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Subject: Digital UNIX (DEC OSF/1) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

This article was archived around: 16 Nov 1998 20:45:12 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: dec-faq
All FAQs posted in: comp.unix.osf.osf1, comp.unix.ultrix, comp.sys.dec, vmsnet.alpha
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: dec-faq/Digital-UNIX Posting-Frequency: bi-monthly Last-modified: November 16, 1998
Changes since last edition ========================== Add M18 about dxaccount saying the password and group files are locked. Overview ======== This is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) collection for the Digital UNIX (formerly DEC OSF/1 AXP) operating system and, to some degree, the systems on which it runs. Some information relevant to the RISC ULTRIX operating systems (for the DECstation systems based on MIPS processor chips) can also be found here, though there is a separate FAQ specifically for RISC ULTRIX. This FAQ is archived in the following locations: comp.answers and news.answers newsgroups ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/dec-faq/Digital-UNIX ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/dec-faq/Digital-UNIX http://www.supelec.fr/decus/faq/faq-Digital-UNIX.html CompuServe VAXFORUM, Library 9, UNIXFAQ.TXT A version translated into Japanese is at: http://www.dec-j.co.jp/ic/unix/technical/j-faq.txt To make suggestions for changes or additions to this Frequently Asked Questions list, send mail to Steve.Lionel@digital.com. Answers are especially appreciated. Please do NOT send technical questions to the editor - post them to an appropriate newsgroup instead. Some general notes: The term "Alpha" generally refers to systems based on Digital's Alpha processor. Unless otherwise specified, these answers refer to Digital UNIX 4.0, which is the current release. "Digital UNIX" is used even for earlier versions which call themselves DEC OSF/1. World-Wide Web Universal Resource Locator (URL) notation is used for FTP addresses. Many people have contributed to this list, directly or indirectly. In some cases, an answer has been adapted from one or more postings on the comp.unix.ultrix or comp.unix.osf.osf1 newsgroups. Our thanks to all of those who post answers. The name (or names) at the end of an entry indicate that the information was taken from postings by those individuals; the text may have been edited for this FAQ. These citations are only given to acknowledge the contribution. Although the editor of this FAQ is an employee of Digital Equipment Corporation, this posting is not an official statement from Digital Equipment Corporation. AlphaGeneration, AlphaServer, AlphaStation, Alpha AXP, AXP, DEC, DECstation, DECsystem, OpenVMS, ULTRIX, VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. OSF/1 is a registered trademark of the Open Software Foundation. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Ltd. Other names are properties of their respective owners. Alpha ====================================================== A1. Where can I find software that has been ported to Digital UNIX? A2. What does the "AXP" in "Alpha AXP" mean? A3. Where can I get Emacs and Epoch for Digital UNIX? A4. Where can I get technical information about Alpha? A5. What online documentation is there for DIGITAL UNIX? A6. Where can I get updated console firmware for AlphaServer systems? Software ====================================================== S1. What (free) tools are there for looking at system behavior? S2. How can I figure out what files translated binaries are looking for? S3. Where can I get an alternative PostScript previewer? S4. Where can I get a T-shell (tcsh)? S5. How can I use audio on AlphaStations and DECstations? S6. How do I play music CDs on CD-ROM drives? S7. Can I run binaries from RISC/ULTRIX on a Digital UNIX system? S8. Where are patches/updates for DIGITAL UNIX available from? Programming ====================================================== P1. What tools will help me port software to Digital UNIX? P2. Why can't I run dbx? P3. Why do my applications not work after I upgrade to a new version of Digital UNIX? P4. Where can I get a debugging malloc that works on Digital UNIX? P5. What's with 'ld: unresolved symbols: dnet_conn'? P6. How can I tell what program generated a core file? P7. What does "unaligned access" mean, and how can I fix it? P8. What about "unaligned access" in FORTRAN programs? P9. How can I get microsecond resolution from gettimeofday(2)? Graphics ====================================================== G1. How can I make the graphics go faster? G2. Where can I get an xv that works on Digital UNIX? G3. How do I get an xdm session as root? G4. How do I allow xdm sessions at C2 security? Network ====================================================== N1. Why doesn't FTP work to an XYZ system? N2. How do you use a NFS-mounted /usr filesystem on Digital UNIX? N3. Where can I get rstatd for Digital UNIX? N4. How do I switch between the AUI and 10 Base-T Ethernet ports? N5. Where can I get multicast software for Digital UNIX? N6. What's wrong with xdr_long in the Digital UNIX XDR routines? N7. How do I configure the Berkeley Packet Filter and capture tcpdump traces? Hardware ====================================================== H1. Where can I get information about Alpha chips? H2. How can I get a parallel printer to work? H3. Where can I get a printcap entry for the XXX printer? H4. What are the pinouts of the MMJ jacks? H5. Where can I get a disktab entry for the XXX disk? H6. How can I read/write MS-DOS floppy disks? H7. How can I get disktab information for a new disk? Miscellaneous ====================================================== M1. Where else is Digital UNIX discussed? M2. How do I add a new terminal definition? M3. How do I boot to single-user mode? M4. I heard that OSF is dropping OSF/1. What does that mean for Digital UNIX? M5. How can I read VMS BACKUP tapes on a UNIX machine? M6. How do I contact Digital Customer Relations? M7. How do I get an ESC (escape) character on a DEC keyboard? M8. Where can I read announcements from Digital? M9. Where can I get performance information about Digital products? M10. How do I report security problems to Digital? M11. How do I deal with the swap file filling up? M12. How do I deal with login problems? M13. How do I figure out what version of Digital UNIX I have? M14. Is there a Digital UNIX web site? M15. How do I free disk space for an update installation? M16. Why doesn't deleting individual system files free space for an update installation? M17. How do I tune my system for use as a web server? M18. Why does dxaccounts tells me that the password and group files are locked? ============================================== A1. Where can I find software that has been ported to Digital UNIX? A list of free software known to be ported to Digital UNIX is available on the World-Wide Web: http://www.digital.com/info/software.html A two-CD Freeware set shipped with Digital UNIX V4.0. For an online copy, as well as reference to other freeware sources, see: http://www.unix.digital.com/demos/index.html To mount the (real) CD, use the command: mount -r -t cdfs -o rrip /dev/rz?c /freeware where ? == your SCSI CD-ROM ID (usually 4) Digital actively maintains an "Alpha Applications Catalog" which lists commercial software products available for Alpha systems. http://www.partner.digital.com/www-catalog/ ============================================== A2. What does the "AXP" in "Alpha AXP" mean? Nothing. It is part of the trademark. Digital is eliminating the use of "AXP" in new product names. ============================================== A3. Where can I get Emacs and Epoch for Digital UNIX? Both a binary and sources for GNU Emacs are included on the base system CD-ROM. Epoch is available on the Alpha OSF/1 Freeware CD-ROM (see answer A1 for more information). GNU emacs 19.29 compiles for Digital UNIX "out of the box" [Pete Kaiser, kaiser@acm.org] [Rob McCool, robm@snail.ncsa.uiuc.edu] [Joern Wilms, wilms@rocinante.Colorado.EDU] ============================================== A4. Where can I get technical information about Alpha? Sites, R.L., Ed., Alpha Architecture Reference Manual (2nd ed) (600 page book, 1995) from Digital Press (EY-T132E-DP) or Prentice-Hall , ISBN 1-55558-145-5). Digital Press has published "Alpha Architecture and Implementations" (Dileep Bhandarkar, author). The book provides a comprehensive description of all major aspects of Alpha systems. The book includes an overview of the history of RISC development in the computer industry and at Digital, the Alpha architecture, all the major processor chips, and system implementations. The book also covers RISC concepts, provides an overview of other RISC architectures, and descriptions of the new SPARC, MIPS, PowerPC, and PA-RISC microprocessors introduced in 1995. The book also discusses operating system porting issues, compiler techniques, and binary translation. Available from Butterworth-Heinemann (1-800-366-BOOK). Communications of the ACM, February 1993 issue (4 Alpha articles) Digital Technical Journal, Vol 4., No. 4 (200 pages of Alpha articles, including 4 above with fewer typos). Order info: dtj@crl.dec.com (Available from ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/DECinfo/DTJ and http://www.digital.com/info/DTJ/dtj.html) Jim Montanaro "The Design of the Alpha 21064 CPU Chip" (42 minutes) Dick Sites and Dirk Meyer, "Alpha Architecture" (73 minutes) University Video Communications P.O. BOx 5129 Stanford CA 94309 USA (415) 813-0506 [Dick Sites, sites@tallis.enet.dec.com] ============================================== A5. What online documentation is there for DIGITAL UNIX? The DIGITAL UNIX Publications group is pleased to announce that our DIGITAL UNIX documentation is now available on the Internet from the DIGITAL UNIX external web page. Go to: http://www.UNIX.digital.com/faqs/publications/pub_page/pubs_page.html The following documentation is available: o DIGITAL UNIX V4.0B o DIGITAL UNIX reference pages o TruCluster Software V1.4 You will also find information on how to order our hardcopy books. We welcome comments and suggestions; please send mail to readers_comments@zk3.dec.com. ============================================== A6. Where can I get updated console firmware for AlphaServer systems? We are happy to announce the creation of an unrestricted FTP and WWW area for Alphaservers. This area is accessible to both internal and external folks. The information includes firmware updates, the latest configuration utilities, software patches, a list of supported options, hardware documentation, and more. The area is under construction, so not everything is in place yet. The files available for FTP are located at: ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/Alpha/ The WWW pages are located at: http://www.service.digital.com/alpha/server/ We hope that these pages will be useful. Please send your comments and feedback to alpha_server@service.digital.com ============================================== S1. What (free) tools are there for looking at system behavior? syd, a utility like top, is on the Freeware disk for versions of Digital UNIX before V3.0. It is also available for anonymous FTP from many sites. One is ftp://ftp.Uni-Koeln.DE/decosf; and there you can also get a version that works with version 3.x of Digital UNIX. The latest official version of top (3.4) supports single cpu Alphas running Digital UNIX 1.2, 1.3, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.2. It's at ftp://eecs.nwu.edu/pub/top It does not support multi-cpu alphas, because no-one with root access to a multi-cpu alpha has stepped forward to do the work. When compiling, note the warning about compiling with optimisation. lsof, a utility for listing open files, is available from ftp://vic.cc.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof In addition there is a program for listing locks on files that runs on 3.2 and 4.0 at least in: ftp://vic.cc.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lslk vmubc is a graphical and tty-based tool for displaying statistics on CPU, UBC, and virtual memory. Note that to compile on OSF/1 2.x, add -DGSI_CPUS_IN_BOX=55 to the CFLAGS. vmubc is available from ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/Digital/vmubc.tar.Z It was written by George Chaltas of DEC. sys_check is a ksh script, that generates a HTML file of a Digital UNIX configuration. It is supported on both V3.2C-G, and V4.0A-D systems. Sys_check will be included in future DIGITAL UNIX Operating system releases. ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/IAS/sys_check/sys_check.html [Dave Sill] [Anthony Baxter] [Chris Eleveld] [Eric Schott] ============================================== S2. How can I figure out what files translated binaries are looking for? Try setenv MXR_TRACE_SYSCALLS open,stat,fstat,access Running mxr -help will describe this environment variable along with some other useful ones. [Richard Gorton, gorton@blorf.amt.ako.dec.com] ============================================== S3. Where can I get an alternative PostScript previewer? The previewer psview is available from http://www.ensmp.fr/~bourdonc [Francois Bourdoncle, Francois.Bourdoncle@ensmp.fr] ============================================== S4. Where can I get a T-shell (tcsh)? The current version of tcsh is 6.07. Look for it at: ftp://ftp.deshaw.com/pub/tcsh ftp://ftp.primate.wisc.edu/pub/csh-tcsh-book ============================================== S5. How can I use audio on AlphaStations and DECstations? There are a few options for playing audio on Alpha systems. Most workstations come with 8-kHz mono audio I/O hardware that is enabled by configuring the bba (base board audio) device in the kernel. The Sound & Motion J300 a/v TURBOchannel option card also has audio hardware that support programmable sample rates from 8kHz to 48kHz stereo. Two software packages are available to drive audio on Alpha systems: MME implements a Microsoft-style API and comes bundled with OSF/1. AF, developed at Digital's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs on a wide range of platforms including DECstation, Alpha, Sun, SGI, and HP. It is available in source form from ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/AF [Lance Berc, berc@src.dec.com] ============================================== S6. How do I play music CDs on CD-ROM drives? Sources for xcd are included in /usr/examples/motif/xcd. Another version of xcd is on the Freeware CD-ROM in both source and binary form, but that version may have been superseded by the one distributed with the operating system. Neither cdp nor xcd is supported by Digital. Two other programs are Workman and xmcd, both of which can be found on ftp.x.org. Of all these programs, xmcd seems to be the widest used and to have the largest database of audio CD data. [Anthony Baxter, anthony@aaii.oz.au] [Peter Kaiser, kaiser@acm.org] ============================================== S7. Can I run binaries from RISC/ULTRIX on a Digital UNIX system? DECmigrate for Digital UNIX Systems was announced with all of the Alpha AXP systems on November 10, 1992. For more information, look at the announcement article for the UNIX community: ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/DECinfo/DECnews-UNIX/0117.txt and the DECmigrate for Digital UNIX Software Product Description (SPD): ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/DECinfo/SPD/39-45-02.txt [Russ Jones, rjones@pa.dec.com] ============================================== S8. Where are patches/updates for DIGITAL UNIX available from? http://www.service.digital.com/patches/ is the place to go for a searchable database of available updates. ============================================== P1. What tools will help me port software to Digital UNIX? The Digital Porting Assistant (available for Digital UNIX 3.2, and shipped as part of the developer's toolkit on Digital UNIX 4.0) is a graphical environment which aids in the porting process. In addition to doing lint-like checking of C and Fortran code, it also contains extensive on-line help regarding developing software on Digital UNIX. Information about the Digital Porting Assistant can be found on the web at: http://www.digital.com/info/porting_assistant The version of lint shipped with Digital UNIX has many checks to help port software to Alpha. In particular, the -Q option is very useful. See the manual page for more details. There is also a document/book entitled: Interoperability, OpenVMS and DEC OSF/1 Interoperability Guide. EC-N3399-43. A company called Sector 7 deals with porting software from OpenVMS to Digital UNIX. http://www.sector7.com A document entitled "SunOS to DEC OSF/1 Porting Guide" is available from ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/DECinfo/document/EC-N0736-43.ps.Z The -taso flag to cc will often help with making code work on the 64bit Alpha. This causes addresses to be 32-bits and should be used only as a last resort. FreePort Express is a binary translator (running on Alpha) which permits you to convert your SunOS 4.1.x (same as Solaris 1.x) user executables into Digital UNIX executables in minutes. FreePort Express runs under Digital UNIX V3.0 or later, and is available FREE of charge (hence the name). http://www.novalink.com/freeport-express ============================================== P2. Why can't I run dbx? The development environment is a separate layered product beyond the base OS. Although it is included on the Digital UNIX consolidated CD-ROM, the license must be purchased separately to use any portion of the Developer's kit. Within the Digital UNIX Developer's Kit the license just happens to be enforced by a check in dbx. For more information, look in ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/DECinfo/DECnews-UNIX for: 0104.txt DEC OSF/1 Developer's Extensions V1.2 article, 11/17/92 0603.txt DEC OSF/1 Developer's Toolkit V1.2 article, 03/23/93 0806.txt C Compiler for DEC OSF/1 Operating System article, 05/13/93 [Russ Jones, rjones@pa.dec.com] ============================================== P3. Why do my applications not work after I upgrade to a new version of Digital UNIX? Sometimes the details of the shared libraries change between releases. In general, applications compiled on an earlier version of Digital UNIX should still run on a later version. The converse may not be true. The usual solution is to recompile from scratch. [John Kohl, jtkohl@zk3.dec.com] ============================================== P4. Where can I get a debugging malloc that works on Digital UNIX? ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/misc/malloc_dbg. If you get the package, be sure to read the stuff in the file contrib/dec_notes which explains how to replace malloc on the fly in an existing program. [Dave Hill, ddhill@zk3.dec.com] The ATOM tools with Digital UNIX 3.0 and later also help with debugging memory allocation problems. [Anthony Baxter, anthony.baxter@aaii.oz.au] Sentinel, from AIB Software Corporation is a run-time analysis tool that supports memory access error detection as well as leak detection on Digital UNIX. More info, as well as free evaluation copies, is available from info@aib.com, or by calling 800-296-3000 (703-787-7700). [Conor P. Cahill, cpcahil@aib.com] ============================================== P5. What's with 'ld: unresolved symbols: dnet_conn'? Some libraries on Digital UNIX (notably the X11 library) are compiled so that they can use DECnet as well as TCP/IP. To link with such libraries, include -ldnet_stub at the end of link command. If you have DECnet software installed, use -ldnet. ============================================== P6. How can I tell what program generated a core file? 1. Use the dbx debugger. 2. Use the "file" program (e.g., file <corefile>) 3. Use "strings" to find clues in the core file (e.g., strings <corefile>) ============================================== P7. What does "unaligned access" mean, and how can I fix it? Unaligned accesses typically come up when programs use malloc(3) or other memory allocation routines in atypical ways, or when programs do certain (hazardous) kinds of type casts. malloc(3) returns data aligned to the most restrictive alignment (8 byte boundaries). If you are writing your own malloc wrapper (say to add a reference count) and you write code like this: char *mymalloc(int size) { short *newmem; newmem = (short *) malloc(size + sizeof(short)); *newmem = 1; /* initialize reference count */ return (char *) (newmem + 1); } you are then returning a pointer that is no longer 8-byte aligned. Now, code like int *i; i = (int *) mymalloc(sizeof(int)); *i = 10; will generate unaligned access messages whenever *i is used. An example of dangerous casting would be something like char buffer[100]; int i; i = (int)*((int *)&buffer[3]); The program will usually still run correctly, because an exception handler in the kernel performs an unaligned read. There are some rare cases, however, where the fixed read yields incorrect results. The messages are printed by default because one usually wants to know when a program is generating the unaligned accesses. Now, if you're only getting a few of these messages, it might not matter, but if you're getting pages of them (or worse, have turned off the logger because you were getting so many unaligned access messages), you might consider correcting your program. You can use the uac(1) (Unaligned Acces Message Control) command to turn off the messages. If you want to find the the problem in the source code, you can use dbx. Suppose the message is: Fixed up unaligned data access for pid 2337 (bozo) at pc 0x5ad364 This tells you that the problem occurs in the program "bozo". In dbx, you would type, for example: % dbx bozo (dbx) 0x5ad364/i *[main:206, 0x0x5ad364] lw r0,40(sp) dbx prints the offending instruction, along with its location: line 206 in main(). ============================================== P8. What about "unaligned access" in FORTRAN programs? This is most often caused by COMMON blocks in which variables are not naturally aligned. For example: REAL*4 X REAL*8 Y COMMON /CMN/ X,Y Y will be at offset 4, which is not a multiple of its size (8). The best solution is to rearrange variables in the COMMON so that real, complex and integer variables are listed in order of decreasing size, followed by CHARACTER variables. Put your declaration in an INCLUDE file to make sure all uses are consistent! You can also ask the compiler to automatically add padding to align variables through the -align dcommons switch, or through a CDEC$ OPTIONS directive. See the DEC Fortran User Manual for further details. [Steve Lionel] ============================================== P9. How can I get microsecond resolution from gettimeofday(2)? Question: how does one get microsecond resolution from the gettimeofday(2) system call? Answer: Normally, Digital UNIX updates its internal idea of the current time once per clock tick (1024 Hz, or about once per millisecond). In Digital UNIX V4.0 and later, it is possible to rebuild the kernel to support approximately microsecond resolution from the gettimeofday(2) system call, and from the various library routines that use this system call. To enable this option, add the following line to the kernel configuration file and rebuild the kernel: options MICRO_TIME The system clock (CLOCK_REALTIME) resolution as returned by clock_getres(3) will not change. Timer resolution remains the same. However, the granularity of the time returned by gettimeofday(2) and clock_gettime(3) will now be in microseconds. The time values returned are SMP safe and monotonically increasing. The high-resolution clock can be used for timestamping and for measuring durations on the order of microseconds, such as time spent in some critical code path. [Jeff Mogul] ============================================== G1. How can I make the graphics go faster? If your application is sending lots of data (using, say, PutImage requests), try setting DISPLAY to local:0, which uses a shared memory transport between the client and the X server. [Gail Grant] ============================================== G2. Where can I get an xv that works on Digital UNIX? XV 3.10a supports Digital UNIX. It can be obtained from: ftp://ftp.cis.upenn.edu/pub/xv xv is also included on the Freeware CD-ROM (see question A1). ============================================== G3. How do I get an xdm session as root? Add the lines host:0 host.sub.domain:0 to the file /etc/securettys to allow root to login. [szabo_p@maths.su.oz.au] ============================================== G4. How do I allow xdm sessions at C2 security? If you get the error 'Cannot obtain database information on this terminal', Follow this advice from the Digital support people and change the files /etc/auth/system/ttys, /etc/auth/system/devassign and /etc/securettys as follows: In the following, replace host, host.sub.domain and n.n.n.n by the hostname, full domain name and IP address of the host(s) you are trying to connect from. Add lines like the following to /etc/auth/system/ttys : host\:0:t_devname=host\:0:t_xdisplay:t_login_timeout#0:chkent: Add lines like the following to /etc/auth/system/devassign : host\:0:v_devs=host\:0,host.sub.domain\:0,n.n.n.n\:0:v_type=xdisplay:chkent: Add lines like the following to /etc/securettys : host.sub.domain:0 host:0 [szabo_p@maths.su.oz.au] ============================================== N1. Why doesn't FTP work to an XYZ system? Digital UNIX uses the IP type-of-service option (TOS) by default. This confuses some systems (reportedly Macintoshes). To turn off the option for ftp, create a file /etc/iptos with the following entries: ftp-control tcp 0x0 ftp-data tcp 0x0 Reboot the Alpha system. ============================================== N2. How do you use a NFS-mounted /usr filesystem on Digital UNIX? Jon Forrest (forrest@cs.Berkeley.EDU) has written a document that describes how to do this. Look in ftp://s2k-ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/pub/personal/forrest/remote.mounting [Jon Forrest, forrest@postgres.Berkeley.EDU] ============================================== N3. Where can I get rstatd for Digital UNIX? rstatd is in /usr/sbin/rpc.rstatd ============================================== N4. How do I switch between the AUI and 10 Base-T Ethernet ports? For the DEC n000 series of systems, the syntax is: - Shutdown the system. - At the ">>>" prompt, type: set ethernet thick or set ethernet tenbt - Reboot the system. [Steve Imber, stevei@anduril.fsc.qut.edu.au] For the AlphaStation and AlphaServer systems, the syntax is different and depends on what Ethernet adapter you're using. For Digital EtherWorks adapters, they'll automatically select between AUI and 10 Base-T but you may have to use the console command: set EWA0_MODE AUI to have this happen. Use the keyword TWISTED-PAIR if that's what you've got. ============================================== N5. Where can I get multicast software for Digital UNIX? Information about software for multicast applications on Digital UNIX is available from: http://s2k-ftp.cs.berkeley.edu:8000/sequoia/conferencing or ftp://s2k-ftp.CS.Berkeley.EDU/pub/sequoia/conferencing [Fred Templin, templin@postgres.Berkeley.EDU] Binaries of the MBone application suite are also available at http://chocolate.pa.dec.com/mbone ftp://chocolate.pa.dec.com/mbone [Lance Berc, berc@src.dec.com] ============================================== N6. What's wrong with xdr_long in the Digital UNIX XDR routines? xdr_long is used for sending signed 32-bit values and cannot send 0xFFFFFFFF. xdr_ulong should be used instead. For 64-bit integer values, use xdr_hyper. See the manual pages for more details. [Curtis Keller, curtis@kinesix.com] This is slightly misleading. xdr_long() can send -1, which in 32 bits is 0xffffffff. xdr_long() does range checking, insuring that the top 33 bits of its 64-bit argument are all ones or all zeroes. If this is not the case, then the signed long integer is beyond the range of representation within a signed 32-bit value, and xdr_long() rightly fails. xdr_u_long() [note typo above!] insures that the top 32 bits of its 64-bit argument are all zero. If this is not the case, then the unsigned long integer is beyond ... blah blah. So, the upshot is: If you're using signed values, use xdr_long(), and DON'T use unsigned constants like 0xffffffff to set variables. If you're using unsigned values, use xdr_u_long(). In both cases, make sure you're within range for 32-bits, if you want to interoperate with 32-bit machines using native data types. [John Kohl,jtk@atria.com] ============================================== N7. How do I configure the Berkeley Packet Filter and capture tcpdump traces? 1) Installing packet filter support tcpdump relies on a kernel option that ordinarily isn't enabled. You can fix this either by adding "options PACKETFILTER" to the system's configuration file and rebuilding (via doconfig -c <FILE>) or by: # doconfig *** KERNEL CONFIGURATION AND BUILD PROCEDURE *** Enter a name for the kernel configuration file. [ALINGO]: FILTER You want to name the configuration file 'FILTER' Is that correct? (y/n) [y]: y *** KERNEL OPTION SELECTION *** Selection Kernel Option --------------------------------------------------------------- 1 System V Devices 2 Logical Volume Manager (LVM) 3 Kernel Breakpoint Debugger (KDEBUG) 4 Packetfilter driver (PACKETFILTER) 5 STREAMS pckt module (PCKT) 6 Data Link Bridge (DLPI V2.0 Service Class 1) 7 X/Open Transport Interface (XTISO, TIMOD, TIRDWR) 8 File on File File System (FFM) 9 ISO 9660 Compact Disc File System (CDFS) 10 Audit Subsystem 11 Local Area Transport Support 12 All of the above 13 None of the above --------------------------------------------------------------- Enter the selection number for each kernel option you want. For example, 1 3 : 4 You selected the following kernel options: Packetfilter driver (PACKETFILTER) Is that correct? (y/n) [y]: ... Rebuild and boot the new kernel. 2) Create the packetfilter devices: # cd /dev # ./MAKEDEV pfilt MAKEDEV: special file(s) for pfilt: pfilt0 pfilt1 pfilt2 pfilt3 pfilt4 pfilt5 pfilt6 ... pfilt63 3) Get a better tcpdump (pre V4.0 systems only) Email me for a compressed, uuencoded file of a tcpdump that decodes NFS V3 and several other Sun RPC protocols (MOUNT, NIS, NLM, PORTMAP, and STATMON). 4) Enable local copy promiscuous mode # pfconfig +p +c ln0 (or tu0 or whatever) 5) Run tcpdump Please read the man pages before doing serious monitoring! To look at some NFS traffic, try: # tcpdump -s300 -c100 -Nt udp port 2049 [to look at all NFS traffic] # tcpdump -s300 -c100 -Nt host foo [to look at all to/from foo] -s300 "snaps" up the first 300 bytes of each message, generally enough to get lower level headers, RPC, and enough NFS protocol to make sense of the requests. -c100 says to capture 100 messages and exit. -N says to suppress the domain name (e.g. .zk3.dec.com) in hostnames. -t says to suppress printing timestamps. The result is usually still too long for a 80 column screen, I keep a wide xterm lying around for most of my tcpdump monitoring. The -m option splits some messages over multiple lines. If you send people traces, I generally recommend that you capture data to a binary file and send that. If the recipient needs to, he can run tcpdump with extra filtering or -x (hex dump) to really dig into problems. Do something like: # tcpdump -w /usr/tmp/foo.dmp -s300 udp port 2049 tcpdump: listening on ln0 Using kernel BPF filter ^C 1040 packets # compress foo.dmp # uuencode foo.dmp.Z < foo.dmp.Z > foo.uu Capturing to a file bypasses all the decoding code which can be very slow and can generate its own IP traffic (e.g. resolving host names). [Ric Werme, werme@zk3.dec.com] ============================================== H1. Where can I get information about Alpha chips? Call the DECchip Hotline 1-800-332-2717 (voice) 1-800-332-2515 (TTY) 8:30am - 5:30pm ET [Jim Gettys, jg@crl.dec.com] ============================================== H2. How can I get a parallel printer to work? Some parallel printers are supported by Digital UNIX - see the Software Product Description for a list. If you are unable to get a printer working, the following tips may be helpful. If you can do "date > /dev/lp0" successfully, then it should also work with lpd. Trouble is, lprsetup adds an "rw" tag in /etc/printcap which lets the data flow stall. You might try something like this: # parallel connection lp3|3|fleet|post:\ :lf=/usr/adm/lpderrs:\ :lp=/dev/lp0:\ :mx#0:\ :pl#66:\ :pw#80:\ :sd=/usr/spool/lp3:\ :sh:\ :xf=/usr/lbin/xf: BTW: That was for an HP Laserjet before we used its JetDirect (=Ethernet) card which supports lpd directly via TCP/IP. The entry for this usage is: # ether connection lp3|3|fleet|post:\ :lf=/var/adm/lpderrs:\ :lp=:\ :rm=fleet:\ :rp=fleet:\ :sd=/var/spool/lp3:\ :mx#0:\ :sh: The printer has an IP address of its own and is called "fleet". I have seen for the "rp" tag names like "raw" or "text" to distinguish between postscript or text but the above entry works as well. Users that need to print text use "unix2dos" as filter but we'd rather discourage that and favour dot matrix printers for that purpose. [Michael Sternberg, sternberg@physik.tu-chemnitz.de] This configuration for JetDirect cards works only with revision 2 of these cards, not with version 1. You can easily find out, if it is capable doing remote printing: Revision 2 can be configured using telnet. [Robert Schuhl, rschuhl@rsl000.rhein-main.de] ============================================== H3. Where can I get a printcap entry for the XXX printer? A collection of contributed printcap entries is in ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/ultrix-printcap Get a copy of the file for an up-to-date list. Despite the name, these are good for Digital UNIX as well. ============================================== H4. What are the pinouts of the MMJ jacks? This describes the 6-pin modified modular jack (MMJ) used for serial ports on various Digital hardware. Digital carries four DB-to-MMJ adaptors. They are internally wired as follows Rdy Out TX+ TX- RX- RX+ Rdy In Adaptor Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 Use with: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- H8575-A F 20 2 7 7 3 6&8 VTxxx terminal H8571-C M 6 3 7 7 2 20 Digital printer H8571-D M 6 3 7 7 2 20 Modem H8571-E M 20 2 7 7 3 6&8 Female terminal or LaserWriter -------------------------------------------------------------------------- RS-232 using DB-25 connectors: DTE DCE Terminal Modem or computer Pin Number Signal Name 2 TD Transmit Data --> 3 RD Receive Data <-- 7 GND Ground --- 6 DSR Data Set Ready <-- 8 DCD Data Carrier Detect <-- 20 DTR Data Terminal Ready --> ============================================== H5. Where can I get a disktab entry for the XXX disk? newfs is smart enough to get the geometry of the disk from the drive, although this feature is not documented for all versions. Use newfs /dev/rrz#x /dev/rrz#x to do this. For most uses, you don't need a disktab entry on Digital UNIX. The disklabel command can get the default partition table and geometry from the disk driver and will put that in the label. When the label is present, newfs doesn't need a disktab entry either. A collection of contributed disktab entries is in /pub/DEC/ultrix-disktabs on the usual archive machines. Get a copy of the file for an up-to-date list. The disktab collection may also be used on Digital UNIX, but not all entries have been tested on all platforms. ============================================== H6. How can I read/write MS-DOS floppy disks? If you have a floppy disk drive on your ULTRIX or OSF/1 system, get "mtools", a set of MS-DOS utilities for UNIX. The package can be copied from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/mtools-2.0.7 It works on both DECstations and Alphas. When you build mtools, you need to find out which device your floppy is (/dev/rrz2c is common). Then you can clone the SPARC definitions, or #define SPARC and make /dev/rfd0c a symlink to the one you need. [Win Treese, treese@lcs.mit.edu] ============================================== H7. How can I get disktab information for a new disk? For disks that do not have entries in the /etc/disktab file, the following disklabel command will query the disk itself for geometry information: disklabel -rw /dev/rrzXc unknown Where /dev/rrzXc is the device name of the disk. [John Speno, speno@swarthmore.edu] ============================================== M1. Where else is Digital UNIX discussed? You can join the mailing list alpha-osf-managers@ornl.gov. Send a message with subscribe alpha-osf-managers in the body to Majordomo@ornl.gov. [Dave Sill, de5@ornl.gov] Archives of alpha-osf-managers mailings are kept at: http://www.ornl.gov/cts/archives/mailing-lists/ http://www-archive.stanford.edu/lists/alpha-osf-managers/hyper/ http://www-archive.stanford.edu/lists/alpha-osf-managers.html http://www-archive.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/fwais.pl ============================================== M2. How do I add a new terminal definition? Some applications on Digital UNIX use termcap; others use terminfo. tic(1) compiles a termcap definition for terminfo. It is best to add a new terminal definition both ways. [Jeffrey Heller, jeffreyh@kpc.com] ============================================== M3. How do I boot to single-user mode? >>> boot -fl s -fl specifies the flags to the booted image. [Boris Yost, boris@msc.cornell.edu] ============================================== M4. I heard that OSF is dropping OSF/1. What does that mean for Digital UNIX? [The following is a "position statement" on this subject from Digital] As part of its reorganization in March of 1994, the Open Software Foundation announced transition plans for its existing technologies. It has been well understood since then that the June 1994 release of OSF/1, the OSF's operating system source code, would be the last. The possibility remains open that OSF sponsors may choose to fund additional work in the operating system area, but no projects are underway. It is important to understand what OSF/1 is and has always been. It is not a finished operating system but a set of operating system technology components, from which vendors can pick and choose pieces of technology that complement their product development strategies. Many UNIX system vendors use elements of OSF/1 code -- Hewlett-Packard in HP-UX, IBM in AIX, and many others, including Digital in Digital UNIX. Digital uses components of OSF/1 technology, just as it integrates technology from other suppliers with its own internal development. By following this strategy of integrating needed components, Digital has been able to produce the best implementation of the UNIX operating system in the industry and to bring it to market quickly. Since the initial releases, development of Digital's product has not been dependent on OSF code. Digital's plans for the future development of Digital UNIX are fully under Digital's control, and our plans for a fully SPEC 1170 compliant version, UNIX clusters, and other leading commercial enhancements are on course. ============================================== M5. How can I read VMS BACKUP tapes on a UNIX machine? There is a utility called vmsbackup to do this. Earlier URLs for this software are now invalid - the following is part of a set of FreeBSD ports - it may or may not work on other UNIX systems. http://www.ee.freebsd.org/ports/emulators.html#vmsbackup-3.0 Vbackup is a commercial product which can read and write VMS-compatible BACKUP savesets. http://www.bbc.com/vbackup.htm ============================================== M6. How do I contact Digital Customer Relations? If you are having a problem dealing with Digital that you cannot satisfactorily resolve through your local Digital office, please contact US Customer Relations at: Internet: response@mkots3.enet.dec.com Phone: 800-DEC-INFO or 603-884-0915 FAX: 603-884-4692 Mail: US Customer Relations Digital Equipment Corporation Digital Drive, MKO2-2/D15 P.O. Box 9501 Merrimack, NH 03054-9501 Non-US customers may also use these contacts; information will be directed to the appropriate corporate office. Please include your name, organization, address, phone number and Internet address in all correspondence. ============================================== M7. How do I get an ESC (escape) character on a DEC keyboard? 1. Use F11 on the LK201 or LK401 (in most keyboard modes). 2. Use Ctrl-[ (left bracket) 3. Adjust the keyboard mapping in DECterm, if that's what you're using. 4. Use dxkeycaps to produce commands for xmodmap. See the manual pages for details. 5. Get an LK421-AA keyboard, a North American keyboard designed for UNIX systems. It has an ESC key, no caps lock, and the keypad has been removed so the keyboard is smaller. [Castor Fu, castor@drizzle.Stanford.EDU] ============================================== M8. Where can I read announcements from Digital? biz.digital.announce is Digital Equipment Corporation's newsgroup for posting business information on products, services, significant contracts, organizational announcements, cooperative marketing agreements, alliances, seminars, promotions, etc. The newsgroup will be organized so that you can use a "kill" file with your newsreader to skip over (or ignore) classes of announcements that are not of interest. All postings will be organized along the following lines: Subject: Press/... Digital Press Releases Subject: Fact Sheet/... - Supporting Fact Sheets Subject: Backgrounder/... - Supporting Editorial Backgrounders Subject: Partner/... Press Releases from Digital's Partners Subject: Seminar/... Seminars offered by Digital Subject: Promotion/... Sales Promotions offered by Digital Subject: Show/... Digital Tradeshow Activities Subject: Training/... Digital Education & Training The new biz.digital hierarchy is: biz.digital.announce News and Announcements biz.digital.articles Newsletters, Catalog, and Journal Articles ============================================== M9. Where can I get performance information about Digital products? World-Wide Web: http://www.digital.com/info/performance.html FTP: ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/info/performance ============================================== M10. How do I report security problems to Digital? Security problems or questions should go to your normal Customer Support Center. ============================================== M11. How do I deal with the swap file filling up? Remove the file /sbin/swapdefaults and reboot. Digital UNIX has two paging modes, lazy and conservative. Conservative means that paging space is allocated as memory is allocated, guaranteeing that there is always somewhere to page to. This limits VM to the size of the paging partitions, but makes for a very robust system. Lazy is more like what people are used to with Unix - paging space is allocated when needed for paging out, you can run more jobs, but you're in big trouble when everything fills up. By default, Digital UNIX comes up in the conservative mode. Removing the swapdefaults file changes the system to lazy mode. [Lance Berc, berc@src.dec.com] ============================================== M12. How do I deal with login problems? Versions of Digital UNIX earlier than V3.0 use the /upgrade file to allow access to non-root users. Generally, on these versions, the inability of non-root users to log in is due to a problem with this file. Typically, this file gets deleted by somebody who doesn't understand its purpose. To recover from this problem, do one of the following: 1. cp -p /upgrade0 /upgrade 2. copy /upgrade from another pre-V3.0 Digitial UNIX system. 3. Obtain the O/S distribution media and extract the /upgrade0 file. a. mount -r /dev/rz<x>c /mnt b. cat /mnt/ALPHA/BASE/OSFBASE200 | uncompress | tar xvf - ./upgrade0 c. cp upgrade0 /upgrade NOTE: the 200 in OSFBASE200 varies based on the O/S version. Digital UNIX V3.0 uses the OSF-BASE and OSF-USR PAKs to determine the amount of users allowed. A valid OSF-BASE PAK is required to activate the OSF-USR PAKs. By default, the OSF-BASE PAK alone provides 2 concurrent user support by activating an OSF-USR PAK which is automatically installed. If zero non-root users can login, then you probably have not installed your OSF-BASE PAK properly or it has expired. (Use the "lmf list" command to see the list of installed PAKs. A PAK is good if its status is "active".) Install a valid OSF-BASE PAK. If the problem still persists, then you likely do not have any OSF-USR PAK. Since one is automatically installed for you, this means that somebody inadvertantly deleted the PAK. You can recover this PAK by entering the following: /sbin/it.d/bin/twouser Two concurrent users should be allowed to login at at this time. If your problem is that only two users are allowed to login at the same time, then you probably need a larger or additional OSF-USR PAKs. If you have installed an "unlimited user" OSF-USR PAK but are seeing a restriction on the number of users allowed to login, delete all OSF-USR PAKs other than the PAK which provides for unlimited users. [Dave Parker, djp@unx.dec.com] ============================================== M13. How do I figure out what version of Digital UNIX I have? The following table correlates the output of the "uname -a" command to the "marketing name" for various Digital UNIX (DEC OSF/1) versions: V2.0 240 V3.0 347 V3.0B 358.78 V3.2 214 V3.2A 17 V3.2B 214.61 V3.2C 148 V3.2D-1 41 V3.2D-2 41.64 V3.2F 69.73 V3.2G 62 V4.0 386 V4.0A 464 V4.0B 564 V4.0C 564.32 To determine the correct information for any version of Digital UNIX: # strings /vmunix | grep '(Rev.' | cut -f1 -d';' Or use (For DU v4.0 or higher): # sizer -v | cut -f1 -d';' [Dave Parker] ============================================== M14. Is there a Digital UNIX web site? Yes - http://www.unix.digital.com/ ============================================== M15. How do I free disk space for an update installation? Some users have experienced problems recovering ample disk space after an update installation has aborted due to insufficient space. The following is an example of a typical problem encountered during an update: 1) The update installation exits and indicates that additional space is needed in a particular file system (root, /usr, and/or /var) to perform the update. 2) The user deletes or moves files from the affected file system and/or removes subsets. 3) The user initiates another update attempt. 4) The update installation aborts again because of lack of space, even though the user believes that the space requested during the first attempt has been recovered. There may be several reasons for this problem: o Some users are not following the proper method for removing system files to recover disk space, as described below. o A bug has been identified in the update installation disk space calculation for AdvFS file systems. See "AdvFS Disk Space Calculation Bug" below. o Deletion of small files from an AdvFS file system may not immediately free additional space. See "Additional AdvFS Considerations" below. The proper methods for freeing disk space are as follows: 1) Remove any non-critical optional subsets using 'setld -d'. Deleting or moving individual system files without using the 'setld' command will not yield the additional space needed to continue. Refer to the appropriate appendix of the Installation Guide containing the subset size information that corresponds to the version of Digital UNIX that you have currently installed to help you decide which subsets to remove. 2) Remove any non-critical user-added files which are not part of the base or layered product inventory. Typical large space consumers are left over core files and kernels that are no longer required. 3) For those who have previously performed Digital UNIX update installations, left over obsolete system files, .PreUPD files, and .PreMRG files can use significant amounts of file system space. Use the 'updadmin' utility to first back-up then delete these files. Refer to the installation guide for more information on using updadmin. 4) For AdvFS filesystems, it is possible to save approximately 3MB in root by building a mandatory only kernel (the default) rather than an interactive kernel (i.e. do not specify the "-i" flag to installupdate). Note that you must specify the "-i" flag if there are optional kernel selections that your system depends upon that cannot be satisfied by a mandatory kernel. Section 5.20 of the Digital UNIX 4.0 installation guide gives descriptions of each kernel option. AdvFS Disk Space Calculation Bug -------------------------------- There is currently a known problem with the update space calculation procedure for AdvFS file systems. The bug may cause the update installation to report an amount of 'additional space needed' that is smaller than what is actually necessary. Therefore subsequent update attempts may still request additional space even after the amount originally requested has been freed. This bug will not corrupt your existing system or prevent you from performing an update, but it may cause you to have to free space and restart the update more than once. This bug has been fixed for Digital UNIX 4.0B. Additional AdvFS File System Considerations ------------------------------------------- When removing small files (less than 8K) from an AdvFS file system, additional free space may not be made available to the file system immediately. After the total amount of space consumed by these deleted files reaches a threshold value, all of the space is made available in one large block. This explains why deletion of several small files may not increase the available block count (as shown by "df", for example). In this case the user must continue to delete non-system user-added files until there is an adequate increase in the available block count to allow the update installation to continue. [Brad Musolff, bdm@unx.dec.com] ============================================== M16. Why doesn't deleting individual system files free space for an update installation? Deleting files which are part of installed base or layered product subsets will not produce additional free space because the update installation takes into account that these old files will be replaced by new versions. The disk space calculation determines how much additional space is needed to replace an old version of a file with its new version. If the old version of a file is removed without removing the entire subset in which it resides, the update installation will still put the new version on the system. In this situation the full size of the new file will be allocated instead of the difference between the size of the original and new versions. For example, if /genvmunix was 7MB and a new version of /genvmunix was 8MB, update would need to reserve 1MB of free space for the new version. If /genvmunix was deleted before the update, the disk space calculation would then reserve the full 8MB for the new file. So although 7MB was freed before the update, 7MB more would be reserved during the update, which would result in no difference in the amount of additional space needed to continue the update. [Brad Musolff] ============================================== M17. How do I tune my system for use as a web server? Elaborate instructions are given on a Web page titled "Digital UNIX Tuning Parameters for Web Servers", available at http://www.digital.com/info/internet/document/ias/tuning.html This page is updated from time to time, as new information becomes available. ============================================== M18. Why does dxaccounts tells me that the password and group files are locked? If a dxaccounts process exits ungracefully (e.g. if a kill -9 is used) then it sometimes leaves a file in /etc called .AM_is_running. Deleting this file will solve the problem. [Ian Lloyd] [End of FAQ]