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Subject: rec.pets.dogs: Mastiffs Breed-FAQ

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Archive-name: dogs-faq/breeds/mastiffs Posting-frequency: 30 days URL: http://access.mountain.net/~mmcbee/mastiff/mastiff-faq.html Last-modified: 02 Sep 1997
======= There are nearly 100 FAQ's available for this group. For a complete listing of these, get the "Complete List of RPD FAQs". This article is posted bimonthly in rec.pets.dogs, and is available via anonymous ftp to rtfm.mit.edu under pub/usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list, via the Web at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/lists/faq-list.html, or via email by sending your message to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with send usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list in the body of the message. This article is Copyright 1997 by the Author(s) listed below. It may be freely distributed on the Internet in its entirety without alteration provided that this copyright notice is not removed. It may NOT reside at another website (use links, please) other than the URL listed above without the permission of the Author(s). This article may not be sold for profit nor incorporated in other documents without he Author(s)'s permission and is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty. ========== MASTIFF F. A. Q. Frequently Asked Questions about the Mastiff, also commonly referred to as the English or Old English Mastiff (OEM) "Dedicated to the Ones who wait for us at the end of the Rainbow Bridge." Revision History: * Release 1.00, January 20, 1997 (Pre-USENET Release) * Release 1.01, February 1, 1997 * Release 1.02, March 14, 1997 * Release 1.03, March 31, 1997 (USENET Release) * Release 1.04, August 12, 1997 + Combined the two separate parts into one document + Updated the largest dog in the world's weight + Added 1998 Specialty information + Appendix D - Rescue - revised to reflect new structure + Appendix E - Added a number of Mastiff books, sites + Appendix I - Updated MCOA contact list + Appendix J - New or changed sites for Bullmastiffs, Dogues, Filas, Saints, Tibetans + ... and a number of minor changes through-out _________________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION AND LEGAL STUFF A. Introduction B. Copyright C. Disclaimer D. Contributors II. QUESTIONS FREQUENTLY ASKED ABOUT THE MASTIFF 1. What is a Mastiff? 2. What is the Mastiff Club Of America (MCOA)? 3. Where do Mastiffs come from? 4. What are Mastiffs good for? 5. Are all Mastiffs the same? 6. Are Mastiffs: a. Aggressive? b. Easy to train? c. Fighters? d. Good guard dogs? e. Protective? f. Shy? 7. What are Mastiffs like in the house? 8. How much does a Mastiff: a. Cost? b. Eat? c. Weigh? 9. Do Mastiffs: a. Bark much? b. Bite? c. Chew? d. Dig? e. Make good obedience dogs? f. Need a lot of exercise? g. Pass gas? h. Roam? i. Shed? j. Slobber? k. Smell? l. Snore? m. Live indoors or outdoors? 10. How are Mastiffs with: a. Burglars, muggers and other miscreants? b. Other dogs? c. Other animals? d. Strangers? e. Young children? 11. How long does a Mastiff live? 12. Can I get a white Mastiff? What colors can I get? 13. Male vs. female, which is friendlier? more protective? Easier to train? 14. Is there anything special I should know about raising a Mastiff puppy - isn't it the same as any other breed? 15. How much training does a Mastiff need? 16. Do Mastiffs have any genetic health problems? 17. What are the common non-genetic health problems in Mastiffs? 18. What other problems do Mastiffs have? 19. What kind of a temperament does a Mastiff have? 20. What does a Mastiff eat? 21. What kind of living quarters does a Mastiff require? How about crating? Where do they sleep? 22. Does owning a Mastiff: a. Cost a lot? b. Require a lot of work? 23. Are you trying to talk me out of getting a Mastiff? 24. Where should I get a Mastiff? 25. Where can I get more information about Mastiffs? 26. How do I pick a Mastiff puppy? 27. What questions should I ask the breeder (and what answers should I get) 28. What kind of toys and other paraphernalia do I need for my Mastiff? 29. Is that a Mastiff in: 30. What's the difference between a Mastiff and a Bullmastiff? III. APPENDICES A. History of the Mastiff B. MCOA / AKC Mastiff Conformation Standard C. MCOA Code of Ethics D. MCOA Rescue Service 1. What is the MCOA Rescue Service? 2. MCOA Rescue Service Contacts E. Mastiff References and Resources 1. Books 2. Publications 3. Video / Audio 4. Computer Programs & Databases 5. Mastiffs on the Internet F. Health Tests / Certifications every Mastiff SHOULD have G. Questions To Ask a Mastiff Breeder H. Special Aspects of Raising a Mastiff Puppy I. Mastiff Clubs & Contacts 1. Mastiff Club of America 2. US Regional Mastiff Clubs 3. Mastiff Clubs in Other Countries J. Mastiff Varieties and Internet References _________________________________________________________________ I. INTRODUCTION AND LEGAL STUFF A. _Introduction_ Hello and welcome to the wonderful world of the Mastiff! In our not so humble opinion, the Mastiff is THE best breed of dog to be owned by, bar none. BUT, the Mastiff is NOT a breed for everyone. We've tried to gear this F. A. Q. towards the breed browser and the first time Mastiff wanna-be owner. Here we've tried to show both the upside and the downside of the Mastiff / human relationship. Not that we're trying to chase you away (we wish everyone could enjoy the love and companionship of one of these great beasties), but we'd much rather have you know about the possible trials and tribulations BEFORE your new Mastiff pup walks through the front door, not AFTER. As the breed's popularity and exposure increases, more and more people are getting a Mastiff without any idea what-so-ever of what they're getting into. Way too often this ends up in severe disappoint for the human and tragedy for the Mastiff. So please, please, study this F. A. Q. Ask questions. Look before you leap! We hope that this F. A. Q. in some way helps you in making your decision and / or preparing for your life with a Mastiff. Good luck and doG Bless! B. _Copyright_ This FAQ is a publication of, and Copyright (c) 1995, 1996, 1997 by, the Mastiff Club Of America, Incorporated (MCOA). All rights are reserved. The Mastiff AKC Conformation Standard (Appendix B) is included with the permission of the American Kennel Club, Inc. The MCOA hereby gives permission to freely distribute this document in its entirety for non-profit, non-commercial, personal use and for traditional Internet archiving, provided that the document is distributed in its entirety and that no changes are made. Permission is also given to freely distribute excerpts and quotes provided that attribution is given to the Mastiff Club Of America, Inc. This FAQ may NOT be included in any commercial collections or compilations. If you find it in one, please notify the FAQ maintainer so appropriate action can be taken. C. _Disclaimer_ This FAQ is provided as is without any express or implied warranties or guarantees as to the content's accuracy, completeness or applicability to a specific animal. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this article, the MCOA, the contributors and the maintainer assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. D. _Contributors_ + Laurie Adams + Donna Dick + Deb Jones + Sharon Krauss + Kirsten Ludwig + Mike McBee + Linda Monroe Please send any comments, corrections or criticisms about the FAQ to the FAQ maintainer, Mike McBee, at mmcbee@access.mountain.net. _________________________________________________________________ II. QUESTIONS FREQUENTLY ASKED ABOUT THE MASTIFF 1. _What is a Mastiff?_ A Mastiff is a giant breed of dog, descended from the ancient Alaunt and Molosser. Today, mastiff is used to describe many different breeds around the world, all descended from the same root stock. In the US and other English speaking countries, Mastiff is used to refer to the Old English Mastiff (OEM), developed in England and nearly extinct after WW II. With that in mind, Mastiffs (OEMs) are generally very large dogs; fawn, apricot or brindle in color; all with a black mask and ears; possessing a medium to short coat with very little white (which, if it appears, should be confined to the chest but often appears on the toes as well). There is no upper height limit and no weight range in the Mastiff Standard. In height they generally range from the Standard's minimum of 27 1/2 inches up to 36 inches for the exceptionally tall ones. They can weigh anywhere from 110 pounds to the 343 pounds of Zorba, the world's largest dog, although most Mastiff males weigh around 160-230 pounds and females around 120-170 pounds. This breed is supposed to be very broad with a huge head, wide chest and large bone, and is longer in body than in height (see Appendix B, the Mastiff Conformation Standard). Mastiffs are not supposed to resemble Great Danes except possibly in height, nor Saint Bernards, except for the bone, width, chest and large head. They should not be as wrinkled as a Neapolitan nor as dome headed as a Dogue de Bordeaux, nor 'houndy' like a Fila Brasileiro. Mastiffs possess characteristics unique to the breed, especially the head with a broad, deep muzzle with flews hanging over the bottom lip, giving the head a square appearance. A Mastiff should possess a calm, self assured temperament and be devoted to its family and friends. Mastiffs should not be aggressive to humans or other animals, including other dogs, although, unfortunately, some of them are. Mastiffs should be steady, gentle, eager for affection, good with children, calm and self assured, and used primarily as a family companion. 2. _What is the Mastiff Club Of America (MCOA)?_ The Mastiff Club Of America was incorporated in 1929 to protect and promote the Mastiff. It is the Mastiff parent breed club member of the American Kennel Club. Membership is open to persons 18 years or older, in good standing with the American Kennel Club, who subscribe to the purposes of the Club, and who agree to abide and uphold the Club's Code of Ethics (Appendix C), Constitution and By-Laws. Applicants must be sponsored by two MCOA members who have been members in good standing for at least three years. Applicants will be an associate member (without voting or office holding privileges) for a period of one year. The MCOA is a non-profit organization. For membership information and application forms, contact the MCOA Membership Chairman (see Appendix I.1 for contact information). The objectives of the Club are: + to encourage and promote the selective breeding of quality purebred Mastiffs and to do all possible to bring their natural qualities to fit the standard + to encourage the organization of independent local Mastiff Specialty Clubs in those localities where there are sufficient fanciers of the breed to meet the requirements of the American Kennel Club + to urge members and breeders to accept the standard of the breed as approved by the American Kennel Club as the only standard of excellence by which Mastiffs shall be judged + to do all in its power to protect and advance the interests of the breed and to encourage sportsmanlike competition at dog shows and obedience trials + to provide for the welfare of the breed through a program of Mastiff Rescue and continuing education + to conduct sanctioned matches, obedience trials, and specialty shows under the rules of the American Kennel Club. The MCOA conducts a roving Independent National Specialty in the spring of each year; in 1996 the Specialty was held in St. Louis, Mo. and in Sacramento, Ca., in 1997. The 1998 MCOA National Specialty and Obedience Trial will held May 5-9, at the Embers Inn and Convention Center, Carlisle, PA. See http://www.idsonline.com/business/djones/spec98.htm for more information. The Club publishes a quarterly Journal available by subscription (see Appendix I.1 for Subscription Editor's address) and a quarterly Bulletin for its members. The MCOA offers a Genetic Data Collection Service to individuals and breeders who are interested in researching the genetic background of their dogs (see Appendix F for more information). 3. _Where do Mastiffs come from?_ See Appendix A for a brief history. 4. _What are Mastiffs good for?_ Mastiffs excel as companions, family members, therapy workers and as watch dogs. Mastiffs have also done well, when properly trained and conditioned, at carting, tracking, obedience, conformation showing, search and rescue (SAR), and weight pulling. They are also great foot warmers and couch potatoes. :-) 5. _Are all Mastiffs the same?_ No. Like humans, Mastiffs are individuals. Each has its own genetic and environmental history that effects its attitude, temperament, health and responses to stimuli. These questions are answered with the general breed characteristics in mind, no individual Mastiff will match the answers in every respect. Oh, that's not what you meant. While it is correct that the breed of mastiff dog developed in England has pre-empted the official name of 'Mastiff', according to the AKC's 'The Complete Dog Book', 18th Edition, "The breed commonly called "Mastiff" in English speaking countries is more properly described as the 'Old English' Mastiff." From the same source: "The term 'mastiff' describes a group of giant varieties of dogs rather than a single breed." If this is what you meant, then No, not all Mastiffs are the same. See Appendix J for a list of some of the different Mastiff varieties. 6. _Are Mastiffs:_ a. Aggressive? Aggression is unnecessary force or dominance in any situation. Aggression should not be confused with protection where a dog uses force or dominance to protect its people or territory when threatened. The typical Mastiff's temperament, by nature, is one of gentle demeanor. However, as with any breed, a Mastiff can become aggressive for varying reasons. Typically, aggressive behavior is established due to environment as a "learned response" and/or results from a lack of proper socialization during the dog's developmental stages. A certain percentage of dogs may be genetically unstable and inherit aggressive tendencies. For this reason, before you purchase a puppy, it is best to ask the breeders about the temperament of the sire and the dam and try to see both if at all possible. Some dogs may have a predisposition for certain characteristics which may be the basis for aggressive behavior: a dominant dog may exhibit Dominant Aggression, an unsocialized dog may develop Fear Motivated Aggression, or a dog unsocialized with other dogs may develop Species Aggression. Most aggression can be prevented by proper rearing and socialization, beginning as a puppy. If you are experiencing a problem, consult your Mastiff's breeder, your veterinarian, and/or a trained animal behaviorist BEFORE the problem becomes serious. b. Easy to train? Both easy and difficult. Mastiffs are smart, and live to please. However, they go through phases where they are also stubborn, and these phases can last anywhere from a few weeks a couple of times in puppyhood to (in some cases) the lifetime of the dog! Keep training sessions short (10-15 minutes) and frequent (several times a day). In addition to their stubbornness, Mastiffs have very sensitive feelings, and if they are frightened, hurt, or confused, they cannot be budged. Make training like a game. Use a happy, excited voice. You have to be consistent and firm to train effectively. Once a dog is well trained, it needs practice on a regular basis. Dogs LIKE to be trained because they WANT to know how to please their beloved owners. Once trained, a Mastiff seldom needs stronger correction than a stern voice. Except for formal obedience training, you can use food treats for motivation. But the best reward for any Mastiff is lavish hugs and plenty of praise. c. Fighters? Mastiffs, with their gentle natures, do not have the instincts that dogfighters are looking for. Their protective instincts make them actually the opposite to the aggressive fighting personality. However, they will, at times, fight among themselves, or with other dogs, for the typical canine reasons such as pack dominance and sexual competition. Two 190 pound adult male Mastiffs in combat for pack leadership can be next to impossible, as well as exceedingly dangerous, to separate. d. Good guard dogs? Mastiffs are excellent guard dogs. They go to the door and bark, their hackles stand up, and they look formidable, but Mastiffs, as a breed, are not trigger-happy. They have a gentle, rather than an aggressive, nature. Mastiffs need the company of their human family much more than some other breeds of dogs do. A Mastiff left alone, tied out, or kept in a fenced yard with too little human company, will either pine away or develop destructive behaviors out of loneliness and anxiety. Denied the needed time with its family, a Mastiff may be much LESS protective because it isn't sure it belongs to that family. A normal, well adjusted Mastiff will protect it's family, but only if the need arises. You don't want an aggressive Mastiff that protects you from friends and family. The ideal temperament is one where you never know that you are being protected unless a true situation arises where a Mastiff's services are needed. e. Protective? Mastiffs ARE protective. However, many people do not understand the difference between protection and aggression. If a dog growls when there is no danger, that is aggression, NOT protection. A protective dog has the judgment to see when there is a real risk of danger, and therefore, if you have a TRULY protective dog, you may never know it till you ARE in danger. The protective instinct is shown in subtle ways, such as the Mastiff tending to stand between their person and a stranger. Many people who have kids discover that they can't spank a kid in front of the Mastiff -- it looks worried and gets in between the parent and child! Couples who sometimes play-wrestle together have reported their Mastiff trying to stop them for fear it is a fight. f. Shy? Because of their great sensitivity, Mastiffs who are not THOROUGHLY socialized when young can very easily become shy of strange people, places, and animals. Shyness can be both inherited and/or the result of inadequate socialization. This is why puppy kindergarten, obedience classes over an extended period of time, and visits to parks are EXTREMELY important to the development of your Mastiff. If you do not have the time to do these things with and for your Mastiff, you need to think over whether you are in a position to do right by a dog, at least at this point in your life. A shy dog is an uneasy, unhappy dog. If your dog is more shy than the average, then it is more important than ever to get the right amount of gentle, gradual socialization with lots of positive reinforcement for all its friendly, confident, non-shy actions. 7. _What are Mastiffs like in the house?_ Clean, quiet, and undemanding. Heaven to a Mastiff is a rug beside his owner's chair. Mastiffs are naturally clean (except for slobber), and quick to housebreak. Most adult Mastiffs don't chew what they shouldn't, and they don't get on the furniture (unless you let them _;-)_). If you do let your young Mastiff on the sofa, just remember that they grow FAST, and it is unfair and quite unreasonable to let the dog learn to enjoy something, and then decide the dog is too big to get up there any more. Mastiffs have long memories, and are much easier to train correctly the first time than to retrain to get rid of bad habits. 8. _How much does a Mastiff:_ a. Cost? Puppy prices usually run $800-1500 and up, depending on a number of variables such as pedigree, show potential, geographic location, and breeder costs. A higher price does NOT necessarily mean a better dog! Read this FAQ thoroughly to learn about testing and other evidences of health and soundness, as well as show wins, as the basis for selecting the pup most likely to be healthy, happy, and just what you want. b. Eat? Probably not as much as you think. Pound for pound, the larger the dog the less food it needs for each pound of body weight. Exactly how much food your dog needs depends on many factors including its size, age and activity level. Feed your Mastiff a good quality, balanced diet - low on table scraps - and don't let him get too fat. c. Weigh? Adult males generally run about 160-230 pounds, females are normally between 120-170 pounds. Males over 200 pounds are not too uncommon and a few females reach these weights. According to the Guinness Book of Records the record holder for the world's largest dog is Zorba, a Mastiff, at 343 pounds. He stood 37 inches at the shoulder and was 8 foot 3 inches from the tip of his nose to the tip of his tail. Zorba set this record in November, 1989, when he was 8 years old. 9. _Do Mastiffs:_ a. Bark much? Puppies are puppies in most breeds. Young pups tend to bark more than adults because of the excitement of play. Adults rarely bark except when you first arrive home, or they hear a sound they want you to investigate, like a doorbell. Most Mastiffs will howl if they hear a siren close by, since it sounds like a howl such as wild dogs would respond to. b. Bite? Any dog bites if hurt, frightened, or threatened, but a Mastiff that is properly trained and socialized will typically not bite except as a very last resort. Do NOT let a pup (of any age) bite anyone or anything (except its litter mates) in play, since they NEED to know that biting is not allowed. They will still bite if there is an absolute necessity, but will not try it any other times. c. Chew? As for chewing, puppies of any breed need to be given durable toys that they know it is OK to chew. Any time you catch your puppy chewing on anything except its own chew toys, take the forbidden item away from it, and give it a chew toy, and encourage the dog to chew on its own toy. Praise it when it DOES chew on its own toy. Repeat as necessary (remember, we told you these dogs are stubborn!) d. Dig? Engineers on the Panama Canal project considered bringing in a myriad of Mastiffs to do the job, but ultimately rejected the idea when they figured out the manpower they'd have tied up in pooper scoopering. Seriously, though, many Mastiffs do like to dig. You'll have to ask them why. e. Make good obedience dogs? By nature, Mastiffs are eager to please. This makes them good Obedience dogs. But like any other breed, temperaments vary between individuals, so some Mastiffs are better candidates for the Obedience ring than others. Some Mastiffs are more laid back, aloof, and lethargic; while others are more outgoing, inquisitive, and athletic. Though both types of temperaments are trainable, the latter of these two temperaments would be better suited for competition in the Obedience ring. f. Need a lot of exercise? About as much as you do. Most Mastiffs are like most humans; they can manage a sedentary life reasonably well - but, also like most humans, they reach a physical peak with a moderate degree of exercise. It is important that you NOT over exercise any Mastiff under 2 years of age. Up until this age (and sometimes later) their skeleton is still developing. Since Mastiffs tend to be stoic, and also will do just about anything to be with and please their people, they can easily end up with an inflamed joint or other problems like those that beset humans who run for exercise. When you do begin to exercise your Mastiff, begin GRADUALLY. Build up SLOWLY. Make sure you know and watch for the signs of your dog getting tired or overheated. Take ice and water with you in case the dog overheats. The extra weight will add more effect to your workout! This is not to say that Mastiffs should not have any exercise at all as pups. On the contrary, Mastiff puppies are still puppies and need to do puppy things like running and playing. If left to their own schedule, they will rest themselves when they get tired. Crating a pup for most of its puppyhood is more detrimental than letting it play and exercise in moderation in the house and yard. If you go for long walks and your pup gets tired, be prepared to carry it home! Once a Mastiff is fully grown and its growth plates have closed, it can usually keep up with the best of us! g. Pass gas? Yep. Especially on a diet of beer, hard-boiled eggs and beans. Actually, like humans, it depends on how the Mastiff reacts to the food it eats, so using a good dog food should minimize the problem. If a dog can digest its food properly, it shouldn't have gas. Different dogs do best on different foods. See Question 20. 'What does a Mastiff eat?' for more information. If a Mastiff should get gas in spite of your best efforts, watch out. It is overpowering. h. Roam? Not usually. A Mastiff of either sex tends to be stay-at-home dog. Learning to stay within property boundaries comes naturally. Some individuals, however, would put Houdini to shame. Nevertheless, when your Mastiff is outdoors without supervision, as with all breeds, it's a good idea to have him in a secure, fenced enclosure. i. Shed? Yes, like most breeds they shed approximately twice a year. But, the short, sleek Mastiff coat is less objectionable, when it sheds, than the coats of many long-haired breeds. A daily brushing will prevent accumulation of hair around the house. j. Slobber? Most Mastiffs only drool when 1) they have just had a drink of water or just ate, or 2) they are extremely agitated and fearful, or 3) you are eating anything that smells better than dogfood, and you have been foolish enough to feed the dog some of your food at any time in the past. Mastiffs with tighter lips tend to drool less. Experienced Mastiff folks keep hand towels all around, to wipe faces after every drink and meal, and other times as needed. If you wipe the drool off immediately, it is a lot less likely to get slung onto the dog's face or body, your furniture, you, or the walls. If it makes you feel any better, 1) you get used to it, and 2) St. Bernard breeders say their dogs can hit the ceiling with their slingers, while Mastiffs tend to only hit about waist height on a human. Actually, if you are a habitual face-wiper it won't be bad at all, but to be realistic, "spit happens". k. Smell? Well, Mastiffs aren't bred for tracking, so they don't all have the best scent discrimination. Oh, you mean smell as in having B.O.? Mastiffs need occasional bathing, but since they have a short coat, they dry fairly fast. If a Mastiff has a bad odor despite regular bathing with a good dog shampoo approved by your breeder or vet, it may have a medical problem such as fungus in the ears or between the toes, or a digestive or dental problem, which can cause bad breath. Hypothyroid dogs tend to have B.O., and infected anal glands can cause a serious stench. Time to go to the vet to check it out. l. Snore? Yes. Ohhhh, yes. You'd better believe it! Actually, snoring is genetic. The reason a dog snores is due to a long soft palate (the back of the upper palate). This characteristic, like any other, is inherited. This does NOT mean that the dog has to have a long 'muzzle' to be a snorer! It just means that the upper palate has a longer soft palate. So you may see certain bloodlines which do not have as many problems with snoring and some which are horrendous snorers. m. Live indoors or outdoors? Indoors, of course. What's the sense of having a Mastiff if you don't have it close to you? It certainly can't protect you from the boogie man if it's tied out in the yard. And it's useless as a footstool if you keep it fastened in a kennel or locked in the garage. Seriously, Mastiffs seem to have an instinctive need and desire to be as close as possible to their human family, to the point that their emotional development can be stunted if they are deprived of that closeness. Many breeders will refuse to sell a Mastiff unless the new owner guarantees that it will be kept as a house dog. 10. _How are Mastiffs with:_ a. Burglars, muggers and other miscreants? Mastiffs tend to react in predictable ways when faced with a threatening person. If their owner is present and a tense situation arises between the owner and a stranger, the dog will usually get between the stranger and their owner, as a sort of giant protective barrier that no sane mugger would reach over. If the stranger does anything to escalate the tension, the dog will probably growl or snarl at the person. This may occur even within a family, if, for example, the owners fight. This may upset the Mastiff greatly and inspire him to protect the party who is on the receiving end of the disagreement. If a stranger breaks into a house where there is a Mastiff, the Mastiff's tendency is to corner the person and not let them get away, holding them until their owner gets home to deal with the intruder. The dog may snarl or bark or even snap at the intruder if he tries to get away, but usually will not actually hurt him unless the intruder has tried to hurt the dog or has succeeded in hurting him. Dogs are creatures of habit, and it is this characteristic that makes them good guards. If, while your Mastiff is a puppy, you allow strangers like repairmen to come into your house when you are away, the dog will see that as normal for your household, and will not realize it is not "OK" for other strange people to come in and do things. Many Mastiffs, when mature, can recognize something about people who have unpleasant motives, and are watchful or will get in between you and that person. If your dog gets between you and a stranger in a questionable situation, trust your Mastiff! The dog may have sensed something you couldn't recognize in that person. Because of the intrinsic protective nature of the Mastiff, training as an attack or guard dog is not necessary and to do so may actually be detrimental to the temperament of the Mastiff. Mastiffs are not suitable for attack training or dog fighting and, if raised in kindness and socialized properly, will be a strong, loving companion who will defend his home and family if necessary. b. Other dogs? By nature a typical Mastiff is friendly and aloof toward other dogs. But, as with any breed, they must be properly socialized around other dogs from early puppyhood. Most cases of Dog Aggression in the Mastiff, or in any breed, are due to this lack of early introduction and stimuli with other dogs. This type of behavioral disorder is usually classified as Species Aggression. Another type of Canine Aggression is Dominance Aggression. A dog with dominant tendencies may seek to change its position in the pecking order by being aggressive toward another dog. This can really be a problem when there is more than one Dominant Aggressive dog in a multiple dog household. For this reason, it is best not place a dominant Mastiff in the same household with another dominant dog, especially of the same sex. While everything may seem fine while the puppy is young, as it matures it will seek to move up in the pack hierarchy and will compete for dominance with the other dog resulting in family turmoil. In most cases, proper socialization and adequate stimuli is the best way to head off most aggressive behavioral disorders before they have a chance to develop. If your Mastiff is aggressive, first, consult a canine behaviorist or professional trainer to determine if the dog can overcome some or all of this behavioral problem through retraining. ALSO have your veterinarian check for physical problems that can effect behavior, especially hormone problems such as hypothyroidism. Often spaying or neutering a dog aggressive dog will limit some of its tendencies to fight or dominate another dog, as well as cool some of the instinctive fighting among males and females in heat. If you are feeding a food that is in high in protein, try a food that is around 18% protein, some dogs are sensitive to excess levels of protein. If your Mastiffs do get into a fight, do NOT get between them. If someone else, known to the dogs, is there, each of you should grab a dog by the rear legs and drag them away from each other and separate them so that they cannot see or get to each other. c. Other animals? The earliest socialization, at the breeder's, and while a puppy is very young, influences how a particular Mastiff will behave with other animals. You want him to learn what YOU want him to accept while he is still small (this means it has to be done *very* young!) since a larger dog is much harder to control, and bad habits are harder to break than good habits. Some Mastiffs are born with a high prey drive and these dogs will need special training if a multi-pet household is to maintain harmony. A Mastiff who hasn't been exposed to cats or chickens or farm animals or whatever while young may treat them as prey or furniture, depending on the temperament of the individual dog. Some Mastiffs live well with cats, and recognize that the cats have to feel they are the bosses. Others chase cats without mercy even if they are wonderful dogs in every other way. Some dogs that were not raised around horses may sniff once, then ignore them, others may be afraid of them, others interested, etc. The point is, *you* need to plan what to socialize your dog to, so it will know how to behave around the animals that are or will be part of your household. Then it is not up to the highly individual reactions of a half- or fully-grown dog, but your choice. d. Strangers? A properly socialized Mastiff (which SHOULD be the only kind there is) will stand or sit beside you politely when a stranger is around. The world is full of people who are strangers to you and your dog, but who are nice, normal, decent folks who pose no threat. A Mastiff that is properly socialized (and free of severe shyness) should be polite, possibly aloof, but eventually friendly, after the dog sees your positive reaction to someone. e. Young children? They are gentle and protective, providing they have been raised with children and are accustomed to them. Small children should not be allowed to play roughly with a puppy; Mastiffs are a sensitive breed that can be permanently traumatized by rough handling. 11. _How long does a Mastiff live?_ Books on the breed describe the average Mastiff life span as 6-10 years. A few have lived to be 13 or 14; a tiny handful have lived to be 16-17. Assuming no accidents, an individual dog's life span will depend on its bloodlines, weight, and freedom from significant problems such as blindness, heart disease, hip or elbow dysplasia, spondylosis, immune disorders, etc. (see Questions 16, 17 and Appendix F for more information on health problems). Sadly, there has been an increase in the death of middle aged and younger Mastiffs in the past 10 years or so, although this is not specific to Mastiffs but applies to most breeds. The increase in hereditary problems in all breeds has had the effect of shortening the lives of a number of animals in each breed, thus bringing down the averages. This is why we emphasize testing for health problems and breeding animals ONLY after they have been proven to be free of evidence of significant hereditary diseases. Choosing your breeder carefully, for awareness of problems and for evidence of specific actions taken consistently over a period of time to prevent these problems, will greatly increase your chances of getting a healthy dog with the potential to live to a ripe old age. 12. _Can I get a white Mastiff? What colors can I get?_ No, Mastiffs come in Apricot, Brindle, and various shades of Fawn. Since one of the faults listed in the breed standard is "excessive white on the chest or white on any other part of the body", then a Mastiff with much white on it at all is *not* correctly marked according to the breed standard. There are breeds for which white is a correct, acceptable color, but the Mastiff is not one of them. 13. _Male vs. female, which is friendlier? more protective? easier to train?_ These are all traits that tend to vary more between individual animals than between the sexes. A healthy, alert, intelligent dog who did well on the Puppy Aptitude test and has been well socialized and trained from Puppy Kindergarten onward is your best chance at getting all the above characteristics. Socializing a dog who started out with a good temperament gives you the friendliest dog. A dog is protective when it has bonded well with you (training your dog is an outstanding way to bond with it) and has at least begun to mature. If you start training very young the dog learns how to *learn* and will enjoy it more and perform better. 14. _Is there anything special I should know about raising a Mastiff puppy - isn't it the same as any other breed?_ Due to their rapid growth and their eventual giant size and weight, there are special precautions that should be taken with growing Mastiff puppies. See Appendix H for details. 15. _How much training does a Mastiff need?_ Because they are destined to be VERY large dogs, basic obedience training should be a part of every Mastiff's upbringing. Adequate socialization is an extremely important part of a puppy's training. An unsocialized dog, of any breed, can become either fearful or aggressive. A well socialized Mastiff is a stable Mastiff. Most Mastiffs are easy to train because they are so eager to please, but they are generally more easily trained when young. A puppy's brain develops very rapidly. New information is absorbed at an astonishing rate as they learn from their environment. You want to make certain that WHAT they learn is desirable; therefore, you must guide them in their learning process. Also, just as inany other breed, some individuals are stubborn, dominant, etc., and in such cases the behavior pattern should be identified early and the training adjusted appropriately to compensate for it. Unless you plan to compete in conformation or obedience, basic obedience is all your puppy really needs to become a valued family companion. Basic obedience consists of: sit, down, stay, come, walk on lead and proper socialization. To find Obedience and Socialization classes, contact your local Kennel Clubs and veterinarians. If you cannot locate classes, take your puppy out often to places where it can meet people and other dogs in a friendly atmosphere. A Mastiff does not need protection training. A well socialized Mastiff has, in essence, been taught what a normal situation is and will be able to sense when something is wrong. Even the gentlest Mastiff will protect its family if it is well socialized and bonded to them. 16. _Do Mastiffs have any genetic health problems?_ Mastiffs are probably about average when it comes to the number of hereditary health problems that they are prone to. Being a large breed they are very prone to joint problems. For more information on genetic problems, please refer to Appendix F. + Potentially life threatening or serious: (*these conditions may be inherited or in some cases acquired) o Joint: hip dysplasia; elbow dysplasia (ununited anconeal process, fragmented coronoid process, degenerative joint disease); osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the shoulders, knees, elbows or hocks. o Eye problems that cause blindness: cataracts*, retinal dysplasia with detachment, glaucoma., progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) o Other inherited eye problems: geographic retinal dysplasia, PPM, entropion. o Hypothyroidism*, immune deficiencies. o Wobblers syndrome. o Skin: demodectic mange, deep pyoderma. o Nervous system: myasthenia gravis*, muscular dystrophy*, epilepsy* o Other: cardiomyopathy*, leukemia. + Less serious and/or less common: (*these conditions may be inherited or in some cases acquired) o Eye problems: ectropion, iris cysts, macroblapharon (haw), corneal dystrophy*, distichiasis, cherry eye, dry eye, retinal folds. o Skin: allergies o Joint problems: HOD (hypertrophic Osteo Dystrophy), degenerative joint disease*, arthritis*, spondylosis of the spine. o Reproductive: cryptorchid, monorchid, vaginal hyperplasia. o Heart: murmurs*, pulmonic stenosis. o Other: hernias, von Willebrands Disease (vWD). 17. _What are the common non-genetic health problems in Mastiffs?_ Mastiffs are subject to the same common diseases and afflictions as every other breed of dog. Some of the more prevalent are: + Joint and bone: cruciate ligament rupture, panosteitis, elbow hygroma. + Urinary tract: kidney and bladder infections, bladder stones. + Ear infections, hot spots, cysts and tumors. + Reproductive: uterine inertia, pyometra, other uterine infections, mastitis, breast cancer. + Cancer (bone, bowel, brain, spine, etc. Some forms of cancer are inherited, most aren't). + Other: gastric torsion (bloat), pica (eating rocks, socks, etc.) 18. _What other problems do Mastiffs have?_ + Temperament: o Aggressive o Fearful (inherited or lack of socialization). o Shy + Structural faults: o Limbs: weak pasterns, cow-hocks, straight shoulders, stifles and/or hocks, elbows in or out instead of parallel o Bite: very undershot, overshot, crooked teeth, wry (twisted) jaw o Tail: abnormally short, kinked, bob tail o Feet: flat (hare foot), loose toes, turned toes or feet o Coat: long hair, no under coat, excessive white markings (piebald) o Movement: paddling, crossing, sidewinding, overreaching, lack of drive. + Problems caused by their size: o Expensive and difficult to take on an airplane once mature o Navigating steep stairs o Getting into small cars o Happy Tail (Crate Tail) syndrome - prone to abrasions (often accompanied by considerable blood splattering) from wagging against things. 19. _What kind of a temperament does a Mastiff have?_ Mastiffs are called gentle giants because of their benign and benevolent character. A Mastiff's temperament is so much a part of how it needs to be raised and cared for that many of the questions in this FAQ have incorporated one aspect or another of the Mastiff temperament in their answers. A dog this big has no NEED to growl or make menacing noises or faces to impress a would-be burglar or mugger. Instead, it can and does simply relax, but keeps an eye on situations where its human family could possibly be in danger of any kind. Mastiffs have a somewhat contradictory nature, they are very sensitive to the reactions of their people, most Mastiffs can be absolutely crushed by harsh words. Yet Mastiffs can also be among the most stubborn of dogs, so stubborn that you may find it to be an immense challenge to get them to do the same thing over and over for an obedience class (the Mastiff probably would rather do it once and then take a nap or do something different). Mastiffs, like people, are highly individual. Some are placid, some are high energy animals who need to be kept busy. A lot of any Mastiff's behavior depends on how well it was socialized while young. 20. _What does a Mastiff eat?_ A Mastiff will eat anything that is not nailed down! Mastiffs, being a giant breed, have the capability of chewing on things that most small breeds can't even get in their mouths. Oh, you meant food, huh? OK, Mastiffs do best on a food that is in the medium range for protein (20-25%), mid range for fat (12-18%) and is well balanced for calcium and phosphorus and high in iodine (3-5%). Feeding your Mastiff puppy foods high in protein, calories and fat will push the growth rate and possibly cause joint, ligament and tendon problems. It is best to grow your puppy at a slow, steady rate and not try to make him big too soon. Remember, the Mastiff will grow to what he was genetically programmed to be no matter how fast or slow that you get him there. It is best to take your time and grow them out slowly so as to minimize joint and bone problems and thus have a sound, healthy dog. If the dog food you intend to use is balanced for nutrition do not add supplemental calcium to the diet. Too much calcium causes more problems than too little! The amount of food is a judgment call, depending on the type of food you are feeding, the age of the Mastiff, and the body condition such as too fat, too thin or just right. Feed a good quality premium food, following the recommendations on the bag and adjusting the amount according to body condition. Do not let your Mastiff puppy or young adult get fat and make sure that you can feel the ribs or at least see the last two ribs when the dog is moving. Fat dogs have many problems with bones and joints, heart, liver, kidney, etc. Generally Mastiff puppies eat a lot of food while growing, until at least the age of two. An adult Mastiff generally has a slow metabolism and does not eat an exceptional amount of food, normally about the same as a German Shepherd or dog of similar or even smaller size. 21. _What kind of living quarters does a Mastiff require? How about crating? Where do they sleep?_ The standard answer to this question: Anywhere they want to! Mastiffs consider themselves to be part of your family, and will be most content if they are able to share your home with you. Many Mastiff breeders feel so strongly about the Mastiff's need tobe with their human family that they will only sell a puppy to people who guarantee that it will live in the house with them. Within your home, Mastiffs need a place of their own where they will feel comfortable and secure, just like any other dog. Crates are a practical solution, especially for puppy house training and safety. Wire crates are best so that the pup can see out and because they are harder to chew or destroy. Purchase the largest one you can afford so your Mastiff can grow into it. A pallet by your bed is also a good idea since Mastiffs want to be with their families and it is generally not a good idea to let them sleep on the bed with you. Sleeping with you puts them on the same level as you, so you may wind up with a dominance problem; and jumping off of a bed is not good for the joints when they are young. Most Mastiffs will wind up forgoing any wonderful bed you make for them and will want to sleep on the tile or linoleum floor because it is cooler. Caution is advised here because Mastiffs tend to clunk down on their elbows when lying down and many develop elbow hygromas from the constant banging on the elbows. The best beds are soft pads with blankets over them or even a baby bed mattress with a cover. Don't be surprised if your youngster shreds his bed as this seems to be great fun to most puppies - be sure to remove any pieces because they can be dangerous if swallowed. 22. _Does owning a Mastiff:_ a. Cost a lot? A Mastiff costs more to maintain than smaller breeds due to its large size and weight. Larger crates cost more. More and larger consumables are needed - food, toys and the like. Many medicines, such as antibiotics, heartworm preventative and anesthesia are prescribed based on weight, so these cost more. A Mastiff on a 'chewing binge' can cause much more damage in a shorter time than smaller breeds. b. Require a lot of work? Compared to what? Mastiffs, due to their tendency to be inert (like couch potatoes), and their short hair, do not require as much work as a breed that needs to run a lot for exercise, or needs daily brushing to keep a fluffy coat from getting matted. A Mastiff with a correct coat only needs a bath when it begins to smell "doggy" or if it has gotten into something that needs to be washed off. Bathing a Mastiff is sort of like washing a hairy Volkswagen except that the VW won't shake and drench you in shampoo or rinse water. Mastiffs need MODERATE exercise (if this much is too much for you, consider an older Rescue dog), a quality food with moderate protein and fat content, and the normal maintenance activities that any breed requires: clipping toenails, keeping teeth clean, ear cleaning, and regular vet checkups and vaccinations. The size of a Mastiff means that those toenails will be big and thick, harder to cut than those on a smaller dog. And they will eat a lot more food than your neighbor's poodle. Mastiffs tend to shed twice a year like most breeds, but when a huge dog sheds lightly, it can still add up to a lot of hair to vacuum. If you are grossed out by slingers and goobers, please be advised that if you own a Mastiff you might spend the rest of the dog's life wiping the walls and complaining about the mess. If you CAN handle it, you will learn tricks like wiping the dog's face as soon as it has finished drinking (to catch the slingers before they are slung). 23. _Are you trying to talk me out of getting a Mastiff?_ No and yes. No, because it would be wonderful if everyone could experience the joy and satisfaction of being owned by one of these gentle giants. Yes, because, as great and wonderful as they are, they have idiosyncrasies and problems particular to the breed. It would be much, much, much better if you found out that a Mastiff wasn't the breed for you NOW instead of after you've already gotten one. Mastiffs are not the right breed for everyone. Mastiffs are giants and take up a lot of space on the couch and in the house and car. They have powerful tails that can clean off a coffee table in one fell swoop or knock a small child down with one wag. And the smack of a tail is like being tortured with a rubber hose! Most Mastiff's drool and slobber, especially after eating and drinking. Many leave water trails all over the house after a drink and prefer to wipe their faces on their owners. Mastiffs like to be close to their family and will sit on your feet, lean against you, often put their paw on you and lay their heavy head in your lap. Occasionally people can be unintentionally injured by an exuberant Mastiff. Mastiffs like to follow you where ever you go and be part of whatever you do. They can block doorways with their huge bodies, stand in front of the TV and block your view, and take up large amounts of space with their crates and toys. If you can't handle any of the above, then a Mastiff is not the dog for you! Not recommended for: + Old, elderly, infirm - Mastiffs can accidentally knock down someone who is not steady on their feet; can aggravate back and other injuries; and, since they have the strength of a Rhino, can do unintended harm unless properly trained. If you just have to have one, an older, already trained Mastiff is recommended. See Appendix D for information about Mastiff Rescue, the best place to start looking for an older, trained Mastiff. + Small children - Children under about 6 can be knocked down by an exuberant puppy or adult. Mastiffs are, however, generally gentle with children of any age, but, you MUST supervise them when they are together so that neither the child nor the dog is injured. + Small habitats - Mastiffs are not recommended for small apartments or tiny houses since they tend to grow so large. Too many Mastiffs end up in shelters or with Rescue because their owners didn't take their eventual size into consideration. The ideal environment is one with a comfortable house, access to a fenced yard for potty breaks, where the owner knows exactly what they are getting in advance. + Guard dog - Mastiffs possess the natural ability to defend their family should the need arise. They should know the difference between friend and foe and pick up on the emotions of their owners. Mastiffs are not recommended as a guard dog for businesses or junkyards because of their instinctual need to bond with people and because they are so strong that they may overdo the guarding and hurt the wrong person. The Mastiff temperament is not suited for formal "guard dog" training due to their sensitive nature and because to do so may permanently ruin their temperament. + Neat Freaks - Do not get a Mastiff if you are a person who must have a clean house at all times, can't stand dog hair on everything, or does not like the furniture being rearranged when a Mastiff decides that he wants to sleep behind the couch or under the table. Try to match your decor to the color of the dog hair and slobber. + Workaholics - If you work long hours and someone isn't home often, you may want to rethink getting a Mastiff. Mastiffs like people and do not like being left alone all day in a crate or back yard. They bore easily and will find ways to entertain themselves while you are away. A bored, lonesome Mastiff may destroy things or turn their boredom on themselves causing such things as having to replace furniture (or walls), or requiring treatment for lick granulomas. If your home is frequently empty except for your dog, please reconsider getting a Mastiff and may we suggest a toy breed where you could have two to keep each other company or perhaps a cat, bird or reptile. + Those on a tight budget - Mastiffs are giants and therefore the cost of upkeep is high. Everything you need to maintain one is expensive from the bedding, the collars, the food bowls, the food, to the vet bills. If you are on a tight budget or do not enjoy spending money on your dog, please reconsider getting this breed. The initial purchase price of the pup will be the least expensive part of owning a Mastiff. 24. _Where should I get a Mastiff?_ + Middleman who buys puppies from breeders and resells them? NO! + Pet Shop? NO! + Backyard breeder? NO! + Reputable breeder? YES! The best way to get a healthy, happy, quality Mastiff puppy, is to buy directly from a breeder. Reputable breeders put the welfare of their dogs and the improvement of the breed above their desire for financial gain. Reputable breeders will take back or replace a puppy who is found to have a congenital defect. Breeders who are members of the Mastiff Club Of America have agreed to abide by a Code of Ethics (see Appendix C). A Breeder Referral list is available from the MCOA, see Appendix I.1 for details. + Mastiff Rescue? YES! Unfortunately, usually through no fault of their own, a number of Mastiffs end up homeless every year. The MCOA's Rescue Service is charged with helping these distressed Mastiff's find new homes. See Appendix D for more information. 25. _Where can I get more information about Mastiffs?_ See Appendix E for Mastiff information sources and Appendix I for Mastiff Clubs and contacts. 26. _How do I pick a Mastiff puppy?_ After you have chosen your breeder and your puppy's sire and dam, you're ready to choose your Mastiff puppy. But which one? The most important aspect of this choice is temperament. Puppies' temperament's vary even within the same litter. Many people will choose the first puppy that runs up to them and pulls at their pant leg because they think this must be a more outgoing puppy. Not every Mastiff is for every family and this puppy may not necessarily be THE puppy for your family. So how DO you choose a puppy?. You should choose a Mastiff puppy that has a temperament that compliments your family's. Ideally your puppy's breeder will use Puppy Aptitude Testing and family profiles to match puppies with their new owners. Puppy Aptitude Testing evaluates the individual temperament of each puppy. A family profile consists of a series of questions which allows the breeder to assess your family's situation and disposition. The breeder may even ask to choose a puppy for you. If the breeder is skilled in Puppy Aptitude Testing, they can generally choose the best puppy for your family. If the breeder does not perform these tests, you will need to know how to choose the right puppy yourself. First, look at your family's situation: Do you have small children? Do you have elderly in your household? Is your family quiet or of gentle nature? Do you already have another dog? Do you feel guilty when disciplining your children or current dog? If you have answered "yes" to any of these questions you may prefer a puppy with a more subordinate temperament. A dog with dominant tendencies would not fit into this particular family situation. Dogs are pack animals and they will try to establish a pecking order within their pack, and your family will be their new pack. Subordinate (submissive) does not mean shy or timid. A puppy with a subordinate temperament will simply be closer to the bottom of the dominance ladder (pecking order). A subordinate puppy will not try to dominate the small children within your household, nor will it be as apt to challenge your authority or to compete with another dog for dominance. Note: Timidity (shyness) is a genetic fault in Mastiffs. If you already have a dog: Is it submissive or dominant? What is its size? Is it male or female? With another dog already in the family, especially a dominant one, consider a Mastiff puppy with a more submissive temperament and/or one of the opposite sex. A submissive puppy will be less likely to challenge your existing dog for pecking order. Males seldom compete with females for leadership position. Smaller dogs can be easily injured if they are involved in disputes with a Mastiff. Are you experienced with large breeds? Do you NOT have small children nor elderly within your home? Are you comfortable offering constructive criticism? Have you had any dog training experience of any kind? Is your current dog a larger breed of submissive nature? Do you have the time and are you planning to train this puppy in either Obedience, Conformation, or for Canine Good Citizenship? Is your family active and outgoing? If you have answered "yes" to all of these questions you may wish to consider a puppy with more dominant tendencies. Dominant does not mean aggressive. A Mastiff with dominant tendencies is one which would compete for its place higher up on the dominance ladder. It will be more apt to challenge a child or another dog. There is a difference between a dog with dominant tendencies and a true Alpha dog. An Alpha dog, of any breed, may even try to challenge YOUR authority. It is never a good idea to place a dominant puppy into a home with another dominant dog, especially of the same sex. Properly reared dogs with dominant tendencies can be wonderful, loving family companions. 27. _What questions should I ask the breeder (and what answers should I get)?_ Before talking to a breeder, before you even start looking for a puppy, DO YOUR HOMEWORK FIRST! Read this FAQ. Check out the books and Internet resources listed in the Appendices. Read the FAQs on 'Selecting a Dog', 'Getting a Dog', 'Your New Puppy', 'Your New Dog', 'Health Care Issues' and other subjects (these can be found at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/. Go to the library. Read, read, read. Ask veterinarians what they see frequently and what to be aware of. Go to some dog shows and talk to the exhibitors. It is vital to have knowledge BEFORE you get or even start looking for a puppy. Forewarned is forearmed. This may seem like a lot of research, but you are undertaking a long term commitment that may last 8, 10 or even more years - longer than a new car, often longer than a house, or even, these days, longer than a spouse! A Mastiff will quickly become a major factor in your day to day existence, with significant influence on your lifestyle. It is up to you to do everything you can ahead of time to ensure that this influence will be a positive one. A hastily or poorly chosen Mastiff can make your life miserable, and, if subject to health problems, can cause a significant drain on your financial resources. Appendix G contains a list of questions that you should ask the breeder of a Mastiff puppy that you are contemplating acquiring. The 'Getting a Dog FAQ' at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/also contains more general questions to ask a breeder. 28. _What kind of toys and other paraphernalia do I need for my Mastiff?_ + TOYS Mastiffs are big, strong puppies and even bigger, stronger adults, with a biting capacity of estimated at over 300 psi. Keeping that in mind, most toys and chewies for your Mastiff will have to be durable and able to withstand major abuse. Many toys are suitable for youngsters but not for adults and you will have to add to the toy box as your Mastiff grows older and stronger. When first introducing a new toy it is a good idea to supervise your Mastiff to see how they handle it. If they rip the toy to shreds and start swallowing lots of it - take it away and try a different toy. Each dog is an individual and what is good for one is not necessarily good for another. Some good toys to start out with are: Puppies - Nylabones, Kongs, Vermont Chews (stuffed), compressed rawhide bones (not shredded and pressed together, but whole pieces rolled up and compressed under thousands of pounds of steam), carefully selected children's stuffed animals, plastic soda bottles with the cap and cap ring removed (discard if the pup starts to tear apart), knotted rope bones (discard when shredded), large rope rings, soccer and basketballs, various dental chews, hard plastic or pvc balls, safe squeaky toys (human children's are the safest and least toxic), raw or sterilized beef bones, raw fruit and vegetables (No onion!), empty cardboard boxes (remove all staples, loose packing and labels), empty toilet paper and paper towel tubes (pups will empty them for you!) and cow ears. Puppies also enjoy shredding newspaper but it is messy and they can get black ink on themselves. It's not toxic though and it won't hurt them, unless they eat to much! Adult (over 6 months) - Same as above but delete the squeaky toys and plastic balls. Add old lawn mower tires, large knotted rope bones, huge nylabones and dental chews, big beef bones (knuckle, femur, etc.), larger fruit and vegetables (edible, biodegradable toys!), giant Kongs, large cardboard boxes (messy, but so much fun). There isn't a toy made that a Mastiff cannot destroy so please be careful in your selection and keep an eye on them. If any of the toys you have selected become badly chewed, shredded or have chunks missing, discard them and get something else. Each Mastiff is a little different in how it deals with each object. Some will lay down and eat a whole bone whereas others will occasionally gnaw on it and have it last a long time. Some will ignore toys that others covet. Try various things and see what your dog likes. Remember, anything can be dangerous if not used properly and can cause problems for your Mastiff. The best advice is to know your dog and watch it with new toys until you are certain that the toys won't be eaten (except for fruit & veggies) or destroyed in one sitting! Have fun and be creative! + FOOD and WATER DISHES Stainless steel is suggested for several reasons. It is basically indestructible and is easy to sterilize and dishwasher safe. Buy the largest one you can find for a water bowl and at least a 5 qt. size for the food. + COLLARS and LEASHES Up until about 6 months old, most collars will work just fine including the adjustable ones with a plastic snap. After 6 months it is best to use a buckle type collar made of either wide nylon or leather. A six foot lead is recommended for training and a shorter leash for going on walks. You can use either nylon or leather, just be sure it has a strong snap! For formal training, like at an obedience class, you will need a "choke" chain, usually made with metal links. Your instructor will advise you of the correct size and how to put it on the pup and how to use it properly. Remember: NEVER leave a dog, puppy or adult, unattended with a choke collar on as they can easily get it caught on something, even in a crate, and strangle themselves! One company that publishes a catalog specifically for big dog items is Big Dog Basics & Pyraphernalia at http://www.gcnet.com/bigdogs/ (316) 276-8665 The 'Resources FAQ' at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/has an extensive list of dog supply catalogs, magazines, and organizations. In it you can find listing for things such as weight pulling harnesses, backpacking necessities and everything else imaginable for your Mastiff. 29. _Is that a Mastiff in:_ + Beethoven? No, a St. Bernard. + Cybil? Yes. + Howard Huge? No, a St. Bernard(?). + Marmaduke? No, a Great Dane. + Sandlot? Yes. + The Secret Garden? Yes. + That's My Dog? Yes. + The Truth About Dogs? No, a ???. + Turner and Hooch? No, a Dogue de Borduex (French Mastiff). + Meet Wally Sparks? Yes. 30. _What's the difference between a Mastiff and a Bullmastiff?_ The Mastiff is an ancient British breed and its history can be traced back over 2,000 years. The Bullmastiff is a relatively recent breed developed from crossing Mastiff (60%) and Bulldog (40%) stock. The Bullmastiff's shorter, more compact, more muscular look; shorter muzzle; higher energy level and greater stubbornness are derived from the Bulldog part of the Bullmastiff's ancestry. The most noticeable differences are temperament, the conformation of the heads and overall size of the dogs. Mastiffs have a mellower, more relaxed temperament, compared to the pushier, more active temperament of the typical Bullmastiff. The Mastiff's forehead should be slightly curved and the stop (indentation between the eyes) well marked but not too abrupt while the Bullmastiff's forehead should be flat and the stop moderate. Mastiff males should be at least 30" at the shoulder and females 27 1/2" at the shoulder, with no upper limit for height. Bullmastiff males should be between 25-27" at the shoulder and females 24-26" at the shoulder. Weight ranges differ significantly between the breeds, with the Bullmastiff being smaller as well as more compact. The Bullmastiff Standard lists 110-130 pounds for males, 100-120 pounds for females. While the Mastiff Standard specifies no weight ranges, males weights usually run 160 pounds and up, females 120 pounds and up. _________________________________________________________________ III. APPENDICES A. _History of the Mastiff_ There is evidence of Mastiff-like giant dogs dating back as far as 2500 BC in the mountains of Asia. Bas-reliefs from the Babylonian palace of Ashurbanipal (now on display in the British Museum) depict Mastiff-type dogs hunting lions in the desert near the Tigris River. Their coloration, of course, cannot be told, but other than being taller and leaner than current-day Mastiffs (as ours would be if raised in a desert and fed lightly), they are remarkably like our modern Mastiffs, despite the passing of nearly 4500 years. After this clear visual evidence, we must rely on folklore and oral history. Phoenician traders are believed to have introduced the Mastiff to ancient Britain, where the Romans found them and brought them back to fight in the arena. Marco Polo wrote of Kubla Khan, who kept a kennel of 5,000 Mastiffs used for hunting and war. When Hannibal, the great Roman leader, crossed the Alps, he took with him several battalions of trained war mastiffs, who, during their long travels, "fraternized" with local breeds to produce what became the St. Bernard, once called the Alpine Mastiff, as well as other giant breeds. All of the massive mountain dogs of Spain, France, Turkey, and the Balkans can trace their size back to Mastiff blood in their ancestry. Even the Chow Chow carries Mastiff blood, as does the Pug, which was originally a form of dwarf Mastiff. Theories advanced by various authors have focused on one or more of the above to try to identify the *origin* of the breed. What should matter the most to us is what the breed is like now, and how it came to be that way. Despite the differences of opinion on where the Mastiff originated, most agree that the British are the creators of the breed as we know it today. Of all the countries who used the Mastiff, it was the British who kept him in his purest form, and it is to them that we owe the Mastiff of today. They kept Mastiffs to guard their castles and estates, releasing them at night to ward off intruders. Henry VIII is said to have presented Charles V of Spain a gift of 400 Mastiffs to be used in battle. The Legh family of Lyme Hall, Cheshire, who were given their estate by Richard II (1377-1399), kept and bred Mastiffs for many generations. Stowe's Annual, a reference book, shows that King James I (1603-1625) sent a gift of two Lyme Hall mastiffs to Phillip II of Spain. These, or their immediate descendants, are certainly the Mastiff-type dogs shown in famous portraits of the Spanish royal children. Other sources indicate that Mastiffs were used as war dogs by the ancient Celts, and accompanied their masters into battle. When the Romans invaded Britain, they took the dogs back to Italy and used them to guard property and prisoners, as well as using them to fight in the arena. The Mastiff was one of the few breeds mentioned by name in The Forest Laws of King Canute, the first written laws of England. There, Mastiffs were required to be checked by the tax collector, who would make sure the middle toes of each front foot were removed so the dog could not run fast enough to catch the deer (which traditionally belonged to royalty). Tax collectors have not evolved much over the centuries; the penalties for failing to meet their requirements were extreme. In the Forest Laws, Mastiffs were mentioned specifically as being kept for protection. In the Elizabethan Era, the Mastiff was used to fight wild animals (e.g., bears, tigers, etc.), usually for the entertainment of the Queen. After the cessation of this cruel sport, Mastiffs continued to be bred by the Dukes of Devonshire and Sutherland, the Earl of Harrington, and other nobles. According to the scanty records of the Pilgrim Fathers, two dogs, a Mastiff and a spaniel, accompanied the Plymouth colonists aboard the Mayflower on their journey to the new world. In England, dog showing became popular in the mid-1800s. Wealthy people kept and bred Mastiffs and started the first recorded pedigrees. These were registered with what was then the only kennel club in the world, The Kennel Club in England. During the World Wars, Mastiffs were used to pull munitions carts on the fronts. In America, they were frequently found on plantations as property guards. The size of the Mastiff and its need to eat about as much food per day as an adult human made a Mastiff too costly for most common folk to keep, except perhaps for butchers. In England they were sometimes called "the Butcher's Dog" because a butcher had enough meat scraps to feed a Mastiff well, and could therefore afford to keep one, even though he was not wealthy. Mastiffs began to decline in popularity until the late 1800's, when interest revived briefly, and Mastiffs started to be imported into America. World War I saw their decline again in England, and by the 1920's they were almost extinct in that country in their pure form. It was considered unpatriotic to keep dogs alive who ate as much in a day as a soldier; entire huge kennels were put down as a result. World War II all but finished the breed in England. At the end of the war, fresh blood was imported from Canada and the United States to revive the breed. Now, fortunately, Mastiffs are well established again, the United States having perhaps the greatest number. Breeders today have bred the Mastiff for gentleness and have created an excellent companion, large enough to deter intruders and yet gentle enough to be dependable around children. B. _MCOA / AKC Mastiff Conformation Standard_ _OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MASTIFF_ _General Appearance_ The Mastiff is a large, massive, symmetrical dog with a well-knit frame. The impression is one of grandeur and dignity. Dogs are more massive throughout. Bitches should not be faulted for being somewhat smaller in all dimensions while maintaining a proportionally powerful structure. A good evaluation considers positive qualities of type and soundness with equal weight. _Size, Proportion, Substance_ _Size_ - Dogs, minimum, 30 inches at the shoulder. Bitches, minimum, 27-1/2 inches at the shoulder. _Fault_-Dogs or bitches below the minimum standard. The farther below standard, the greater the fault. _Proportion_ - Rectangular, the length of the dog from forechest to rump is somewhat longer than the height at the withers. The height of the dog should come from depth of body rather than from length of leg. _Substance_ - Massive, heavy boned, with a powerful muscle structure. Great depth and breadth desirable. _Fault_-Lack of substance or slab sided. _Head_ In general outline giving a massive appearance when viewed from any angle. Breadth greatly desired. _Eyes_ - set wide apart, medium in size, never too prominent. Expression alert but kindly. Color of eyes brown, the darker the better, and showing no haw. Light eyes or a predatory expression is undesirable. _Ears_ - small in proportion to the skull, V-shaped, rounded at the tips. Leather moderately thin, set widely apart at the highest points on the sides of the skull continuing the outline across the summit. They should lie close to the cheeks when in repose. Ears dark in color, the blacker the better, conforming to the color of the muzzle. _Skull_ - broad and somewhat flattened between the ears, forehead slightly curved, showing marked wrinkles which are particularly distinctive when at attention. Brows (superciliary ridges) moderately raised. Muscles of the temples well developed, those of the cheeks extremely powerful. Arch across the skull a flattened curve with a furrow up the center of the forehead. This extends from between the eyes to halfway up the skull. The stop between the eyes well marked but not too abrupt. Muzzle should be half the length of the skull, thus dividing the head into three parts-one for the foreface and two for the skull. In other words, the distance from the tip of the nose to stop is equal to one-half the distance between the stop and the occiput. Circumference of the muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before the ears) is as 3 is to 5. _Muzzle_ - short, broad under the eyes and running nearly equal in width to the end of the nose. Truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the face. Of great depth from the point of the nose to the underjaw. Underjaw broad to the end and slightly rounded. Muzzle dark in color, the blacker the better. _Fault_-snipiness of the muzzle. _Nose_ - broad and always dark in color, the blacker the better, with spread flat nostrils (not pointed or turned up) in profile. _Lips_ - diverging at obtuse angles with the septum and sufficiently pendulous so as to show a modified square profile. _Canine Teeth_ - healthy and wide apart. Jaws powerful. Scissors bite preferred, but a moderately undershot jaw should not be faulted providing the teeth are not visible when the mouth is closed. _Neck, Topline, Body_ _Neck_ - powerful, very muscular, slightly arched, and of medium length. The neck gradually increases in circumference as it approaches the shoulder. Neck moderately "dry" (not showing an excess of loose skin). _Topline_ -In profile the topline should be straight, level, and firm, not swaybacked, roached, or dropping off sharply behind the high point of the rump. _Chest_ - wide, deep, rounded, and well let down between the forelegs, extending at least to the elbow. Forechest should be deep and well defined with the breastbone extending in front of the foremost point of the shoulders. Ribs well rounded. False ribs deep and well set back. _Underline_ - There should be a reasonable, but not exaggerated, tuck-up. _Back_ - muscular, powerful, and straight. When viewed from the rear, there should be a slight rounding over the rump. _Loins_ - wide and muscular. _Tail_ - set on moderately high and reaching to the hocks or a little below. Wide at the root, tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, forming a slight curve, but never over the back when the dog is in motion. _Forequarters_ _Shoulders_ - moderately sloping, powerful and muscular, with no tendency to looseness. Degree of front angulation to match correct rear angulation. _Legs_ - straight, strong and set wide apart, heavy boned. _Elbows_ - parallel to body. _Pasterns_ - strong and bent only slightly. _Feet_ - large, round, and compact with well arched toes. Black nails. _Hindquarters_ _Hindquarters_ - broad, wide and muscular. _Second thighs_ - well developed, leading to a strong hock joint. _Stifle joint_ - is moderately angulated matching the front. _Rear legs_ - are wide apart and parallel when viewed from the rear. When the portion of the leg below the hock is correctly "set back" and stands perpendicular to the ground, a plumb line dropped from the rearmost point of the hindquarters will pass in front of the foot. This rules out straight hocks, and since stifle angulation varies with hock angulation, it also rules out insufficiently angulated stifles. _Fault_-Straight stifles. _Coat_ Outer coat straight, coarse, and of moderately short length. Undercoat dense, short, and close lying. Coat should not be so long as to produce "fringe" on the belly, tail, or hind legs. _Fault_-Long or wavy coat. _Color_ Fawn, apricot, or brindle. Brindle should have fawn or apricot as a background color which should be completely covered with very dark stripes. Muzzle, ears, and nose must be dark in color, the blacker the better, with similar color tone around the eye orbits and extending upward between them. A small patch of white on the chest is permitted. _Faults_-Excessive white on the chest or white on any other part of the body. Mask, ears, or nose lacking dark pigment. _Gait_ The gait denotes power and strength. The rear legs should have drive, while the forelegs should track smoothly with good reach. In motion, the legs move straight forward; as the dog's speed increases from a walk to a trot, the feet move in toward the center line of the body to maintain balance. _Temperament_ A combination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility. Dignity, rather than gaiety, is the Mastiff's correct demeanor. Judges should not condone shyness or viciousness. Conversely, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness. Approved November 12, 1991 Effective December 31, 1991 C. _MCOA Code of Ethics _ _MASTIFF CLUB OF AMERICA_ _REVISED CODE OF ETHICS NOVEMBER 1995_ The Mastiff Club of America requires its members to adhere to the following guidelines which constitute its Code of Ethics. The Club also requires that members, breeders and stud dog owners not aid or abet the violation of these guidelines by anyone else. This Code details certain practices necessary to implement the objectives of the Club as outlined in Article I, Section 2 of its Constitution. 1. I will consider only the betterment of the breed when breeding a bitch or allowing a breeding with my stud dog, being conscientious of controlling and eliminating inherited problems. A breeder and stud dog owner shall plan each breeding with the paramount intention of protecting the breed,, and only when the parties involved agree the breeder is in a position and has the knowledge to give proper care to both the bitch and offspring. 2. I will not allow a bitch to be bred prior to her reaching twenty- two (22) months of age, nor shall any bitch be bred after her seventh (7) birthday. A bitch will not be bred more than once (1) a year unless she does not whelp a litter, the litter is stillborn, consists of a single (I) pup, or as part of a veterinarian's recommendation for treatment of pyometra. Any other reason for a bitch to be bred more than once (I) a year would need to be stated in writing, along with a licensed veterinarian's certification of good health, to be received by the Recording Secretary at least forty-five (45) days prior to the breeding for the Board's approval. 3. I will sell a Mastiff only to a buyer whom I believe to be interested in the protection of the breed and who would agree in writing to provide the highest quality of care for said Mastiff, including quality food, water, proper shelter from heat or cold; active companionship, appropriate exercise, socialization and professional veterinary care whenever necessary. 4. An MCOA member will sell each Mastiff puppy/adult on a written contract signed by all parties. Said contract shall contain, but is not limited to the following provisions: a. Complete care/feeding instructions. b. A record of innoculations and worming with a recommended continuation schedule. c. Provide the buyer with a five (5) generation pedigree on the litter. d. Furnish a signed AKC registration or transfer form, unless written agreement is made with the buyer that such papers are withheld or are to follow. e. A provision that ensures that the breeder is contacted whenever an owner can no longer keep a dog at anytime in the dog's life. f. Stipulate that the buyer have a veterinary check-up within five (5) working days of the sale, (or whatever is applicable in your state of residence), to determine that the Mastiff is healthy. If the veterinarian determines that the Mastiff is not in good health, the breeder will, upon the Mastiffs return, refund the purchase price or replace the Mastiff. 5. I will not knowingly sell or provide a Mastiff for resale, gift or prize or to a broker/agent for resale. I will not engage in the brokering of puppies, (selling or buying), EXCEPT in a case that would prevent a potential rescue situation. ALL SUCH CASES MUST be documented by letter to the MCOA Recording Secretary. 6. I will not sell a puppy/adult who is sick, nor will I ship or deliver to the buyer a puppy less than eight (8) weeks of age. 7. I will show good sportsmanship at all times and in all matters relating to Mastiffs. I will maintain the highest degree of honesty and integrity. I will not knowingly make a misstatement of fact in any serious discussion or advertisement of my Mastiffs or the Mastiffs of any other Mastiff owner, that I might have with persons not qualified to judge the facts for themselves. 8. If I should find myself unable to physically take back a Mastiff, bred/sold by me, who has been displaced, I will assist MCOA Rescue or a regional club rescue program in the placement of said Mastiff. 9. I will require the neutering/spaying of any puppy/adult I place or sell as pet quality as soon as the dog reaches the appropriate age. 10. I will not sell a Mastiff for the purpose of attack training, fighting, or any other sport detrimental to the breed and its reputation. 11. I will not produce more than eight (8) litters, owned or co- owned, in a twenty-four (24) month period. As a stud dog owner I will not knowingly allow my stud dog to be used in a program which has already produced more than eight (8) litters in a twenty-four (24) month period. _MCOA BY-LAWS; ARTICLE VI - DISCIPLINE; SECTION 2 - CHARGES_ Any member or non-member may prefer charges against a member for alleged misconduct prejudicial to the best interests of the breed or Club. Written charges with specifications must be filed in duplicate with the Recording Secretary together with a refundable fee of fifty (50) dollars, if charges are heard. ... D. _MCOA Rescue Service_ 1. What is the MCOA Rescue Service? The Mastiff Club of America sponsors a national Rescue Service for Mastiffs in need. Dogs that are available for adoption come from a variety of circumstances, including shelters. Usually they range from two to six years old. When a Mastiff is released to the Club, it is taken to a veterinarian for a medical checkup and necessary vaccinations. The dog's temperament is evaluated and the Rescue Service attempts to locate any past history of the dog. These dogs are neutered or spayed before being released to their new homes. The Rescue Service requests a donation for an adopted Mastiff based on the age and general health of the dog. In order to be considered as an adoptive home, a Family Profile Form must be completed. To obtain more information about adopting a rescued Mastiff, send a SASE to: MCOA Rescue Service 6360 Conley Rd. Concord, OH 44077 2. MCOA Rescue Service Contacts To report a Mastiff in need, contact the nearest Rescue Coordinator listed below. _NATIONAL OFFICERS:_ o _Director_ Gloria Cuthbert (OH) phone: (216) 639-1160 email: gcuthb.aol@aol.com o _Assistant to the Director - Western US_ Paula Lange (AZ) phone: (520) 476-2351 o _Assistant to the Director - Eastern US_ Alma Bowman (GA) phone: (706) 965-4219 _REGIONAL COORDINATORS:_ o _NORTH-WESTERN REGION_ - AK, HI, ID, OR, WA Pacific Northwest Mastiff Club Paul & Misty Shearon (WA) phone: (360) 832-7245 email: shearon@mashell.com o _WESTERN REGION_ - AZ, CA, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, SD, UT, WY Karen Flocker (AZ) phone: (520) 779-0473 email: jif2@dana.ucc.nau.edu o _MID-WESTERN REGION_ - IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, MO, OH, WI Debbie Greiner (IL) phone: (773) 763-7793 email: Bustbudge@aol.com o _MID-SOUTHERN REGION_ - AR, LA, OK, TX Janet Powell (TX) phone: (214) 342-3763 o _NORTH-EASTERN REGION_ - CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV Gina Anelli (CT) phone: (860) 283-6278 o _SOUTH-EASTERN REGION_ - AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN Deborah Martin (NC) phone: (919) 556-0206 o _www_ Mastiff Rescue - Southern California - http://members.aol.com/rontobin/index.htm MCOA Rescue - http://www.idsonline.com/business/djones/resc ue1.htm E. _Mastiff References and Resources_ 1. Books Unless indicated otherwise, the in-print books can be ordered from most major bookstores and are also usually available from the following, who may also have some of the out-of-print items occasionally: o 4-M Enterprises phone: (800)-487-9867 email: Books4M@aol.com www: http://www.adognet.com/4M/welcome.html - or - o Amazon.com Books email: orders@amazon.com www: http://www.amazon.com/ - or - o Direct Book Service phone: (800)-776-2665 email: dgctbook@cascade.net www: http://www2.dogandcatbooks.com/directbook/ - or - o Dog Lover's Bookshop phone: (212) 594-3601 email: info@dogbooks.com www: http://www.dogbooks.com/ _Books in-print / available:_ o Non-Fiction: # _The Complete Mastiff_ by Betty Baxter and David Blaxter (1993) pub. by Howell Book House # _The Mastiff_ by Marie Moore (1978) pub. by Denlinger's Publishers # _The Mastiff And Bullmastiff Handbook_ by Douglas B. Oliff (1988) pub. by Howell Book House # _The Mastiff Club Of America Yearbook_ pub. annually by the MCOA in conjunction with the National Specialty @ 1991 - Tampa, FL @ 1992 - White Plains, NY @ 1993/1994 - F. Worth, TX / Portland, OR (combined) @ 1995 - Nashville, TN For availability and current pricing, contact: Lavelle Knight 7010 Valrie Lane Riverview, FL 33569 phone: (813) 677-7991 email: KNG37@aol.com # _Mastiff Stud Dog Registry_ by Debora Jones - updated biannually, to order send $17.50 check payable to MCOA Rescue to: D. L. Jones De Vine Farm 5951 Huntingtown Rd Huntingtown, MD 20639 o Fiction: # _Henry and Mudge_ (youth) by Cynthia Rylant (1987-19xx) series of 14 (plus more on the way) (pb & hc) pub. by Bradbury Press # _The Toby Man_ by Dick King-Smith (1991) pub. by Crown Publishers _Books out-of-print / sometimes available (usually used):_ o Non-Fiction: # _Champions, A View of the Mastiff in America_ by Joan Hahn & Judy Powers (1983) pub. by The Mastiff Club of America, Inc. # _Grandeur and Good Nature - The Character of the Mastiff_ by Joan Hahn (1992) pub. by Joan Hahn # _The History and Management Of The Mastiff_ by E. Baxter & P. Hoffman (198?) pub. by Scan House # _History of The Mastiff_ by M. B. Wynn (1886) pub. by Wm. Loxley and Melton Mowbray limited edition reprint (1988) pub. by Peregrine Press (500 copies) # _Making Of The Modern Mastiff_ by Norman Howard Carp-Gordon (1978) pub. by North & East Mastiff Fanciers o Fiction: # _Alphonse and Archibald_ by Ruth M. Collins (1953) pub. by Dodd, Mead & Co. # _Dog that wanted to whistle_ by Harry Levy (1940) pub. by Lothrop, Lee and Shepard # _Lion, the Mastiff_ by A. G. Savigny (1896) pub. by William Briggs # _Pilgrim and Pluck, Dogs of the Mayflower_ by Arthur C. Bartlett (1936) pub. by W. A. Wilde Co. # _Rab and His Friends_ by Dr. John Brown, MD (1892, 1902, 1909, 1927, 1970) pub. by various 2. Publications o _MCOA Journal_ - quarterly magazine - $28.00 a year, outside US extra, back issues $10, for subscription information contact: Mary Johnson Subscription Editor 871 Craigville Road Chester, NY 10918 email: scanner@frontiercomm.net www: http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/~profiles/journ al.html o _The Mastiff Reporter_ - bi-monthly newsletter, $10.00 a year, to subscribe send $10.00 check payable to Sharon Krauss at: Sharon Krauss 4910 E. Emile Zola Ave. Scottsdale, AZ 85254 o Many of the Mastiff clubs listed in Appendix I also have their own newsletters. Contact the individual clubs for more information. 3. Video / Audio o _Mass of Love, Joy and Pride_ - Mastiff song, cassette, available from 4-M Enterprises o _The Mastiff_ - the Official AKC video, available from Direct Book Service or 4-M Enterprises o _See Jane Train Spot_ - one hour video featuring Mastiffs in training, to order contact: See Jane Videos Box 555 Eaton, IN 47448 4. Computer Programs & Databases o _Devine Farm Pedigree Program & Mastiff Database_ - Contains information on over 17,000 Mastiffs, performs inbreeding coefficients, relationship coefficients, can print up to 9 generation pedigrees, can display and visually analyze 5 generation pedigrees, allows queries against the entire database, lists descendants up to 9 generations, lists siblings, full-siblings and can query against any of these lists. Runs under DOS with a mouse/keyboard interface, will also run under Win 3.1 and Win95. To order, send $30 check payable to Mastiff Rescue to: D. L. Jones De Vine Farm 5951 Huntingtown Rd Huntingtown, MD 20639 5. Mastiffs on the Internet a. MCOA WWW Home Page No, not yet, but we're working on it. You can, however, find this FAQ at our temporary page: # Mastiff Club of America - http://access.mountain.net/~mmcbee/mastiff/ And there should also always be a permanent link to this FAQ (under BREEDS) at: # rec.pets.dogs FAQ Homepage - http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/ b. MCOA Member Home Pages # Avalon Mastiffs - http://www.angelfire.com/sc/AvalonMastiffs/index.ht ml # Castlemist Old English Mastiffs - http://web0.tiac.net/users/mastfmom/ # Comstock Mastiffs - http://members.aol.com/DeerRidge/index.htm # De Vine Farm - http://www.dclink.com/mastiff/homepage.htm # Fantasy Mastiffs - http://intergrafix.com/fantasy/ # Grand Traverse Mastiffs - http://www.mindspring.com/~carver2/ # Greiner Hall Mastiffs - http://home.rica.net/napotnik/ # Kinmor Kennels - http://pw1.netcom.com/~fdm1/home.html # Lamars Old English Mastiffs - http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Hills/2814/ # Lawraleigh's Mastiffs - http://members.aol.com/Lawraleigh/index.html # Nittany Mastiffs - http://bert.cs.pitt.edu/~daley/mastiff.html # Millennium Mastiffs - http://www.elnet.com/~rrfarms/tim.html # Povrlrd Kennels - http://www.why.net/users/parker/ # Willow Run Mastiffs - http://www.hickory.net/willowrun/ # Windfall Mastiffs - http://www.ohio.net/~jmcnamee/index~1.htm c. Other Mastiff WWW Pages # Club Espanol de Molosos de Arena - http://www.ctv.es/cema/ # Club Francais du Bullmastiff et du Mastiff - http://members.aol.com/masbull/mastiff/club.htm # Home Page for The Mastiff - http://bert.cs.pitt.edu/~daley/mastiff.html # Mastiff Club Of Victoria - http://www.world.net/~mastiff # Mastiff Mailing List Archives - http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/lwgate # Mastiff Mailing List Member Profiles - http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/~profiles/ # Mastiff Picture Page - http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/ # Mastiff Rescue - Southern California - http://members.aol.com/rontobin/index.htm # Mastiff Stud Dog Register and Articles - http://www.dclink.com/mastiff/index.htm # MCOA Journal Subscription Information and Back Issues - http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/~profiles/journal.htm l # MCOA Rescue - http://www.idsonline.com/business/djones/rescue1.ht m # "SHE WOULD NOT BE WHIPPED, SHE WOULD RATHER DIE" - http://vi.uh.edu/pages/mintz/33.htm d. Mastiff Mailing list Matthew Kleinmann at Cornell University runs a mailing list for OEM's and related breeds. Although not affiliated with the MCOA, many of its members can be found among the lists 300+ subscribers. To subscribe to the list, send email to mastiff-request@bigdog.geo.cornell.edu with 'subscribe' in the body (leave off the quotes). F. _Health Tests / Certifications every Mastiff SHOULD have_ Mastiffs, like all breeds, have problems that are genetic - i.e., passed from the parents to the offspring through their genes. These problems range in severity from minor to major and/or life threatening. In order to do something about these problems, breeders must first be aware that the problems exist, then they must learn as much as they can about the problems, including how they are inherited. A number of excellent tools are available to help accomplish the task of reducing genetic disease in our dogs - health testing with registered or certified results published by various organizations. Standardized tests are the only objective and practical way to be sure of the health status of any dog. Keep in mind that dogs are not always as they appear; for example, they can be dysplastic without exhibiting any clinical symptoms. Dogs can also "carry" the genes of their relatives, not just the genes that they express themselves. Thus, the more relatives of a dog that are tested, the easier it is to evaluate the chances that that dog "carries" the gene(s) for a particular trait. For example, if a dog's full-sibling has PRA and it and its sire and dam do not, then the dog has a 66% chance of carrying the gene for PRA. Testing ALL dogs for genetic disease provides the means for reducing the risk of, and eventually eliminating, most genetic diseases. For Mastiffs, testing should be performed for hip dysplasia (x-ray), elbow dysplasia (x-ray), patellar luxation (examination), eye disease (examination), thyroid disease (blood draw), heart disease (examination) and von Willebrands Disease (vWD) (blood draw). While Mastiff breeders, no matter how much they test, cannot guarantee that their puppies will not experience these problems, their use of genetic testing and the breeding of only tested clear dogs will reduce that risk. Breeders that test all of their dogs and require that all puppy buyers do likewise are making a sincere effort to reduce the incidence of genetic disease. The WWW site 'Mastiff Stud Dog Register and Articles' at http://www.dclink.com/mastiff/index.htm contains a considerable body of information regarding Mastiffs and these tests. Additional genetic disease and testing information: + Eliminating Genetic Diseases in Dogs: A Buyer's Perspective FAQ - http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/medical-info/ + The Dog Genome Project - http://mendel.berkeley.edu/dog.html TESTING / REGISTRATION / CERTIFICATION FACILITIES AND LABS + MCOA GDCS (Genetic Data Collection Service) Constance Parker GDCS Coordinator PO Box 531533Grand Prairie, TX 75053-1533 phone: (972) 660-5113fax: (972)660-5201 email: parker@why.net The MCOA offers this service to individuals and breeders who are interested in researching the genetic background of their dogs. Inclusion on the list for the various genetic tests is free to all Mastiff owners regardless of their membership status with MCOA. Updates are published quarterly in the MCOA Journal and a complete listing (1972 to the present) is available for a fee ($15 with OFA list, $10 without OFA list) Send request and check (payable to MCOA) to the above to order. The MCOA GDCS currently includes OFA Preliminary Hips, OFA Preliminary Elbows, OFA Hips, OFA Elbows, von Willebrands Disease, Thyroid and CERF. Passing OFA Hips, OFA Elbows, OFA Patellar and CERF registration are automatically included for all Mastiffs, contact the above for specific requirements for listing other results. + MCOA PRA Project (Progressive Retinal Atrophy) o West Coast Coordinator Karen Flocker 3228 Mehrhoff Place Flagstaff, AZ 86001 phone: (520) 779-0473fax: (520) 779-2169 email: jif2@dana.ucc.nau.edu o East Coast Coordinator Debora Jones De Vine Farm 5951 Huntingtown RdHuntingtown, MD 20639 phone: (301) 855-6711 email: djones@ids2.idsonline.com o www: PRA Research - http://mendel.berkeley.edu/dogs/diseases/pra/ pramenu.html James A. Baker Institute For Animal Health - http://mendel.berkeley.edu/dogs/diseases/bake r/baker-intro.html The MCOA is backing a project by the James A. Baker Institute For Animal Health at Cornell University to develop a DNA test for PRA in Mastiffs. PRA is a recessive, genetic, degenerative eye disease that leads to blindness. PRA typically cannot be detected in Mastiffs until the dog is 1 year old, and sometimes not until the dog is over 3 years. The DNA test is needed to detect carriers and those afflicted prior to breeding, so that breeders can guarantee that their pups will not have PRA and PRA can be eliminated from the gene pool. At present the penetration of PRA into the Mastiff gene pool is unknown due to the lack of adequate testing tools and insufficient awareness of the need for, and use of, those tools that are available. The MCOA is administering a fund and soliciting donations to aid in the development of this test. Contact the above for more details. + OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc.) 2300 E. Nifong Blvd. Columbia, MO 65201-3856 phone: (314) 442-0418 fax: (314) 875-5073 www: http://www.offa.org/ Reviews x-rays for hip and elbow dysplasia (will consult on other orthopedic conditions via x-ray), certifies patellas, hearts and thyroid. Publishes passing results. Dogs must be at least 24 months for hip and elbow certification and 12 months for patella, thyroid and heart certification. Preliminary x-rays of hips and elbows can be performed on an evaluation basis as early as six months. Fees are required for submission of x-rays for certification/evaluation and patella/thyroid/heart for certification in addition to vet fees for performing of x-rays and various examinations. OFA requires that the examination for heart certification be performed by a board certified cardiologist, a vet who is board certified in another specialty or a vet with experience in diagnosing heart murmurs. If at all possible try to find a cardiologist. OFA has specific requirements for certification of thyroid testing and specific labs that have qualified to perform these specific test requirements. Thyroid certification through OFA is a preferred option, although not necessary, since a full thyroid panel will provide the necessary genetic data. + CERF (Canine Eye Registration Foundation) 1248 Lynn Hall Purdue University W. Lafayette, IN 47907 phone: (317) 494-8179 www: http://www.prodogs.com/chn/cerf/index.htm Certifies eyes based on examination by an ACVO (American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologist) diplomat (member). Publishes passing results. Dogs can be examined/certified at any age (recommend as early as possible - 8 weeks) and CERF recommends re-examination annually. Submission fee required in addition to vet fee for examination. + GDC (Institute for Genetic Disease Control in Animals) P. O. Box 222 Davis, CA 95617 phone: (916) 756-6773 fax: (916) 756-6773 www: http://mendel.berkeley.edu/dogs/gdc.html Reviews x-rays for hip and elbow dysplasia (will also review x-rays for dysplasia of shoulders and hocks as well as osteochondrosis and arthrosis for all sites). Certifies eyes based on examination by ACVO diplomat. Certification at 12 months of age for hips, elbows, shoulders and hocks. Certification of eyes same as for CERF. Reports are available for a fee for use by breeders, owners, prospective owners, breed clubs and researchers under certain rules. Reports include KinReport(TM) - Progeny & Sibling/half-sibling printout from the registries on subject dog; and Phenotype report on subject dog. ALL (bold, italics) results (passing and failing) are listed -- THIS IS AN OPEN REGISTRY. Fee for x-ray evaluation/certification and eye certification in addition to vet fees for performing x-rays or examinations. + MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory P. O. Box 30076 Lansing, MI 48909 phone: (517) 353-1683 www: http://www.ahdl.msu.edu/ http://www.ahdl.msu.edu/ahdl/endo.htm (thyroid) One of major labs performing full panel for thyroid function (T3, T4, TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4). Recommend doing a baseline thyroid at 12-18 months and retest annually (see NOTE below). + ANTEC (formerly PAL - Professional Animal Laboratory) 17672-A Cowan Ave. Suite 200 Irvine, CA 92714 fax: (714) 752-4935 phone: (800) 542-1151 (CA) (800) 745-4725 (outside CA) One of major labs performing full panel thyroid function test and von Willebrand test. Same as above on thyroid timing. Von Willebrand is a one time test which can be performed at any age (see NOTE below). + CORNELL UNIVERSITY Diagnostic Laboratory College of Veterinary Medicine P. O. Box 5786, Ithaca, NY 14852-5786 phone: (607) 253-3900 www: http://web.vet.cornell.edu/public/dl/ One of major labs performing full panel thyroid function test and von Willebrand test. Same as above on thyroid and von Willebrand timing (see NOTE below). _NOTE:_ When having blood drawn for thyroid and/or von Willebrand testing, be sure that your dog is healthy, has not been vaccinated within the past two-four weeks, is not on any medication, is not in season (within 6-12 weeks) and has not been flea dipped or stressed such as from breeding. A number of things, such as those mentioned above, can affect the test outcome and the need for retesting is not unusual. G. _Questions To Ask a Mastiff Breeder_ The following are offered as possible questions you should ask the breeder of a Mastiff puppy you are considering acquiring. The FAQ 'Getting a Dog' contains additional, more general questions you may also wish to ask. 1. Are the parents proven to be clear of the genetic problems discussed in Appendix F? Have the suggested tests been performed on the parents? What is the breadth of the testing - just the parents? older siblings? grandparents? aunts & uncles? The breeder should be willing and able to produce copies of all test results, at least for the parents - if not offered - ask for them! If the breeder doesn't test, ask why. Do NOT accept the answer that they don't test because they've never had a problem with something - how can they know they don't have a problem if they don't test? Do not accept their vet's opinion on hip dysplasia x-rays - a regular vet is not a trained radiologist - OFA uses three board certified radiologists to examine all x-rays. 2. How old is the dam? How many times has she been bred? How far apart were the breedings? A Mastiff bitch should not be bred before 22 months of age nor after her 7th birthday; nor should her breedings, other than in exceptional cases, be closer together than 12 months. 3. Why did they choose the stud dog they used? What traits were they looking for? What was the purpose of this breeding? What improvements were they after? Are the breeders planning on keeping a puppy from this litter? If not, why not? If yes, how did they pick which one? A reputable Mastiff breeder will have a good reason for every breeding, either to improve their line or solidify and continue traits they already have. A reputable breeder will NOT be breeding just to have puppies to sell. 4. What faults do the dam and sire have? EVERY Mastiff has some faults. How has this breeding served to correct these faults? What are their good points? 5. What breed clubs do the breeders belong to? At a minimum, they should belong to the MCOA and/or one of regional Mastiff clubs, thus exhibiting an interest in supporting the future and direction of the breed, as well as being willing to place themselves under the oversight of their peers through the mechanism of the clubs' Code of Ethics. 6. Have the dam and sire been shown? Conformation showing is intended to identify the dogs that best fit the Mastiff standard; if the dogs haven't been shown, how do the breeders know, objectively, how well they are doing? 7. What are the living conditions of the breeder's dogs? Do they have adequate living space and room to exercise? Are the quarters clean and well kept? Is fresh water available? 8. What steps have the breeders taken to socialize the pups? Are they used to children? Other dogs? Other animals? Public places with lots of people? Early socialization is extremely important for a Mastiff; the lack of adequate socialization can cause serious problems later on. 9. What are the pups being fed? Are they being given supplements? If so, why? Mastiff pups will eventually grow to their genetically programmed size, it is much better for their health if they do so slowly. Good, quality food is usually all they need. 10. What are the terms of their contract? What guarantees do they offer? What conditions do they impose on your treatment and care of the dog? What penalties are imposed if you violate the terms of the contract? See Appendix C, section 4 of the MCOA Code of Ethics for a list of the minimum terms an MCOA breeder must include in their contract as well as other material they are required to supply to a puppy buyer. H. _Special Aspects of Raising a Mastiff Puppy_ Even a small Mastiff is destined to be a large dog. This is something that must be taken into consideration when rearing it. As a puppy, your Mastiff should not be allowed to do anything that you would not wish your full grown Mastiff to do, such as laying on the couch. And because your puppy is going to be such a large dog, it is also a very, very good idea that it receive, at a minimum, basic obedience training. You DO NOT want a 200 pound dog that won't listen to you; this can lead to obvious problems. Mastiffs grow at such an astonishing rate that it is best not to force their growth with artificial vitamins and calcium supplements. A good quality dog food is all that they require. A Mastiff is going to get as large as it is going to be, genetically, anyway; allowing them to grow at their own pace will give them a more stable foundation once they get there. Many breeders recommend NOT feeding a 'puppy chow' beyond the first few months due to the high protein content. During growth periods your Mastiff puppy is subject to joint injury. You will need to be especially careful during these times to control excessive exercise. A puppy may play at its own rate but should not be encouraged to take long walks, jump obstacles, or any other exercise that will stress the joints. This is not to say the puppy has to be confined. Just use caution and do not allow it to over exert itself. After about 18 months the growth rate has decreased and the puppy has just about reached its full stature. A Mastiff remains a puppy much longer than most breeds. Even though a Mastiff is already quite large by the time it is 6 months old, it is still growing and maturing rapidly. A Mastiff does not reach its full physical or mental maturity until around 3 years of age. You will be surprised at how much a Mastiff puppy will drink. Fresh water should be kept available at all times. Drool will accumulate in the bottom of the pup's water dish. Since the pup will not drink its own drool, the dish should be rinsed out at least daily. All puppies love to chew. Mastiffs have very powerful jaws, even as a puppy. Some chew toys that are fine for other breeds may not be suitable for your Mastiff. Caution should be used when choosing toys or chew bones because the pup could bite off pieces and swallow them, resulting in intestinal blockage. Mastiff puppies also have a tendency to chew, or swallow, rocks and sticks. They should be watched closely and discouraged from doing so. I. _Mastiff Clubs & Contacts_ 1. MCOA Officers and Contacts o President - Joe Margraf o Vice President - Bob Silvaggi o Treasurer - Tina Copas o Corresponding Secretary Karen McBee Rt 7, Box 520 Fairmont, WV 26554 email: mmcbee@access.mountain.net o Recording Secretary Misty Shearon 40510 76th Ave E Eatonville 98328-9515 email: shearon@mashell.com o Directors Dave Hussey John Lange Liz Simon Open o MCOA AKC Delegate - Dr. William Newman o MCOA AKC Gazette Columnist - Joan Hahn o MCOA AKC Public Education Coordinator Jody Greene phone: (203) 966-4253 fax: (203) 972-0234 o MCOA Genetic Data Collection Service Coordinator Constance Parker PO Box 531533 Grand Prairie, TX 75053-1533 phone: (214) 660-5113 email: parker@why.net o MCOA Journal Editor Kimberley Wall 18174 Wheeler Rd. Springdale, AR 72762 phone: (501) 361-2980 email: KMWALL@aol.com o MCOA Journal Subscription Editor Mary Johnson 871 Craigville Road Chester, NY 10918 email: scanner@frontiercomm.net www: http://bigdog.geo.cornell.edu/~profiles/journ al.html o MCOA Membership Chairperson (for membership information and application forms) Marianne Jackson 11401 W. Winslow Ave. Rt. 2 Tolleson, Az. 85353 phone: (602) 936-8488 fax: (602) 936-8467 email: SmoknLad@aol.com o MCOA Rescue National Director - Gloria Cuthbert - (see Appendix D) o MCOA Rescue Secretary/Treasurer Jill McMahon 4620 Durham Rd Raleigh, NC 27614 o Mastiff Information Packet includes: Breed Information Breeder Referral List Rescue Adoption Information Packet (enclose $4 check payable to MCOA to cover costs) BRL - East 391 Old Northfield Rd. Thomaston, CT 06787 - or - BRL - West 3434 W. Greenway #26-329 Phoenix, AZ 85023-3877 2. US Regional Mastiff Clubs (alphabetical by club name) The following contacts are constantly changing. If you find an error or know of one that's changed, please let the FAQ maintainer know. o Chesapeake Mastiff Club Diane Spalding, Secretary 609 Fountain Rd. Salisbury, MD 21801 phone: (410) 749-4912 fax: (410) 860-5013 o Midwest Mastiff Fanciers Melissa Prete, Secretary 4311 West Parker Chicago, IL 60639 phone: (312) 252-2769 email: rrfarms@elnet.com (Tim Plezbert) o Mid Atlantic Mastiff Alliance Sue Blickenstaff 3841 Turkeyfoot Rd. Westminister, MD 21158 phone: (410) 346-6127 o North & East Mastiff Fanciers Jennifer Modica, Corresponding Secretary 175 Stagecoach Rd. Cape May Court House, NJ 08210 phone: (609) 463-0534 fax: same email: jmodica175@juno.com o Pacific Northwest Mastiff Club Judy Ropes, Secretary 7434 Byron St. NE Olympia, WA 98506-9724 phone: (206) 943-6718 o Pacific Southwest Mastiff Club Betsy Harvey, Secretary 1018 Amber Drive Santa Paula, CA 93060 phone: (805) 525-4980 email: thndrpaws@fishnet.net o Redwood Empire Mastiff Club Kim Lupi, Secretary 4480 Roop Road Gilroy, CA 95020 phone: (408) 842-1956 email: STEVEN_LUPI@hp-paloalto-om16.om.hp.com o Rocky Mt. Mastiff Fanciers Kaurie Jones, Secretary 11053 Chase Way Broomfield, CO 80020 phone: (303) 466-9188 o Southern States Mastiff Fanciers Anne Heyob, Secretary 290 Huskey Mtn. Road Lacey's Spring, AL 35754 phone: (205) 498-3180 email: heybob@bmtc.mindspring.com o Sunshine State Mastiff Fanciers Vicki Hix, Secretary 331 31st West Bradenton, FL 34205 phone: (813) 747-4342 o Three Rivers Mastiff Club Mary Rosa, Treasurer 236 Campville Rd Northfield, CT 06778 phone: (203) 283-0616 3. Mastiff Clubs in Other Countries (alphabetical by country) The following contacts are constantly changing. If you find an error, know of one that's changed, or are aware of a club we missed, please let the FAQ maintainer know. o AUSTRALIA # Mastiff Club of Australia and New Zealand Andy Mayne, Editor Lord St. Nikenbah M/S 763 Pialba Qld. 4655 Australia # Mastiff Club of New South Wales Margaret Hextall, Secretary 5 Idriess Place Edensor Park, NSW 2176 phone: (61) 02 9823-7248 # Mastiff Club of Victoria Paul Simmonds, Secretary Lot 25 Wonghee Rd. Emerald, VIC 3782, Australia phone: (61) 59 683383 email: mastiff@world.net www: http://www.world.net/~mastiff o CANADA # Canadian Mastiff Club Deborah Caron, Secretary 22611 Gibson Rd. RR #2 Wainfleet, ON, Canada LOS 1V0 phone: (905) 899-3689 email: gbaruzzini@edc.gov.ab.ca (Gail Baruzzini, VP) o DENMARK # The Danish Mastiff Club Heinrik B. Pedersen Gullandsgade 2. 3. th. 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark phone: (45) 31 59 51 05 o ENGLAND # Old English Mastiff Club Mrs. J. Critoph Norwich Road West Caistor GT Yarmouth, England NR30 5SLJ # The Mastiff Association Mr. P. J. Sargent 111 Lyttelton Rd. Stechford Birminghamn, England B33 8BN o FINLAND # Association of Finnish Bullmastiff & Mastiffs Tuija Sorthan Kauriinrinne 13 I 29 01480 VANTAA, Finland phone: 358 - 09 - 851 3757 o FRANCE # Club Francais du Bullmastiff et du Mastiff Anne Marie Class, Presidente 35 rue des Pres Vendome 78450 VILLEPREUX, France phone: 33 01 34 62 46 53 fax: 33 01 30 56 07 80 email: amclass@aol.com web: http://members.aol.com/masbull/mastiff/ club.htm o GERMANY # Club fuer Molosser e.v. Walter Weiss Vagantenhof-Schoenberg 82544 Egling, Germany phone: (49) 8170 7824 fax: (49) 8170 9133 # The German Mastiff Club Monika Reinhard, Secretary Hirzenhain-Bahnhof, Habichstrasse 29 35713 Eschenburg, Germany phone: 0 27 70/26 20 # Old English Mastiff Club Deutchland e.v. Frau Ingid Rau Saarbruckersrt 18 6601 Riegelsberg, Germany phone: (49 ) 6806 46069 o NETHERLANDS # Old English Mastiff Club Nederland Hans Rosingh Van Lierswijk 7 9421 TH Bovensmilde, The Netherlands phone: (31) 592-412337 o NEW ZEALAND (see also AUSTRALIA) # All Breeds Mastiff Club Joanne Franklin, President 125 Viponds Road Hibiscus Bay, New Zealand o NORWAY # Norsk Engelsk Mastiff Klubb Kare Konradsen, President Seierstenasen 1433 Vinterbro phone: (47) 64 97 71 62 email: nhammers@sn.no o PORTUGAL # Associacao Portuguesa Dos Caes de Tip Molossoide (forming-1997?) o SOUTH AFRICA # Bullmastiff Club of South Africa (All Mastiff breeds) P.O. Box 4885 Randburg 2125, South Africa o SPAIN # Club Espanol de Molosos de Arena P.O. Box 175 28400 Collado Villaba Madrid, Spain phone: (34) 1 8511406 email: molosos@ctv.es web: http://www.ctv.es/cema/ o SWEDEN # Bullmastiff-och Mastiffvannera Kristina Vakkala, President P1 1086 A 635 09 Eskilstuna, Sweden phone: (46) 016-35 35 98 J. _Mastiff Varieties and Internet References_ + Bullmastiff o American Bullmastiff Association - http://www.akc.org/clubs/aba/ o Bullmastiff Fanciers Of Canada - http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1300/ o Dansk Bullmastiff Klub - http://www.kyed.com/dbk/ o Bullmastiff Breed FAQ - http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/breeds/ + Cane Corso (Sicilian Mastiff) + Dogo Argentino (Argentine Mastiff) + Dogue de Bordeaux (French Mastiff) o Dogue de Bordeaux Society - http://members.aol.com/ddbsociety/DDBS/index.html o United States Bordeaux Corporation - http://www.usbc.mel.net/ + Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian Mastiff) o Fila Brasileiro Club of America - http://www.idis.com/FBCA/index.htm o FILANET - http://dt.fee.unicamp.br/~amaury/filanet.html + Mastin Del Pirineo (Pyrenean Mastiff) o Pyrenean Mastiff Club of America - http://www.oicu2.com/mastiff/ o Razas Espanolas - http://www.gae.unican.es/general/dogs/breeds/spain/espan olas.html + Mastin Espanol (Spanish Mastiff) o Razas Espanolas - http://www.gae.unican.es/general/dogs/breeds/spain/espan olas.html + Neapolitan Mastiff (Italian Mastiff) o American Neapolitan Mastiff Association - http://home.aol.com/ANMA1 o National Board of Italian Cynophiles - http://www.cta.it/enci.htm o United States Neapolitan Mastiff Club - http://www.neapolitan.org/ o Neapolitan Breed FAQ - http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/breeds/ + Perro de Presa Canario (Canary Island Dog) o Razas Espanolas - http://www.gae.unican.es/general/dogs/breeds/spain/espan olas.html + St. Bernard o Saint Bernard Club of America - http://www.akc.org/clubs/saints/ o Saint Bernard Breed FAQ - http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/breeds/ + Tibetan Mastiff o Tibetan Mastiff Association of America - http://www.tibetanmastiffs.com/index.html + Tosa Inu (Japanese Mastiff) _____________________________________________________________ Mastiff FAQ Mike McBee, mmcbee@access.mountain.net