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Subject: rec.pets.dogs: Curly Coated Retrievers Breed-FAQ
This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:22:52 GMT
Posting-frequency: 30 days
Last-modified: 04 Dec 2000
There are many FAQ's available for this group. For a complete
listing of these, get the "Complete List of RPD FAQs". This article
is posted bimonthly in rec.pets.dogs, and is available via anonymous ftp
to rtfm.mit.edu under pub/usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list, via
the Web at http://www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/lists/faq-list.html, or
via email by sending your message to email@example.com with
in the body of the message.
This article is Copyright 1997 by the Author(s) listed below.
It may be freely distributed on the Internet in its entirety without
alteration provided that this copyright notice is not removed.
It may NOT reside at another website (use links, please) other
than the URL listed above without the permission of the Author(s).
This article may not be sold for profit nor incorporated in other
documents without he Author(s)'s permission and is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty.
Curly Coated Retrievers
Cindy Tittle Moore, October 1995.
With the invaluable help and contributions of:
* Victoria Brown, firstname.lastname@example.org
* Carol Kail, email@example.com
* Kathy Kail, firstname.lastname@example.org
* Janean Marti, email@example.com
Any of whom may also be contacted for further information and
questions about the breed.
* Apr 96: added mailing list info
This article is Copyright 1995-1996 by Cindy Tittle Moore, PO Box
4188, Irvine CA 92616. All rights are reserved. Individuals may
download and print a copy for their personal use. Non-commercial
distribution without profit is encouraged: in particular, Curly Coated
Retriever (CCR) rescue organizations, CCR breed clubs, and CCR
breeders all have express permission to freely distribute printouts of
this article, provided this Copyright and the article remain intact,
and provided the recipient is not required to pay for it. It may not
be copied to another website nor otherwise distributed in whole or in
part without the Author's written permission.
Table of Contents
* Characteristics and Temperament
* Care and Training
* Frequently Asked Questions
* Health and Medical Problems
+ Elbow and Hip Dysplasia
+ Breed Books
+ Retriever Training Books
+ Periodicals, Pamphlets
+ National and Breed Club Addresses
+ Breeders and Rescue
+ Online Resources
When English gamekeepers or poachers needed a meat dog -- a dog that
could find and retrieve birds left by other dogs after a driven shoot,
or a dog to find and retrieve birds in the middle of the night -- they
often used a Curly Coated Retriever. The Curly, as the breed is
nicknamed, has always been the "blue-collar" retriever, especially in
its native home of England, where a Curly was more often owned by a
gamekeeper or poacher than an aristocrat. While the term might be
considered a slight by some other retriever breed owners, "meat dog"
is the original description of a Curly Coated Retriever: a breed
developed to find and retrieve birds, no matter the conditions or the
'pedigree' of the person on the other end of the leash.
Due to the increasing popularity of shooting flying birds (and the
corresponding need to find the birds) in the mid 19th century, the
initial Retriever breeds were developed. Some breeds, such as the
Golden, were carefully bred for by a single individual, others such as
the Labrador were isolated in one or two kennels for their
development. Still others were developed as gun dog fanciers tried
breeding the "best to the best" and intermixing a wide variety of
breeds and abilities. The general confusion over the origins of the
Retrievers partly lies in the fact that at this time the word
"retriever" referred to the function rather than the breed of dog, and
so any dog that proved itself capable of retrieving was considered
one, whether purebred, crossbred or mongrel.
Spaniels, setters, and waterdogs quickly proved themselves the best at
this type of work and provided the foundation for all of today's
Retrievers, in varying proportions. However, the exact sequence of
development is in many cases lost in the distance of history; even
many contemporary accounts are considered flawed and mistaken today.
There are many references to a "sagacious" curly coated spaniel, or
water dog, credited with outstanding retrieving and hunting abilities
dating back to at least the mid fifteenth century. Even Shakespeare
makes a reference or two to "Water Spaniells". These water dogs are
most likely in the backgrounds of all the modern retriever breeds.
Although a host of curly-coated breeds now exist, it is difficult to
separate one from another in dog breeding in the 1800's. At this time
there were a number of curly-coated breeds with varying names
(including the Water Spaniel, the Tweed Water Spaniel, and the
Wetterhoun) that could be ancestors of the modern Curly. Or the Curly
could have been a contributing ancestor to the modern-day breeds with
curly coats. Suffice it to say that at about the time of the
development of the Curly-Coated Retriever, other curly-coated breeds,
including the Poodle, Wetterhoun, Portuguese Water Dog, and Irish
Water Spaniel were also under development. Some Curly historians have
claimed knowledge of documented crosses between the Curly-Coated
Retriever and Poodle, to improve the coat and elegance of the former
and the staying power and sagacity of the latter.
It is a fact, however, that the first breed classified as a retriever
and exhibited at a dog show as such was the Curly-Coated Retriever.
And, of all the curly breeds, it is the Curly-Coated Retriever who has
the distinction of being named for its curled coat, which may be an
indication that the Curly-Coated Retriever was the first of all the
curly coated breeds.
The Curly was first exhibited as a showdog in 1860, easily predating
all the other Retriever breeds. In 1864, the Kennel Club split the
retrievers into the Retrievers-curly coated and Retrievers-wavy coated
Interestingly, while well-regarded, the breed has never been highly
popular and the Labrador began edging it out when it appeared on the
scene in the 1890's. World Wars I and II severely reduced the breed's
numbers, to the point where only 5 were registered in 1919, edging up
to 35-40 in the late thirties and dropping again to 13 in 1942 and
1943. However, by 1947 there were 90 registrations, so the breed came
back slowly but steadily from the war years.
In Australia and New Zealand
While records indicate that the Curly was an established breed by 1881
in Australia, most modern-day Curlies down under, that is, in both
Australia and New Zealand, stem from breeding native Australian and
New Zealand curlies with English imports. For instance, NZ and GFTCh.
Dual CH. Waitoki Tamatakapua, who is behind many modern-day Australian
and New Zealand bloodlines, was the product of a NZ field trial Ch.
and an English import bitch.
In these countries, especially New Zealand, the Curly is an extremely
popular hunting dog.
Comparing the records of British, New Zealand, Australian and U.S.
Curlies, especially in the field, is difficult since the requirements
differ drastically in each country. For instance, a NZ or Australian
Field Trial Champion is about equivalent to a U.S. senior or master
hunter. A U.K. full championship (as opposed to a show championship)
is about the equivalent of a Championship plus a WC in the U.S.,
though comparisons between the two cannot accurately be made since the
style of the tests are completely different.
While Curlies were introduced in the United States around 1907, the
first registered Curly was not until 1924. Many hunting enthusiasts
thought that the Curly would become the most popular hunting dog in
this country. Again, World War II had a severe impact on the breed
where only 16 Curlies total were registered between 1941 and 1949.
Unfortunately, no patron for the breed was to be had after WWII, and
when coupled with false rumors about the breed's supposed hard mouth
and difficult to care for coat, the breed was reduced to two
registered dogs in 1964. As a result, American lines from prior to
this time were lost.
In 1966 Dale Detweiler's English import, CH Siccawei Black Rod, proved
the catalyst for turning the breed around. Not only was he extensively
used and shown, but more dogs were subsequently imported from both
Australia and England and became the base for revitalizing the breed
in this country. Today, there are several well-respected lines that
have been going for approximately 20 years with significant
contributions to the breed.
In 1979 the turnaround was sufficient to form Curly Coated Retriever
Club of America, now the national breed club for AKC registered
The Curly Coated Retriever is still very much the breed it has always
been - unique in looks, loving and easily trained, and fully capable
of stepping from the show ring to the field every weekend. Although
there are far more Curlies with Championships than with working
titles, there are still more with titles at both ends of their names
than most other sporting breeds.
Field activity in the breed is mostly in the National Club's WC/X/Q
tests and in the hunting retriever tests held by the AKC, NAHRA and
UKC, as well as the versatile hunting dog tests held by NAVHDA. A few
Curlies have been run in Field Trials and have done fairly well, but
since the breed is slow to mature, a Curly is usually not ready to
compete until it is too old for Derby and most Curly owners/trainers
do not have the time and money to commit to the upper stakes in Field
The Curly is still a relatively rare breed in the US. In 1994 it was
ranked number 123 out of 137 breeds recognized by the AKC. This rarity
makes it harder to find a puppy, but also helps to ensure that the
Curly will remain the all around good looking working dog it has
always been. The last 10 years registration numbers for CCRs in the
Year 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Dogs 117 62 95 121 118 129 135 207 129 157
Litters 22 16 19 19 28 25 26 34 24 34
Curly Coated Retriever new titles - AKC Awards issues 1/94-12/94
Ch OTCh CD CDX UD UDX JH SH
29 1 12 3 1 1 10 1
The Curly Coat is an active, well balanced dog that is "just off the
square," only slightly longer than it is tall. It is at home in the
water, in the field, or in your living room. Distinguishing it from
all the other Retriever breeds is its uniquely textured, curly coat.
This unusual coat is composed of very small, tight, waterproof curls
which ideally extend from the back of the head down to the elbows and
hocks and to the tip of its tail. The crisply curled coat forms a
striking contrast to the face devoid of any curls -- the short hair
growing naturally smooth and straight.
Ideal heights as listed in the AKC Standard are 25 to 27 inches for
males and 23 to 25 inches for females, although otherwise excellent
dogs are not to be penalized for falling outside these ranges. Because
for a long time no height ranges were stated in the Curly Standard,
there is often a large variance in the size of both US and imported
Characteristics and Temperament
The AKC Standard states that "outline, carriage and attitude all
combine for a grace and elegance somewhat uncommon among the other
retriever breeds." The grace and elegance is combined with a sturdy
structure and hardworking, persevering temperament to create an
excellent working retriever.
The Curly Coat is possessed of an imperturbable temperament. Even
tempered, this dog is intensely loyal and will be protective of the
family while maintaining unfailingly good manners to humans likewise
mannered. Curlies tend to be reserved rather than extroverted with
strangers. However, this reserve can be shed rather dramatically when
someone the dog knows and loves approaches!
Curly Coats are very slow to mature and this should be taken into
account when training them. They are always quick and intelligent,
however, so tailoring your training into multiple, short, and
interesting sessions will yield the best results over time.
Of course, not all Curlies are paragons of virtue. There are
individuals in the breed who do not automatically swim, can be
hard-headed, and so on. As individuals, Curlies can vary. But for the
right people, this breed has much to offer.
Care and Training
A Curly that lives in the house, has regular exercise and work,
including any type of work that takes advantage of the breed's innate
intelligence, and is a part of the family, is a happy Curly. The most
important care and training of a Curly is involving him in the
family's day to day activities. Include your Curly in your every day
life and he will repay you with years of friendship.
Keeping up the Curly coat for every day or hunting use is fairly
simple: comb or brush the coat when the dog is shedding, usually twice
a year, in spring and fall, and bathe him at that time as well. You
may also choose to bathe him at other times as you see fit. A clean
dog is a healthy, happy dog and the Curly-Coated Retriever benefits
from frequent baths, at least three times a year. And from combing or
brushing when he is heavily shedding.
A show dog requires additional grooming, in the form of scissoring off
excess hair from tail, front and rear legs, ears, etc. This can be
quite an extensive project for Curlies who have not been show-groomed
before. Grooming this way is a choice of the dog's owner; the
Curly-Coated Retriever standard does not require this grooming for any
Curly shown in a conformation ring although it might be difficult to
win in the show ring if your Curly is not groomed this way. For
information about grooming for the show ring, contact your puppy's
breeder or any of the listed Curly contacts. Remember: grooming this
way for the show ring is not required but is expected by most judges.
Many breeders never brush their dogs, only bathing them instead. Some
use a pin brush just before bathing to loosen dead hair. Flea combs
are not generally recommended as they will strip out much of the coat.
A curly coat benefits from frequent swimming and outdoor exposure
(which nonetheless does not make them good kennel dogs). The coat is
frequently oily, which can be a problem for some allergy sufferers.
Curlies are intelligent and smart. They are easily trained, but do not
generally tolerate repetitious training well. Their streak of
independence can make some types of training a little more difficult,
as the dog will start making his own decisions. Because they mature
slowly, training frequently takes longer than in some of the more
It is best for all Curly owners to do some obedience training with
their dogs especially when young. A combination of early socialization
and training will result in an adult with a wonderful sense of
judgement about others that you can trust and a close lifelong
companion. As already mentioned, they do not make good "kennel dogs,"
kept outside away from their families -- close interaction instead is
best for them.
The Curly is a hunting dog for the person who likes variety: ducks,
pheasant, grouse and a dog who can also be a companion to children and
a family friend. Though he is designated as a retriever, the Curly is
also an outstanding upland game dog on pheasant, grouse, quail, etc.
Curlies are currently being hunted throughout North America, and are
used extensively for hunting in New Zealand (where they are the
hunting dog of choice) and Australia. Many, if not most, of the people
hunting Curlies are family-oriented who just want a dog that hunts and
can be a companion so hunting Curlies is rather a silent revolution.
You don't have to hunt or follow the usual obedience routines to make
a Curly happy: if you are cutting wood for your fireplace, most
Curlies will happily haul each log in. If you are carrying trash out,
a Curly will share his part of the load. If you have children who have
an energetic streak, asking them to throw a ball or whatever for a
Curly will keep them occupied. Curlies often end up being a child's
best friend: if you can give them something to do together, you can
keep them both out of trouble.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is that a poodle mix?
No. In actuality, the Curly Coated Retriever is the oldest
recognized of the Retriever breeds, having been fixed in appearance
from approximately 1850 or so, and bred as a distinct breed from
Whether Poodles are present in their background is in dispute.
Poodles were not present in England at the time the Curly was
recognized (although they were present on the Continent, chiefly
Germany and France). This makes it doubtful they were used prior to
1850. Some claims are made that Poodles were used later in Britain
to improve Curly coats.
Do they shed?
Yes they do! They are not like the Poodle breeds because their hair
stops growing (unlike a Poodle's which never stops). This means the
hair shaft eventually dies and falls out. Curlies shed annually,
and if they are intact bitches, will shed just before each estrus
(up to twice a year). The coat should grow back within 6-8 weeks
How much grooming do they require?
Very little. Their coat is naturally curly, does not grow beyond
and inch or two in length, and its oily, dense character sheds
dirt, mud, and burrs easily. A Curly needs to be bathed regularly,
and an occasional trim of straggly curls is all that is required of
the pet Curly. Brushing frizzes the coat out until the next bath,
but it does help loosen dead hear and stimulate the skin.
What colors do they come in?
Curlies come in black and liver colors. Liver is recessive to
black, so two liver Curlies would only produce liver puppies. If a
black curly with a liver recessive is mated to another black Curly
with the liver recessive, about one fourth of the litter will be
liver, one half will be black carrying liver, and the remaining one
fourth will be black and not carry liver. If a black Curly has both
a liver and a black parent, you know that Curly carries liver. If
it has a liver littermate, but black parents, there is a good
chance it carries liver but until it produces a liver puppy of its
own, you will never be certain.
There are no health or temperament problems associated with the
liver color in this breed. Livers can fade or lighten somewhat with
sun exposure, age, and when beginning to shed. Because liver is
recessive, black Curlies tend to be numerically superior.
Are they good with children?
Most Curlies are good with children. You should, of course,
supervise all interaction between any dog and young children, as it
is possible for either to accidentally hurt the other.
Are they just like Labradors or other Retrievers?
No. Each of the Retriever breeds, even though closely related, has
distinct habits and temperaments, and the Curly is no exception.
Curlies are very much loyal family dogs and are reserved with
strangers. They make excellent watch dogs because of this
characteristic. They are generally a dignified and somewhat
independent dog, especially as compared to the Golden Retriever and
the Labrador Retriever. Like the Flat Coated Retriever, Curlies
come in both black and (recessive) liver colors. There have been
occasional reports of yellow Curlies, but this has never been an
accepted color in the breed and very few if any yellows occur
The Curly Coat does share the general Retriever characteristics
such as intelligence, keen instinct for hunting and retrieving, an
extended puppyhood, and an even and stable temperament.
What should I ask the breeder when looking for a puppy?
You should ask about the parent's health: they should have been
xrayed free of hip dysplasia and have certificates from OFA; they
should have been examined annually for eye abnormalities and have
either CERF certification or reports from an ACVO certfied
veterinarian; they should both be fully coated. You should ask
about common problems in the breed and not receive either "there
are none in this breed," nor "there are none in MY dogs."
You should ask why the breeder bred the litter, e.g., what were
they hoping to gain or improve. You should ask about the breeder's
background, what they have done with their dogs, whether they are
members of local or national Curly clubs, and about any guarantees
they have. If you are interested in any specific activities with
your Curly, find out what the breeder has done in this area (for
example, hunting) to prove that their dogs are capable. Look over
the breeder's other, adult, dogs and ask yourself if you would want
to have any of them, as the pups will likely resemble them closely
Before you commit to a puppy, you should have seen or received
copies of OFA and CERF clearances, a copy of the written guarantee
the breeder gives with a puppy, and a list of references that you
should actually check before making a deposit or paying for a
Do they like water? How should I introduce my pup to water?
Most Curlies cannot be kept out of the water and are great natural
swimmers. You should exercise due sensibility when introducing a
puppy to water. Never throw the pup into the water: allow him to
approach the water himself on a gently sloping entry with plenty of
shallow water with little or no current. As he gains confidence, he
will be splashing about in no time. If an adult dog is around to
encourage the pup, he will probably be swimming before you (or he)
Health and Medical Problems
In general, reputable breeders will be happy to discuss potential
problems in the breed and be honest about those that have cropped up
in their lines. They should be able to discuss the health screening
done with their breeding stock and other measures they've taken to
reduce the likelihood of problems. They should be willing to guarantee
against common problems and want to know of anything that might show
up later in your puppy.
In general, if your Curly should develop a major health problem, you
should tell your breeder about it. This way, the breeder can remain
informed about potential problems in their lines. Such problems would
include those listed below and others, such as seizures, cancer, and
anything else that might be heritable. Like most modern dog breeds,
Curlies are experiencing a disturbing increase in the number of dogs
who contract malignant cancers.
Elbow and Hip Dysplasia
Elbow and Hip Dysplasia are ongoing problems for all the retriever
breeds as well as many other breeds of similar or larger size.
Hip Dysplasia is a malformation of the ball and socket joint in the
hip, with varying degress of resulting impairment. Diagnosis is
definitive only through proper radiographic (xray) analysis. OFA
reported ??% of affected dogs in 1994, which may or may not accurately
reflect the rate in the breed as a whole.
Elbow Dysplasia includes several problems such as Ununited Anconeal
Process, Fragmented Coronoid Process, and Osteochondrosis Dessicans.
Elbow dysplasia does not at this time appear to be a widespread
problem in Curlies.
While affected dogs may show gait abnormalities, etc., HD (or ED)
cannot be diagnosed on these factors alone. No dog with either HD or
ED should be bred. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals will examine
xrays taken of individual dogs and grade them. If the grade is passing
and the dog is at least two years old, the OFA will issue a
certificate for the dog. All dogs that are bred should have this
certification for at least HD.
Eye problems - cataracts of various kinds, corneal dystrophy,
suspected PRA, distichiasis, entropion, ectropion, PPM, retinal
dysplasia. None are particularly common but all should be asked about
and guaranteed for. All dogs used for breeding should have annual eye
examinations (as some problems are not visible until later in life);
the breeder should continue with the annual examinations even with
dogs no longer being bred.
The "Curly Coat Problem" can be frustrating -- it is often
misdiagnosed for other diseases such as thyroid deficiency, and it is
detrimental to a breeding program trying to establish the proper coat.
It is difficult to say how many Curlies are affected with this, as
many are not shown, are not noticeably affected, or the problem is
thought to be something else, such as wear from the collar. In mild
cases, the patterning may appear once and then never again when the
coat grows back in. While mildly affected dogs generally lead normal
lives, it is an indicator of more serious trouble, as it is caused by
some type of auto immune problem. Affected dogs are more likely to
have allergies, reproductive problems; in its severest form, it
affects the growth hormones and the dogs mature at about 40lbs.
Very often dogs with patterned baldness will have good coats as a
puppy, with the bald spots appearing at sexual maturity. Bald
patterning appears on the backs and/or insides of the hind legs,
and/or on the flanks, and/or on the front and/or sides of neck, and/or
the deepest part of the chest and/or as an overall thin or brittle
coat. A minor indication of the problem are dogs that are fully coated
but only have real curls on their necks and backs. The hair loss is
very distinctly bilateral -- that is, on both sides of the dog. There
are varying manifestations of this syndrome, from appearing nearly
normal to being almost completely bald. In some cases, hair grows back
after shedding, but within months rather than weeks.
Diets and supplements do not take care of patterned baldness. You
should inform your dog's breeder (send clear, closeup photos of all
the spots) of any symmetrical bald spots appearing on your puppy so
that they can take this information into account in their breeding
program. Unaffected dogs seem to produce affected puppies, implying a
recessive gene or genes, but the exact mode of inheritance is unclear.
Very few veterinarians know about this problem in Curly Coats.
The Curly Coated Retriever, Audrey Nicholls
Rivers Media Services, Ltd. 1992. Available from 4M
Enterprises, (phone number).
Curly-Coated Retriever Champions, 1952-1987.
Camino E.E. & B Co., P.O Box 729, Kings Beach, CA 96143. (They
have moved since publishing the book, so the address in the
book itself is incorrect.)
Retriever Training Books
Rutherford,, Clarice and Cherylon Loveland. Retriever Puppy Training:
The Right Start for Hunting
Alpine Publications, 1992?. Good step-by-step training methods,
explained and illustrated clearly.
Rutherford, Clarice, Barbara Brandstad, and Sandra Whicker. Retriever
Working Certificate Training
Alpine Publications, 1994?. An excellently written book on how
to get your dog ready for the (Golden Retriever) WC test.
Highly informative and illustrated with b/w photos.
Spencer, James B. Training Retrievers for the Marshes and Meadows
Denlinger Publications in Fairfax, VA. It starts with puppy
selection and goes on up to advanced marks and blinds. It is
oriented toward the amateur gun dog trainer and is well written
The Curly Commentator, by the CCRCA; free with membership or for $15
per year. Bimonthly, contains articles and information of interest to
Curly fanciers, ads, and club information.
Curly Ques, for those in the western US interested in or owning
Curlies. Free, donations appreciated. For subscription, contact ?.
National and Breed Club Addresses
It'd be nice to include the English and Aust. national club addresses.
Plus those of any regional clubs in the US (are there any??).
Curly Coated Retriever Club of America
Sheila Callahan-Young, Secretary, 3 Roberts Court, Gloucester,
Membership applications available by sending a self addressed
stamped envelop with your request. Membership is $25/year and
includes a subscription to the CCRCA official membership
newsletter The Curly Commentator.
Curly Coated Retriever Club of Canada
Pat Renshaw, PO Box 367, Shelburne, ON L0N 1S0
Email to firstname.lastname@example.org, with "For Pat Renshaw" in the
Breeders and Rescue
The CCRCA will provide a list of breeders upon request. It is still up
to you to determine that a particular breeder will best meet your
National rescue in the US is handled by the CCRCA Secretary, Sheila
Callahan Young at email@example.com.
There are several web sites cropping up:
Information on V. Brown's Imru Kennel, plus Curly activities in
the Northwest US; upcoming events, including the 1997 National
Specialty; 1996 Crufts show results.
Information on Cathy Lewandowski's Soft Maple Curlies, plus
additional information: pictures, responsible breeding, links to
related sites of interest.
The Curly Mailing List opened April 1996 for all those interested in
the breed. To subscribe, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org,
with no/any subject line (it is ignored) and SUBSCRIBE CURLY-L
yourfirstname yourlastname in the body of the message. Kathy Kail
(email@example.com) is the owner of this list.
The following individuals have graciously agreed to be listed as
contacts for the area noted by them:
Mary Alice Hembree, firstname.lastname@example.org (New Jersey);
Cathy Lewandowski, email@example.com (New York)
Katherine Jungkind, firstname.lastname@example.org (Tennessee)
Vicky Brown, email@example.com (Idaho)
Joe Maher, firstname.lastname@example.org (Oklahoma)
Kim Kiernan, email@example.com; Kathryn Cowsert,
Carol Kail, firstname.lastname@example.org; Kathy Kail, email@example.com;
Kari Swarztrauber, GangRolv@aol.com
Pat Renshaw, firstname.lastname@example.org (British Columbia)
Jim Crosby (co-chair of CCRCA Field Committee), JIMZIMC@aol.com
Some related items that may be of interest:
* The hunting-retriever mailing list. Send email to
email@example.com with no/any subject line and SUBSCRIBE
HUNTING-RETRIEVER in the body of the message.
* The gundog-l mailing list (also rec.hunting.dogs). Send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org with no/any subject line and SUBSCRIBE
GUNDOG-L Yourfirstname Yourlastname in the body of the message.
* NAHRA, at http://www.cvm.okstate.edu/~ACVA/nahra/nahrafaq.htm
* The AKC homepage, at http://www.akc.org/
* Working Retriever Central, at http://working-retriever.com/
Curly Coated Retriever FAQ
Cindy Tittle Moore, email@example.com