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Subject: rec.pets.dogs: Chihuahuas Breed-FAQ

This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:22:36 GMT

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Archive-name: dogs-faq/breeds/chihuahuas Posting-frequency: 30 days Last-modified: 21 Jan 1996 Version: 1.6 URL: http://www.cathouse.org/CathousePeople/MelindaCasino/Chihuahua/
THE CHIHUAHUA FAQ (Chih-wah-wah) v.1.6 -------------------------------------------------- Created and maintained by Melinda Casino. The Fine Print... The information herein is based on some research and my own experiences with one Chihuahua. I take no responsibility for any mishaps that may occur as a result of this FAQ. Feedback and comments are always welcome. The Chihuahua FAQ Copyright (c) 1995, 96 by Melinda Casino. This FAQ is FREE and should not be used by anyone for monetary gain. Include full credits in all reproductions of this FAQ. This FAQ is dedicated to Cocoa; deer, pig, gibbon, mole, bat, and hop-frog, she is more animals than I'd bargained for! ----------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents * SO WHAT IS A CHIHUAHUA? 1. Introduction 2. History 3. Physical Description 4. Temperament 5. Care and Maintenance 6. Special Medical Problems * FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Aren't Chihuahuas expensive? 2. What is their life-span? 3. How much exercise do they require? 4. Do they require special dog food? 5. I've heard they're nervous, high-strung dogs. Is that true? 6. Are they good with children? 7. I'm allergic to dogs, but I heard Chihuahuas won't bother me; is that true? 8. Do the long-haired kind shed alot? 9. Is it safe to take your Chihuahua on a cold weather walk? 10. Are they sociable with other dogs? 11. Aren't Chihuahuas kind of dim? 12. Can Chihuahuas be trained? 13. Is my Chihuahua a dog or a mole? 14. Does my Chihuahua expect a suntan? 15. My Chihuahua's shivering--is this because s/he's cold? 16. Is there a Chihuahua mailing list? 17. Is there a Chihuahua Home Page? 18. Is there a Chihuahua Rescue Center? * RESOURCES 1. Internet 2. Books 3. Clubs + Chihuahua Clubs + General Dog Clubs 4. Magazines + U.S. 5. Videos * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * FOOTNOTES ----------------------------------------------------------------- SO WHAT IS A CHIHUAHUA? 1. Introduction "To know me is to love me." -- Chihuahua's motto, if they could talk. This FAQ is written for both the experienced owners and casual readers in mind. Please note that The Chihuahua FAQ is a guide only, and should NOT replace veterinarian advice and/or more authoritative published works written on this breed. Since I only have the experience of owning one Chihuahua, I would appreciate feedback from other Chihuahua owners. GUSH MODE ON: If you already own a Chihuahua, then I'll be preaching to the converted when I say that they are one of the most loyal, sweet-tempered, and gentle of the toy breeds. The Chihuahua, with its apple-dome skull and large luminous eyes, can wear a remarkably human expression at times; she or he will want to be with you most, if not all, of the time. A warning to casual dog owners: Don't buy a Chihuahua if you don't have the emotional real estate in your heart or the time for the complete love and attention of this furry little person. GUSH MODE OFF. 2. History Carvings found in the Monastery of Huejotzingo, on the highway from Mexico City to Puebla, give strong evidence as to the Chihuahua's origins. This monastery was constructed by Franciscan Monks around 1530. The Monks used stones from the Toltec civilization. Little is known of the Toltecs, but we do know that they existed as early as the 9th century A.D. in what is now Mexico. The Toltecs had a breed of dog they called the "Techichi". And the carvings on the stones at Huejotzingo give a full head view and a picture of an entire dog that closely resembles the modern-day Chihuahua. From this evidence, we can safely assume that the Chihuahua is a descendant of the Techichi. Additionally, there are remains at some pyramids and other pointers to the early existence of the Techichi at Chichen Itza in Yucatan. The Techichi was a religious necessity among the ancient Toltec tribes and later among the Aztecs. Archaeologists have found the remains of this breed in human graves in Mexico and in parts of the United States. For more information about the religious and mythical role of the Techichi in Toltec tribes, I recommend The American Kennnel Club's Official Breed Book (see Books). The first Chihuahua to be officially registered by the American Kennel Club was "Midget" in 1904. 3. Physical Description Chihuahuas go under the classification of "toy breeds." The Chihuahua can be short-haired or long haired. The breed standard, approved September 11, 1990 disqualifies any dog over 6 pounds from the conformation ring; however, they can weigh up to 9 pounds or more. One of the Chihuahua's most distinctive characteristics is its head, which is well-rounded and referred to by breeders as an "apple-dome" type skull. In contrast, its muzzle is extraordinarily tiny in contrast. Pink noses are sometimes found on blonde Chihuahuas. Another distinctive physical feature of the Chihuahua is the ears: large, held erect, and flaring to the sides at an angle of about 45 degrees, the Chihuahua uses its ears to express a variety of emotions and responses. The eyes, usually dark and luminous, are wide-set. Again, blondes may have lighter eyes. Tears are often produced in abundance to keep the large eyes lubricated, and it is not unusual for tears to fly from a Chihuahua's face when it shakes its head during play. The back should be level and the rib-cage rounded. Some Chihuahuas may actually have barrel-shaped rib-cages, but professional breeders find this undesireable. The hindquarters are muscular and thin. The Chihuahua has stick-like legs and dainty feet. The tail is longish carried either in a sickle fashion or in a loop with the tip touching the back. Finally, coat color: there are a variety of shades, including brindle, blonde, black, brown, fawn, blue, and "splashed." It is interesting to note that Mexico prefers the jet black with tan markings, and the black and white spotted; the United States overwhelmingly prefers the solid colors, especially fawn. 4. Temperament "Chis aren't dogs, I'm conviced -- they are four-legged babies." -- from CHIHUA-L I hear from experienced Chihuahua owners that each dog of this breed has their own unique personality; this is a very individualistic breed. However, a few generalizations can be made. Chihuahuas are graceful, energetic, and swift-moving canines. They have often been described as having "terrier-like" qualities; that is, the qualities of being alert, observant, and keen on interacting with their masters. They are extremely loyal and get attached to one or two persons. These tiny dogs are certainly unaware of their diminutive stature: they can be bold with other dogs much larger than themselves, and protective of their masters. They are fiercely loyal to their masters and wary of any strangers or new guests introduced into the household, which the Chihuahua considers to be its personal domain. For these reasons, Chihuahuas make good watch dogs (not guard dogs, though!). The Chihuahua needs a great deal of human contact: touching, petting, and general attention. If the Chihuahua does not get this, she or he will use various attention-getting tricks until you give her/him attention. (My own uses her paws to lightly scratch my hand, a signal that says, "Pet me now!") Some owners who have had other, more independent breeds may find the Chihuahua too needy. However, Chis give alot of love and affection in return for your care. Because they are by nature gentle, loyal, and sweet-tempered, Chihuahuas are ideal for single people, the elderly, the handicapped, and shut-ins. They will keep you company for hours by lying on your lap or beside your torso if in bed, and treat you like royalty. No one with a Chi in their household will ever be truly alone! 5. Care and Maintenance Chihuahuas are a good breed for city-dwellers, or those who just don't have the time to walk their dogs that often. They are quite happy in apartments, as long as there is enough to play with and explore. (They love exploring like most dogs.) Opinions from dog authorities differ on how often to bathe a Chihuahua. Some say that bathing too often removes the natural oils from the coat, and thus dandruff will result and the coat will look dull. Others say that shampooing on occassion with certain brands of shampoo can actually enhance the sheen of the coat. It has been my experience that Chihuahuas should be bathed at least once a month, otherwise they develop an unpleasant smell. This is actually due to the skin cells that humans slough off onto the Chihuahua! So humans are the main contributors to that smell that can develop. When bathing, take care not to get water into their ears, as an infection can develop. Since the Chihuahua is mainly a housepets, you will need to trim their nails at least once a month. On the smaller Chis, cat claw trimmers can be used. It's good to start a nail-trimming routine early-on so that your dog becomes accustomed to your handling its paws (not to mention getting used to the big shiny clippers!). You should consult your veterinarian about the nutritional needs of your Chihuahua. According to some of the dog care books I consulted: after weaning (up to six weeks), puppies should be fed four meals a day until three months old; from 3 months to 6 months they should be fed three meals a day; and from six months to a year they should be fed twice a day. After 1 year, once a day is fine. However, it has been my experience that even into adulthood, Chihuahuas prefer several small meals as opposed to one big meal per day. I have found that regular adult dog food is just fine for this breed. Dry food or a mixture of dry food with canned food is preferable, since in some cases canned food is difficult for this breed to digest (resulting in diarrhea). Like all dogs, Chihuahuas appreciate "treats." Be careful, though, in your selection. The following treats, in small quantitites, are useful as rewards when training or as general special snacks: cheese, Alpo snacks, raw-hides, Bonz, peanut butter. However, do be careful not to over-indulge with snacks, as overweight is a health-hazard for dogs in general. Consult your veterinarian on the periodic cleaning of your Chihuahua's ears and teeth, booster shots, and vaccinations. There is an excellent web resource for general health care for dogs, called "Health Care Issues," which can be found at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/health-care.html. However, please note this document isn't a substitute for regular veterinary check-ups and attention for health problems. 6. Special Medical Problems Owners should be aware that Chihuahuas are prone to "weak knees." This can occur as they get older. If it causes difficulty in walking, take your dog to the vet. ----------------------------------------------------------------- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Aren't Chihuahuas expensive? If they have their American Kennel Club official certificate papers, yes--they can run up to $600.00. The papers (which the breeder provides) mean that the parents of your Chi are registered with the AKC and that the puppy is registerable. Additionally, some breeders provide pedigree papers which trace the family history beyond the immediate parents. These papers are vital if you plan to enter your new dog into exhibitions and competitions. These certificates and papers ensure that the dog is a purebred; however, I hasten to add that just because a dog has papers, doesn't mean it qualifies for exhibitions and competitions. (See AKC Chihuahua Breed Standards.) At the least, the papers will ensure that your Chihuahua has come from a responsible breeder. Chihuahuas who do not have their papers are not significantly different than those with papers. Moreover, they can be bought for much less. (I bought mine for $200.00 without papers.) 2. What is their life-span? Toy breeds live the longest of any size dog. Expect a life-span of 11-18 years, although the latter is rare. 3. How much exercise do they require? Not much. This little breed has bouts of energy each day which quickly die down. They have been known to play catch with small balls, if taught at an early age. Much of their exercise, though, is fulfilled by pattering around the household following their master, or playing with their toys (old slippers are ideal, as well as wooly stuffed toys with squeakers inside.) You can certainly take this breed on walks. You will gain much attention and make many an acquaintance due to the diminutive and unusual appearance of your Chihuahua. When buying a leash for your Chihuahua, remember that its neck is rather small and delicate compared to other dog's necks. You cannot (and, indeed, should not) yank your dog around by the leash if s/he has a neck collar on. And choke chains should definitely NOT be used on Chihuahuas! I recommend the body-harness. If fitted right, it will give your Chi a secure and comfortable walk (see photo). The body harness goes over the head of the dog and buckles under the torso in an H-design. I highly recommend these for Chihuahuas, since they ensure that your dog cannot escape (a real concern if you live in an urban area) and don't have the potential to harm the dog like neck leashes. 4. Do they require special dog food? No. They have the same nutritional needs as most dogs. I feed mine regular Alpo kibbles, and, although the kibbles are large, my Chihuahua seems to sort of enjoy cracking each one with her jaws. Chihuahuas prefer several small meals per day, rather than one big meal. I leave a bowl of kibbles out for my Chi and she seems to eat about three small meals a day. 5. I've heard they're nervous, high-strung dogs. Is that true? Yes, they are high-strung dogs. I define "high-strung" as follows: barks easily, does not adapt easily to change in environment, is suspicious of strangers and will growl at them, and flips in circles and jumps around when excited (like when you come home after a five-minute absence, for instance). However, with the person that they have bonded with (i.e., their master[s]), they do not display most of these characteristics; infact, they display radically different personalities. Chihuahuas are truly the "Jekyll-and-Hyde" of dog breeds: your friends will see the worst side of them and never believe you when you tell them that your Chi is really a gentle, sweet-natured dog. 6. Are they good with children? Generally, no. Be careful when walking your Chihuahua to keep your Chi well away from toddlers and young children, who are often uninhibited and will approach your dog. Again, this is general good advice; some Chihuahuas are friendly around children (usually as a result of de-sensitization). In this case and others, the master's knowledge of his or her Chihuahua and good judgement should prevail. 7. I'm allergic to dogs, but I heard Chihuahuas won't bother me; is that true? Opinion seems to vary on this point. Some say it's an old-wives' tale, while others swear that, although they're allergic to dogs, Chihuahuas did not bother them. The best way for someone who has allergies is to spend some time around a Chihuahua. Some people are allergic to dog hair, while others are allergic to saliva. Since Chihuahua's are known to lick the face of their master alot, you'd best be sure you're not allergic to the latter before investing in this breed. Ernest Lowell (elowell@ix.netcom.com) cautions: If a Chihuahua happens to "work" for some allergic individuals, great, but it's more likely that an allergic person will need a breed with a wiry/curly coat plus no undercoat: poodles, bichons, and some terriers. Even those breeds don't work for some allergic people, so it depends on the individual. 8. What are the difference between a long-haired and a short-haired Chihuahua? I am told that there is no difference in personality, only in the amount of time you'll spend grooming and cleaning up after the dog. Long-hairs can shed alot; and they'll need regular brushing. Their bib (the furry part of the chest) can get dirty and matted. Additionally, long-hairs can occasionally get fecal matter stuck on their "pants" which will require snipping off. As for bathing, the long-hairs will need it more frequently, and it'll be a longer process (washing & drying). Some Chihuahua owners swear by long-hairs and wouldn't have anything else; it is as much a matter of personal preference as coat color. 9. Is it safe to take your Chihuahua on a cold weather walk? Owners must be very sensitive to the fact that short-haired Chihuahuas, and even long-haired ones, are vulnerable to the cold. In temperatures of 35-40 degrees Farenheit, I would recommend dressing your Chihuahua in a special dog sweater for brief walks. Walking your Chihuahua in temperatures below 35 degrees Farenheit is STRONGLY discouraged, especially when there is a wind-chill factor. In this, as in other aspects of dog maintenance, keep your dogs' health top priority, not your own desires. In fact, in some cold regions, an indoor heater will be necessary. 10. Are they sociable with other dogs? Generally speaking, no. However, there are many exceptions and many people have written me telling me of just how sociable their Chihuahua is with other breeds. So I'm inclined to say that Chihuahuas can be very curious and friendly towards other dogs. Chis are very sociable with their own kind. So several Chihuahuas can be quite happy living in the same household. That includes two or more males sharing the same house. 11. Aren't Chihuahuas kind of dim? It is understandable how this breed has developed this reputation. In public, they bark at the slightest provocation, and will not stop sometimes even when the "threat" is gone. Chihuahuas are actually a very intelligent and alert breed. 12. Can Chihuahuas be trained? As you might suspect from number 9 above, yes, they can be trained. This topic is extensively dealt with in the document, "Training Your Dog," which can be found at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/training.html. 13. Is my Chihuahua a dog or a mole? It is a characteristic of the Chihuahua to prefer to sleep under a cloth or a blanket. They will even get under pillows in order to feel snug. If you are raising a pup, be sure to provide them with a soft towel or blanket in their sleeping area so they can burrow underneath it. So don't be surprised if your Chihuahua scrambles under your blankets at night, even though your house or apartment may not be particularly cold. This is known as the "moley-effect." (1). 14. Does my Chihuahua expect a suntan? Chihuahuas are quite the sun-worshipers. They prefer to bask in the sun for hours and have been known to lie in a spot of sun no larger than the size of a half-dollar (2). Unfortunately, they are not sensible in this regard and will stay in the sun even when panting begins. Watch your Chihuahua in hot weather to be sure that they don't suffer from heat stroke. 15. My Chihuahua's shivering--is this because s/he's cold? Chihuahuas shiver when they are wary, unhappy, or frightened. Usually, it has nothing to do with the temperature, and is a normal characteristic of this breed. 16. Is there a Chihuahua mailing list? Yes. Frank Jackson (fjack01@emory.edu) operates the official Chihuahua mailing list, CHIHUA-L. (See instructions on how to join below). There's even a home page for the list, complete with scans of the Chihuahuas of those on the mailing list. The Chihuahua Page, maintained by Piglet (piglet@panix.com), can be accessed at: http://www.panix.com/~piglet/chihuahua/ The following are instructions on how to subscribe to CHIHUA-L: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Welcome to CHIHUA-L, the listserv devoted to the world of Chihuahuas! PLEASE READ THIS ENTIRE MESSAGE AND SAVE IT FOR FUTURE REFERENCE. This list was created in April 1995 to distribute information concerning any and all aspects related to the wonderful world of Chihuahuas such as breeding, training, raising, showing, health issues, obedience, rescue, and Chihuahuas as companion dogs. This list is a place to learn, share and have some fun. Anyone who wishes to join this list can send a message to: listserv@plearn.edu.pl with this message in the first line of the body of the message, SUBSCRIBE CHIHUA-L firstname lastname (No subject line is needed.) To send messages to the list, and everyone subscribed to the list, send your messages to: chihua-l@plearn.edu.pl You can receive CHIHUA-L in a daily digest format. For more information on how to manage your subscription settings send a message to: listserv@plearn.edu.pl with the word HELP or the word INFO as the first line in the body of the mail message. To unsubscribe from the list at any time send a message to: listserv@plearn.edu.pl with this message in the first line of the body of the message: SIGNOFF CHIHUA-L After you are subscribed to the list and feel comfortable, please introduce yourself, your dog or dogs, and tell us about your interests. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17. Is there a Chihuahua Home Page? Yes! It's maintained by Josh Peck, jbpeck@icon-stl.net. The URL: http://www.icon-stl.net/~jbpeck/chp/chp.html Be forewarned: most of it is fiction, but it's all in the name of good fun. 18. Is there a Chihuahua Rescue center? Yes. The contact name and address for the National Chihuahua Breed Rescue Chairperson is: Sharon Hermosillo 1004 Willow Street San Jose, CA 95125 The phone number is: 408-251-6470. --------------------------------------------------------- RESOURCES 1. Internet CHIHUA-L, the listserv discussion list. Owner: Frank D. Jackson, fjack01@emory.edu. Anyone who wishes to join this list can send a message to listserv@plearn.edu.pl with the message "SUBSCRIBE CHIHUA-L firstname lastname" (without the quotes) in the first line of the body of the message. Additionally, Frank Jackson has made several documents available on CHIHUA-L, including this FAQ. To retrieve a document on rescue organizations, send a message to LISTSERV@PLEARN.EDU.PL with this in the body of the message: get chihua-l rescue Other documents you can retrieve in this manner: bibliogr, faq. The Breed FAQ Homepage, maintained by Cindy Tittle Moore. Certainly the most high-profile and enthusiastic members of the rec.pets.dogs.* community, Cindy continues to organize and maintain a number of dog-related web pages. There is also a resource page that contains links to information about kennel clubs, organizations, training, etc., which can be found at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/. Where this FAQ is incomplete, please consult Cindy's pages for information and pointers to other resources. 2. Books American Kennel Club, The Complete Dog Book, 17th Ed., Howell Book House Inc., 1985. (ISBN 0-87605-463-7) Bulanda, Susan, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Dogs, Doral Pub. Inc., 1992-93 edition. (ISBN 0-944875-26-2) Coile, D. Caroline, PhD., Chihuahuas: A Complete Pet Owner's Manual, 1995 Barron's Educational Series. Kay, William J., The Complete Book of Dog Health, Howell Book House, 1985. (ISBN 0-87605-455-6) Pisano, Beverly (Ed.), Chihuahuas, T.F.H. Publications, Ltd., 1983. (ISBN 0-87666-701-9) Terry, E. Ruth, The New Chihuahua, Howellm Bookhouse, Mcmillian Publishing Co., 866 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10022. Thurmer, Tressa E., Pet Chihuahuas, All-Pets Books, Inc. 3. Clubs I'm constantly revising and adding to this section. If you see an error or missing information, please email me at: melinda@badger.idiscover.co.uk. Thank you! CHIHUAHUA CLUBS The Chihuahua Club of America, Inc. Ms. Lynnie Bunten Secretary 5019 Village Trail San Antonio, Texas 78218 (210) 657-9462 (voice or fax) Chihuahua Club of Greater New York Josephine De Menna Wilton, CT Tel: (203) 762-2314 Chihuahua Club of British Columbia Edna St.Hilaire 2114 Dublin St. New Westminster, BC V3M 3A9 Tel: (604) 521-0922 Pontchartrain Fanciers Laura Patterson Metairie, LA Tel: (504) 738-7350 Evergreen Chihuahua Club Julia Swanson Eatonville, WA Tel: (206) 846-8872 Chihuahua Club of Michigan Jan Mohr Ann Arbor, MI Tel: (313) 662-5882 Texas Chihuahua Club Lynnie Bunten San Antonio, TX Tel: (210) 657-9462 Chihuahua Club of Northern California Flo Bell Santa Rosa, CA Tel: (707) 525-9575 Nashville Chihuahua Club Donna Dowell Nashville, TN Tel: (615) 889-4616 Dallas Chihuahua Club Linda Smith Garland, TX Tel: (214) 495-3516 Chihuahua Club of Maryland Susan Ritenour Strasburg, VA Tel: (703) 465-4738 Chihuahua Club of Canada Angela Bartnik 2114 Dublin St. New Westminster, BC Canada V3M 3A9 Tel: (604) 521-0922 General Dog Clubs Dog Lovers Club Fran Frolich PO Box 59 Bellrose, NY 11426-0059 New York City Coalition For Dogs 51 MacDougal St. #120 New York, NY 10012 Tel: (212) 243-5460 Owner Handlers Assoc. of America RD 1 Box 755 Millerstown, PA 17062 Tel: (717) 589-3098 USA Loves Dogs Club 2537 Wells Ave. Sarasota, FL 34232 Tel: (800) 553-6475 4. Magazines This list only has magazines available in the U.S.--please help me rectify this situation! Send me information about dog magazines from your corner of the globe! U.S. The New Chihuahua c/o Doggone Publishing 2059 Camden Avenue, #188 San Jose, CA 95124 Attn: Jennifer Schmidt $28.00/year for this bi-monthly magazine. Terrier & Toy Magazine Southern Publishing PO Box 20 Holly Hill, FL 32117-0020 $20.00/year for a subscription. Top Notch Toys Magazine Doll-McGinnis Enterprises 8848 Beverly Hills Lakeland, FL 33809 (813) 858-3839 $40.00/year for a subscription. 1 breed highlighted each month; Chihuahuas featured once a year. Dog World PO Box 6500 Chicago, IL 60680 (800) 247-8080 (credit card orders) US: $28.00/yr. (12 issues). "The World's Largest All Breed Dog Magazine" PetDogs P.O. Box B163 Hudderfied HD4 7YZ ENGLAND "The Magazine for Owners of Mixed-breed and Pedigrees" 6 issues per year. (About $5.50 at magazine racks in the U.S.) UK: #10.50/yr.; Europe: #21.95/yr.; Worldwide: #24.95/yr. Good Dog! 511 Harbor View Circle Charleston, SC 29412 "The Consumer Magazine for Dog Owners" (800) 968-1738 for new subscriptions. To subscribe by mail, use same address as above but replace 2nd line with "P.O. Box 31292." Internet address: gooddogmag@aol.com 6 issues per year. US-$18.00/yr.; Canada: $36.00 per yr.; Great Britain: #28.00/yr.; All other countries: $40.00/yr. (in U.S. currency). Dogs Today Pet Subjects Ltd. 6 Station Parade Sunningdale, Berks SL5 OEP ENGLAND Phone: 01344 875442 #2.25/issue. (About $5.50 at magazine racks in the U.S.) Los Chihuahuas c/o Myrle Hale 12860 Thanotosassa Road Dover, FL 33527 Subscription: $20/year. 5. Videos The American Kennel Club offers a video on Chihuahuas for about $35.00. Specify VHS or Beta. (Also available in the European PAL format). For further information, contact: AKC, Attn: Videos, 5580 Centerview Dr., Raleigh, NC 27606 (919) 233-9767. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to: * Cindy Tittle Moore for her support, feedback and organization of The Breed FAQ Homepage. * Kathy Nicklas-Varraso, maintainer of The Cairn Terriers FAQ, for her helpful input. * Cynthia Charleville for her input on improvements to this FAQ. * Frank Jackson, maintainer of CHIHUA-L * Everyone on CHIHUA-L. * Chris Faron (& Pinkie!) for additional book information. FOOTNOTES (1) "moley-effect": I made this term up, and if you use it in front of veterinarians or other Chihuahua owners, you may receive a blank stare. (2) Pisano, Beverly (Ed.), Chihuahuas (p. 9), 1983. (see Resources). ----------------------------------------------------------------- The Chihuahua FAQ Copyright (c) 1995, 96 by Melinda Casino. -----------------------------------------------------------------