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Subject: OpenVMS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), Part 7/11

This article was archived around: Sun, 04 Sep 2005 20:04:04 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: dec-faq/vms
All FAQs posted in: comp.os.vms, comp.sys.dec
Source: Usenet Version

Archive-name: dec-faq/vms/part7 Posting-Frequency: quarterly Last-modified: 02 Sep 2005 Version: VMSFAQ_20050902-07.TXT
OpenVMS Programming Information older DEC C versions can sometimes cause the compiler troubles locating header files.) HP C V5.6 and later include a backport library, a mechanism by which HP C running on older OpenVMS releases can gain access to newer RTL routines added to the RTL in later OpenVMS releases-the language RTLs ship with OpenVMS itself, and not with the compilers. Example C code is available in SYS$EXAMPLES:, in DECW$EXAMPLES (when the DECwindows examples are installed), in TCPIP$SERVICES (or on older releases, UCX$EXAMPLES) when HP TCP/IP Services is installed), on the Freeware CD-ROMs, and at web sites such as o http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/wizard/ For additional information on the OpenVMS Ask The Wizard (ATW) area and for a pointer to the available ATW Wizard.zip archive, please see Section 3.8. _____________________________ 10.22.1 Other common C issues The localtime() function and various other functions maintain the number of years since 1900 in the "struct tm" structure member tm_year. This field will contain a value of 100 in the year 2000, 101 for 2001, etc., and the yearly incrementation of this field is expected to continue. The C epoch typically uses a longword (known as time_ t) to contain the number of seconds since midnight on 1-Jan-1970. At the current rate of consumption of seconds, this longword is expected to overflow (when interpreted as a signed longword) circa 03:14:07 on 19-Jan-2038 (GMT), as this time is circa 0x7FFFFFFF seconds since the C base date. (The most common solution is to ensure that time_t is an unsigned.) If C does not correctly handle the display of the local system time, then check the UTC configuration on OpenVMS-the most common symptom of this is a skew of one hour (or whatever the local daylight saving time change might be). This skew can be caused by incorrect handling of the "is_dst" setting in the application 10-21 OpenVMS Programming Information program, or by an incorrect OpenVMS UTC configuration on the local system. (See section Section 4.4.) Floating point is prohibited in OpenVMS Alpha inner- mode (privileged) code, and in any process or other execution context that does not have floating point enabled. C programmers developing and working with OpenVMS Alpha high-IPL kernel-mode code such as device drivers will want to become familiar with the floating point processing available in the environment, and with the C compiler qualifier /INSTRUCTION_SET=[NO]FLOATING_ POINT. Device drivers and other similar kernel-mode C code must be compiled with /INSTRUCTION_SET=FLOATING_ POINT and /EXTERN_MODEL=STRICT_REFDEF. Additionally, the SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$LIB_C.TLB/LIBRARY parameter will be needed to be appended to the module specification or declared via the C compiler's include library logical name mechanism when the C compiler is resolving kernel-mode data structures and definitions. This library contains OpenVMS kernel-mode and other system declaractions, and particularly a mixture of undocumented definitions and declarations, and particularly definitions and declarations that are subject to change (and that can accordingly lead to requirements for the recompilation of application code). In addition to the user-mode C Run-Time Library (RTL) mentioned in the OpenVMS C RTL documentation and referenced over in Section 3.9, there is a second and parallel kernel-mode RTL accessable to device drivers and other kernel code on OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS I64. The most common time this second C library is noticed is when C code is (erroneously) linked with /SYSEXE/SYSLIB, and duplicate symbol errors typically then arise. As code running in supervisor-, executive- or kernel-mode context cannot call out a user-mode RTL or other user-mode library, you will want to respecify the command as LINK /SYSEXE/NOSYSLIB. This will eliminate the duplicate symbol errors, since only the kernel-mode library will be referenced, and it will also avoid calling out into the user-mode libraries. 10-22 OpenVMS Programming Information When sharing variables with other languages, here is some example HP C code... ... #pragma extern_model save #pragma extern_model strict_refdef extern int VMS$GL_FLAVOR; #pragma extern_model restore ... and here is some associated example Bliss code... ... EXTERNAL VMS$GL_FLAVOR, .... _____________________________ 10.22.2 Other common C++ issues HP C++ (a separate compiler from HP C) provides both symbol mangling and symbol decoration. Some of the details of working with longer symbol names and the resulting symbol name mangling in mixed language environments are listed in the shareable image cookbook, and in the C++ documentation. Symbol name decoration permits the overloading of functions (by adding characters to the external symbol for the function to indicate the function return type and the argument data types involved), and mixed- language external references can and often do need to disable this decoration via the extern "C" declaration mechanism: extern "C" { extern int ExternSymbol(void *); extern int OtherExternSymbol(void *); } Also see Section 14.7 for information on /ARCHITECTURE and /OPTIMIZE=TUNE. See Section 10.15 for information on the C system and the lib$spawn call in CAPTIVE environments. 10-23 OpenVMS Programming Information Constructs such as the order of incrementation or decrementation and the order of argument processing within an argument list are all implementation-defined. This means that C coding constructs such as: i = i++; a[i] = i++; foo( i, i++, --i); are undefined and can have (adverse) implications when porting the C code to another C compiler or to another platform. In general, any combination of ++, -, =, +=, -=, *=, etc operators that will cause the same value to be modified multiple times (between what the ANSI/ISO C standard calls "sequence points") produce undefined and implementation-specific results. Within C, the following are the "sequence points": the ";" at the end of a C statment, the ||, &&, ?:, and comma operators, and a call to a function. Note specifically that = is NOT a sequence point, and that the individual arguments contained within a function argument list can be processed from right to left, from left to right, or at any random whim. HP C for OpenVMS VAX (formerly DEC C) and VAX C do differ in the related processing. So you are looking for OpenVMS-specific definitions (include files)? UCBDEF.H, PCBDEF.H and other OpenVMS-specific definitions-these are considered part of OpenVMS and not part of the C compiler kit-are available on all recent OpenVMS Alpha releases. To reference the version-dependent symbol library sys$share:sys$lib_c.tlb, use a command similar to the following for compilation: $ CC sourcea+SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$LIB_C/LIB You can also define DECC$TEXT_LIBRARY to reference the library. You will want to review the Programming Concepts manual, and specifically take a quick look at Chapter 21. 10-24 OpenVMS Programming Information And some general background: the STARLET definitions (and thus the sys$starlet_c.tlb library) contain the symbols and the definitions that are independent of the OpenVMS version. The LIB definitions (and thus sys$lib_c) contain symbols and definitions that can be dependent on the OpenVMS version. You won't need to rebuild your code after an OpenVMS upgrade if you have included definitions from STARLET. The same cannot be said for some of the definitions in LIB-you might need to rebuild your code. (The UCB structure can and has changed from release to release, for instance.) Recent versions of C automatically search sys$starlet_ c.tlb. Explicit specification of sys$lib_c.tlb is required. Also see the Ask The Wizard website topics (2486), (3803), and (1661): o http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/wizard/ For additional information on the OpenVMS Ask The Wizard (ATW) area and for a pointer to the available ATW Wizard.zip archive, please see Section 3.8. See Section 9.5 for information on the C off_t limitations, resolved in OpenVMS V7.3-1 and later and in ECO kits available for specific OpenVMS releases. The use of a longword for off_t restricts applications using native C I/O to file sizes of two gigabytes or less, or these applications must use native RMS or XQP calls for specific operations. __________________________________________________________ 10.23 Status of Programming Tools on OpenVMS VAX? DECthreads V7.3 and the HP C compiler (also known as Compaq C and DEC C) V6.4 are presently expected to be the last updates and the last releases of these development packages for use on OpenVMS VAX. The run- time support for both DECthreads (CMA$RTL) and for C (DECC$CRTL) will continue to be maintained, and will continue to be available on OpenVMS VAX. The VAX C V3.2 compiler is the final VAX C compiler release for OpenVMS VAX, and the VAX C Run-Time Library (VAXCRTL) will also continue to be available. 10-25 OpenVMS Programming Information New development and new features and product enhancements continue for the OpenVMS Alpha and the OpenVMS IA-64 DECthreads and C compilers. __________________________________________________________ 10.24 Choosing a Version Number for Application Code? One of the common rules-of-thumb used for choosing a displayed version number string for a new version of a layered product or an application, its implications, and its expected effects on client applications and users, follows: o No functional and no application-visible changes, bugfixes only-the edit number is incremented. These tend to be very small, very isolated, or ECO- level changes. These can also be distributions for specific hardware configurations or platforms, as is the case with an OpenVMS Limited Hardware Release (LHR). Application rebuilds are not expected, and there is an assumption that general user-provided application-related regression testing will not be required. o Minimal functional and very few user-visible changes-the maintenance number is incremented. These tend to be very small or even ECO-level changes, though somewhat larger than an edit-level change. Application rebuilds are not expected, and there is an assumption that user-provided application-related regression testing will not be required. o Various small and upward-compatible functional changes-the minor version number is incremented. The changes are user-visible, and are intended to be user-visible. Application rebuilds are not expected. Some application programmers may choose to perform regression tests. o Large and/or potentially incompatible changes- the major version number is incremented. Some applications might need to be rebuilt. Various application programmers will choose to perform regression tests of their respective applications. 10-26 OpenVMS Programming Information For additional version-numbering materials and for information on assigning module generation numbers, please see the OpenVMS (POLYCENTER) Software Product Installation Utility-variously refered to by acronyms including PCSI and SPIA-reference manual available within the OpenVMS documentation set. Of course, all of this is obviously subject to interpretation, particularly around the distinction between large and small changes and such. The scale of the application is also a factor, as larger and more complex applications will tend toward smaller increments and will tend to see the maintenance number incremented, while new releases of smaller applications will tend to see the minor version incremented somewhat more frequently. The goal of all this is to provide a guide to relative scale of changes and the associated effort involved in an upgrade for the user and/or for the application programmer. __________________________________________________________ 10.25 Selecting a Process Dump Directory? You can customize the device and directory for the process dump by defining the logical names SYS$PROCDMP and SYS$PROTECTED_PROCDMP. The former is for non- privileged dumps, while the latter is the location where privileged image dumps are written, and preferably an area protected against untrusted access. For example: $ define SYS$PROCDMP SYS$ERRORLOG: $ define /exec SYS$PROTECTED_PROCDMP SYS$ERRORLOG: The abouve presumes that the SYS$ERRORLOG logical name points to a valid location. There is presently no means to change the name of the generated dump file from IMAGENAME.DMP to something else. Accordingly, you will want to use different target directories for this purpose, particularly if there is more than one application or process potentially writing process dumps. 10-27 OpenVMS Programming Information __________________________________________________________ 10.26 Access to Itanium Assembler? If you are interested in accessing the native Intel Itanium assembler within the OpenVMS I64 GNV environment-and since the iasi64 assembler is a Unix program and GNV is a Unix environment for OpenVMS I64- you can simply copy iasi64.ext into your gnu:[bin] directory in place of "as.", and of "AS.EXE". Alternately and probably also better, you can write an "as." script to invoke the iasi64.exe image from its particular prefered location on the local system. A typical "as." script looks like this: path/iasi64.exe $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 __________________________________________________________ 10.27 Kernel-mode coding restrictions? Floating point is prohibited in OpenVMS Alpha inner- mode (privileged) code, and within any process or other execution context that does not have floating point enabled and available. Programmers developing and working with OpenVMS Alpha high-IPL kernel-mode code, such as device drivers, will further want to become familiar with the floating- point processing and the instruction set emulation available in the particular target environment (if any). When working with C, inner-mode programmers will want to become familiar with the C compiler qualifier /INSTRUCTION_SET=[NO]FLOATING_POINT. Device drivers and other similar kernel-mode C code must be compiled with /INSTRUCTION_SET=FLOATING_POINT and /EXTERN_MODEL=STRICT_REFDEF. Additionally, inner-mode code cannot call out to the user-mode language run-time libraries nor to any of the OpenVMS system run-time libraries. In particular, this prohibition prevents pages of inner-mode-protected memory from being allocated and interspersed within the user-mode heap or other such user-mode data structures. 10-28 OpenVMS Programming Information The prohibtion on user libraries also generally means that such code must be linked with LINK /NOSYSLIB, and quite probably also with /SYSEXE. The former causes the linker to avoid searching the system shareable image libraries (via IMAGELIB.OLB), while the latter brings in symbols typically only known to or otherwise accessable from the OpenVMS executuve. To include kernel-mode C programming definitions, macros and system constants within a C compilation, include SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$LIB_C.TLB/LIBRARY on the C compilation. (Constructs defined within the system macro library LIB.MLB or within its C equivalent SYS$LIB_C.TLB tend to be version-dependent, or undocumented, or both.) As an example of the compilation, the following is a typical C device driver compilation command: $ CC /STANDARD=RELAXED_ANSI89/INSTRUCTION=NOFLOATING_POINT/EXTERN=STRICT - 'DEBUG_CC_DQ_OPT' 'ARCH_CC_OPT' 'CHECK_CC_OPT' 'SHOW_CC_OPT' - /LIS=LIS$:xxDRIVER/MACHINE_CODE/OBJ=OBJ$:xxDRIVER - SRC$:xxDRIVER.C+SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$LIB_C.TLB/LIBRARY Additionally, code running in executive mode in an AST or in kernel mode cannot call RMS services, or routines which directly or indirectly call RMS. For related kernel-mode programming materials and driver documentation, please see the Writing OpenVMS Alpha Device Driversin C book, ISBN 1-55558-133-1. __________________________________________________________ 10.28 Decoding an Access Violation (ACCVIO) Error? To decode the virtual addresses returned by an access violation or by another similar OpenVMS display, you need to have created and retained a listings file- preferably one with machine code generation enabled-and a full link map. Starting with the virtual address reported by the error, use the link map to find the module that contributed the code that contains the virtual address range. Calculate the offset from the base of the range, by subtracting the base of the range from teh failing virtual address. Then use the compiler listings for 10-29 OpenVMS Programming Information the particular component that contributed the code to locate the offset of the failing instruction. If the map and listings information was not maintained, working backwards is far more difficult-you are left to use the binary instruction data around the failure to locate the associated source code, and this process is far more involved. This usually involves matching up blocks of decoded instructions around the failing code, or the direct analog involving matching up ranges of decoded instructions. Keep the maps and listing files around, in other words. Rather easier than an approach based on virtual address arithmetic and far easier than working backwards from the instruction stream is to use integrated debugging- this inclusion is arguably an essential component of any non-trivial application-and to use the OpenVMS Debugger. The OpenVMS Debugger in particular can be used to examine the source code, to examine the stack, and can even be programmed to wait patiently for the incidence of a particular value or failure or condition, and this is far easier than working backwards from the instruction stream is to use integrated debugging- this inclusion is arguably an essential component of any non-trivial application-and to use the OpenVMS Debugger. The debugger can also be activated from within a signal handler, and commands to generate a traceback can be generated directly, or through the invocation of a procedure containing a series of debugger commands. Details on the debugger are in the OpenVMS Debugger Manual, and also see the discussion of dyanmically activating the Debugger in Section 10.19. 10-30 OpenVMS Programming Information __________________________________________________________ 10.29 Generating an AUTODIN-II CRC32? The following code can be used to generate an AUTODIN- II 32-bit Cyclic Redundency Check (CRC32) value from an input string descriptor, similar to that used by the HP C compiler for its /NAMES=SHORTENED mechanism, and by various other applications requiring a CRC32. The routine uses the OpenVMS library routine lib$crc_ table to generate a sixteen longword array of data from the specified encoded polynomial coefficient (AUTODIN- II, in this case), and then lib$crc to generate the CRC32 value from the array and the input data. static int CreateCRC32( struct dsc$descriptor *InputDataDesc ) { uint32 AUTODIN2; uint32 Seed = ~0UL; uint32 Coefficient = 0x0EDB88320UL; uint32 CRCArray[16]; lib$establish( lib$sig_to_ret ); lib$crc_table( (void *) &Coefficient, (void *) CRCArray ); AUTODIN2 = lib$crc( (void *) CRCArray, (void *) &Seed, InputDataDesc ); AUTODIN2 ^= Seed; return AUTODIN2; } __________________________________________________________ 10.30 Enabling built-in tracing? $ RUN SYS$SYSTEM:SYSMAN SYSMAN> SYS_LOAD ADD TR$DEBUG TR$DEBUG/LOAD_ STEP=INIT/LOG SYSMAN> Exit $ @SYS$UPDATE:VMS$SYSTEM_IMAGES.COM To stop it from loading early in boot $ RUN SYS$SYSTEM:SYSMAN SYSMAN> SYS_LOAD REMOVE TR$DEBUG TR$DEBUG/LOG SYSMAN> Exit $ @SYS$UPDATE:VMS$SYSTEM_IMAGES.COM 10-31 OpenVMS Programming Information The first occurance of the name TR$DEBUG within the command is considered the "product" and the second is considered the "image" that should exist within SYS$LOADABLE_IMAGES. When TR$DEBUG loads in the init phase, it will automatically turn on tracing. Also see the SDA TR extension. 10-32 _______________________________________________________ 11 DECwindows __________________________________________________________ 11.1 How do I let someone else display something on my workstation? On a workstation, you will want to use the "Customize" menu of the session manager utility and select "Security". When the pop-up box appears, you can select the host node, username, and tranport that will allow you to launch an application that targets the workstation display. If this does not provide you with access to the display, You need a checklist of sorts: o Make sure that you've specified the X-windows "display" correctly on the remote host. For a DECnet transport, the specification uses two colons, while the TCP/IP transport typically uses one. The X Windows server and the X Windows screen follow the host specification, delimited by a period. For example: ________________________________________________________________ Table 11-1 X Windows Display Commands _______________________________________________________ Shell_____Command______________________________________ csh # setenv DISPLAY vms.domain:0.0 sh and ksh # $ DISPLAY=vms.domain:0.0 ; export DISPLAY DCL $ SET DISPLAY/CREATE/NODE=vms.domain - ___________________/TRANSPORT=TCPIP/SERVER=server/SCREEN=screen_ o If you have verified the command is correct and things are still not working, ensure the Security settings on the OpenVMS host side will allow the 11-1 DECwindows incoming connection: Pull down the "Options" menu in the Session Manager, and select "Security...". If you do not find your host and username and transport listed among the authorized users, you will need to add an entry. o There are various transports available, including LOCAL, DECNET, LAT, and TCPIP. You must Select the transport appropriate to the incoming connection. o If the transport is "DECnet", do NOT add the double colon (::) to the node name. o If the transport is "TCPIP", "Username" must be an asterisk (*). Why? Because unlike DECnet, the TCP/IP protocol does not provide the remote username information in the incoming connection. o If the connection is "TCPIP", it is best to use a full domain name (e.g. Node.Subd.Domain). However, you may have to use the IP address itself, if your host does not have a way to resolve the address via DNS. If you have the luxury of fixed addresses (eg: you are not using DHCP), then it can be helpful to add two entries for each TCP/IP host, one that specifies the host name and one that specifies the host address. o There are various TCP/IP packages for OpenVMS, and you must use syntax appropriate to the transport installed. o If a TCP/IP connection is still not working, ensure that the transport you want has been activated for use with DECwindows. See Section 11.14 for details of configuring TCP/IP as a transport. o There is a log file created in SYS$MANAGER: which can tell you which transports are loaded, and also tell you what connect attempts were rejected, including showing what the presented credentials were. This file is SYS$MANAGER:DECW$SERVER_0_ ERROR.LOG, although the 0 could be another number if you have multiple servers on the workstation. I 11-2 DECwindows have found this file to be very useful for tracking down what needs to be put in the Session Manager Security entries. __________________________________________________________ 11.2 How do I create a display on another workstation? To create a display from an OpenVMS host to a remote X Windows display, use one of the following DCL commands: $ SET DISPLAY /CREATE /TRANSPORT=net_transport /NODE=remote_node $ SET DISPLAY /CREATE /TRANSPORT=LAT /NODE=remote_node $ SET DISPLAY /CREATE /TRANSPORT=DECnet /NODE=remote_node $ SET DISPLAY /CREATE /TRANSPORT=TCPIP /NODE=remote_node Note that LAT is typically used only for the VXT series X Windows terminals, but it can also be used from OpenVMS to OpenVMS systems on various OpenVMS releases, such as on OpenVMS Alpha V6.1 and later. For details on configuring the TCP/IP transport, see Section 11.14. If you are interested in X Windows terminals and have an older VAXstation system around, please see the EWS package on Freeware V5.0. __________________________________________________________ 11.3 How can I get the information from SHOW DISPLAY into a symbol? Use the undocumented SHOW DISPLAY/SYMBOL, and then reference the symbols DECW$DISPLAY_NODE, DECW$DISPLAY_ SCREEN, DECW$DISPLAY_SERVER and/or DECW$DISPLAY_ TRANSPORT. An example of calling the underlying (and also undocumented) sys$qio programming interface for the WSDRIVER (WSAn:) is available at: http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/ Look in the Freeware V4.0 directory /srh_examples/DECUS_UNDOC_ CLINIC/. 11-3 DECwindows __________________________________________________________ 11.4 How do I get a log of a DECterm session? If you are working from a DECwindows DECterm terminal emulator, you can use the AutoPrint feature. Choose the "Printer..." menu item from the "Options" menu, set the printing destination to the name of the file you want, and set "Auto Print Mode". You are now free to continue. It should be noted that all of the characters and escape sequences are captured, but if you display the resulting log file on a DECterm, then you will see exactly what was originally displayed. You can also use the "Print Screen" screen capture available in the DECwindows session manager menus, if you simply wish to snapshot a particular portion of the X Windows display. If you are using the Freeware VTstar terminal emulator package, you will find a similar logging mechanism is available in the menus. __________________________________________________________ 11.5 Why is DECwindows Motif not starting? First check to see if there is a graphics device, usually a G* device. (eg: On a DEC 2000 model 300, use the command SHOW DEVICE GQ) If you do not find a graphics device: o OpenVMS has failed to find the appropriate IRQ information for an EISA graphics card (on the DEC 2000 series) such as the HP (Compaq) QVision, and did not autoconfigure it. Run the correct ECU (for Tru64 UNIX and OpenVMS) and reboot. This is necessary only on EISA-based systems. o You have an EISA-based system (such as the DEC 2000 model 300) and do not have a HP (Compaq) QVision video card. This EISA graphics card should have Compaq printed on it, and identifies itself as a CPQ3011 or a CPQ3111. If it is not one of these two EISA devices, then OpenVMS does not support it. (There are no other supported EISA graphics controllers, and EISA graphics are normally 11-4 DECwindows used with DECwindows only on the DEC 2000 series systems.) o You have a PCI-based system, and do not have a supported graphics controller-examples of supported controllers include the following: o Radeon 7500 o PowerStorm 3D30, PowerStorm 4D20 o 3DLabs Oxygen VX1 See Section 5.16 for further information on some of these graphics controllers. o You have booted the system minimally, or have otherwise disabled the device autoconfiguration process. If there is a G* graphics device present: o There may have been a severe error in the DECwindows startup. Type the contents of SYS$MANAGER:DECW$SERVER_0_ERROR.LOG for any information on errors starting the server. o The system parameter WINDOW_SYSTEM is not set to 1. While this was a common way for system managers to disable the DECwindows server startup, it is not particularly reliable as DECwindows can now "correct" this setting. If you really do not want an OpenVMS system with workstation hardware to bootstrap and configure itself as a workstation, add the following definition to SYLOGICALS.COM: $ DEFINE/SYSTEM/EXEC DECW$IGNORE_WORKSTATION TRUE o You may not have a valid DECwindows Motif license loaded. To check for the two most common types of Motif product authorization keys (PAKs), use the following DCL commands: $ LICENSE LIST DW-MOTIF/FULL $ LICENSE LIST NET-APP-SUP*/FULL 11-5 DECwindows and examine the information displayed. Make sure that one of these licenses is present, valid and active. For information on registering software license product authorization keys (PAKs) when you cannot log into the system directly, please see Section 5.6.2. o Check that the DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_SETUP.COM is correct for the graphics controller in use. For instance: The following is from the 9FX Vision 330 Owners Guide, EK-V330G-OG pg 2-9. Place the following in DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_SETUP.COM, creatibng .COM from .TEMPLATE if necessary. Locate the DECW$PRIVATE_ SERVER_SETUP.COM file in SYS$SPECIFIC:[SYSMGR] or in SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR] as appropriate; the former file is used for this system within a cluster configuration, and the latter is used for all systems that do not also have a local copy of this file in SYS$SPECIFIC:[SYSMGR]. $ DECW$XSIZE_IN_PIXELS == xvalue $ DECW$YSIZE_IN_PIXELS == yvalue $ DEFINE/SYSTEM DECW$SERVER_REFRESH_RATE rate_in_Hz Also see Section 11.11. Details of the PowerStorm 3D30 and 4D20 settings are available in the OpenVMS Ask The Wizard area. __________________________________________________________ 11.6 How do I set the title on a DECterm window? If you are creating a new DECterm window, check $ HELP CREATE /TERMINAL /WINDOW_ATTRIBUTES If you want to change the title of an existing window, use the following control sequences, where <esc> is the ANSI escape code, value decimal 27, and "text label" is what you want to display: To set the DECterm title, send the escape character, then the characters "]21;", then the text label string, and then an escape character followed by a backslash character. 11-6 DECwindows To set the icon label, send the escape character, then the characters "]2L;", then the icon label string, and then an escape character followed by a backslash character. To set both the DECterm title and icon to the full device name, you can use the following DCL commands: $ esc[0,7] = 27 $ fulldevnam = F$Edit(F$GetDVI("TT","FULLDEVNAM"),"UPCASE,COLLAPSE") $ write sys$output esc+ "]21;" + fulldevnam + esc + "\" $ write sys$output esc+ "]2L;" + fulldevnam + esc + "\" You can also change the title and the icon using the Options-Window... menu. Also see Section 12.1 and Section 8.13. __________________________________________________________ 11.7 How do I customize DECwindows, including the login screen? To customize various DECwindows Motif characteristics including the defaults used by the SET DISPLAY command, the DECwindows login screen background logo used (the default is the DIGITAL, Compaq, or HP logo), various keymaps (also see Section 11.7.2 and Section 11.7.1), the FileView defaults, session manager defaults, the DECwindows login processing, DECwindows log file processing, and various other DECwindows attributes, see the example file: $ SYS$MANAGER:DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_SETUP.TEMPLATE This example template file is typically copied over to the filename SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR]DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_ SETUP.COM and then modified to meet site-specific requirements. Additionally, various X tools such as xsetroot, bitmap and xrdb-some these can be useful in customizing the appearance of an application or of the DECwindows Motif display-are provided in the DECW$UTILS: area. When using DECwindows V1.2-4 and later on OpenVMS Alpha, the default desktop is the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). You can select your preferred desktop (CDE or DECwindows Motif) when logging in, or you can change the default to the DECwindows 11-7 DECwindows Motif desktop using the DCL symbol decw$start_new_ desktop in the DECwindows private application setup command procedure. See SYS$MANAGER:DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_ SETUP.TEMPLATE for further details, and how to create DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_SETUP.COM. Note that with DECwindows CDE, the root window is no longer visible by default. The root window is hidden behind the "backdrop" window of the current CDE workspace. To make the root window visible, use the CDE style manager selection "backdrop none", and use information such as that in the OpenVMS FAQ to set the root window. To add a new backdrop to the DECwindows CDE environment, the backdrop must first be in or be converted into X11 pixmap format. (This conversion is often possible using tools such as xv.) Then (if necessary) create the default backdrop directory SYS$COMMON:[CDE$DEFAULTS.USER.BACKDROPS]. Place the X11 pixmap file containing the desired image into the backdrops directory, ensure that it has a filename extension of .PM. (The xv default filename extension for the X11 pixmap file is .XPM, while CDE expects only to see files with .PM.) Now invoke the CDE style manager and select a new backdrop. You will find your image will be placed at the end of the list of backdrops available. If you require a message be included on the initial display-where the start session display and the logo appears-you can use either of the following approaches: o The simplest approach requires OpenVMS V7.3-2 or later, and the corresponding DECwindows V1.3- 1 kit or later. You will want to create a file named SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR]DECW$GREET.TXT, and this will be displayed in a popup-with an OK button- when the login box is displayed. This is intended specifically for applications requiring such a display. 11-8 DECwindows o The second approach involves copying the file XRESOURCES.DAT from SYS$SYSDEVICE:[VMS$COMMON.CDE$DEFAULTS.SYSTEM.CONFIG.C] into the directory SYS$SYSDEVICE:[VMS$COMMON.CDE$DEFAULTS.USER.CONFIG.C] and editing the copy. Specifically, look for the following: Dtlogin*greeting.labelString: The line is normally commented out, and by default contains the string: Welcome to %localhost% You can change this text to something akin to the following: Dtlogin*greeting.labelString: Welcome to Heck \n\ This is a Trusted System owned by the Rulers of the planet Zark\n\ \n\ We Come In Peace\n\ \n If you want Privacy, you've come to the wrong place\n\ \n The lines of text will be centered for you. In most DECwindows versions, you will be able to onbtain only about eight (8) lines of text. Changes have been implemented in DECwindows V1.3 and later that permit up to about twenty-five (25) lines of text. The login logo is stored as an XPM bitmap image in the text file SYS$SYSROOT:[SYSCOMMON.CDE$DEFAULTS.SYSTEM.APPCONFIG.ICONS.C]DECDTLOGO.PM, and it can be changed. Copy the file to SYS$SYSROOT:[SYSCOMMON.CDE$DEFAULTS.USER.APPCONFIG.ICONS.C]DECDTLOGO.PM, as DECwindows upgrades can replace the system version of this file. On DECwindows V1.3-1 and later (and possibly on V1.3), both DECwindows CDE and DECwindows Motif displays use this logo file. On older releases, only the DECwindows CDE displays used this logo file, while the logo used for the Motif login display was hard-coded into the package and the only available override is the 11-9 DECwindows DECW$LOGINLOGO command procedure mechanism within the customized, site-specific DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_SETUP.COM file. Look at the contents of the DECDTLOGO.PM file and at other *.XPM files and tools for additional details. _____________________________ 11.7.1 How do I customize DECwindows keymapping? Various keymaps can be implemented on OpenVMS and other X Windows systems, allowing the implementation of a Dvorak-style or other alternate keymappings. For details, see the available X Windows documentation (this is the documentation associated with X Windows itself, and not the product documentation for the OpenVMS operating system nor for the DECwindows X Windows implementation) and see the DECwindows *.DECW$KEYMAP (text-format) files found in the DECwindows DECW$KEYMAP: directory. For other keymapping information, see Section 11.7.2. _____________________________ 11.7.2 Why does the DELETE key delete forward instead of backward? See the SET TERMINAL/BACKSPACE command on OpenVMS V8.2 and later. This behaviour involves the Motif virtual key bindings. When a Motif application starts, it looks at the vendor string returned in the display connection information and attempts to match the string to a table of virtual bindings. You can override the default bindings in your decw$xdefaults.dat file. Here is the entry you would make to get the default VMS bindings. 11-10 DECwindows *defaultVirtualBindings:\ osfCancel : <F11> \n\ osfLeft : <Left> \n\ osfUp : <Up> \n\ osfRight : <Right> \n\ osfDown : <Down> \n\ osfEndLine :Alt <Right> \n\ osfBeginLine :Alt <Left> \n\ osfPageUp : <Prior> \n\ osfPageDown : <Next> \n\ osfDelete :Shift <Delete> \n\ osfUndo :Alt <Delete> \n\ osfBackSpace : <Delete> \n\ osfAddMode :Shift <F8> \n\ osfHelp : <Help> \n\ osfMenu : <F4> \n\ osfMenuBar : <F10> \n\ osfSelect : <Select> \n\ osfActivate : <KP_Enter> \n\ osfCopy :Shift <DRemove> \n\ osfCut : <DRemove> \n\ osfPaste : <Insert> To merge: $ xrdb :== $decw$utils:xrdb.exe $ xrdb -nocpp -merge decw$xdefaults.dat Also note that the DECW$UTILS:DECW$DEFINE_UTILS.COM procedure can be used to establish the xrdb and other symbols. Also see the DECxterm directory of Freeware V5.0 for details on connecting to OpenVMS from various UNIX platforms. For other keymapping information, see Section 11.7.1. 11-11 DECwindows __________________________________________________________ 11.8 Why doesn't XtAppAddInput() work on OpenVMS? Yes, XtAppAddInput() does work on OpenVMS. The MIT definition of the X Windows call XtAppAddInput() includes platform-specific arguments. On platforms where C is the typically the primary programming language for the platform, the file descriptor mask is one of the arguments to the XtAppAddInput() call. On OpenVMS, the platform-specific arguments to this call include an event flag and an IOSB, as these are the traditional OpenVMS constructs used to synchronize the completion of asynchronous operations. While it would be easier to port non-OpenVMS C code that calls XtAppAddInput() over to OpenVMS if the arguments included the C file descriptor, this would make the call unusable from other OpenVMS languages, and would make it extremely difficult to use OpenVMS features such as ASTs and sys$qio calls. One restriction on the event flag: the event flag chosen must be from event flag cluster zero. When using the traditional lib$get_ef and lib$free_ef calls to allocate and deallocate event flags, you must first explicitly call lib$free_ef to free up some event flags in event flag cluster zero. Please see the event flag documentation for specific details on these calls and for specific event flags that can be freed in event flag cluster zero. Here is some example code that covers calling this routine on OpenVMS: 11-12 DECwindows m->InputID = XtAppAddInput( m->AppCtx, m->InputEF, m->InputIosb, the_callback, 1 ); if ( !((int) m->InputID )) { XtAppErrorMsg( m->AppCtx, "invalidDevice", "XtAppAddInput", "XtToolkitError", "Can't Access Device", (String *) NULL, (Cardinal *) NULL ); ... __________________________________________________________ 11.9 Why do the keyboard arrow keys move the DECwindows cursor? Congratulations, you have just stumbled into "dead rodent" mode. This DECwindows environment-where the keyboard arrow keys move the mouse cursor and where the [SELECT], [PREV], and [NEXT] keys emulate the three mouse buttons-allows rudimentary system operations when the mouse is among the casualties. To enter or exit "dead rodent" mode, enter the following: <CTRL/SHIFT/F3> __________________________________________________________ 11.10 Why does half my DECwindows display blank? This is likely a result of receiving an OPCOM or other console message on a system that shares the system console with the DECwindows graphics workstation display. You can toggle off the console display window using <CTRL/F2> and you can enable a serial console per Section 14.3.6 or Section 11-13 DECwindows Also see the console message window application available with recent DECwindows versions-DECwindows versions V1.2-3 and later will enable this window by default. For details on this console message window, see the DECW$CONSOLE_SELECTION option in SYS$STARTUP:DECW$PRIVATE_APPS_SETUP.TEMPLATE. On older releases, you can disable output using the following: $ SET TERMINAL/PERMANENT/NOBROADCAST OPA0: $ DEFINE/USER SYS$COMMAND OPA0: $ REPLY/DISABLE Also see Section, Section 14.17, and Also see Section 8.4, __________________________________________________________ 11.11 %DECW-W-NODEVICE, No graphics device found on this system? To resolve the following error: %DECW-W-NODEVICE, No graphics device found on this system -DECW-I-NODECW, DECwindows graphics drivers will not be loaded o Ensure that the system parameter WINDOW_SYSTEM is set to 1. If it is not set to a value of 1, issue the commands: $ run sys$system:sysgen USE CURRENT SET WINDOW_SYSTEM 1 WRITE ACTIVE WRITE CURRENT EXIT Then reboot the system. o On OpenVMS Alpha, ensure the SYSMAN IO PREFIX LIST is set correctly, and specifically ensure the DECW$ prefix is included in the existing list. If it is not, you will need to add it: 11-14 DECwindows $ run sys$system:sysman IO SHOW PREFIX IO SET PREFIX=(DECW$,*) * = list returned by the show command IO AUTO/LOG EXIT o Ensure that the image SYS$SHARE:DECW$ICBM.EXE is installed in memory. If it is not installed, then install it: $ INSTALL LIST/FULL SYS$SHARE:DECW$ICBM $ INSTALL REPLACE SYS$SHARE:DECW$ICBM $ EDIT SYS$MANAGER:SYCONFIG.COM $! The following line was added to install $! support for the Mach64 Graphics Card $! $ INSTALL REPLACE SYS$SHARE:DECW$ICBM $ ^Z Then reboot the system. The ICBM mechanism is not used on and not needed by more recent DECwindows versions. o If the system still complains "%DECW-W-NODEVICE, No graphics device found on this system", then: o Boot the system as normal o Login as SYSTEM. o Create the file SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR]DECW$USER_ AUTOCONFIG.DAT. Protection must permit world read access. o Add the following string on the very first line: CLEAR_PFLAG = ISA_4BYTE o Save the file o Set the file protections $ SET PROTECTION=W:RE SYS$MANAGER:DECW$USER_AUTOCONFIG.DAT o Reboot the system Also see Section 11.5. 11-15 DECwindows __________________________________________________________ 11.12 How can I reset the warning bell volume? With DECwindows CDE drivers and ECOs starting with ECOs for the DECwindows keyboard driver SYS$IKBDRIVER.EXE in OpenVMS Alpha V7.1-2 and V7.2-1 and with the SYS$IKBDRIVER.EXE included in OpenVMS V7.2-1H1 and later, the DECwindows CDE controls will now correctly manage the setting of the warning bell volume. Unfortunately, the equivalent controls in the older DECwindows Motif interface are not compatible and can no longer manage the warning bell volume. If you need to manage the volume with DECwindows Motif, consider using the following approach: $ @decw$utils:decw$define_utils $ xset b 1 100 100 The numerics are the volume, pitch, and duration, respectively. Why? When OpenVMS first started supporting the PC-style keyboards, the X Windows Server and the keyboard driver interface did not support the pitch and duration, and neither did DECwindows Motif. The DECwindows keyboard driver was accordingly changed to use the volume from the keyclick setting (keyclick is not available in a PC-style keyboard) and the bell volume setting to control the pitch and duration. DECwindows CDE does provide sliders for setting pitch and duration, so the keyboard driver and X Windows Server were modified to provide all of the information, and now the DECwindows CDE sliders work. This change is unfortunately incompatible with the old scheme used on the pre-CDE desktops, and the volume controls are now incompatible with the current keyboard drivers. Hence the use of xset. 11-16 DECwindows __________________________________________________________ 11.13 How can I alter the DECwindows CDE backdrop? To select a separate backdrop to be displayed on each screen using DECwindows CDE: o Click on the Application Manager. This is the drawer icon on the CDE toolbar. o Click on Desktop Tools o Click on Set Default Screen and select the required screen o Click on the Style Manager. This is the one containing the mouse and ttt on the CDE toolbar o Now change the background. __________________________________________________________ 11.14 How can I enable the DECwindows TCP/IP Transport To configure the TCP/IP transport for DECwindows, first ensure that a TCP/IP package is installed and configured. Then set the DCL symbol DECW$SERVER_ TRANSPORTS in SYS$MANAGER:DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_ SETUP.COM to the appropriate local value, based on the comments in that file. If you do not have a copy of SYS$STARTUP:DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_SETUP.COM, the use the following COPY command to create this file based on the provided template file: $ COPY SYS$MANAGER:DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_SETUP.TEMPLATE - $_ SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR]DECW$PRIVATE_SERVER_SETUP.COM __________________________________________________________ 11.15 Can I use DECwindows 1.2-* on OpenVMS V7.3-2 or later? The short answer is no. OpenVMS Alpha V7.3-2 only supports DECwindows Motif V1.3 and later. If you require DECwindows V1.2-6 or earlier, then you are limited to operations on OpenVMS Alpha V7.3-1 and earlier releases. The central technical reason involves depdendencies among the parts of the X11 subsystem that are delivered with the base OpenVMS operating system including the X Windows display server and the transport images, and 11-17 DECwindows the parts of the DECwindows product that are delivered within the DECwindows installation kits including the client libraries and the DECwindows applications. DECwindows V1.3 and later made substantial changes to the transport layer, and these required corresponding changes to both the associated client and server code. OpenVMS Alpha V7.3-2 includes the server and transport with the V1.3 modifications. These changes were in support of the upgrade of Xlib from X11R5 to X11R6.6, and transport-level changes associated with support of the Kerberos and LBX features. If you attempt to load DECwindows V1.2-6 images onto an OpenVMS Alpha V7.3-2 or later system, the DECwindows libraries will not function with with system images and will particularly not function with the transport layer. __________________________________________________________ 11.16 How to add Fonts into DECwindows? The following assumes DECwindows V1.3-1 and OpenVMS Alpha V7.3-2 and later unless stated otherwise, and can permit fonts of various formats to be added into the DECwindows environment. The recommended location for user font files is to place them in the directories which are reserved for this purpose, typically located below the SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW] directory. SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_100DPI] SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_75DPI] The above are recommended for PCF files of 100 Dots Per Inch (DPI) and of 75 DPI resolution, respectively. SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_COMMON] The above is recommended for other PCF files, such as terminal (character cell) fonts, and fonts used by specific applications. SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_CURSOR16] SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_CURSOR32] 11-18 DECwindows The above are recommended for cursors. SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_SPEEDO] SPEEDO is recommended for SPD files. SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_TRUETYPE] USER_TRUETYPE is recommended for TrueType (TTF) fonts. Fonts placed in this directory should be in the "Windows / Linux" format. The directory will contain the font files themselves, and a data file that describes each font in the directory. This file is named DECW$FONT_DIRECTORY.DAT or DECW$FONT_DIRECTORY_extension.DAT, where "extension" is replaced by the type of font (100DPI, SPEEDO, TRUETYPE, TYPE1, etc.) Make sure that the file protection on the font files is set to allow world access to the fonts. For example: to add TrueType fonts to DECwindows, place the font files in SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_ TRUETYPE] A directory listing might look like this: Directory SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_TRUETYPE] ARKOI8N.TTF;1 46KB/48KB 5-MAR-1995 04:00:00.00 backstage.ttf;1 55KB/56KB 19-JUL-2004 09:42:20.92 IDAutomationHC39M_Free.ttf;1 27KB/32KB 29-JUL-2003 11:25:48.00 ... texsi.ttf;1 133KB/136KB 25-MAY-2003 15:31:11.00 texw.ttf;1 150KB/152KB 25-MAY-2003 15:32:33.00 Total of 37 files, 3.09MB/3.23MB The case of the filename is not important. TrueType fonts should be in Stream_LF file format. To generate the appropriate DECW$FONT_DIRECTORY.DAT file for most font formats, issue the command: $ FONTCOMPILER /DIRECTORY 11-19 DECwindows The above may or may not operate with TrueType files, and you will likely have to generate the DECW$FONT_ DIRECTORY_TRUETYPE.DAT file manually. A sample file follows: 37 BACKSTAGE.ttf -Grfonts-Backstage-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 IDAutomationHC39M_Free.ttf -IDAutomation-HC39M-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-m-0-misc-Barcode39 SUSESerif-Bold.ttf -Suse-Suse-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESerif-Roman.ttf -Suse-Suse-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESans-Bold.ttf -Suse-Suse-bold-r-normal-sans-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESans-BoldOblique.ttf -Suse-Suse-bold-o-normal-sans-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESans-Oblique.ttf -Suse-Suse-medium-o-normal-sans-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESans-Roman.ttf -Suse-Suse-medium-r-normal-sans-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1 SUSESansMono-Bold.ttf -Suse-Suse Mono-bold-r-normal-sans-0-0-0-0-m-0-iso8859-1 ... MCTIMEBI.TTF -UOregon-MAC C Times-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-macedonian-0 MCTIMEI.TTF -UOregon-MAC C Times-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-macedonian-0 The first line of this data file is the number of font file entries which follow. Each entry consists of the font file name, and a font description. There are fourteen fields in the description, separated by hyphens (dashes, "-"). Fields may contain embedded spaces. The fields are o Foundry: the name of the company or person which produced the font. o Family: the name of the Typeface (what most people will call the "font"). o Weight: How "heavy" the type appears. Normal fonts are "medium" or "regular", variations include "bold", "demi", "light", etc. o Slant: "r" for regular, "i" for italic, or "o" for oblique. o Width: "normal", "wide", "narrow", "condensed", etc. o Style: normally left empty, it can also identify variations on a basic family such as "sans" (sans serifs; without the serif, the ending and usually pointed portion of the stroke). Fonts of different styles can be grouped in the same family. 11-20 DECwindows o Sizes: the next four fields identify the size and scale of individual characters for fonts that have fixed point sizes. For fonts which scale (such as TrueType), the four fields are all zero. o Spacing: "p" for proportional, "m" for monospaced, or "c" for character cell. Note: although DECwindows can identify different spacings within a family, the author has found that mixing monospaced and proportional fonts in the same family may cause some proportional font options to not appear in a font selection menu within Notepad (only). (A fix for this is expected in DECwindows V1.5 and later.) o The next field is always zero for TrueType fonts. o Character Set: the last two fields identify the name and version number of the character set represented within the font. For many applications, these fields are informational only. The next step is to update the list of fonts known to DECwindows, using the xset utility. $ mc decw$utils:xset fp rehash It is also possible to reset the font list to the default: $ mc decw$utils:xset fp default This is useful if you need to recover from errors. The Notepad utility, normally available through the "Applications" menu in Session Manager, is a convenient way to see if the font is available. Start the application, select "Options", then select "Font...". In the "Family (Foundry)" window, you will see the list of fonts available. User-added TrueType fonts will normally be at the end of this list. Select the desired font family, then select the Size (dpi) (which will always be 0(0) for TrueType fonts), and the various font options (Weight, Slant, Width, etc.) should appear in the next window. You should then be able to select the desired font and click <OK> or <Apply> to use it, or <Cancel> to exit without changing the font. 11-21 DECwindows If you don't see all of the fonts you added, check to see that the number at the beginning of the DECW$FONT_ DIRECTORY*.DAT file is correct, that the files are set to world (or appropriate) access, and that TrueType fonts are in Stream_LF format. Some applications require entering a full font name, which will look like the font description entry. Please keep in mind that not all applications can use every font which may be available on your system. For example, DECterm is designed to use families of fonts specifically designed for character cell applications. Other fonts (specifically TrueType) may work erratically, and may result in an unusable display. It is best to use only monospaced fonts specifically intended for DECterm with DECterm. The SYS$COMMON:[SYSFONT.DECW.USER_TRUETYPE] doesn't exist on OpenVMS VAX V7.3 with DECwindows V1.2-6, but the procedure above does appear to work if the directory is created and the instructions above are followed. 11-22 _______________________________________________________ 12 Miscellaneous Information __________________________________________________________ 12.1 Where can I find information on escape and control sequences? Information on escape and control sequences can be found in the OpenVMS I/O User's Reference Manual, in the chapter on the terminal driver. The chapter also includes details on the general format and content of these sequences. Specific details on the escape and control sequences supported by a particular serial device are typically found in the documentation provided with the specific device. Information on the sequences supported by DECwindows DECterm terminal emulator are included in the DECwindows documentation. Examples of common escape and control sequences- those typically used by the OpenVMS screen management package-can be found in the OpenVMS system file SYS$SYSTEM:SMGTERMS.TXT. (This file can be queried under program control using SMG$GET_TERM_DATA, and you don't need to use all of SMG to use this call.) The following refers to the function keys on the LK- series keyboards found on the VT-series terminals such as the VT220 and VT510, and the LK-series keyboards found on the OpenVMS workstations, and the keyboards found on compatible terminals. (Though note that the keyboard itself does not generate the sequence, the terminal or terminal emulator generates the sequence in response to user input.) In the following, {CSI} is decimal code 155 and can be replaced by the sequence "{ESC}[" (without the quotes) particularly for seven- bit operations, SS3 is decimal code 143 and can be replaced by "{ESC}O" particularly for seven-bit operations. Older VT1xx series terminals and any other terminals operating with seven-bit characters 12-1 Miscellaneous Information should not be sent eight-bit operators such as {CSI} and {SS3}. PF1={SS3}P PF2={SS3}Q PF3={SS3}R PF4={SS3}S KP0={SS3}p KP1={SS3}q KP2={SS3}r KP3={SS3}s KP4={SS3}t KP5={SS3}u KP6={SS3}v KP7={SS3}w KP8={SS3}x KP9={SS3}y KPCOMMA={SS3}l KPMINUS={SS3}m KPPERIOD={SS3}n ENTER={SS3}M DNARROW={CSI}B UPARROW={CSI}A LFARROW={CSI}D RTARROW={CSI}C FIND={CSI}1~ INSERT={CSI}2~ REMOVE={CSI}3~ SELECT={CSI}4~ PREV={CSI}5~ NEXT={CSI}6~ F6={CSI}17~ F7={CSI}18~ F8={CSI}19~ F9={CSI}20~ F10={CSI}21~ F11={CSI}23~ F12={CSI}24~ F13={CSI}25~ F14={CSI}26~ HELP={CSI}28~ DO={CSI}29~ F17={CSI}31~ F18={CSI}32~ F19={CSI}33~ F20={CSI}34~ An example of working with escape sequences (in DCL) follows: $ esc5m = "*[5m" $ esc5m[0,8] = 27 $ esc0m = "*[0m" $ esc0m[0,8] = 27 $ write sys$output esc5m + "blinking text" + esc0m Documentation on an ANSI terminal relatively similar to the VT525 series is available at: o ftp://ftp.boundless.com/pub/text/adds/docs/260_prog/ o ftp://ftp.boundless.com/pub/text/adds/docs/260_user/ Also see the various documentation and manuals available at: o http://www.vt100.net/ Information on the ReGIS graphics character set is available at: o http://www.cs.utk.edu/~shuford/terminal/dec_regis_ news.txt Also: o http://www.boundless.com/Text_Terminals/VT/ Also see Section 11.6, Section 8.13. 12-2 Miscellaneous Information __________________________________________________________ 12.2 Does DECprint (DCPS) work with the LRA0 parallel port? No. The parallel printing port LRA0: found on many OpenVMS Alpha systems is capable of some bidirectional communications, with enough for basic operations with most parallel printers. DECprint (DCPS) requires more than just the simple handshaking provided by the LRA0: port, therefore DCPS does not work with the LRA0: port. __________________________________________________________ 12.3 How do I check for free space on a (BACKUP) tape? You cannot know for certain, though you can certainly estimate the remaining capacity. Tape media is different than disk media, as disks have a known and pre-determined fixed capacity. Modern disks also appear logically perfect, based on bad block revectoring support and the extra blocks hidden within the disk structure for these bad block replacements. The capacity of tape media is not nearly as pre- determined, and the capacity can vary across different tape media (slightly different media lengths or different foil markers or other variations, for instance) and even on the same media over time (as bad spots in the media arise). Tapes can vary the amount of recording media required, depending on the remaining length of the tape, the numbers of correctable and uncorrectable media errors that might occur, the numbers and sizes of the inter-record gaps and related tape structure overhead, the particular media error recovery chosen, the tape density, the efficiently of any data compression in use, and the storage overhead required by BACKUP, tar, and other similar commands. BACKUP using with the default settings results in approximately 15% overhead, in terms of saveset size. (eg: Assuming a 500 KB input, the total size would be 575 KB.) Assuming no compression: 4 GB media / 575 KB saveset = 7294 savesets 12-3 Miscellaneous Information Assuming 1:2 compression: 8 GB media / 575 KB saveset = 14588 savesets Note There are no inter-record gaps on DAT tapes. When determining media capacity, you have to consider these gaps with nine-track magtape media and other formats with gaps. This is not the case with DAT (DDS), as the format has no recording gaps. However, the block structure underneath the variable length record recording is based on a block size of circa 124 KB. Further, writing doubles filemarks and such can cause a loss of up to the underlying block size. Thus even though there are no inter-record gaps on DAT, larger savesets are still usually best. The compression algorithms used on various devices are generally not documented-further, there is no way to calculate the effective data compression ratio, the tape mark overhead, and similar given just the data to be stored on tape-short of actually trying it, of course. A typical compression ratio found with "everyday" data is somewhere around 1:1.8 to 1:2. Note OpenVMS often uses the term COMPACTION for compression control, as in the qualifier /MEDIA_ FORMAT=COMPACTION. __________________________________________________________ 12.4 Correctly using license PAKs and LMF? If you have multiple LMF$LICENSE.LDB databases in your OpenVMS Cluster, then each and every PAK must be installed in each and every license database present in an OpenVMS Cluster. Even if you use /EXCLUDE or /INCLUDE, you need to have a consistent set of PAKs registered across all licensing databases present in the OpenVMS Cluster. 12-4 Miscellaneous Information If your software license permits it, you can use the following two commands to transfer license PAKs: $ LICENSE COPY... $ LICENSE ISSUE/PROCEDURE/OUTPUT=file product,... To display the particular license(s) required (such as when you receive a NOLICENSE error), use the following DCL sequence: $ SET PROCESS/PRIVILEGE=ALL $ REPLY/ENABLE $ DEFINE/SYSTEM/EXECUTIVE LMF$DISPLAY_OPCOM_MESSAGE This logical name will cause all license failures to generate OPCOM messages, and this will hopefully show which license(s) you need- there may well also be additional license failures displayed, as various products can check for and can be enabled by multiple license PAKs. You will want to deassign this logical name when done. Some of the more common license PAKs: DECnet Phase IV: DVNETRTG, DVNETEND, DVNETEXT, or NET-APP-SUP* DECnet-Plus: DVNETRTG, DVNETEND, DVNETEXT, or NET-APP-SUP* TCP/IP Services: UCX, or NET-APP-SUP* OpenVMS Alpha: OPENVMS-ALPHA and OPENVMS-ALPHA-USER OpenVMS VAX: VAX-VMS OpenVMS Galaxy: OPENVMS-GALAXY Cluster (Alpha): VMSCLUSTER, NET-APP-SUP* Cluster (VAX): VAXCLUSTER, NET-APP-SUP* Various NET-APP-SUP (NAS) license packages are available, each with differing collections of products authorized. See the various NAS Software Product Description (SPD) documents for specific details. o http://h18000.www1.hp.com/info/spd/ OpenVMS typically uses SPD 25.01.xx, SPD 41.87.xx, and SPD 82.35.xx. To determine which license PAK is failing (via a license check failure OPCOM message), use the command: $ DEFINE/SYSTEM/EXECUTIVE LMF$DISPLAY_OPCOM_MESSAGE TRUE 12-5 ---------------------------- #include <rtfaq.h> ----------------------------- For additional, please see the OpenVMS FAQ -- www.hp.com/go/openvms/faq --------------------------- pure personal opinion --------------------------- Hoff (Stephen) Hoffman OpenVMS Engineering hoff[at]hp.com