@oritools.com> or: Orion Instruments, Inc. 1376 Borregas Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1004 Phone: (408)747-0440 Fax: (408)747-0688 Homepage: http://www.oritools.com/ 8 - Terminal Emulation This section has been basically discontinued. I will keep a few links to terminal-related sites here, but the sheer number of term emulators out there makes it impossible to keep up with. If you have a particular need, check out the links below; however, if you cannot find information on the net about a product that suits your needs, I'm sure you can find a solution at your local software vendor. Posts about terminal emulators should generally be directed to comp.terminals, not comp.emulators.misc. Brixton Solutions Homepage: http://www.cnt.com/solution/brix/ DynaComm Homepage: http://www.fse.com/pages/fseapps.html You can get a full copy of EMU-TEK free for 30 days by calling 1-800-962-3900 (+1 714/995-3900). FutureSoft homepage: http://fse.com/ KEA Homepage: http://www.attachmate.com/PRODSERV/SCS/KEA/KEA95WEB.HTM Mozart Homepage: http://www.mozart.com/ Wall Data Rumba products page: http://www.walldata.com/rum/rum00.html TERMiTE Hompage: http://www.pixel.co.uk/pixel/ TGraph Homepage: http://www.wpine.com/wintgraf.html Minitel emulator: http://www.minitel.fr/English/Gateway/connect.html ou, en francais: http://www.minitel.fr/French/Passerelle/connecter.html ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix A - URL Formats A URL will generally look something like this: http://spam.foo.com/pub/stuff/ +-1-+ +----2-----++----3----+ The first section tells you what protocol to use to access the data. (ftp for ftp; http for WWW browsers, like Netscape; gopher for gopher, and so on). The second part (which is occasionaly optional, like for the mail: and news: protocols) tells which machine the information is kept on, and the third part gives an identifier (usually a path) for the information being referenced. All the URLs in this document should work with WWW browsers. ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix B - DEC VTxxx Control Sequences The DEC VT100 control sequences are based on the ANSI standard X3.64. Both the ANSI document and the DEC adaptation are available via mail order. You can order the ANSI standard document X3.64-1979 for $13.50 plus $4.00 shipping from: Standards Sales Department American National Standards Institute 1430 Broadway New York, NY 10018 212/354-3300 DEC sells their VT-100 spec for $13.00; order document EK-VT100-UG-003 from them at: Digital Equipment Corporation Accessories and Supplies Group POB CS-2008 Nashua, NH 03061 Below is an unofficial table of the control codes for the VT1xx, VT2xx, and VT3xx terminals. From Robert Frank <frank@ifi.unibas.ch>: The folowing sequences are written within < > and using spaces for easier reading. DO NOT type the spaces or the < > unless they are explicitly given as "space" or "<", ">" respectively. The term chr(n), where n is a value of 0 through 255, denotes a character with that decimal value. The letter P followed by a label (or just "n") stands for a numerical value (ascii digits i.e. 25). A parameter can be omitted, in which case it will assume a certain default value (denoted as D:n). If a sequence can take more than one parameter (given as p followed by a label) then the paramters are separated by semicolons (;). mnemonic 7bit equivalent 8bit equivalent ------------ --------------- --------------- BEL (sound beeper) <chr(7)> <chr(7)> BS (backspace) <chr(8)> <chr(8)> HT (tab) <chr(9)> <chr(9)> LF (line feed) <chr(10)> <chr(10)> FF (form feed) <chr(12)> <chr(12)> CR (cariage return) <chr(13)> <chr(13)> SO (shift out,G1->GL) <chr(14)> <chr(14)> SI (shift in, G0->GL) <chr(15)> <chr(15)> DC1 (xon (dev ctrl 1)) <chr(17)> <chr(17)> DC3 (xoff(dev ctrl 2)) <chr(19)> <chr(19)> ESC <chr(27)> <chr(27)> IND (index) <ESC D> <chr(132)> NEL (next line) <ESC E> <chr(133)> RI (reverse index) <ESC M> <chr(141)> SS2 (single shift 2) <ESC N> <chr(142)> SS3 (single shift 3) <ESC O> <chr(143)> DCS (dev ctrl string) <ESC P> <chr(144)> CSI <ESC [> <chr(155)> ST (string terminator)<ESC \> <chr(156)> Note: the 8 bit equivalents are only possible on the vt2xx and vt3xx terminals. They can always be sent TO the terminal but will only be sent FROM the terminal if in 8 bit control mode. The columns 1, 1a, 2 and 3 give the availability of that sequence on the vt100/101, vt102/131/132, vt2x0 and vt3x0 terminals respectively. Control commands sent TO the terminal: sequence atcion 1 1a 2 3 ------------- -------------------------------- - - - - <CSI Pn A> cursor up (D:1) * * * * <CSI Pn B> cursor down (D:1) * * * * <CSI Pn C> cursor right (D:1) * * * * <CSI Pn D> cursor left (D:1) * * * * <CSI H> cursor home (top left corner) * * * * <CSI Pline ; Pcolumn H> set cursor to line and column * * * * <CSI Ptop ; Pbottom r> set top and bottom lines of the scroll region (lines 1..24) * * * * <CSI Pn M> delete n lines (D:1) * * * <CSI Pn L> insert n lines (D:1) * * * <CSI Pn P> delete n characters (D:1) * * * <CSI Pn @> insert n characters (D:1) * * * <CSI Pmode J> erase in display: mode is of * * * * D:0 (or none) cursor to end 1 beginning to cursor 2 entire screen <CSI Pmode K> erase in line: mode is of * * * * D:0 (or none) cursor to end 1 beginning to cursor 2 entire line <CSI Pn X> erase n characters * * <CSI pattribute m> set character attribute(s) D:0 (or none) clear all * * * * 1 set bold * * * * 4 set underline * * * * 5 set blink * * * * 7 set reverse * * * * 22 turn bold off only * * 24 turn underline off only * * 25 turn blinking off only * * 27 turn reverse off only * * (<CSI 0 ; 7 m> will reset the attributes and then set reverse) <ESC # 5> single-width single-height line * * * * <ESC # 6> double-width single-height line * * * * <ESC # 3> double-width double-height top * * * * <ESC # 4> double-width double-height bottom* * * * <ESC 7> save cursor position and attribs * * * * <ESC 8> restore to saved values * * * * <CSI 4 h> set insert mode * * * <CSI 4 l> set overtype mode * * * <CSI ? 25 h> visible cursor * * <CSI ? 25 l> invisible cursor * * <CSI 2 h> lock keyboard * * * * <CSI 2 l> unlock keyboard * * * * <CSI 20 h> new line mode * * * * <CSI 20 l> ine feed mode * * * * <CSI ? 8 h> autorepeat key * * * * <CSI ? 8 l> no autorepeat * * * * <CSI ? 7 h> autowrap key * * * * <CSI ? 7 l> no autowrap * * * * <CSI ? 1 h> cursor application keys * * * * <CSI ? 1 l> cursor keys * * * * <ESC => application numeric block * * * * <ESC ">"> numeric block * * * * <CSI ? 5 h> light background * * * * <CSI ? 5 l> dark background * * * * <CSI ? 3 h> 132 columns * * * * <CSI ? 3 l> 80 columns * * * * <CSI ? 6 h> move cursor withing margins * * * * <CSI ? 6 l> move cursor absolute * * * * <CSI c> (primary) device attrib. request * * * * response is: <CSI ? plist c> <CSI 6 n> cursor position report * * * * response is: <CSI Pline;Pcolumn R> user definable keys (UDKs) on vt2x0 and vt3x0: ---------------------------------------------- <DCS Pclear ; Plock | Pkey1 / Pstring1 ; ... Pkeyn / Pstringn ST> clear : D:0: clear all keys before loading 1: clear this key before loading lock : 0: lock the keys D:1: do not lock the keys key : numeric key value send in escape sequence of this key. see: "Control commands sent FROM the terminal" string: string to send encoded as two digits-per-character hexadecimals To download a soft character font for the vt2x0 and vt3x0: ------------------------------------------------------- <DCS Pfn ; Pcn ; Pec ; Pcmw ; Pw ; Pt ; Pcmh ; Pcss ; { Dscs Sxbp1 ; Sxbp2 ; ... ; Sxbpn ST> fn : font number 0 or 1 cn : starting character (position of first character sent in character set) 0..95 ec : erase control 0..2 cmw: character matrix width 0..6 w : font width 0..2 t : text or full-cell 0..2 cmh: character matrix height 0..12 css: character set size 0..1 Dscs:define character set name <"space"../ "space"../ F> Sxbpn: sixel bit patterns <sixel ; sixel ; .. ; sixel / sixel ; ... > Control commands sent FROM the terminal: sequence key 1 1a 2 3 ------------- -------------------------------- - - - - <CSI A> cursor key up } * * * * <CSI B> cursor key down } cursor key * * * * <CSI C> cursor key right } mode * * * * <CSI C> cursor key left } * * * * <SS3 A> cursor key up } application * * * * <SS3 B> cursor key down } cursor key * * * * <SS3 C> cursor key right } mode * * * * <SS3 C> cursor key left } * * * * <SS3 P> PF1 * * * * <SS3 Q> PF2 * * * * <SS3 R> PF3 * * * * <SS3 S> PF4 * * * * <CSI 1 ~> Find * * <CSI 2 ~> Insert Here * * <CSI 3 ~> Remove * * <CSI 4 ~> Select * * <CSI 5 ~> Prev Screen * * <CSI 6 ~> Next Screen * * <CSI 1 7 ~> F6 * * <CSI 1 8 ~> F7 * * <CSI 1 9 ~> F8 * * <CSI 2 0 ~> F9 * * <CSI 2 1 ~> F10 * * <CSI 2 3 ~> F11 * * <CSI 2 4 ~> F12 * * <CSI 2 5 ~> F13 * * <CSI 2 6 ~> F14 * * <CSI 2 8 ~> Help * * <CSI 2 9 ~> Do * * <CSI 3 1 ~> F17 * * <CSI 3 2 ~> F18 * * <CSI 3 3 ~> F19 * * <CSI 3 4 ~> F20 * * key codes of the numeric keypad in: * * * * numeric application mode key --- ------- --- <0> <SS3 p> 0 <1> <SS3 q> 1 <2> <SS3 r> 2 <3> <SS3 s> 3 <4> <SS3 t> 4 <5> <SS3 u> 5 <6> <SS3 v> 6 <7> <SS3 w> 7 <8> <SS3 x> 8 <9> <SS3 y> 9 <-> <SS3 m> - <,> <SS3 l> , <.> <SS3 n> . <CR> <SS3 M> enter [Reposted with permission] ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix C - Emulator FTP Sites/Sources This is a archive of many emulators; however, be considerate when you're downloading from this site. They're hooked up by just a T1; if everyone hopped over there and downloaded the whole archive, it would bring the connection to its knees. Currently has directories for Coleco, GameBoy, MSX, Spectrum, and TI-85: ftp://ftp.komkon.org/pub/ Contains emulators for Commodore-64s, Apple 2s, TRS-80s, and Macs. [If this brings up a blank list in your browser, you may want to try a normal FTP program. Wilbur does not like ls -l commands...]: ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/emulators/ Although this seems to be designed for Linux systems, most of the source code will compile for just about any Unix system. This site gets really busy, so you might want to use one of the mirrors listed below: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/Emulators/ Mirrors of the sunsite emulator directory: ftp://ftp.univie.ac.at/systems/linux/sunsite/system/Emulators/ ftp://ftp.germany.eu.net/pub/os/Linux/Mirror.SunSITE/system/Emulators/ ftp://freebsd.cdrom.com/.4/linux/sunsite/system/Emulators/ Mirrors of the SimTel MS-DOS emulator directory. SimTel used to be a public-access FTP site until it grew too large; all it does now is get mirrored. For a more complete list of SimTel sites, send an email message to <listserv@SimTel.Coast.NET> with only the following in your message: get simtel-download.info ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/simtelnet/msdos/emulate/ ftp://archie.au/micros/pc/SimTel/msdos/emulator/ ftp://ftp.uni-paderborn.de/SimTel/msdos/emulator/ ftp://nctuccca.edu.tw/PC/simtel/emulator/ ftp://ftp.is.co.za/oak.oakland.edu/simtelnet/msdos/emulate/ Simtel is also available from several web sites: http://www.coast.net/SimTel/msdos/emulator.html Contains most available Spectrum emulators: ftp://ftp.nvg.unit.no/pub/sinclair/utils/ Aminet mirror emulators directory. Many emulators designed to run on Amigas appear here: ftp://ftp.eunet.ch/pub/aminet/misc/emu/ ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub3/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/ ftp://plaza.aarnet.edu.au/pub/aminet/misc/emu/ ftp://freebsd.cdrom.com/pub/aminet/misc/emu/ The Aminet homepage is at: http://ftp.wustl.edu/~aminet/ Contact information for commercial emulator vendors: ftp://ftp.product.com/info/computer_hardware/emulators/ Epic Marketing sells a CD-ROM with many emulators on it. You can contact them at: Epic Marketing, Victoria Centre, 138-139 Victoria Road, Swindon, Wilts, SN1 3BU, England. Phone: +44 (0)793 490988 ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix D - Related Documents Emulation Software R&D WWW Page: http://www.uruk.org/emu/main.html WWW Personal Computing and Emulation Homepage: http://www.freeflight.com/fms/comp/ Emulation on the Macintosh: http://www.komkon.org/~stiles/emulation/ Instruction-Level Simulation And Tracing http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/pardo/sim.d/index.html In French: http://www.mygale.org/06/shinobiz/ Many other emulator-related pages exist, primarily with lists of available emulators and links to them. Much of the information in these pages is duplicated between each other and with this FAQ, but they still provide further information you may find of use. http://www.unix-ag.uni-kl.de/%7Esteve/emulation/emulation.html http://www.blueberry.co.uk/PIER-Emulators.html http://goliat.eik.bme.hu/~korn/emulator.html http://www.algonet.se/~alexand/ http://www.iag.net/~alfred/archaic.htm http://www.csun.edu/~hbbuse08/classic.html http://www-scf.usc.edu/~nyun/ http://www.nvg.unit.no/bbc/bookmarks.html http://members.aol.com/chrissalo/emu1.htm http://members.aol.com/cajungold/index.htm http://www2.nwpower.net/~badams/computerstuff.html http://www.cybercity.hko.net/edinburgh/ikilgallon/emulator.htm http://www.nfinity.com/~swhalen/node99/ http://www.compusmart.ab.ca/jsucre/kry/ http://homepage.twd.net/staceman/ http://www.ziplink.net/~shadow5/ http://www.compusmart.ab.ca/jsucre/kry/ http://members.aol.com/deliriumth/ems.htm http://www.ziplink.net/~shadow5/ And, finally, something about GeoCities (which offers free space to produce web pages) seems to compel people to put up emulator web pages. Here's your selection: http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/3666/emul.html http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/3688/epsiemus.htm http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/9461/emulate.htm http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/8243/ http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Park/3402/emulator.htm http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Heights/6418/ ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix E - Archie The pointers to resources at FTP sites are almost never the sole place to obtain information. If you have trouble finding a file at a particular site, use archie to locate it at a different place on the net. In most cases, you should have an archie client on your system (type "man archie" for instructions). If you appear not to have an archie client, you can telnet to one of the sites listed below and login as "archie" (no password). If you need further help once you log in, type "help" at the prompt. Publicly accessible Archie servers, as of Mar 14th 1995: archie.au Australia archie.univie.ac.at Austria archie.belnet.be Belgium archie.bunyip.com Canada archie.cs.mcgill.ca Canada archie.uqam.ca Canada archie.funet.fi Finland archie.univ-rennes1.fr France archie.th-darmstadt.de Germany archie.ac.il Israel archie.unipi.it Italy archie.wide.ad.jp Japan archie.hana.nm.kr Korea archie.kornet.nm.kr Korea archie.sogang.ac.kr Korea archie.uninett.no Norway archie.icm.edu.pl Poland archie.rediris.es Spain archie.luth.se Sweden archie.switch.ch Switzerland archie.switch.ch Switzerland archie.ncu.edu.tw Taiwan archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.doc.ic.ac.uk UK archie.hensa.ac.uk UK archie.bbnplanet.net USA (MD) archie.unl.edu USA (NE) archie.internic.net USA (NJ) archie.internic.net USA (NJ) archie.internic.net USA (NJ) archie.rutgers.edu USA (NJ) archie.ans.net USA (NY) ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix F - Comp.emulators.misc Charter The comp.emulators.misc charter, for those who are curious: Emulation of computer systems on another platform. Emulators which are not covered elsewhere in the comp.emulators hierarchy can be discussed here. Emulation of specific hardware by other hardware in the same system (such as Sound Blaster card emulation by the Gravis UltraSound card) generally belongs elsewhere. ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix G - Legal Issues Invariably, the question of legality of using soft copies of ROM comes up in the newsgroup. For the exact nuances of how copyright law applies in your country, I strongly suggest you go to a local library and check out a book designed to explain copyright law to non-lawyers. There are also many myths about the legality of emulators themselves. I'm not a lawyer, but I have read many books on intelectual property laws; based on the information I have gathered, emulation of a machine is completely and defensably legal, provided that no copyrighted information is used in the emulation of the machine. (The only other protection that could possibly be afforded is trademark protection -- just be careful what you call your emulators, and this one can easily be avoided -- and patent protection. If a certain aspect of a machine has been patented, you cannot even emulate that portion without paying appropriate licensing fees.) According to precedent, emulating a particular processor (based on known information) is legal (take the example of AMD and Cyrix making 80x86 compatible chips free of legal involvement by Intel) as long as it is done without copying the actual silicon wafer masks used to produce the chips. Emulating the interaction between a processor and other chips themselves is legal as well (examples abound; see below). Those two items are basically all that is necessary to create an emulator. If, however, the machine so emulated requires a copyrighted ROM image, operating system, or other programming, that copyrighted material may not be included. It can be licensed from the copyright holder, if they cooperate. Depending on the laws in your country, it may also be sourced from a ROM that you own (see section G.4 for the pertinent US copyright law). Evidence of the legality of emulating machines can be seen in the fact that ARDI maintains a commercial emulation of the Macintosh without paying Apple any royalties (they have rewritten their own workalike ROM and OS -- see section 3.7.2); Insignia maintains SoftWindows (which works with a licensed copy of MS-Windows -- see section 3.6.6); and Sun maintains WABI (which relpaces the Windows API with equivalent X calls -- see section 3.6.8). An even more common example: while most computer users use IBM *compatible* PCs, when is the last time you actually sat down at an IBM *brand* PC? Yes, most the 80x86 machines out there are emulations of the original IBM architecture. Many game console manufacturers do not seem to have a firm grip on the actual scope of intelectual property laws; more than one emulation project has been closed down due to legal threats from large game console manufacturers. They're wrong, but they're big -- so they tend to get their way. Addendum: I've heard reports (although not had time to confirm) that Microsoft has recently selling their products with a provision in their license that restricts the software to being run only "on an authorized copy of a Microsoft operating system." I can only conjecture that this was done to increase legal leverage if their applications are being run on pirated copies of Windows; however, it is also phrased so that it could be illegal to run their applications on any non-licensed emulator (eg WINE -- see section 3.6.7). It is my own, private, non-lawyer opinion that such provisions would be easily struck down as anticompetitive, if legal action were brought. I also think that it would be the worst possible PR debackle Microsoft could inflict on itself. However, on the face of it, it may be in violation of the software license to run certain Microsoft applications under WINE. Note that Wabi and SoftWindows are both based on technology licensed from Microsoft, so they are not affected by the new license provisions. Also note that these restrictions are directly opposed to provisions in Canadian copyright law (see section G.2), and may be ruled null in that country for that reason alone. World Intellecual Property Organization (a UN organization) home page: http://www.wipo.int/ The WIPO maintains a list of those countries that are party to the Berne convention, an international agreement on intellectual property rights: http://www.wipo.int/eng/ratific/e-berne.htm G.1 Australian Copyright Law The Australian provision corresponding to US Section 117 (below) does not seem to allow the same liberties: "...[T]he copyright in a literary work being a computer program is not infringed by the making of a reproduction of the work, or of a computer program being an adaptation of the work, if... the reproduction is made for the purpose only of being used, by or on behalf of the owner of the original copy, in lieu of the original copy in the event that the original copy is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable." The Australian Copyright act of 1968 is detailed at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca1968133/index.html G.2 Canadian Copyright Law Canadian law is phrased similaraly to US Copyright law (see below) with regards to copying software [chapter C-24, subsection 27(2)]: "The following acts do not constitute an infringement of copyright: ... "(l) the making by a person who owns a copy of a computer program, which copy is authorized by the owner of the copyright, of a single reproduction of the copy by adapting, modifying or converting the computer program or translating it into another computer language if the person proves that: "(i) the reproduction is essential for the compatibility of the computer program with a particular computer, "(ii) the reproduction is solely for the person's own use, and "(iii) the reproduction is destroyed forthwith when the person ceases to be the owner of the copy of the computer program..." This would seem to explicitly protect Canadian users of emulators from prosecution under copyright laws if they make a *single* copy of their own, legal cartridges/ROM images/disk images, etc. as necessary to run them on a particular computer under an emulator. Canadian Inellectual Property Office (Office de la Propriete Intellectuelle du Canada): http://info.ic.gc.ca/ic-data/marketplace/cipo/ Copyright Act: http://canada.justice.gc.ca/folio.pgi/estats.nfo/query=*/doc/ {22445,0,0,0}/hit_headings? G.3 Hong Kong Copyright Law A very cursory discussion of Hong Kong Intellectual Property law can be found at: http://www.houston.com.hk:80/hkgipd/ind_read.html G.4 US Copyright Law The rest of the information in this section is aimed primarily at US residents; if you find any information on the net about copyrights in other countries, I'd love to include pointers to it. A good place to start would be Brad Templeton's "10 Big Myths about copyright explained." It is available at: http://www.clari.net/brad/copymyths.html A more detailed Copyright FAQ list is at: http://www.aimnet.com/~carroll/copyright/faq-home.html You may find the information available at the copyright website of use; it's available at: http://www.benedict.com/ The US copyright act (title 17) is available via gopher: gopher://hamilton1.house.gov:70/11d%3a/uscode/title17/ Additionally, the US Library of Congress has a website that includes information and copyright forms; it's located at: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/ On the topic of copying software for personal use, Section 117 of the U.S. Copyright Act states: "...[I]t is not an infringement for the owner of a copy of a computer program to make or authorize the making of another copy or adaptation of that computer program provided... that such a new copy or adaptation is created as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program in conjunction with a machine and that it is used in no other manner..." This would seem to apply to copying ROMs for use in emulators (since it is arguably necessary to copy the ROM image as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program), but I'm not a laywer. ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix H - FAQ Archive Sites All standard FAQs (those listed on the list of periodic postings) are posted usually not less frequently than once a month to news.answers; they are also archived at the following sites for retreival at any time: North America: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet ftp://mirrors.aol.com/pub/rtfm/usenet ftp://ftp.seas.gwu.edu/pub/rtfm ftp://mtecv2.mty.itesm.mx/pub/usenet/news.answers gopher://gopher.seas.gwu.edu/11/pub/rtfm gopher://jupiter.sun.csd.unb.ca/11/FAQ http://www.smartpages.com/faqs/ Europe: ftp://gd.tuwien.ac.at/pub/newfaqs/ http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/newfaqs/ http://mailserv.cc.kuleuven.ac.be/faq/faq.html ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/doc/rtfm ftp://ftp.univ-lyon1.fr/pub/faq ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/FAQ ftp://ftp.Germany.EU.net/pub/newsarchive/news.answers ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-muenchen.de/pub/comp/usenet/news.answers ftp://ftp.uni-paderborn.de/doc/FAQ http://www.Germany.EU.net/ ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/NEWS.ANSWERS http://www.cs.ruu.nl/cgi-bin/faqwais ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/usenet ftp://ftp.switch.ch/info_service/Netnews/periodic-postings ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/news-faqs/ gopher://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/1/usenet/news-FAQS http://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/news-faqs/ Asia: ftp://ftp.hk.super.net/mirror/faqs ftp://hwarang.postech.ac.kr/pub/usenet/news.answers ftp://ftp.edu.tw/USENET/FAQ Africa: ftp://ftp.is.co.za/usenet/news.answers/ If any of the above links don't work for you, please E-MAIL ME ABOUT IT and check the list located at: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/news-answers/introduction ---------------------------------=:> * <:=--------------------------------- Appendix I - Credits Thanks to the following people for their information, without which this document would not have been possible: Ron Zayas <ronzayas@aol.com> Jonathan Badger <badger@phylo.life.uiuc.edu> Paul Boddie <Paul.Boddie@cern.ch> Byron Followell <followel@ix.netcom.com> Pascal Felber <felber@lsesun1.epfl.ch> James Cooper <jamie@unx.sas.com> John Wilson <wilsonj@rpi.edu> Craig Jackson <cjackson@cybernetics.com> Alastair Booker <ali%wgd562.uk.sb.com@sb.com> Doug Salot <doug@syssoft.com> Marinos Yannikos <nino@mips.complang.tuwien.ac.at> Craig Jackson <cjackson@cybernetics.com> Hetz Ben Hamo <malibu@netvision.net.il> William Kendrick <kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu> Paul Burgin <burginp@logica.com> Henk Penning <henkp@cs.ruu.nl> Fabrice Frances <frances@laas.fr> Emmanuel Roussin <roussin@genesis8.frmug.fr.net> Kevin P Lawton <bochs@world.std.com> Filip Kujawski <panx@mcs.com> Martin Gerken <SMARTY@darkness.gun.de> Ewen Roberts <robertej@aston.ac.uk> Tom Seddon <T.W.Seddon@town7.ncl.ac.uk> Kevin E W Thacker <kthacker@krisalis.co.uk> Hans Guijt <h.guijt@inter.nl.net> Jean-Francois Fabre <fabre@cert.fr> Jim Cook <jcook@halcyon.com> Bill Griffith <bgriff@eda.com> Alexander T. Smith <A.T.Smith@newcastle.ac.uk> Tony Smolar <asmolar@fast.net> Wouter Scholten <wouters@cistron.nl> Sunil Gupta <Sunil.Gupta@Smallworld.co.uk> Guenter Woigk <asbach!vanilla.nbg.sub.org!kio@server.noris.net> James Fidell <james@hermione.demon.co.uk> Michael Meissner <meissner@cygnus.com> David Alan Gilbert <gilbertd@cs.man.ac.uk> Ed Joseph <ejoseph@candle.com> Michael Gueting <gueting@uni-paderborn.de> Carolyn Horn <Steve@horn.demon.co.uk> Corne Beerse <beerse@ats.nld.alcatel.nl> Mike O'Malley <omalley_m_mike@bt-web.bt.co.uk> Jeroen van den Belt <Jeroen@login.iaf.nl> Marat Fayzullin <fms@freeflight.com> R Ribeiro <rff-ribe@csm.uwe.ac.uk> Steve Hawley <hawley@adobe.com> Juan Jose Epalza <jepalza@arrakis.es> Andrew Cagney <cagney@highland.com.au> Maarten J. van den Hoek <maartenh@stack.urc.tue.nl> Bradford W. Mott <bwmott@eos.ncsu.edu> Jean-Francois Lozevis <lozevis@email.enst.fr> "The Brain" <thebrain@iceonline.com> Carolyn Horn <steve@horn.demon.co.uk> Alex Hornby <ahornby@zetnet.co.uk> L. D. Tonks <L.D.Tonks@bra0202.wins.icl.co.uk> Kevin Postlewaite <kpost@econ.sas.upenn.edu> Samir Ribic <megaribi@hermes.si> Ryan <ryan@enteract.com> Adam Narrison <an6@pgstumail.pg.cc.md.us> Michael Weigand <michael@stargate.bonbit.org> Keith Wilkins <kwilkins@nectech.co.uk> Paul Robson <autismuk@aol.com> Fabien Tassin <tassin@eerie.fr> Sebastien Brochet <tenabiss@micronet.fr> Mike Mallett <mike.mallett@zetnet.co.uk> Reece Sellin <r_sellin@cariboo.bc.ca> David Linsley <djl102@york.ac.uk> Russell Schulz <Russell_Schulz@locutus.ofB.ORG> John Marshal <jsm@col.hp.com> Robert Federle <Robert_Federle@a.maus.de> Erik Kunze <Erik.Kunze@fantasy.muc.de> Yury Chebykin <asd@holo.simbirsk.su> Matthias Jaap <Matthias_Jaap@hhs.hh.schule.de> Matt Conte <itsbroke@ix.netcom.com> Paul West <pdub@accesscom.com> Douglas W. Jones <jones@cs.uiowa.edu> Chris Murphy <murph2@erols.com> Raymond Ancog <raymond.ancog@livewire.com.ph> Adam Davidson <adam@odie.demon.co.uk> Frederic Gidouin <frederic.gidouin@hol.fr> Jean-Francois Lozevis <jeanfrancoi.lozevis@hol.fr> Chris Hames <bytey@werple.net.au> Frederic Gidouin <frederic.gidouin@hol.fr> Barry J. Stern <bstern@in.net> Rich Drewes <drewes@interstice.com> Rui Ribeiro <rui@ipp.pt> Special thanks to Robert Frank <frank@ifi.unibas.ch> for his list of VT codes. Another special thanks is due to Jouko Valta <jopi@stekt.oulu.fi> for his extensive list of emulators and emulator FAQs.