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Subject: soc.culture.scottish FAQ

This article was archived around: 27 Jan 2011 05:24:39 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: cultures/scottish
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.scottish, soc.culture.celtic
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Version: 5.08 URL: http://www.siliconglen.com Archive-name: cultures/scottish/scottish-faq Posting-Frequency: 4 months Last-modified: 30-Nov-2010
The Internet's first guide to Scotland and Scottish culture. Foreword -------- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for the soc.culture.scottish usenet newsgroup and Scottish information likely to be of general interest. news:soc.culture.scottish was created on 24th May 1995. The proposer was Brian Atkins and the group charter is located at the start of this FAQ. The information here is copyright (c) Craig Cockburn 1994-2010, please ask me if you want to use any material here for any purpose. The idea for an on-line reference source for Scottish material came to me in 1989 when I started the Scotland notesfile when working at Digital (now Compaq/HP). This FAQ first appeared in May 1994. FAQ Information --------------- The latest version of this FAQ, together with FTP sites for the FAQ and details of how to get it by mail is at http://www.siliconglen.com/ There are details there of the FAQ in Text, HTML and Zip formats as well as a full search engine. There is also an associated e-mail list for the newsgroup. This FAQ is a living document, if there's any corrections, additions or comments you'd like to make, please send them to me for the next edition. The usual major updates for the rtfm.mit.edu archive are :- 25-Jan (Burns night) 1-May (Beltain) 1-Aug (Lammas) 30-Nov (St Andrew's day). Thanks to all those who have contributed articles, comments and corrections to this FAQ. Craig Cockburn, Editor and main author. mailto:craig@siliconglen.com WWW: http://www.siliconglen.com/ Scotland (Alba). Please don't e-mail me with questions which can be answered by posting them in soc.culture.scottish or other related newsgroups or mailing lists mentioned here. I already get too much mail to be able to answer it all. For tourism questions, contact visitscotland.com mailto:info@visitscotland.com tel: +44 1506 832121 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) ================================ Gaelic: Ceistean Minig a Thig Scots: Aften speirit quaistions Some sayings: "Is truagh nach ta\inig Minig Nach Tig Leath cho minig 's a tha\inig Minig a Thig" <It's a pity that the things which don't come often don't come half as frequently as the things which do"> (adapted from an Irish story) "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation" (Voltaire). FAQ Contents ============ (full index follows after this summary) 1. General Information, Scottish society 2. Celtic culture and language information 3. Scots language information 4. Scottish music 5. Literature and Poetry 6. Festivals 7. Gaelic information 8. Gaelic song and music 9. Song lyrics 10. Scottish dance 11. Historical information 12. Traditions and Culture 13. Food, drink and pubs 14. Travel, Tourism and What's on 15. Areas and Places of Scotland 16. Sport and Recreation 17. Education 18. Media and Broadcasting 19. Government, Politics and Sovereignty 20. Internet and Computing information 21. Sources of Further information 22. Links in this FAQ General Information, Scottish society ------------------------------------- [1.1] Charter of soc.culture.scottish [1.2] Scotland's name [1.3] The Saltire (Scotland's flag) [1.4] Geological Information [1.5] Scottish saints and towns [1.6] Scotland's population [1.7] Currency and legal tender [1.8] Legal questions [1.9] Scottish books [1.10] Business start-up information [1.11] Scottish import shops [1.12] Scottish exporters [1.13] Scottish inventors [1.14] Scottish business links [1.15] Getting a job in Scotland [1.16] Scottish Yellow Pages [1.17] Scottish White Pages [1.18] Getting Scottish addresses and phone numbers [1.19] Buying a house, letting accommodation [1.20] Women's issues [1.21] Community information [1.22] National holidays [1.23] Sheep [1.24] City status Celtic culture and language information --------------------------------------- [2.1] Celtic background [2.2] Celtic art and font links [2.3] The Celtic cross [2.4] Postgraduate courses in Celtic studies [2.5] The history of language in Scotland [2.6] Celtic knotwork [2.7] Pan-Celtic organisations in Scotland [2.8] Imbas mailing list Scots language information -------------------------- [3.1] What is the Scots language. Who do I contact for more info? [3.2] On-line Scots language info [3.3] Scots Language Society / Scots Leid Associe [3.4] Lowlands-L mailing list Scottish music -------------- [4.1] Introduction to Scottish Music [4.2] Suggestions for a Scottish National Anthem [4.3] Scottish Music record labels [4.4] Folk Events Listings [4.5] Folk and Traditional Music Record shops [4.6] Primary folk music pubs and sessions [4.7] Folk Clubs [4.8] Scottish music information [4.9] Traditional Music and Song Association of Scotland (TMSA) [4.10] Scottish Groups, Folk Groups, Artists and Bands [4.11] Fiddle styles [4.12] Books for learning the fiddle [4.13] Where can I get a piper? [4.14] Where can I get bagpipes? [4.15] Early bagpipe references [4.16] Learning to play the harp (clarsach) [4.17] Scottish Arts Council [4.18] Living Tradition [4.19] Traditional Scottish Music and Culture List [4.20] Cape Breton music mailing list [4.21] Reference material for Scottish music [4.22] The Piano film music Literature and Poetry --------------------- [5.1] Primary literary figures [5.2] Info on Robert Burns [5.3] Address to a Haggis - Robert Burns [5.4] Robert Burns links [5.5] The Celtic muse in Scott's 'Waverley' [5.6] Scottish Poetry Library [5.7] The Saltire Society [5.8] Women's writing [5.9] Scottish literature and writers [5.10] Literature magazines and newsletters [5.11] The Selkirk Grace [5.12] Obituary of Sorley MacLean [5.13] Sunset Song Festivals --------- [6.1] Scottish folk festivals [6.2] Edinburgh Festival Fringe [6.3] Edinburgh Folk Festival [6.4] Gaelic festivals / Feisean nan Gaidheal [6.5] Festivals in Edinburgh [6.6] Scottish and Celtic festivals worldwide [6.7] Hebridean Celtic Festival Gaelic information ------------------ [7.1] How can I learn Gaelic? [7.2] Gaelic links [7.3] Where can I get Gaelic books? [7.4] Scots Gaelic products and catalogue [7.5] Where can I get Gaelic music and lyrics, info on Gaelic songs [7.6] The National Mod and Local Mods [7.7] How mutually intelligible are Scots and Irish Gaelic? [7.8] Gaelic playgroups [7.9] Gaelic newspapers [7.10] Gaelic Arts [7.11] Info on Scots Gaelic accents [7.12] Scots Gaelic translation services [7.13] Dog commands in Gaelic [7.14] Census figures for Gaelic speakers Gaelic song and music ------------------- [8.1] Learning Gaelic song [8.2] Waulking songs and information [8.3] Puirt a beul [8.4] Gaelic psalm singing [8.5] Piobaireachd, Pibroch and Piping [8.6] Oldest datable Gaelic Song [8.7] Information on Runrig [8.8] Information on Capercaillie Song lyrics ----------- [9.1] Scottish songs on-line [9.2] Scottish song books [9.3] Frequently requested songs Scottish dance -------------- [10.1] Understanding Scottish Dance music [10.2] What is a Ceilidh [10.3] Article on Scottish Step Dancing [10.4] What is Scottish Country Dancing? [10.5] Scottish Highland Dancing [10.6] Books on Scottish dancing Historical information ---------------------- [11.1] How do I trace my Scottish ancestry? [11.2] Scottish Monarchs [11.3] Declaration of Arbroath [11.4] History and Archaeology information [11.5] The Picts [11.6] Antiquarian books [11.7] Historical re-enactments [11.8] Museum of Scotland project [11.9] The story of Glasgow's emblem (fish and ring) [11.10] Scottish historic buildings and sites [11.11] William Wallace / Braveheart [11.12] Clan Links [11.13] John MacLean [11.14] Robert Tannahill [11.15] Robert the Bruce [11.16] Thomas Muir [11.17] John Paul Jones [11.18] The Auld Alliance [11.19] The Clearances [11.20] Battle of Culloden [11.21] Knights Templar [11.22] Freemasonry [11.23] Vikings [11.24] Scots emigration/immigration to the US [11.25] The fairy flag of MacLeod legend Traditions and Culture ---------------------- [12.1] Learning and studying Scottish Culture [12.2] Cultural Newsletters and websites [12.3] Kilts and their history [12.4] Plaid [12.5] Tartan and Tartan Day [12.6] Where to buy/hire a kilt and Highland accessories [12.7] Kirking of the tartans [12.8] Scotch [12.9] Scottish Wedding Information [12.10] The Church of Scotland [12.11] Choosing a Scottish name for your child [12.12] Couthie on the Craigie - Hyperreal Scottish culture [12.13] Burns night / St Andrews Day / Tartan Day [12.14] Saint Andrew's society [12.15] Christmas Customs [12.16] Hogmanay Customs [12.17] New Year Fire Festivals [12.18] Ba' game, Orkney [12.19] Halloween [12.20] Use of Mc Vs Mac in Scottish Surnames [12.21] What is worn under the kilt? Food, drink and pubs -------------------- [13.1] Haggis information [13.2] Scottish cooking and recipes [13.3] Best Scottish pubs [13.4] Whisky (whiskey) [13.5] Ale (Beer) [13.6] Irn-bru [13.7] Traditional bread recipe (Gaelic and English) Travel, Tourism and What's on ----------------------------- [14.1] What's on [14.2] Scottish Guide books [14.3] VisitScotland / Scottish Tourist Board [14.4] Travel information [14.5] On-line maps [14.6] Scottish and UK Virtual Reality Map [14.7] Arts information and events [14.8] Mary King's Close [14.9] Photographs of Scotland [14.10] Gift and Tourist shops [14.11] Scottish Youth Hostels Association [14.12] Dynamic Earth exhibition [14.13] Museums [14.14] Travel companies Areas of Scotland ----------------- [15.1] Aberdeenshire [15.2] Bonnyrigg [15.3] Central Scotland [15.4] Cromarty [15.5] Dalgety Bay [15.6] Dunblane [15.7] Easdale Island [15.8] Edinburgh [15.9] Falkirk [15.10] Fort William and Lochaber [15.11] Galnafanaigh [15.12] Glasgow [15.13] Highlands and Islands [15.14] Kinlochleven [15.15] Knoydart [15.16] Loch Ness [15.17] Melrose [15.18] Midlothian [15.19] Montrose [15.20] Oban [15.21] Queensferry and Forth Bridges [15.22] Road to the Isles [15.23] Shetland and Orkney [15.24] St Andrews [15.25] Stirling [15.26] The Trossachs [15.27] Linlithgow Sport and Recreation -------------------- [16.1] Football [16.2] Rugby [16.3] Camanachd (shinty) [16.4] Golf [16.5] Highland Games [16.6] Curling [16.7] Fishing and Angling [16.8] Cricket [16.9] Cycling [16.10] Skiing [16.11] Walking and Rambling [16.12] Books for hillwalkers [16.13] What is a Munro, Corbett or Graham? [16.14] Diving [16.15] Horse riding holidays Education --------- [17.1] Intro to Scottish Education [17.2] Scottish Qualifications Authority [17.3] Books and information on studying Scottish culture [17.4] Learning and Teaching Scotland [17.5] SCRAN - Historical and cultural on-line resource [17.6] League tables of Scottish schools [17.7] Research papers Media and Broadcasting ---------------------- [18.1] Newspapers [18.2] Radio [18.3] Television [18.4] Scottish and Celtic broadcasting on the Internet [18.5] Scottish music radio programmes [18.6] Gaelic TV and radio information [18.7] Attitudes towards Gaelic TV in Scotland [18.8] Scottish film industry [18.9] Scottish film locations Government, Politics and Sovereignty ------------------------------------ [19.1] Scottish Government [19.2] Sources of political information [19.3] Scottish politics e-mail lists [19.4] Government publications [19.5] Scottish sovereignty [19.6] Scottish and English oil and energy reserves [19.7] Political Quotations [19.8] Quangos [19.9] Local Councils [19.10] 1997 General Election results [19.11] Devolution Referendum Results [19.12] The Scottish Parliament [19.13] How the Scottish Parliament might work [19.14] Scottish Elections [19.15] Understanding Parliament [19.16] The Monarchy [19.17] OBEs, honorific titles, "gongs" etc [19.18] Scottish Independence information [19.19] Article on Independence [19.20] Contacting MPs, MSPs by E-mail [19.21] Health and the NHS Internet and Computing information ---------------------------------- [20.1] Silicon Glen - Technology in Scotland [20.2] General Internet information [20.3] Creating a top level domain for Scotland [20.4] Scottish usenet newsgroups [20.5] How to get scot.* hierarchy groups [20.6] Getting hooked up to the Internet [20.7] Internet Cafes and Public Internet Access Points [20.8] How can I find someone in Scotland on the Internet? [20.9] Faxing Scotland by E-mail Sources of Further information ------------------------------ [21.1] Scottish links [21.2] Mailing lists [21.3] Celtic information and Celtic FAQs Links in this FAQ ----------------- [22.1] Alphabetic list of links in this FAQ [22.2] Links to pages of this FAQ [1.1] Charter of soc.culture.scottish Charter ======= The news:soc.culture.scottish newsgroup will be open to discussion of all subjects specifically referring to Scotland or Scottish culture. This newsgroup will be created for reasons including, but not restricted to, the following: * To encourage understanding and discussion of Scotland and Scottish culture, in the many ways people wish to define it. * To act as a focus for the Scottish Diaspora (Scottish people, including emigrants and their descendants) and to draw together the global threads of the Scottish nation. * To act as a resource for Scottish people who wish to use the Internet and for people who wish to encourage the development of the Internet in Scotland. * To provide a forum for the use and support of the Scots and Scots Gaelic languages and the Norse influenced dialects of Orkney and Shetland. The following exceptions should be noted: * Matters referring to broader British issues should be posted to news:soc.culture.british * Matters referring to the broader Celtic issues should be posted to news:soc.culture.celtic. * Matters referring to Scottish Celtic folk music may have a more appropriate forum in news:rec.music.celtic. Rationale ========= Millions of people worldwide are of Scottish descent, and there is sufficient demand for a forum to discuss specifically Scottish topics. Many new Usenet users are at a loss when they fail to find a group with Scottish or Scotland in the title. This group's name will act as a signpost for these people. Previously, many people have used either news:soc.culture.british or news:soc.culture.celtic, but this situation is increasingly difficult. As the Scots are a small minority amongst the British peoples, many who would post and/or read articles on uniquely Scottish topics in the soc.culture.british newsgroup are inhibited from doing so by the overwhelming number of non-Scottish posts to that group. The group soc.culture.celtic also tends to be dominated by posts about Ireland which are not related to Celtic matters and are not of interest to the group's traditional readers. The soc.culture.celtic newsgroup is also not particularly suitable for discussing Scottish issues as a great many Scots do not view themselves as Celts. The Scottish culture is unique. The Scots are a British people who have been influenced by a number of different cultures. The main cultural influence has been an Anglo-Saxon one similar but distinct from that of England. The Gaelic culture of the Highlands is indeed a part of the wider Celtic culture. The culture of Orkney and Shetland has been deeply influenced by Scandinavia. This unique fusion of diverse cultures means that there is currently no newsgroup that can serve as a forum for all Scottish people to discuss uniquely Scottish issues. The motivation for the creation of a soc.culture.scottish newsgroup is not separatist. The new newsgroup will serve the distinct needs of the Scottish people in the same way as say the existing news:soc.culture.quebec and news:soc.culture.berber newsgroups serve the distinct needs of the Quebec and Berber peoples. Charter authors: Brian Atkins, John Mack, Craig Cockburn. Control and Summary =================== One line summary ---------------- The newsgroup line for soc.culture.scottish is: "Anything regarding Scotland or things Scots." Control Messages ---------------- ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/control/soc/soc.culture.scottish [1.2] Scotland's name Scotland gets its name from the Scots, or Scotti who first arrived in Argyll in the late 3rd to mid 4th centuries AD. It was not until about 500AD that they built up a sizeable colony though. The Scots spoke Irish, not Scots. Scots is a Germanic language like English, described later. "Scotti" is what the Romans called them. We don't know what they called themselves! Some info on the Romans is available at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/ [1.3] The Saltire (Scotland's flag) Background ---------- Scotland has two flags - the Saltire or St Andrew's cross (white on blue) and the Lion Rampant (yellow and red). The Lion Rampant is the Royal flag and is supposed to only be used by royalty. The Saltire is the oldest flag in Europe. The St Andrew's Cross according to legend is that shape because the apostle Andrew petitioned the Roman authorities who had sentenced him to death not to crucify him on the same shape of cross as Christ, and this was granted. Origins ------- Anyway, legend has it that the saltire flag has its origins in a battle near Athelstaneford in East Lothian, circa 832AD when Angus mac Fergus, King of the Picts, and Eochaidh of Dalriada defeated the army of Athelstane, King of Northumbria comprising Angles and Saxons. There is a saltire flying there near the church with an explanation regarding the origin of the flag. The night before the battle, the Scots saw a cross formation of clouds in the sky resembling a St Andrew's cross - the patron Saint. They took this sign as an omen and indeed they were successful in battle the next day. Thus the colours in the flag are supposed to be white to represent the clouds and azure, the colour of the sky towards the end of the day. Sky blue is not the right colour, it is too light. The Scottish Parliament has debated this matter and decided on Pantone 300 as the recommended colour http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=210112003 If you want this colour on your PC, the RGB Value on the colour sliders for Pantone 300 should be 0, 132, 202. The web value for fill colours should be "#0084CA". The saltire was later incorporated in the union flag and union jack although the colour of blue there is different. In those flags it is navy blue which is used. The union jack is the version of the union flag used on the jack staff at the front of a ship. This difference of colour between the saltire and the union flags has resulted in some confusion over the correct colour of the Scottish flag - so insist the you get one which is azure and white and not anything else! William the Lyon who adopted the Lion Rampant (in 1165) to replace the previous symbol of Scots Sovereignty, which was a Boar. This has led to some humorous speculation as to what the present title of the Lord Lyon King of Arms might be had the change not been adopted. Further, it was a heraldic symbol (or a Lyon rampant gules) far before the charge of the Earl of Galloway. I forget what bloodline used the charge just now, but I know that it predated the adoption of the Saltire in the 9th century. I've got the reference somewhere and I'll have a look about for it. The most modern change to the standard occurred in 1165 with the addition of the gules bordure tressure fleury-counterfleury, which is entirely distinctive and to my knowledge not emblazoned on any other arms anywhere. Purchasing ---------- Reputable places to buy flags include: James Stevenson Flags Ltd 75 Westmoreland Street Glasgow G42 8LH Tel: 0141 423 5757 James Stevenson Flags Ltd 16 Millgate Cupar, Fife 01334-656660 The Scottish National Party Gordon Lamb House 3 Jackson's Entry Edinburgh EH8 8PJ Tel: 0800 633 5432 http://www.snp.org.uk/ (on-line shop) Scots Independent, 51 Cowane Street, Stirling FK8 1JW Tel: 01786 473523 http://www.freescotland.com/si.html Please state size (length) required - from half a yard to 5 yards. Use of Saltire and Union Flag ----------------------------- It is the case of course that it is NOT permissible for the ordinary citizen of the UK either Scottish, English, Welsh or Irish to fly the Union Flag. It is only permissible for Government offices, Royal Navy ships on their foretop and certain other military uses (and recently certain royal dwellings in the absence of the monarch). It is the flag of the Union only. The common citizens should be flying their own national flags - the crosses of St George, St Andrew, St Patrick and of Cornwall and the dragon of Wales, unless they are on board ship when these flags may be flown on the foretop but the red ensign is mandatory. Scots should not even be flying the lion rampant which is the sign reserved to the monarch of Scotland. The question is as to what flag should fly in front of the Parliament of Scotland, the Assembly of Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly and over the buildings housing the official administrations of these. This should be a matter for each body to chose for itself (for instance the Scots should have the right to change their saltire or its background to pink if they so wish). Further information ------------------- http://www.fahnenversand.de/fotw/flags/gb-scotl.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Scotland There is a Heritage centre at Athelstaneford and it is open daily between 10am and 5pm from April to September. Admission is free. The Scottish Flag Trust, PO Box 84, Edinburgh, Scotland. [1.4] Geological Information The landmass known today as Scotland was once connected to the area of the Torngat Mountain range of Labrador, Canada. This mountain range was part of the Grenville province, named for the Grenville orogeny during which it was created when the landmass now known as North America collided with Gondwanaland during the late Proterozoic Period (about 2 billion years ago). At that time "Scotland" was located nearly equidistant between the northern tip of Newfoundland and the southern tip of Greenland, situated northeast of the former and southeast of the latter. The Great Glen is a strike-slip fault similar to the San Andreas fault of California (US). Because of compressional tension along faults, the rocks along such features are prone to developing fractures. Where such faults and their consequent fractures meet the surface of the land, water infiltrates the fractures. Freezing and thawing of this water, couples with its flow down slope, contributing to the acceleration of erosion that causes the development of the lochs of Scotland which display the characteristic southwest to northeast relative trajectory. This type of loch formation should not be confused with the coastal lochs which display a predominance of glacial melt erosion features. As the glaciers melt, the newly unburdened lithosphere uplifts due to isostatic rebound in the dense, semifluid asthenosphere layer below. The resulting increase in the slope of the land surface accelerates meltwaters down slope, and the consequent saltatory transport of sediments increases, deepening the loch seaward. Scotland and England were originally separated by a sea known as the Iapetus Ocean. The suture of Scotland to England occurred along the area of Hadrian's Wall. The two "parts of Scotland" however might be considered to be demarcated by the Lewisian (gneiss) deposits (of the Isle of Lewis, for instance) in the Northwest Foreland (The northwestern coast from River Donard south to encompass Coll and Tiree Islands and down to the southwestern most tip of the Isle of Mull--including Rum, Skye and the lesser inner Hebrides) and the landmass characterised by the Moinian surficial deposits of the Highlands north of the Great Glen fault. These surficial deposits converge along the Moine thrust faults - a fault line that runs from the southeastern most boundary of Skye and the Isle of Mull north, north east just east of Durness and the River Donard (also listed as the River Hope according to my maps). Anyway, you get the area of the basic line of the suture, I'm sure. Suffice to say that the entire area represents a convergent plate boundary where the basaltic oceanic plate is being subducted beneath the continental plate and the ancillary Island Arc of the Outer Hebrides is being rafted along towards a collision with the mainland (if one can call it that). Further reading --------------- For info on Scotland, see the Scottish information on this page http://www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/geobrit.htm A formidable understanding of geological terms will be necessary to get the most out of the above paper. To that end, for education on geological technical terms one would do well to consult: http://www.ul.cs.cmu.edu/books/cont_techtonics/cont001.htm For an informative elaboration of Scotland's geological history in terms understandable to most folks not particularly well versed in geological information consult: http://www.iprs.ed.ac.uk/edit1/09/articles/06.html A recommended book is Craig, G Y (ed.) "The Geology of Scotland", now in its 3rd edition, and full bibliographic details available from http://www.blackwell.co.uk/ [1.5] Scottish saints and towns St Andrew: Scotland and St Andrews More details below on St Andrew Towns/Cities/Places in alphabetic order St Nicholas: Aberdeen St Blane: Dunblane St Mary: Dundee St Margaret: Dunfermline St Giles: Edinburgh St Mungo/Kentigern: Glasgow St Molaise: Holy Isle off Arran St Columba: Iona (formerly Scotland as well). St Cuthbert: Kirkcudbright St Magnus: Kirkwall St Baldred: North Berwick St Mirren: Paisley St John: Perth St Ninian: Whithorn Sources: Scottish Traditions & Festivals, Raymond Lamont-Brown, W & R Chambers, Edinburgh, 1991 St Andrew --------- St Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland as the result of a foreign monk/hermit (Greek if my memory serves) named Rule or Regulus coming to what is today the town of Saint Andrews in 732 bearing with him the purported bones of St Andrew. The religious foundation which grew up around these relics was not originally Catholic, but Culdee. Even this association with St Andrew is tenuous as there are other places which claim to possess the bones of St Andrew. In any case, the town of St Andrews became in consequence the premier religious site in the east of Scotland and remained such when the Catholic Church attained ascendancy over the Celtic Churches. In the west of Scotland, less importance was attached to St Andrew than to the various local saints such as Columba, Mungo, Maelrubha etc. Ultimately when the Scottish court became dominated by Scots speakers, St Andrew became their principal patron while the Gaelic areas chose Columba as their principle champion and I don't think that they ever held St Andrew in great esteem. There has always a lot of obscure politics going on in Scotland over the selection of national saints and symbols and I suspect that the medieval kings were delighted to have St Andrew, an apostle, as the patron of Scotland which vicariously made Scotland "superior" to England who only had St George, a popular but rather mythological patron and gave the east coasters a chance to sneer at Strathclyde's St. Mungo as small potatoes. [1.6] Scotland's population Census figures for Scotland as a whole from 1811 onwards are available at http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/home/Scotland/pop.html They show a steady rise in population, summarised as follows: 1811.........1,805,864 1861.........3,062,294 1911.........4,760,904 1961.........5,179,344 and a further slight rise to 1971.........5,228,963 and a slight drop to 1981.........5,130,735 and another (this time attributed to poll tax avoidance) 1991.........5,102,400 Figures from the General Register for estimates of Scotland's population on 30 June for the following years. Figures in thousands. 1992.........5,111.2 1993.........5,120.2 1994.........5,132.4 1995.........5,136.6 1996.........5,128.0 The numbers of births are currently at the lowest level since civil registration was introduced in 1855. Highlands --------- Here are the figures for the seven Crofting Counties, as posted by Michael Paterson: Argyll Caithn Invnss Ross&C Sthrld Orkney Zetlnd Total 1755 66,286 22,215 59,593 48,048 20,774 38,591 255,543 1801 81,277 22,609 72,672 56,318 23,117 24,445 22,379 302,817 1811 86,541 23,419 77,671 60,853 23,629 23,238 22,915 318,266 1821 97,316 29,181 89,961 67,762 23,840 26,979 26,145 361,184 1831 100,973 34,529 94,797 74,820 25,518 28,847 29,392 388,876 1841 97,371 36,343 97,799 78,685 24,782 30,507 30,558 396,045 1851 89,298 38,709 96,500 82,707 25,793 31,455 31,078 395,540 1861 79,724 41,111 88,888 81,406 25,246 32,395 31,670 380,442 1871 75,679 39,992 87,531 80,955 24,317 31,274 31,608 371,356 1881 76,468 38,865 90,454 78,547 23,370 32,044 29,705 369,453 1891 75,003 37,177 89,317 77,810 21,896 30,453 28,711 360,367 1901 73,642 33,870 90,104 76,450 21,440 28,699 28,166 352,371 1911 70,902 32,010 87,272 77,364 20,179 25,897 27,911 341,535 1921 76,862 28,285 82,082 70,818 17,802 24,111 25,520 325,853 1931 63,014 25,656 84,930 62,802 16,100 22,075 21,410 293,139 1951 63,631 22,710 83,480 60,508 13,670 21,255 19,352 285,786 1961 59,390 27,370 83,480 57,642 13,507 18,747 17,812 277,948 Of course there are other definitions of the *Highlands* that one could come up with but the Crofting County figures were carefully maintained and monitored from the time of the Crofting Act (1880s ISTR). Please bear in mind that Ross and Cromarty included Lewis and Inverness-shire included the rest of the Western Isles, Skye and the Small Isles. These figures were taken from a personal Memorandum to the Minister of State, Scottish Office, about the Highland Development Bill then before Parliament, written in 1965 by Mac Mhic Iain, the Earl of Dundee, P.C., later MP for West Renfrewshire, becoming Under-Secretary of State for Scotland. He was later Minister of State in the Foreign Office and Deputy-Leader of the House of Lords. 1991 census ----------- This info from the 1991 Census shows the population of 'localities', i.e. the name used by the General Register Office for Scotland Info also available at http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/road/aa383/scotloc.shtml Localities are cities, towns and villages with a population of 500 residents or more. I won't go into the details of how such areas are defined but they were drawn up in consultation with local authorities. Hence, the boundaries and names should reflect local usage. You can differentiate between towns and cities as you wish - GRO don't. Note that Glasgow is apportioned between two local authorities. Figures in thousands --------------------------------------------------- Local Authority Locality Pop 1991 --------------------------------------------------- Glasgow......................Glasgow (Pt)...606.8 Edinburgh....................Edinburgh......401.9 Aberdeen City................Aberdeen...... 189.7 Dundee City..................Dundee........ 147.0 Renfrewshire.................Paisley........ 75.5 South Lanarkshire............East Kilbride.. 70.4 South Lanarkshire............Glasgow (Pt)....56.0 Fife.........................Dunfermline.....55.1 Inverclyde...................Greenock........50.0 South Lanarkshire............Hamilton........50.0 North Lanarkshire............Cumbernauld.....48.8 South Ayrshire...............Ayr.............48.0 Fife.........................Kirkcaldy.......47.2 East Ayrshire................Kilmarnock......44.3 North Lanarkshire............Coatbridge......43.6 West Lothian.................Livingston......41.6 Perthshire and Kinross.......Perth...........41.5 Highland.....................Inverness.......41.2 Fife.........................Glenrothes......38.7 North Lanarkshire............Airdrie.........37.0 Falkirk......................Falkirk.........35.6 North Ayrshire...............Irvine..........33.0 Dumfries and Galloway........Dumfries........32.1 North Lanarkshire............Motherwell......30.7 Stirling.....................Stirling........30.5 North Lanarkshire............Wishaw..........29.8 West Dunbartonshire..........Clydebank.......29.2 East Dunbartonshire..........Bearsden........27.8 East Dunbartonshire..........Bishopbriggs....23.8 Angus........................Arbroath........23.5 West Dunbartonshire..........Dumbarton.......22.0 North Lanarkshire............Bellshill.......21.6 East Dunbartonshire..........Kirkintilloch...20.8 Renfrewshire.................Renfrew.........20.8 East Lothian.................Musselburgh.....20.6 Inverclyde...................Port Glasgow....19.7 East Renfrewshire............Newton Mearns...19.5 Moray........................Elgin...........19.0 East Renfrewshire............Clarkston.......18.9 Clackmannanshire.............Alloa...........18.8 Aberdeenshire................Peterhead.......18.7 Falkirk......................Grangemouth.....18.7 Renfrewshire.................Johnstone.......18.6 South Lanarkshire............Blantyre........18.5 Falkirk......................Polmont.........18.0 East Renfrewshire............Barrhead........17.3 Midlothian...................Penicuik........17.2 Fife.........................Buckhaven.......17.1 Falkirk......................Stenhousemuir...16.7 East Renfrewshire............Giffnock........16.2 Argyll and Bute..............Helensburgh.....15.9 Scottish Borders.............Hawick..........15.8 North Ayrshire...............Kilwinning......15.5 South Lanarkshire............Larkhall........15.5 South Ayrshire...............Troon...........15.2 North Lanarkshire............Viewpark........14.9 Falkirk......................Bo'ness.........14.6 West Dunbartonshire..........Alexandria......14.2 Scottish Borders.............Galashiels......13.8 West Lothian.................Bathgate........13.8 Midlothian...................Bonnyrigg.......13.7 South Ayrshire...............Prestwick.......13.7 Renfrewshire.................Erskine.........13.2 Angus........................Forfar..........13.0 South Lanarkshire............Carluke.........12.9 Aberdeenshire................Fraserburgh.....12.8 East Dunbartonshire..........Milngavie.......12.6 Fife.........................Cowdenbeath.....12.1 Midlothian...................Mayfield........12.1 North Ayrshire...............Saltcoats.......11.9 West Lothian.................Linlithgow......11.9 Inverclyde...................Gourock.........11.7 Midlothian...................Dalkeith........11.6 West Lothian.................Broxburn........11.6 West Lothian.................Whitburn........11.5 Angus........................Montrose........11.4 Dumfries and Galloway........Stranraer.......11.3 Falkirk......................Denny...........11.1 Fife.........................St Andrews......11.1 North Ayrshire...............Largs...........10.9 North Ayrshire...............Ardrossan.......10.8 Angus........................Carnoustie......10.7 Highland.....................Fort William....10.4 North Ayrshire...............Stevenston......10.2 Renfrewshire.................Linwood.........10.2 West Dunbartonshire..........Bonhill.........10.1 East Dunbartonshire..........Lenzie...........9.9 North Lanarkshire............Kilsyth..........9.9 East Ayrshire................Cumnock..........9.6 Aberdeenshire................Inverurie........9.6 Aberdeenshire................Stonehaven.......9.4 Argyll and Bute..............Dunoon...........9.0 West Lothian.................Armadale.........9.0 Dumfries and Galloway........Annan............8.9 Edinburgh....................Queensferry......8.9 South Lanarkshire............Lanark...........8.9 East Lothian.................Haddington.......8.8 North Lanarkshire............Shotts...........8.8 West Lothian.................East Calder......8.7 Aberdeenshire................Ellon............8.6 Moray........................Forres...........8.5 Highland.....................Thurso...........8.5 Aberdeenshire................Westhill.........8.4 Moray........................Buckie...........8.4 Fife.........................Leven............8.3 East Lothian.................Tranent..........8.3 Argyll and Bute..............Oban.............8.2 North Ayrshire...............Kilbirnie........8.1 Perthshire and Kinross.......Blairgowrie......8.0 Highland.....................Nairn............7.9 West Dunbartonshire..........Duntocher and Hardgate....7.9 Fife.........................Dalgety Bay......7.9 Angus........................Dundee (Part)....7.7 Highland.....................Wick.............7.7 Angus........................Brechin..........7.7 Fife.........................Cupar............7.5 South Ayrshire...............Girvan...........7.4 Stirling.....................Dunblane.........7.4 Shetland Islands.............Lerwick..........7.3 Moray........................Lossiemouth......7.2 Scottish Borders.............Peebles..........7.1 Fife.........................Lochgelly........7.0 East Lothian.................Prestonpans......7.0 Clackmannanshire.............Tullibody........6.9 North Lanarkshire............Newarthill.......6.6 South Lanarkshire............Bothwell.........6.5 East Lothian.................Dunbar...........6.5 East Ayrshire................Stewarton........6.5 Orkney Islands...............Kirkwall.........6.5 Fife.........................Ballingry........6.4 South Lanarkshire............Strathaven.......6.4 Aberdeen City................Dyce.............6.4 North Ayrshire...............Beith............6.4 Aberdeenshire................Banchory.........6.2 Aberdeenshire................Portlethen.......6.2 West Dunbartonshire..........Faifley..........6.1 Perthshire and Kinross.......Crieff...........6.0 Falkirk......................Bonnybridge......6.0 Fife.........................Inverkeithing....6.0 Scottish Borders.............Kelso............6.0 North Lanarkshire............Moodiesburn......6.0 Western Isles................Steornabhagh (Stornoway)....6.0 Fife.........................Burntisland......6.0 Scottish Borders.............Selkirk..........5.9 Midlothian...................Gorebridge.......5.9 North Lanarkshire............Newmains.........5.9 North Lanarkshire............Holytown.........5.8 Stirling.....................Bannockburn......5.8 North Ayrshire...............Dalry............5.7 Argyll and Bute..............Campbeltown......5.7 Highland.....................Alness...........5.7 East Lothian.................North Berwick....5.7 Midlothian...................Loanhead.........5.7 Angus........................Kirriemuir.......5.6 Renfrewshire.................Houston..........5.5 Fife.........................Kelty............5.5 East Ayrshire................Hurlford and Crookedholm.....5.4 Renfrewshire.................Bishopton........5.4 Fife.........................Cardenden........5.4 Dumfries and Galloway........Locharbriggs.....5.4 South Lanarkshire............Uddingston.......5.4 South Lanarkshire............Stonehouse.......5.3 Renfrewshire.................Elderslie........5.3 Clackmannanshire.............Tillicoultry.....5.3 Argyll and Bute..............Rothesay.........5.3 East Renfrewshire............Neilston.........5.3 Highland.....................Dingwall.........5.2 Clackmannanshire.............Alva.............5.2 East Ayrshire................Galston..........5.2 Renfrewshire.................Bridge of Weir...5.2 West Lothian.................Blackburn........5.0 [1.7] Currency and legal tender All Scottish banks have the right to print their own notes. Three choose to do so: The Bank of Scotland (founded 1695), The Royal Bank of Scotland (founded 1727) and the Clydesdale Bank (owned by National Australia Bank). Only the Royal Bank prints pound notes. All the banks print 5,10,20 and 100 notes. Only the Bank of Scotland and Clydesdale Bank print 50 pound notes. Scottish bank notes are not legal tender in Scotland. English bank notes of denomination less than 5UKP were legal tender in Scotland under Currency and Bank Notes Act 1954. Now, with the removal of BoE 1UKP notes, only coins constitute legal tender in Scotland. English bank notes are only legal tender in England, Wales, The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. In Scotland, 1 pound coins are legal tender to any amount, 20ps and 50ps are legal tender up to 10 pounds; 10p and 5ps to 5 pounds and 2p and 1p coins are legal tender to 20p (separately or in combination). 2 pounds coins and (if you can get hold of one) 5 pound coins are also legal tender to unlimited amounts, as are gold coins of the realm at face value (in Scotland at least). Northern Irish notes are not legal tender anywhere, a situation similar to Scottish notes. Whether Scottish notes are legal tender or not does not change or alter their inherent value but it dictates their legal function. Credit cards, cheques and debit cards are not legal tender either but it doesn't stop them being used as payment. Only a minuscule percentage of Scottish and British trading is carried out using legal tender. Just because something is not legal tender certainly doesn't imply it's illegal to use. The lack of a true legal tender in Scotland does not cause a problem for Scots Law which is flexible enough to get round this apparent legal nonsense, as was demonstrated some time ago when one local authority tried to refuse a cash payment (in Scottish notes) on the grounds it wasn't "legal tender", but lost their case when the sheriff effectively said that they were obliged to accept anything which was commonly accepted as "money", and that should their insistence on "legal tender" have been supported, it would have resulted in the bill being paid entirely in coins, which would have been a nonsense; stopping short of saying that the council would have been "cutting off their nose to spite their face", but seeming to hint at it. For tourists: You can spend Scottish notes in England and they are exactly equivalent to their English counterpart on a one for one commission free basis. If changing Sterling abroad, do not accept an inferior rate for changing Scottish notes than is being offered for English notes as the two are equivalent. You are very unlikely to encounter problems spending Scottish money in England, I did it for many years and was never refused. The definition of legal tender is something which is acceptable as payment of a debt. If you pay using legal tender, the other person has no recourse to chase you for payment. As part of the Skye Road Bridge tolls protest, people have paid in small coins using the greatest number of small denomination coins which constituted legal tender. Using entirely 1ps for instance would not have been legal tender and could have been refused. (This definition is a simplification, see the Currency section of "Halsbury's Laws of England" for a full legal definition.) Britain came off the Gold Standard more than 60 years ago. The Scottish banks are allowed to issue a relatively small amount without backing, and the remainder of their issue has to be backed by Bank of England notes to the same value. So the BofE goes bust, the others go with it. There is some info on monetary history at http://www.ex.ac.uk/~RDavies/arian/other.html More info on legal tender is at http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/about/faqs.htm pictures of Scottish currency are at http://www.scotbanks.org.uk/ The following discussion with the Secretary of State for Scotland occurred on 23rd Jan 2008 re Scottish Banknotes and should be available via Hansard. Banknotes Malcolm Bruce (Gordon) (LD): What recent discussions he has had with the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the acceptance of Scottish banknotes outside Scotland. [179988] 23 Jan 2008 : Column 1481 The Secretary of State for Scotland (Des Browne): I have regular discussions with Cabinet colleagues on a range of issues. Malcolm Bruce: May I suggest that the Secretary of State impress on the Chancellor and the Governor of the Bank of England that it is high time Scottish banknotes were fully legally acceptable throughout the UK? They are authorised by the Bank of England and should have exactly the same status. If dollars and euros are acceptable to traders in England, surely Scottish notes can and should be, too. Will the Secretary of State endeavour to ensure that this anomaly is brought to an end? Des Browne: I am delighted to have the opportunity to expand a little on the status of Scottish banknotes. Andrew Mackinlay (Thurrock) (Lab): And Irish ones. Des Browne: And, indeed, banknotes from Northern Ireland. One of the great successes of the very successful financial services sector in Scotland is the privilege enjoyed by commercial banks to publish banknotes when other banks, including commercial banks in England, do not. The fact is that under the law Scottish banknotes enjoy exactly the same status as all other methods of payment throughout the United Kingdom, although that is not widely known. They are perfectly legal, and people should know and respect that. I know that on occasion some of my countrymen have had their banknotes refused, but I have been in London a great deal over the past 11 years, and in connection with my ministerial responsibilities have periodically had Northern Ireland banknotes in my wallet. No one has ever refused to accept one of them. 23 Jan 2008 : Column 1482 Mr. Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and Shetland) (LD): The Secretary of State says it is a matter of fact that Scottish banknotes can be accepted throughout the United Kingdom, and he is right, but it is also a matter of fact that often they are not. That was highlighted in an excellent article in the Sunday Mail on 6 January. The paper conducted a random sample, and found that it was difficult to get notes accepted in Liverpool, Tadcaster, Coventry, Manchester, Ashton-under-Lyne and London, where even the railway ticket vending machines would not accept them. Will the Secretary of State acknowledge that although this may not be a massive problem, it is a source of embarrassment and irritation to many of our constituents every year, and will he use his office to address the problem? Des Browne: I welcome the opportunity to repeat what I have already said. Scottish banknotes are legal, and enjoy exactly the same status as any other method of payment. The fundamental problem is that the law of contract throughout the United Kingdom allows people not to engage in a transaction at the point of payment if they do not wish to do so. I should be happy to join the hon. Gentleman and his party in a discussion about reforming the law of contract if that is what he wishes to do, although I suspect that we would find it difficult to obtain the necessary legislative time or the necessary support. But he is right: in the 21st century, this irritation should not exist for people who are tendering legal notes in payment. I think the best thing for us all to do is to take every opportunity to tell people that those notes are as good as anyone else's, and should be accepted. More info on the Scottish legal system in general is at [1.8] [1.8] Legal questions The Law Society of Scotland --------------------------- http://www.lawscot.org.uk/ Scottish Law Information ------------------------ http://www.scottishlaw.org.uk/ Statutory instruments of the Scottish Parliament ------------------------------------------------ http://www.scotland-legislation.hmso.gov.uk/ Scottish Law Commission ----------------------- Te statutory body concerned with updating and reforming the law of Scotland. http://www.scotlawcom.gov.uk/ Books ----- Scotland has its own legal system and its own laws. Answers to most common Scottish consumer questions can be found in: Your Rights and Responsibilities, A personal guide for Scottish Consumers. Published by HMSO and the Scottish Consumer Council. ISBN 0 11 495205 1, 4 pounds 95p Telephone orders: 0171 873 9090 Also, "The Legal System of Scotland" also published by HMSO. Related ------- For information on legal tender, see [1.7]. There is also a newsgroup news:scot.legal Solicitors on-line ------------------ http://www.blaircadell.com/ http://www.georgesons.co.uk/ http://www.highlandlaw.co.uk/ The Law Society of Scotland, http://www.lawscot.org.uk/ provides a search facility to find contact details of Solicitors firms, including their websites. Making a will ------------- http://www.scotwills.co.uk/ A site specifically for Scots to make their Will:- Without a Solicitor and completely legally. Only takes a few minutes and site is a member of Which? webtrader. You can also print it off and sign it - all online See the site for more info. Introduction to Scots Law ========================= Article by Angus MacCulloch mailto:msrlsam@fs1.ec.man.ac.uk Scotland has a completely separate legal system from that of England and Wales. Although it does share some institutions, the legislature and the House of Lords (sitting as a Court). This stems from Scotland's independence before 1707 and is enshrined in the Act of Union. Scots law stems from two main sources, enacted law and common law. Enacted law has the authority of a body with legislative powers. Enacted law can come from many sources, some include Royal proclamation or order, Acts of Parliament (either the old Scots Parliament or the UK Parliament), the European Community Treaty or European legislation, or local authority bye-laws. Common law derives it authority from the courts and is based on Scots legal tradition. Both forms of law have equal authority and often operate in the same areas. Under the theory of the "supremacy of Parliament," as partially recognised in Scotland, enacted law will override common law, but common law cannot override an enacted law. Common law develops through the judgements of the courts. To predict how it will deal with a given situation one must examine the decisions of the courts in similar cases. Common law initially derived from the Roman law, as codified under the Emperor Justinian, and canon law, the law of the church. One of the other sources of law was the writings of eminent legal scholars such as Lord Stair, Erskine and Bell, Hume, and Alison. The Scottish courts separate into two streams, those which deal with criminal cases, and those that deal with civil cases. The criminal law regulates the relationship between the individual and the state. Civil law regulates relationships between individuals. The criminal courts are, in ascending order of authority: The District Court, the Sheriff Court, and the High Court of Justiciary. The civil courts are, in ascending order of authority: The Sheriff Court, the Court of Session, and the House of Lords. The doctrine of "precedent" means that the decision of a higher court will be binding on a lower court. The High Court of Judiciary and the House of Lords are not bound by their own decisions. The decision of an English court is never binding upon a Scottish court. The decisions of the House of Lords sitting as an English court will be of a persuasive nature in a Scottish case. There are also specialist courts which deal with particular areas, such as industrial disputes, land matters, criminal charges against children, and heraldry. The courts have a long history. The Sheriff courts date back to the 12th century, the Court of Session was established in 1532, and the High Court of Justiciary was established in 1672. Scottish judges will sit on both criminal and civil courts, although some may be seen as specialising in particular areas. The judges are appointed by the Crown from practising lawyers, both solicitors and advocates. The Not Proven Verdict ---------------------- Scots law is unusual in allowing three alternative verdicts in a criminal trial. Although the "Not Proven" verdict is known, incorrectly, as the third verdict, it has a 300 year history in Scotland. Even though it has a long history it has been the subject of criticism since 1827 when Sir Walter Scott, novelist and Sheriff, described the not proven verdict as "that bastard verdict, not proven." The verdict of not proven is essentially one of acquittal. In all respects the verdicts of not guilty and not proven have exactly the same legal effects. In practice it is thought that a verdict of not proven simply means that the judge or jury have reasonable doubt as to the accused's guilt. It is interesting to note that the not proven verdict is used in one third of acquittals by juries, and in one fifth of acquittals in non-jury trials. Because of the higher number of non-jury trials ninety per cent of all not proven verdicts are returned in such cases. It is generally thought that the verdict gives juries, and judges, an option between not guilty and guilty where they feel that the charges have not been proved but they equally cannot say the accused is "not guilty" because of its moral connotations. Current challenge to the verdict stems from the dissatisfaction and feelings of injustice suffered by the families of victims of crime. Political influence has also been apparent, in 1993 George Robertson tabled a Private Members Bill to abolish the verdict. The legal profession has been divided over the issue most of this century. A number of eminent judges have attacked the verdict. One saying that it was theoretically and historically indefensible, Lord Moncrieff in 1906. Others have supported it. In 1964 Lord Justice General Clyde stated that "for upwards of 200 years a not proven verdict has been available . . . and no convincing argument has been advanced to justify its elimination from our law." One view from England helped to explain the reason for the not proven verdict, Judge Gerald Sparrow wrote, "I have often thought that the distinction typifies the different spirit of Scottish and English law: the Scottish being the more logical, the English more sporting." The original verdicts in Scots law were "culpable" and "convict"; or "cleanse". Guilty and not guilty were introduced by Cromwell during the Usurpation, when he imposed English judges on Scotland. After the reformation the Scots courts reverted to asking judges to find whether the facts in the indictment were "proven" or "not proven." The "not guilty" verdict was reintroduced in 1723 in the trial of Carnegie of Findhorn for the murder of the Earl of Strathmore. In 1975 the Thomson Committee which examined Scottish criminal procedure recommended that the three verdict system be retained. In 1993 the Scottish Office said that "it was not convinced that there was enough groundswell of dissatisfaction from the public and, crucially, from the legal profession" to justify any scrutiny of the not proven verdict. Most recently in 1994 the Government in a White Paper, Firm but Fair, dealing, inter alia, with the verdict made no proposals for any changes as in the absence of "a considerable weight of informed opinion against the verdict" the three verdict system should be retained. It would appear that there is no immediate prospect that there will be any change in the current three verdict system. Trespass -------- It is a perpetual myth that there are no trespass laws in Scotland. Even before the recent Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, trespass has long been a delict (civil wrong) which is remediable by the remedies of interdict and damages. However, The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 amends the Trespass (Scotland) Act 1865 and establishes a statutory right of access. Certain types of trespass have been criminal since the Trespass (Scotland) Act 1865 was passed, an Act no-one has ever heard of. Section 3 makes it an offence for any person to lodge in any premises, or occupy or encamp on any land, being private property, without the consent of the owner or legal occupier. Admittedly this section envisages a degree of permanency which will not be present in every situation of trespass. Land Reform ----------- The Feudal System of land holding was abolished in Scotland by the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc (Scotland) Act 2003, with effect from 28th November 2004. Prior to that date the rights to land were split between dominium utile (right of use) belonging to a "vassal", and the dominimum directum belonging to a "superior". The vassal was liable to give a "feu duty" to the superior: originally this could have been military service, a quantity of grain or other obligations; in the C18th these were all converted to payment of sums of money. In 1975 legislation introduced rules for voluntary and compulsory redemption which required feu duties to be redeemed by the payment of a one-off lump sum. Since the 2003 Act, superiorities have been eliminated, and all former vassals are now "owners". Provisions were also included to redeem all feu duties still in existence, and to transfer the right to enforce certain feudal title conditions from the superior to the owner of neighbouring land. Following the final counties of Scotland becoming operational on the Land Register of Scotland, Registers of Scotland are working on ARTL (Automated Registration of Title to Land), and consideration is being given to the closure of the Register of Sasines. Readers interested in Land reform may be interested in the book "Who Owns Scotland Now: Use and Abuse of Private Land", by Auslan Cramb, ISBN 1851589643. List price 9.99 UKP (paperback) 14.99 (cloth). More info --------- http://www.ramblers.org.uk/info/britain/scottishoutdooraccesscode.html http://walking.visitscotland.com/ [1.9] Scottish Books The following are all recommended as good places to look for Scottish books on-line (alphabetic by URL) Scotland/UK =========== Amazon ------ http://www.amazon.co.uk/ Blackwells ---------- http://www.blackwell.co.uk/ Books From Scotland ------------------- http://www.booksfromscotland.com/ Has lots of info on Scottish books, literary figures, writers and associated info. Canongate --------- http://www.canongate.net/ Canan ----- http://www.canan.co.uk/ Gregory's Books --------------- http://www.gregorysbooks.com/ John Smith's ------------ http://www.johnsmith.co.uk/ Scottish Publishers Association ------------------------------- http://www.scottishbooks.org/ Scottish FAQ Books ------------------ http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/books/ Thistle Press ------------- http://www.thistlepress.co.uk/scotbooks/ Waterstones ----------- http://www.waterstones.co.uk/ National Library ---------------- The National Library of Scotland is at http://www.nls.uk/ Others ------ http://www.diverseworld.com/stuart/stuart1.html http://www.nwp.co.uk/ http://www.scotlandonline.com/entertainment/ http://www.scottishbooks.com/ Worldwide ========= Amazon ------- http://www.amazon.com/ Searches ======== For book searches and price comparisons, try http://www.addall.com/ (highly recommended) [1.10] Business start-up information Enterprise/Business start-ups ============================= Enterprise Agencies (national) ------------------------------ Scottish Enterprise http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/ Highlands and Islands Enterprise http://www.hie.co.uk/ Young Enterprise Scotland http://www.yes.org.uk/ Business shops http://www.leel.co.uk/bloo.html Networking groups for Entrepreneurs =================================== Now Business http://www.sharedbiz.net/ We entrepreneurs http://www.weentrepreneurs.com/ Approx 50 pounds per meeting. Scotland's only Innovation Consultancy http://www.uk-idea.com/ The Entrepreneurial Exchange http://www.entex.co.uk/ Business Links ============== In Scotland ----------- Angels Den http://www.angelsden.co.uk/ Scottish Development Finance http://www.scottishdevelopmentfinance.co.uk/ IRC Scotland http://www.ircscotland.net/ They can help find new products or technologies from across the UK and Europe. They can also promote technologies and innovations for commercialisation or further development Targeting Innovation http://www.targetinginnovation.com/ Deliver business support services to a broad range of companies and organisations in software, innovation, biotechnology, e-business and intellectual asset management. They have a key role in helping start-ups, established businesses and organisations in these sectors based throughout Scotland. Scottish Financial Enterprise http://www.sfe.org.uk/ ICASS is a government initiative, supported by European Funding, which provides specialist advice and counselling for Scotland's inventors and small innovative companies http://www.icass.co.uk/ Centre for Entrepreneurial finance (Scottish Enterprise) http://www.equityfinance.org/ Scottish Equity Partners http://www.sep.co.uk/ The Queen's awards for Enterprise http://www.queensawards.org.uk/ National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts http://www.nesta.org.uk/ In the UK --------- Grantfinder is the most comprehensive database of UK and EU funding, including grants, loans, subsidies and other incentives. http://www.grantfinder.co.uk/ British Venture Capital Association (BVCA) http://www.bvca.co.uk/BVCA/Welcome.html Working Model http://www.workingmodel.co.uk/ Help with building prototypes. Highly recommended. Baylis Brands http://www.baylisbrands.com/ From the inventor of the clockwork radio Techcrunch UK http://uk.techcrunch.com/ Organised know how http://www.organisedknowhow.co.uk/ LKT Business Solutions http://www.lktbusinesssolutions.com/ Non UK sources -------------- Venture Finance http://www.tpsite.com/tp/vf/ American Inventor http://www.americaninventorspot.com/ Other links =========== Scotland -------- E-commerce Scotland http://www.ecommerce-scotland.org/ Scottish IS - the trade body for IT in Scotland http://www.scotlandis.com/ Useful info on company startups http://www.startupweb.com/ Patent Attorneys http://www.hindlelowther.com/ http://www.murgitroyd.co.uk/ http://www.marks-clerk.com/ http://www.ip-g.com/ http://www.kennedyspatent.com/ http://www.fitzpatricks.co.uk/ Legal information ----------------- http://www.pinsentmasons.com/ http://www.out-law.com/ UK oriented ----------- Federation of Small Businesses http://www.fsb.org.uk/ http://www.bba.org.uk/ British Bankers Association. Has a useful search engine to compare business bank accounts http://www.cssa.co.uk/ CSSA is the trade association for the IT services and software sectors, representing the interests of companies in these sectors since 1975. CSSA currently has over 600 member companies representing approximately 80% of the industry by turnover with combined revenues of more than 14 billion pounds in 1998. In addition CSSA's business growth service provides support and advice to a further 700 young, hi-tech companies. Patent search ------------- http://gb.espacenet.com/ Information for exporters ------------------------- See [1.12] [1.11] Scottish import shops United States ============= Scottishcrofters.com -------------------- http://www.scottishcrofters.com/ Scottish Crofters is a web-based import store. They sell tartans, kilts and accessories, crafts from the Highlands, handmade bears dressed in custom tartans, and a broad range of traditional Scottish and Celtic jewellery. Dunedin Scottish ---------------- Dunedin Scottish 5402 Airport Boulevard Tampa, FL 33634 (813) 885-5880 Order line- 1-800-237-5836 mailto:dmcdonal@cftnet.com Great Scot ---------- Great Scot has a web site with secure on-line shopping at http://www.greatscotshop.com/ We rent kilts and also have an easy payment plan for kilt purchases. Our kilts are made at the Lochcarron Mill in Scotland. We ship world- wide. We carry tartan ties, sashes, scarves, clan crest badges and key fobs, kilts, bagpipes, maps, books, music and videos, chanters, sporrans etc. We also have jewellery we order through several different sources in Scotland. David and Sally Fay Great Scot P.O. Box 1817, Nashville, IN 47448 Tel:800-572-1073 Fax:812-988-8094 mailto:greatscot@bigplanet.com Scottish Lion ------------- http://www.scottishlion.com/ The Scottish Lion Import Shop is located in North Conway, New Hampshire, USA, where, for the last 27 years they have been offering fine Scottish, Irish and British imported items. They are the largest mail order catalogue and store in the eastern U.S. Gael Force Imports, Inc. ------------------------ http://www.psnw.com/~gforce/ Music, Gifts and Jewellery, Books and Videos, Resources and Information. P.O. Box 26445 Fresno, CA 93729-6445 US or Canada Toll Free 1-800-905-4268, other (209) 438-9661 Fax (209) 438-8813 mailto:mail@gaelforce.com Norway ====== The Norwegian Import Shop in Norway is: House of Scotland Elisenbergveien 35 N-0265 Oslo Norway Tel: (47) 22 55 37 86 They specialise in Scottish Import Products: Clothes, shoes, etc. It is also possible to order items like bagpipes and practice chanters etc. through them. They are also specialists in Burberries. [1.12] Scottish exporters Scottish Exporters Virtual Community ------------------------------------ A site to help Scottish companies promote themselves internationally through the Internet. The site provides a lot of free information: export and market research information with country guides; information on how to do business in these countries and a library section has some papers on marketing. http://www.catalyse-int.com/ Exporters may also be interested in http://www.netbanx.com/ for secure on-line card clearance See [14.10] for gift/tourist shops in Scotland and info on Scottish shops which export. [1.13] Scottish inventors and inventions See here http://www.scottish-inventions.org.uk/ has info on famous inventors, inventors in history. If you're currently inventing things, contact: Inventors Helpline Scotland Mike Brown mailto:mike@inventors.demon.co.uk [1.14] Scottish business links Shopping ======== Major Shopping Centres: Buchanan Galleries, Central Glasgow http://www.buchanangalleries.co.uk/ Braehead, about 5 miles west of Central Glasgow http://www.braehead.co.uk/ The Gyle, western outskirts of Edinburgh http://www.gyleshopping.co.uk/ McArthurGlen, Livingston Desginer outlets, discount prices http://www.mcarthurglen.com/centres/home.cfm?centre=livingston Stirling Thistle Centre, Scotland's first covered shopping centre unfortunately no website Falkirk Howgate no website For general high street everyday shopping (ie food, electrical goods, clothes etc) I can highly recommend the site Fixture Ferrets http://www.fixtureferrets.co.uk/ Finance ======= http://www.financescotland.com/ Banks ----- Bank of Scotland http://www.bankofscotland.co.uk/ Royal Bank of Scotland http://www.rbos.co.uk/ Clydesdale Bank http://www.cbonline.co.uk/ Insurance/Assurance ------------------- CGU Group http://www.cgugroup.com/ Scottish Amicable http://www.scottishamicable.com/ Scottish Provident http://www.scotprov.co.uk/ Scottish Widows http://www.scottishlife.co.uk/ Standard Life http://www.standardlife.com/ Utilities ========= British Energy http://www.british-energy.com/ Scottish Hydro Electric http://www.hydro.co.uk/ ScottishPower http://www.scottishpower.co.uk/ ScottishTelecom http://www.scottishtelecom.com/ The Scottish Water and Sewerage Customers Council http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/ [1.15] Getting a job in Scotland Printed media ============= The Scotsman and The Herald carry job adverts most days, although Friday is the best day for both. The Scotsman has an Edinburgh bias to the jobs in it, the Herald a Glasgow bias. However, sometimes jobs in Edinburgh are only advertised in the Herald. I've also seen Highland jobs only advertised in the Herald. Best to get both if you're not fussy about location. If you live outside Scotland, the best paper with a UK wide circulation and with a focus on Scottish jobs is Scotland on Sunday. Can't say much about the journalism though, after all it is from the Andrew Neil propaganda machine. The Scotsman is at http://www.scotsman.com/ The Herald is at http://www.theherald.co.uk/ Scotland on Sunday is at http://www.scotlandonsunday.com/ Online resources ================ Note: Many of the on-line resources are biased towards jobs for those in the computer industry. Job metasearch -------------- http://www.jobs.co.uk/ Meta search for jobs. Potentially a great (although rather obvious) idea but has some way to go to be a useful search as there are limited search options and the integration between the jobs.co.uk site and the others is very lacking in places. One day they may all get their collective acts together and create a common API which produces something useful. Alternatively, contact us as we are interested in developing such an interface and are looking for funding/sponsors/partners. Jobsite ------- Similar to Jobserve although some jobs may appear on one and not the other. Send an e-mail to mailto:jobsite@jobsite.co.uk or visit their website at http://www.jobsite.co.uk/ Tel: 01243 641141 Very flexible search which actually seems to work, unlike many other sites. Highly recommended. They have launched a Scottish flavoured version at http://www.scotrecruit.com/ which is highly recommended Jobserve -------- Jobserve allows to to filter jobs by location so you can receive a mail whenever a job in Scotland comes up which matches your criteria (e.g. technical skills) For more information about JobServe, please send a blank e-mail to mailto:help@jobserve.com or visit their website at http://www.jobserve.com/ Unfortunately, you can't filter by salary so you often get back a load of irrelevant dross. Unfortunately also only agencies can use the service. This means that vacancies with many smaller companies are not to be found here as such companies cannot afford the 30% of first year's salary which agencies charge, often for a few hours work (not bad work if you can get it!). This is the original online job matching service and it shows. It doesn't look like they've updated their search facilities since launching in 1994, c'mon guys when is the salary filter going to arrive? Website is noted as PANTS here: http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/jobserve.html careerjet --------- http://www.careerjet.co.uk/ Covering all job sectors and the whole UK, this useful job search has a wide range of jobs and a detailed geographic filter but no salary search and no option to multiselect various locations. TipTopJob --------- http://www.TipTopJob.com TipTopJob.com is a general job board. Search through thousands of jobs across 34 different industries and apply online. Set up email alerts and add your CV to help yourself get recruited. STV Jobs -------- http://jobs.stv.tv/ Jobs in Scottish, site managed by Scottish Television Ltd Scottish Jobs on the Net ------------------------ http://www.scottishjobsonthe.net/ No nonsense Scottish Job board with no annoying pop ups just thousands of jobs throughout Scotland Scottish Jobs ------------- http://www.scottishjobs.com/ One of the most flexible searches going, highly recommended. Killer Jobs ----------- http://www.killerjobs.com/ A decent website with a reasonable number of results. No salary search though. Keywords are mandatory (so no browsing for just the top paid jobs, irrespective of keywords) IT Job Board ------------ http://www.theitjobboard.com/ Monster ------- http://www.monster.co.uk/ Apparently the market leader, although unfortunately they can't email you the actual details of jobs which match your requirements! TotalJobs --------- http://www.totaljobs.co.uk/ IC Scottish Recruitment ----------------------- http://www.icscottishrecruitment.co.uk/ Search by salary doesn't work One of the worst job websites for usability Website is noted as PANTS here: http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/icscottish.html Scottish IT Jobs ---------------- http://www.ScottishITjobs.com/ Jobs in Academia ---------------- For jobs in academic circles http://www.jobs.ac.uk/ http://www.AcademicCareers.com/ S1 Jobs ------- http://www.s1jobs.com/ Allows filtering by salary (hooray) The Appointments Section ------------------------ http://www.taps.com/ ScotlandJobs ------------ http://www.scotlandjobs.com/ - Domain available http://www.movejobs.com/ - Domain also available Agencies -------- http://www.best-people.co.uk/ Best People http://www.careercare.com/ CareerCare http://www.computerpeople.co.uk/ Computer People http://www.elan.co.uk/ Elan http://www.headresourcing.com/ Head Resourcing http://www.hudson.com Hudson http://www.searchconsultancy.co.uk Search Search are Scotland's largest independent recruitment Agency and have the largest online database of jobs covering Scotland. http://www.tps.co.uk/ Technology Project Services http://scotland.efinancialcareers.co.uk eFinancialCareers Scotland - Scotland's Financial Job Marketplace Software Academy ---------------- The Software Academy, mailto:software.academy@scotent.co.uk, is a Scottish Enterprise venture to provide support and advice on recruitment and skills projects including: assistance with the recruitment process, Training Needs Analysis and access to the Graduates into Software programme. Rules and regulations ===================== If you are not a European Union citizen, then there are complex laws around obtaining a work permit and residency or being a student. You are strongly advised to consult the British Embassy or Consulate in your country for official advice. There is some information at from the Home Office http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ entitled "Naturalisation as a British Citizen - A guide for applicants" which should help. and http://britain-info.org/ regarding immigration rules to the UK [1.16] Scottish Yellow Pages Scotland.org - the first and only public-sector sanctioned yellow pages of Scotland http://www.scotland.org/ there is also a "white pages" service from this address businesses can also be found in http://www.yell.co.uk/ "Yellow Pages" is a registered trademark of BT in the United Kingdom See also Scottish entries in http://www.ukdirectory.com/ The US gateway for Scottish Tourism is at http://www.toscotland.com/ Friends of Scotland http://www.friendsofscotland.gov.uk/ Highlighting the best that Scotland offers the world [1.17] Scottish White Pages The Scotweb scottish store http://www.scotweb.co.uk/ [1.18] Getting Scottish addresses and phone numbers If you have an incomplete address and want the full address, there is a lookup service for all UK addresses available at http://www.royalmail.com/ For "Yellow Pages" information, see [1.16] For "White Pages" information, try http://www.192.com/ once you have the postcode, you can get a local map via http://www.multimap.com/ (see [14.5]) To locate people, try http://www.whowhere.lycos.com/ [1.19] Buying a house, letting accommodation Property websites ================= Solicitors ---------- http://www.sspc.co.uk/ Essential viewing - select the local site for your area Solicitors and Estate Agents ---------------------------- http://www.scottishproperty.net/ http://www.s1homes.com/ Scottish property and real estate throughout Central Scotland. This site and the SSPC site have more listings for Scottish properties than any of the sites below and both are well worth a look. Mostly estate agents -------------------- http://www.your-move.co.uk/ http://www.propertyfinder.co.uk/ http://www.propertywindow.com/ http://www.property.scotsman.com/ http://www.thehousehunter.com/ http://www.fish4.co.uk/ http://www.itlhomesearch.com/ http://www.assertahome.com/ http://www.rightmove.co.uk/ Note that many of the above are dominated by purely estate agents and the same property will likely appear on many of the above sites. Solicitors tend to only put their properties in the SSPC guides, so there is minimal overlap with other sites. http://www.edinburghnews.com/ (Edinburgh Evening News, Edinburgh area only) New Homes --------- http://www.new-home-locations.net/ Essential viewing if you want a brand new house, the other sites and publications are generally hopeless at distributing information on new homes. Lettings -------- http://www.lettingweb.com/ Mortgages ========= The following sites are good places to look for a mortgage Easiest to use -------------- http://www.moneyextra.com/ (personal favourite) http://www.moneynet.co.uk/ http://www.ukmortgagesonline.com/ http://www.charcolonline.co.uk/ (the search engine behind Tesco Finance, Interactive Investor) http://www.moneysupermarket.co.uk/ Also worth trying ----------------- http://www.firstmortgage.co.uk/ http://www.yourmortgage.co.uk/ http://www.mortgageseekers.co.uk/ http://www.moneyfacts.co.uk/ (search has to be started from the beginning if you change anything) Solicitors ========== The majority of property in Scotland is sold through solicitors offering an estate agency service. The Scottish Solicitors Property Centre site at http://www.sspc.co.uk/ has links to the various local centres around Scotland (Edinburgh, Glasgow, Tayside, Highlands, Perth, Aberdeen, etc) which cover properties for each particular area. Each site has a convenient computerised matching service. This system is really convenient but is so efficient it can lead to a large number of people chasing after a small number of highly desirable properties. You can sometimes pick up a bargain by specifying you are interested in all areas. Estate Agents ============= Solicitors have a particularly high market penetration in the cities, and sell over 92% of Edinburgh properties for instance. However, in more rural locations and in smaller towns, the balance is not so one sided and may be around 50/50 split between estate agents and solicitors in these places. Timber Frame Houses ------------------- There is information on buying a timber frame house at http://www.scotframe.co.uk/ Free house prices for Scotland, no need to register either! http://www.nethouseprices.com/ Property for sale ----------------- View this property for sale http://www.siliconglen.com/house/ [1.20] Women's issues Engender -------- http://www.engender.org.uk/ described as: "...a Scottish site for women.... Engender is our own research and campaigning organisation for women in Scotland, committed to greater visibility, influence and yes...power for women." Quine ----- http://www.quine.org.uk/ Quine Online - Scottish Women Has everything from rape crisis centres to traditional quilting. Lots of organisations have sites housed within this one. Glasgow Women's Library ----------------------- http://www.womens-library.org.uk/ mailto:gwl@womens-library.org.uk [1.21] Community information http://www.mbn.co.uk/ascc/ Association of Scottish Community Councils To be on a community council, you generally need to be on the electoral roll for that council's area. Because the electoral roll is compiled in November, but the elections to the community council are in September, this means you must have been living in the community council's area for between 10 and 22 months in order to be eligible to stand. http://www.slainte.napier.ac.uk/ISC3815 Scottish community information [1.22] National holidays The usual 8 Scottish holidays are: 1 Jan Ne'ers day (for traditions see [12.16], [12.17]) 2 Jan Scottish New Year holiday Good Friday May day holiday (First Monday in May) Spring Holiday (Last Monday in May) August holiday (First Monday in August) 25 Dec Christmas day (for traditions see [12.15]) 26 Dec Boxing day These holidays differ from England as follows: England gets Easter Monday instead of 2 Jan. England's August holiday is at the end of August. There are also "harmonised" Scotland holidays in which Scotland gets the holidays listed above except the August holiday is the English one rather than the Scottish one. Scottish School holidays are generally the end of June to the middle of August; about 2-3 weeks ahead of the holidays in England. Scotland also has local holidays at various times of the year, (eg September) and also trade fairs fortnight. Edinburgh's is the first two weeks in July, Glasgow's is the 3rd and 4th weeks in July. Although it is called trades fortnight, the first day of the fortnight is widely taken as a local holiday across many businesses, particularly public sector. During this time, local travel may operate a cut down timetable. [1.23] Sheep http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/sheep/ Everything you ever wanted to know about breeds of Sheep. Common Scottish types are Cheviot, Shetland, Boreray, Hebridean, Orkney, Scottish Blackface. [1.24] City status This one has provoked much heated argument, not least because the official definition of a city is now out of step with the traditional definition of a city and there is a certain amount of politics associated with what is a city and what isn't and historically differs from the use of the term in England. From the time of David I (12th C) the term city (or civitas) was introduced from England initially from the association with episcopal seats. However unlike England, the word city was conferred on every town with a cathedral no matter what its importance, trading rights or size. Later a city might acquire burgh status (e.g. Dunblane) or Royal Burgh status (Elgin), however the two are independent - there were 68 Royal Burghs in Scotland at the time of their formal abolishment in 1975. There is no indication that at any time from the 12th century up to the 21st century when city status was conferred on Stirling and Inverness, that the title of city confers any special rights, privileges or status. It appears to have been exclusively an honorific title and a matter of civic pride for the inhabitants of the town and recognition by the monarch. It also gave a certain importance to towns that were not burghs or royal burghs and differentiated them from ordinary villages. There is a claim that Dunblane was granted city status by James IV in 1500 when he ruled Scotland from the nearby Royal burgh of Stirling. I welcome evidence of how this was conferred as it has so far been difficult to trace. There is a possible explanation that 1500 was about the time James IV spent quite a lot of time with Margaret Drummond, possibly marrying her in private. However, in order to block this and make way for his marriage to Princess Margaret of England, Margaret and her two sisters were poisoned in 1501 and all three got a magnificient send off in the Cathedral where they lie to this day. So perhaps Margaret was Dunblane's reason for being made a city and equally for evidence being hard to find. This story does not explain why in 1150 when Dunblane's Bishopric was founded that the town was not granted city status then and had to wait 350 years. A much more plausible explanation is that of the 13 pre-reformation cathedral sites in Scotland, 11 of which were in towns, the term city was often used to refer to the town - see the letter from Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon, September 10, 1403, which refers to "the people of the city and diocese" (of Dunblane). The "rank" of medieval Scottish towns was thus: Village (lowest); City (village with a cathedral, honorific title), Burgh (legal status) and finally Royal Burgh (legal status) The 11 towns, some of which use the term city today were: Old Aberdeen, Brechin, Dornoch, Dunblane, Dunkeld, Elgin, Fortrose, Glasgow, Kirkwall, Saint Andrews and Whithorn The remaining two cathedrals were at Iona (seat of the Bishopric of the Isles) and Lismore. It is unclear whether initally city status was conferred by the monarch or whether it was simply a term to describe the seat of a bishop. However, over time, city status is something granted by the monarch and there is not only a gap between a cathedral being founded but also the creation of cities where there is no cathedral. By the time of the 17th century there is a clear documented gap. Charles I founded the Bishopric of Edinburgh in 1633 but the earliest recorded instance of Edinburgh being called a city dates from 1687. There is also Stirling which became the first Scottish city, historic or modern, to not have a cathedral. By the 19th century a number of Scottish towns are calling themselves cities but it appears that there is no record of how this was officially conferred. The first record appears to come via a Royal Charter granted to Dundee, on 26 January 1889. The 1929 Local government Act created three different categories of burgh one of which was cities and this list was Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee. Only Dundee seems to have a Royal Charter, the rest are Royal Burghs which have been known as cities since medieval times. So much for the smaller towns which had equal claim to the title. By 1972, the "Municipal Year Book" gave the list of Scottish cities as Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Perth and Elgin. It is unclear why Perth appears in this list when Perth has never been a cathedral city and why Elgin is listed and none of the other cathedral cities are. By 1975 the former Burghs and Royal Burghs lost their ancient rights. Thus city status which formerly served to differentiate a village from a place with a cathedral now became the most sought after honour which could be bestowed on a town. The situation we have today is thus: Two places with a cathedral which were never a city (Iona, Lismore) 11 places with a cathedral and associated settlement which became known as cities from the 12th century. Old Aberdeen, Brechin, Dornoch, Dunblane, Dunfermline, Dunkeld, Elgin, Fortrose, Kirkwall, St Andrews, Whithorn. Many of these places still use the term city in various contexts, e.g. "City and Burgh of Dunblane", "Brechin City (Football)". Perth which is refered to as "The fair city" although it is unclear when the city term originated. 3 major towns (Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen) which hold city status from medieval times and which enjoy official city status today. 3 towns which have been granted city status by a Queen: Dundee: Royal Charter, 26 Jan 1889. Inverness: Royal Letters Patent, 18 December 2000, for the millenium. Stirling: Royal Letters Patent, 14 March 2002, for the Golden Jubilee. There are no further plans to grant city status for the time being. These latter 6 form the Official List of Cities as recognised by the Scottish Executive. However it is unclear what the grounds are for this list when only 3 appear to have documentary evidence of city status. It is also unclear why as recently as 1972, Perth and Elgin were recognised as cities but are no longer and why the ancient cathedral towns are not recognised as cities. However, any town which historically called itself a city is still free to do so. The only difference is that they are not on the government's Official List Of Places We Officially Acknowledge As Cities. It is also expecially odd as Dunfermline discovered that in Medieval times it was called a city and on 16th September 2000 pulled out of the competition to award millenium city status on the basis that it already was one, a fact recognised by the executive. Why it should then be excluded from the official list simply seems strange. As a result, the 6 Official Cities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Stirling and Inverness now seem to have an elite club and whilst fine for those places does seem to play down the important Scottish tradition and status accorded to many other towns and there is no clear explanation as to how this list was arrived at other than a mixture of recent Royal charter or letters patent, or being a big town with a cathedral. The only Scottish towns today with an Anglican cathedral that don't have city status are Oban and Perth. The OED ------- I wrote to the OED regarding the use of the term "City" and the term "High School" which I also felt to be wrong as regards Scotland: Oxford University Press wrote back to me and said: "I agree with you that the definitions of 'High School' and 'city' may be misleading in respect to Scotland, and we will consider revising them at the earliest opportunity." Some definitions ---------------- Cathedral: The principal church of a diocese in which is to be found the bishop's throne or cathedra Civitas: The name civitas was applied by the Romans to each of the independent states or tribes of Gaul; in later times it adhered to the chief town of each of these states, which usually became afterwards the seat of civil government and of episcopal authority. The term later meant "a centre of civilized living". Burgh: Conferring Burgh status gave a town self-government. Burghs had special trading privileges, which were very important to the prosperty of the town and its inhabitants. Burghs were represented in parliament. Royal Burgh: (or King's Burgh). Had no superior above them except the King. This was the highest status which could be conferred on a town. Royal burghs had a monopoly on foreign trade. They also had more representation in parliament than non-royal burghs. Often the Royal Burghs were sea ports or had some close connection with royalty (e.g. Linlithgow and its palace) The Burghs' trading rights were abolished in 1832 and the Burghs themselves in 1975. [2.1] Celtic background It is incorrect to think of Scotland as a wholly Celtic country. Since the first millennium BC, Scotland has been a place of multiple languages and this tradition continues today. First of all it was Pictish and British; then Gaelic, Norse and Scots came and today it's English, Scots and Gaelic. Nearly all of Scotland was once Gaelic speaking except Orkney, Shetland and Caithness which had a variety of Norse until recent times and East Lothian which was settled by the Angles. Galloway had a Gaelic community which became separated from the Gaelic speaking Highlands and Gaelic was still in use until about the 17th century in Galloway. Gaelic is a Celtic language, like Irish, Scots is a Germanic language like English. "Poets, scholars and writers in Lowland Scotland up until the 16th century readily acknowledged Gaelic to be the true and original Scottish language. As we know, though, it was an incomer just as much as Anglo-Saxon! For Walter Kennedy 'it suld be al trew Scottis mennis lede': ('Flyting with Dunbar' c.1500)" section quoted from "Gaelic: a past and future prospect", Kenneth Mackinnon. Other notable reads include anything by the late Prof Kenneth Jackson, particularly "A Celtic Miscellany", any of John Prebble's books (eg "1000 years of Scottish History") or Nigel Tranter ("The Story of Scotland"). The book "The Lyon in Mourning" about the Jacobite uprising is online here: http://www.nls.uk/print/transcriptions/lyon/vol2/ Particularly recommended is Michael Lynch's "Scotland: A new history" ISBN 0712698930. 517 pages, published 8-October-1992. The Michael Lynch book is particularly excellent - I have a copy myself and it was also recommended by a friend with a degree in Scottish History. Vast in scope with 25 chapters spanning 18 centuries, from the Picts to the 1980s and aimed at the general reader. However, will miss out on anything related to The Scottish Parliament. More info here: http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0712698930/scottishmusiccom The author is Professor of History at Edinburgh University and President of the Historical Association of Scotland. For the most up to date recommended guide on Scottish History, take a look at The Oxford Companion to Scottish History edited by Michael Lynch. Hardcover - 758 pages, published October 2001. The Oxford Companion to Scottish History has more than 170 expert contributors. It interprets history broadly, including archaeology, architecture, climate, culture, folk belief, geology, and the langauages of Scotland. It covers more than 20 centuries of history, including immigrants, migrants, and emigrants. It extends from Orkney and Shetland to Galloway, the Western Isles to the Borders. It deals extensively with Scots abroad, from Canada to Russia to New Zealand. It includes entries on historical figures from Columba, Macbeth, and William Wallace to James (Paraffin) Young. It covers Burns Clubs, curling, and shinty. It ranges from clans to Clearances and Covenanters. More information and related books at the following link http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0192116967/scottishmusiccom If you're interested in Celtic mythology, an excellent online reference is at http://irelandnow.com/ulstercycle/frame.htm [2.2] Celtic art and font links Clip art etc ============ http://celticknots.atspace.com/ http://home.ctnet.com/drew/celthome.html http://home.ctnet.com/drew/knotwork.html http://home.pi.net/~siteklj/cornwall.htm http://members.aol.com/Cyrion7/celtic/ http://members.aol.com/ragnarok/artype/celtic/ http://people.wiesbaden.netsurf.de/~kikita/ http://webclipart.miningco.com/msub6.htm http://webclipart.miningco.com/library/weekly/aa020698.htm http://wvnvm.wvnet.edu/~cna00104/ http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/5872/graphics.html http://www.dickalba.demon.co.uk/ http://www.iserv.net/~scottish/ http://www.ceolas.org/clipart.html http://www.celticlady.com/ http://www.planet.net/celtart/ http://www.siliconglen.com/joscelin/ http://www.siliconglen.com/craig/gaidhlig.html http://www.underbridge.com/market/walker/ http://www.highlandersoftware.com/ Fonts ===== http://members.aol.com/ragnarok/artype/celtic/ http://www.celticvoice.com/readings/gaeil1.htm http://www.evertype.com/ http://www.indirect.com/www/engard/runes/runefont.html http://www.ragnarokpress.com/artype/celtic/ http://www.ragnarokpress.com/scriptorium/2faces.html http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/~smacsuib/fonts/ http://www.users.dircon.co.uk/~bigted/celtica/ http://www.vintagetype.com/ http://yeats.csufresno.edu/GAELIC-L.HTML http://www.clanbadge.com/ FTP sites --------- ftp://ftp.winsite.com/pub/pc/win3/fonts/ Newsgroups ---------- See also the newsgroup news:comp.fonts Information on Celtic fonts --------------------------- Gaelic script is not based on Irish Uncial, but Irish miniscule, 8th century style. The Anglo-Saxon miniscule of the tenth is exactly the same script, plus thorn, wyn and edh (as exemplified by the 9th-century gloss to the Linsfarne Gospels), so much so that some academics argue that Gaelic script is derived from Anglo-Saxon miniscule, rather than the other way round. It's an old quibble, arising from the similarity of these two scripts. If you are looking for a definition of Gaelic script, either could serve as a source. Gaelic script is characterised by a triangular letter A, and leans towards Italic rather than the round upright majuscule, or uncial proper. The book of Durrow is a particularly good reference source. [2.3] The Celtic cross It isn't Christian nor Celtic. The oldest examples of the "Celtic" cross are those engraved or painted on flat pebbles, dating from 10,000 BC and found in a cave in the French Pyrenees. These "ancestor stones" were believed to contain the spirits of the dead. In Scotland, The stones at Callanish are laid in the shape of a Celtic cross. Callanish also predates Christ. It is possible the Christians took the cross symbol from the Celts or Megalithic peoples but certainly not that the Celts took the symbol from the Christians. Links ----- Information on megalithic sites is available at http://www.placedirectory.com/stones/stones1.htm Callanish info at http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/2621/callanis.htm [2.4] Postgraduate courses in Celtic studies There are three Celtic departments in Scotland Edinburgh University, Glasgow University and Aberdeen University Edinburgh --------- Dept of Celtic, The University of Edinburgh, 19/20 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9LD Fax: 0131 650 6536 Tel: 0131 650 3622 contact: Professor William Gillies http://www.arts.ed.ac.uk/celtic/ Degrees available: PhD (min 3 years); MLitt (min two years); MSc/Diploma (one year/nine months) Entrance qualifications for all three is a good Honours degree in Celtic studies or a related or relevant discipline, but I understand each case is considered on its individual merits. The MSc/Diploma is based around a series of prescribed specialisms including literary, linguistic and historical options of which candidates choose one. There isn't much specific info on the content of the other courses The Dept of Celtic was founded in 1882 and is the oldest in Scotland. Current members include Prof William Gillies (head of dept), Ronald Black and Roibeart O Maolalaigh. Allan MacDonald also takes part in teaching. Nerys Ann Jones, Kenneth MacKinnon and Cathair O Dochartaigh are Honorary Fellows of the Faculty of Arts in the field of Celtic Studies. Aberdeen -------- Roinn na Ceilteis / Celtic Dept University of Aberdeen Taylor Building King's College Old Aberdeen AB9 2UB Tel: 01224 272549 Fax: 01224 272562 http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~lng014/celtic_dept/ Glasgow ------- Roinn na Ceilteis / Celtic Dept Glasgow University Glaschu G12 8QQ Tel: 0141 339 8855 mailto:celtic@arts.gla.ac.uk Cathair O'Dochartaigh is the head of department at Glasgow and Thomas Clancy (British Academy Post-Doctoral fellow) teaches there. It is said that Aberdeen, then Edinburgh then Glasgow give their students the best opportunities to leave as fluent Gaelic speakers. Edinburgh also has the School of Scottish Studies which is the world centre for Scottish ethnology, folklore, traditions, customs etc (covers the whole of Scotland, not just the Highlands). The School of Scottish Studies offers courses in ethnology and has strong links with the Dept of Celtic (both part of Edinburgh University) http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk There may eventually also be courses on offer at the University of the Highlands and Islands http://www.uhi.ac.uk/ There is also a Celtic studies dept at St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia. Ken Nilsen teaches at St FX, used to teach in the Boston area see Dr Ken Nilsen's homepage at http://www.stfx.ca/people/knilsen/ For info on summer courses in Nova Scotia, see http://www.ceilidhtrail.com/ There is also a Masters program at U. of Wales, Cardiff in Welsh Ethnology Jordanhill offers courses for people wishing to become Gaelic teachers Jordanhill College 45 Chamberlain Road Glaschu G13 1SP Clydebank College also offers Gaelic courses Clydebank College Kilbowie Road Clydebank Siorramachd Dhun Breatann G81 2AA There are also Celtic Studies departments at Harvard College and Stonehill College (in Easton, Massachusetts) and the University of California at Berkeley. There is an Irish Studies Program at Boston College. See also -------- http://www.yahoo.co.uk/Social_Science/Celtic_Studies/ [2.5] The history of language in Scotland In Britain (including Scotland), Brythonic Celtic predates Gaelic by almost 1000 years or so. Being spoken from Kent up to Glasgow and across to Wales. Some people even suggest that Brythonic was spoken in Ireland before Gaelic, but this notion begs the question... Where did Gaelic come from and when? But that's another story. Pictish (possibly Celtic) would probably predate even brythonic. As to Gaelic and English in Scotland, The Highlands of Scotland were occupied by Picts and the Lowlands were occupied by Brythonic Celts. The Romans occupying the Lowlands during this time and when the Romans left in 407, they left a weak kingdom, but still brythonic. The Scots (Gaelic speaking) extended their region of Dalriada into Argyllshire, between 500 and 550. The Angles extended the Kingdom of Northumbria into Lothian, Berwick, Selkirk, Peebles and Roxburgh. As far as I am aware these areas are in present day Scotland. The Angles spoke a dialect of what is know today as "Old English". The Angles moved into this area about 540 -600, these are rough dates. As time went on, Scotland was left with 4 distinct areas. Dalriada, Pictland, Strathclyde and Lothian (Northumbria). In 625 the Northumbrian Kingdom stretched from the Humber to the Forth and was ruled by Edwin. In 685 the Northumbrians decided to try and extend Northumbria into Pictland and hence invaded the Picts, but this was a big mistake. The Northumbrian army was defeated by the Picts and eventually Northumbria lost supremacy to the Southern Saxons. (Also why RP is based on Southern English and Not Northumbrian ???). The Picts became the supreme overlords of the Scots in Dalriada and the Brythonic Celts in Strathclyde. About 785, Pictland started to receive attacks from bands of Norse invaders and these lead to Pictish defeats and in the 830 (approx), the Norse invaders made permanent settlements. In 843 Dalriada threw off Pictish control, where upon the Scots King Kenneth MacAlpine laid claim to the Pictish throne through the Celtic law of Tanistry. Followed by the union of the Picts and the Scots. The now "United Kingdom" tried to oust the Northumbrians from Lothian but were unsuccessful. At this time the Norse people occupied the Western Isles, Northern Isles and Caithness. The Scots allied themselves to the English to get rid of the Norse Invaders and sometimes allied themselves with the Norse to get rid of the English. It was not until 1018 that the Scots Kingdom managed to remove Lothian from the hands of the Northumbrians and in 1034 the Scots, Angles, British and Picts were a United Kingdom of Scotland. As far as I am aware MacBeth was the last of the Gaelic Kings, and he himself was followed by Malcolm, whose wife (an English lass) moved the royal court to Edinburgh around about 1070. At this time many persecuted English people moved into Lothian from England due to Norman Conquest. The English who were persecuted in England flourished in Scotland. The real point of all the above is that English has been spoken since the 6th Century in Scotland. Not all of it but quite a large piece. Modern Scots dates back to the first Angle invasions at this time. Incidentally whilst parts of Scotland were English speaking, parts of England were still Celtic speaking eg West Yorkshire Kingdom of Elmet and part of Cumbria. To sum up English has been spoken for longer in Edinburgh than in Leeds. Nick Higham has written an excellent book on the history of Northumbria. (The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350-1100) [2.6] Celtic knotwork Article by S Walker (mailto:swalker706@aol.com) Celtic knots or Celtic interlace are ornamental patterns that first became associated with Celtic people in the early Celtic Church where they were used to decorate Bible manuscripts, monuments (notably Celtic crosses and cross slabs) and jewellery. They probably were used in other media such as wood carving and textiles but these have not survived. Knotwork tradition in manuscript painting probably came to Ireland with displaced Coptic monks from Egypt by way of St. Martins monastery at Tours (in what is now France) in the 4th or 5th century. This is not a settled issue as far as the art historians are concerned but the best evidence I have seen points to Coptic prototypes. From Ireland the style spread to Scotland (then Pictland and Dalriada), Wales and Northumbria and with missionaries of the Celtic Church to Europe. Viking raiders later appropriated some of the design concepts into a more chaotic style of animal interlace. Celtic knots are complete loops with no end or beginning. Celtic animal interlace is similar in construction but the cords terminate in feet, heads, tails etc. The animal designs are very much influenced by an older Saxon tradition of abstract beast forms that when combined with the new more sophisticated knotwork of the Celtic designers became known as Hiberno-Saxon. A good Celtic artist will never end a strand that is not stylised into a zoomorphic element or spiral. Rather pure knots should always be unending. On this point of ornamental grammar you can distinguish much that is made to look like Celtic design by designers who do not really know the tradition. The Coptic examples of knotwork that pre-date the early Irish work are consistent this way while the Roman and Germanic examples of knotwork that sometimes are cited as possible sources often have loose ends. The way that ribbons are coloured in some of the early Irish work, particularly the BOOK OF DURROW is the same as the Coptic preference and there is a parallel evolution in Moorish design. Do not get the idea that all Celtic art is borrowed and souped up from other cultures. Celtic spiral designs are an older design form and have been practised by the Celts since the dawn of their existence. Very difficult and sophisticated spirals exist in the same early works where the knotwork and animal designs are relatively crude. The Book of Kells is the best known source of Celtic knots as well as other types of Celtic ornament. The Book of Kells is a fantastic collection of paintings that illuminate the four Gospels in Latin, penned circa 800 AD The incredible degree of ornament and detail caused Giraldus Cambrensis in the 13th century to call it: "the work not of men, but of angels" or as Umberto Eco wrote in 1990: "the product of a cold-blooded hallucination" In recent years Celtic Knots have enjoyed a revival however way too much of this has amounted to copies of historical knots used in tourist type craft goods. Fortunately there are a few artists who take the subject more seriously and are creating new and exciting knots. Check out Patrick Gallagher at http://www.planet.net/celtart/ or Walker Metalsmiths at http://www.celtarts.com/ Alexander Ritchie made quite a lot of pretty good silver jewellery incorporating knotwork on the Isle of Iona from 1900 to his death in 1941. George Bain wrote an excellent book titled CELTIC ART THE METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION that is great if anyone is serious about learning how to create new knots in the Celtic tradition. Bain's book was first published in 1951 but appeared as a series of booklets before that. Aidan Meehan has a series on Celtic design with an entire volume titled KNOTWORK. As for symbolism: knotwork designs are emblematic in modern times of the Celtic nationalities. The symbolism that has come down through the ages is as obscure and indirect as much of the speech and literature of the Celtic people. How then can we understand it? If that which is not prose must be poetry, knotwork's meaning defies literal translation and should be sought at a deeper level. the repeated crossings of the physical and the spiritual are expressed in the interlace of the knots. The never ending path of the strand represents the permanence and the continuum of life, love and faith. Particularly recommended material for artists interested in knotwork is any of the books by Aidan Meehan. [2.7] Pan-Celtic organisations in Scotland The Celtic League ----------------- The Celtic League publishes 'Carn' which is in all 6 of the Celtic languages as well as English. There is also a Scottish edition "Stri" which is in Gaelic and English. For more information on the Celtic league in Scotland, contact: Iain Ramsay 22 Denholme Gardens Greenock/Grianaig Scotland/Alba PA16 8RF Telephone/Fon: 01475 785843 http://alba-branch.tripod.com/ Membership is 10 pounds (15 for two people at the same address) For general information, see http://www.manxman.co.im/cleague/ Celtic Congress --------------- http://www.evertype.com/celtcong/ A' Cho\mhdhail Cheilteach, mailto:seonag@cnag.org.uk Barry John Steen, 7 Grebe Avenue, Inverness IV2 3TD [2.8] Imbas mailing list IMBAS ===== The list focuses on Celtic Reconstructionism and wishes to support the remaining Celtic languages and people as possible, and to better understand the beliefs and customs of the Celts throughout history. There are two ways of signing onto the list. You can do it at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/imbas-public/ or by sending an email to imbas-public-subscribe@yahoogroups.com [3.1] What is the Scots language. Who do I contact for more info? The Scots language is a Germanic language related to English. It is not Celtic, but has been influenced by Gaelic, as Scottish Gaelic has been influenced by Scots. "Briogais", "gaileis", "baillidh", "snaoisean", "burach", "sneag", etc etc. For more info, contact: Scots Language Society Blackford Lodge Blackford Perthshire PH4 1QP tel: 01764 682315 fax 0870 428 5086 mailto:mail@lallans.co.uk Membership is 7 pounds a year. More details in [3.3] There is also some info in the following section: "The Pocket Guide to Scottish Words: Scots, Gaelic" by Iseabail Macleod. Published by W&R Chambers, Ltd. 43-45 Annandale Street, Edinburgh EH7 4AZ (ISBN 0-550-11834-9). Widely available at bookshops and airports US distributors Unicorn Limited, Inc. P.O. Box 397 Bruceton Mills, WV 26525 (304) 379-8803 It has "Place names, personal names, food and drink. Scots and Gaelic words explained in handy reference form." There are 30 pages of Scots words explained. No grammar. It does list a number of interesting sounding books: Scots is not slang. If you want to know about slang, see here http://www.peevish.co.uk/slang/ Scots Language Dictionaries --------------------------- "The Concise Scots Dictionary". Mairi Robinson, editor-in-chief. Published 1985, (Aberdeen University Press) 862pp, a comprehensive one-volume dictionary covering the Scots language from the earliest records to the present day; based largely on: William Grant, David Murison, editors "The Scottish National Dictionary" 10 vols., 1931-76, the Scots language from 1700 to the present day, and: Sir William Craigie, A J Aitken et al "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" published up to Pr- in 5 vols., 1931-, the Scots language up to 1700. Alexander Warrack, "Chambers Scots Dictionary" 1911, 717pp. "The Scots School Dictionary", ed. Iseabail Macleod and Pauline Cairns, Chambers 1996, 370pp. The best two-way dictionary currently available. General Scots Books ------------------- A J Aitken, Tom McArthur, eds "Languages of Scotland" 1979, 160pp., a collection of essays on Scots and Gaelic. David Murison "The Guid Scots Tongue" 1977, 63pp "The New Testament in Scots" 1983, by W L Lorimer A Scots grammar : Scots grammar and usage : Scots that haes David Purves (Saltire Society, 1997). Just to add to the list of books of/about Scots, one should mention the reprint of P Hately Waddell's The Psalms: Frae Hebrew Intil Scots (orig 1871, reprinted with modern introduction 1987 by Aberdeen Univ Press). I would love to see some instructive writing about the Scots tongue, more than just word-lists. Especially pronunciation, intonation, cadence, etc. as well as grammar. Recommended reading ------------------- There are two books that are essential reading on the subject of Scots. The first is "Scots: the Mither Tongue" by Billy Kay. This is available both in hardback and paperback. The second is "Why Scots Matters" by J. Derrick McClure. This is more of a booklet than a book, and is an inexpensive paperback. Colin Wilson has written a book to learn Scots called "Luath Scots Language Learner - an introduction to contemporary spoken Scots". This book was launched on 9th September 2002. Published by Luath Press Ltd, ISBN 094648791X. you can buy the book here: http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/094648791X/scottishmusiccom There's also George Kynoch, Teach Yourself Doric, Scottish Cultural Press; published in 1995, I think. Links ----- The relevant Scottish Office department covering the Scots language is at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Arts-Culture [3.2] On-line Scots language info Links ----- Scots language corpus. Highly recommended. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/ http://www.umist.ac.uk/UMIST_CAL/Scots/ is the URL of Clive Young's "Scots on the Wab", the best "wab steid" about Scots. Clive Young his screived a buik titled "The Scots Hanbuik" (1995) an his pit it on the WWW at: http://www.umist.ac.uk/UMIST_CAL/Scots/haunbuik.htm The Scots National Dictionary Association http://www.snda.org.uk/ A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue http://www.arts.ed.ac.uk/dost/ http://www.mlove.free-online.co.uk/CAMP22.html is the web site of the Univairsitie o Aiberdeen Scots Leid Quorum. Links to various resources concerning Scots: http://babel.uoregon.edu/yamada/guides/scots.html Scots Teaching And Research Network http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/www/english/comet/starn.htm Scots language resource centre http://www.pkc.gov.uk/slrc/index.htm mailto:slrc@sol.co.uk 'Wir Ain Leid - An Innin til Modren Scots' an is anent Scots eidiom an gremmar. The URL is http://www.scots-online.org/ See also http://www.paidmyre.demon.co.uk/ E-mail and newsletters ---------------------- There is a newsletter "The Gliffden". Contact Dauvit Horsbroch for more information. mailto:cel016@abdn.ac.uk There is also an excellent newsletter "Scots Tung Wittins". mailto:rfairnie@sol.co.uk for more info. Tel: 0131 665 5440 Newsgroups ---------- news:scot.scots FTP Sites --------- ftp://jpd.ch.man.ac.uk/pub/Scots/ScotsFAQ.txt [3.3] Scots Language Society / Scots Leid Associe Whit's Scots? ------------- jouk, gulravae, stech, fushionless, ill-setten, nieve, orrals, pley, incomin, havers, clamihewit, murlin, upbring, hant, pleesure, bravity, fantoush, smeddum, scunner, gilliegaupus, thrawn, glaikit, airtit, bogshaivelt, flouers, eedjitm lintie, champit, pauchtie, dour, nainsel, pech, haun, .... It's our ain tung! ------------------ The Scots Language Society exists to promote Scots in literature, drama, the media, education and every day usage. Since Scots was once the state language of Scotland, it is a valid part of our heritage and the Society recognises that it should be able to take its place as a language of Scotland, along with Gaelic and English. As well as promoting the language and lobbying education authorities and the media for greater use of Scots, the society publishes the twice-yearly "Lallans", the magazine for writing in Scots (free to society members) plus a newsletter in Scots. It holds an annual conference, which has been addressed by eminent writers, actors, journalists, musicians, television presenters, scholars and others, and runs competitions encouraging both adults and children to write in Scots. The society can provide advice on the language to theatre companies, schools, etc. The society is a registered charity. Did ye ken? ----------- The Anglo-Saxons said "Hoose" for "House", "Sang" for "Song" and "Maist" for "Most" In Scotland, even speakers of Standard English use Scots words, idioms and grammatical constructions without even realising it. Think about "Janitor" (care-taker) or "I've got a cold" (I've a cold) or "Outwith" (Outside) Scots was once the state language of the kingdom of Scotland, used by all classes for all purposes Many of Scotland's greatest writers have used the Scots language to express many of their most profound thoughts and ideas. eg. Robert Henryson (c 1430-1506), Robert Burns (1759-1796), Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), Hugh MacDiarmid (1892-1978). A great many common Scots words have cosmopolitan origins, such as 'Skank' (drain, grating) from French, 'Scone' from Dutch, 'Kirk' from Old Norse and 'Janitor' from Latin. Today, Scots is a living language, in use outwith the Gaeltacht. It is recognised as a separate language, even in the European Union where it is represented by the bureau for lesser used languages. (mailto:pub00341@innet.be WWW: http://www.eblul-bic.be/ ) Jyne us nou! ------------ Scots Language Society Blackford Lodge Blackford Perthshire PH4 1QP tel: 01764 682315 fax 0870 428 5086 mailto:mail@lallans.co.uk http://www.lallans.co.uk/ Local branches of the society are to be found in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Perth. [3.4] Lowlands-L mailing list Lowlands-L, an e-mail discussion list for people who share an interest in Lowlands languages and cultures What are "Lowlands languages and cultures"? "Lowlands languages" are those Germanic languages that developed in the "Lowlands": the low-lying areas adjacent to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These are primarily Dutch, Frisian, and Low Saxon (Low German). Also included are those languages that descended from autochtonous Lowlands languages and are used elsewhere; for example, Afrikaans, Emigre Dutch/Frisian/Low Saxon, Lowlands-based pidgins and creoles, and also English and Scots. "Lowlands cultures" are those cultures that use Lowlands languages or are clearly derived from such cultures. Can you join? You most certainly can! We welcome you if you share our interests and goals and have an e-mail account. To subscribe to Lowlands-L please visit http://www.lowlands-l.net/ Soon after you have subscribed to Lowlands-L, you will receive a multilingual welcoming message containing further instructions. Please keep the instructions for later reference (for instance, for the unlikely case of needing to unsubscribe). Links ----- Before you apply for subscription, and before you visit our links page and our visitors book, you might prefer to read more about Lowlands-L. The following links are relevant to readers interested in Scots. http://www.lowlands-l.net/ http://www.lowlands-l.net/scots.htm http://www.lowlands-l.net/shaetlan.htm Contact email mailto:admin@lowlands-l.net [4.1] Introduction to Scottish Music By Charles McGregor mailto:chic.m@zetnet.co.uk There are several kinds of 'Scottish Music'.. First of all the Alexander brothers, Kenneth McKellar, Moira Anderson, Bill McCue type thing is IMO largely an amalgum of Harry Lauder type Coonery and a catering to Tourist tastes (mostly English coach parties) in various 'Summer' shows. Most Scots do not like this kind of thing, it makes them cringe. But if it's your thing, see http://www.sirharrylauder.com/ The Scottish folk circuit is where most Scots would look for a real cultural night out. It is alive and vibrant, it is not just about traditional music. There are many contemporary song-writers as well as traditionalists. Scotland being small, there is not a great deal of money available so you find that often some of the folk circuit artists may leave the circuit and go into other more lucrative areas. e.g. Gerry Rafferty, Barbara Dickson, Billy Connolly, Eddie Reader. Many remain e.g. Dougie MacLean, Eric Bogle, Archie Fisher, Hamish Imlach, Battlefield Band, Dick Gaughan, Tannahill Weavers, Phil Cunningham, Aly Bain. Now at one time, the folk circuit consisted almost entirely of little folk clubs up and down the country, there was not a deal of concert hall performances except for the Corries, and this meant that they were regarded a little apart from the general folk circuit as a consequence of this. Nowadays, concert hall performances are common as the folk 'revival' continues.(It seems to have been 'reviving' or getting bigger all my life). Dougie MacLean, Dick Gaughan etc. regularly fill halls up and down the country. Another large part of the folk circuit that used to be almost non existant is the 'folk fesitival'. I don't know how many there are now, possibly hundreds. Used to be 1.. the Scottish folk festival for years in Blairgowrie then moved to Kinross. Folk programs or series make regular appearances on TV. Then there is the ceilidh music. This basically falls into two camps. First there is a fairly formal version where the musicians are basically following a traditional trade. They are largely used for formal or semi-formal 'occasions' like weddings or 'Dances' in hotels or village halls. Scottish country dancing like this is regarded as a little plastic, or perhaps formulaic is a more appropriate word. However, Scots do go to these and frequently enjoy them, despite some similarity to 'summer time specials' they are not an artifact of tourism, although a lot of tourists will go as well. The Jimmy Shand band might typify this class of music. The Second type is the rapidly growing 'new order' of ceilidh music. In this version, formality goes out the window. The main objective is enjoyment, getting the dance steps wrong is almost irrelevant the groups are expected to at least be attempting to push the envelopes of the genre. There is a positive feedback between the audience and group which leads to near frenzy all round. Wolfstone perhaps typify this class of music. Then there is Gaelic music, which again falls into two categories, the formal and the less so. The formal consists of gaelic choirs up and down the country with the mega event being the national Mod once a year. The less formal are essentially concert hall based and consist of groups like Runrig, Capercaillie, Clan na Gael. Now the above are guidelines there is considerable overlap from one genre to the other. The term Celtic music covers several of them and indeed in some branches exchange with Irish artistes is commonplace, indeed several groups are part Irish part Scots e.g., Capercaillie, Waterboys, Relativity. More information ---------------- See: http://www.ceolas.org/ceolas.html Some review of musicians are at http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/u/uh22501/html/music.html There is a tutorial article (60K) on the modes of Scottish traditional music available via http://www.purr.demon.co.uk/jack/Music/Modes.abc Information on Scottish music from NA perspective - a web Site dedicated to the Preservation, Performance and Appreciation of the Traditional Celtic Music of Scotland, Cape Breton, and the United States. http://www3.atsbank.com/~tarider/tullochgorm/SCOT1.HTM see also http://www.standingstones.com/ Interesting reading on traditional Scottish and Irish music [4.2] Suggestions for a Scottish National Anthem The Scottish Arts Council (see [4.17]) has suggested having a new national anthem written for post-devolution Scotland. However, a number of existing songs or tunes could be used. Here's the most frequently suggested. Existing Anthem --------------- The current Official National Anthem in Scotland is God Save the Queen which is detested by many, not least because it was originally written as a pro-English, anti-Scottish song at the time of the Jacobite freedom fighters. Furthermore, many Scots are not particularly Royalist. The original version, had this verse (now dropped): God grant that Marshall Wade, May by thy mighty aid, victory bring, May he sedition hush, and like a torrent rush, Rebellious Scots to crush God save the King. Flower of Scotland is also used in an official capacity as the anthem for Scottish Rugby and Football and I believe it is also used at the Commonwealth Games. Songs ----- Flower of Scotland (The Corries) http://www.corries.com/ See also [9.3.1] Dawning of The Day (The Corries) http://www.corries.com/ Freedom Come All Ye (Hamish Henderson) Hamish sees this song as more of an international, rather than national song. Lyrics at http://www.dickalba.demon.co.uk/songs/texts/freecaye.html Highland Cathedral A regular on the Edinburgh Tattoo and has been recorded by numerous artists. Lyrics: http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/highlandcathedral/ Scots wha hae (Burns) For a' that (Burns) Auld Lang Syne (Burns) (there are two tunes) Scotland the Brave (good tune, somewhat dated lyrics, see [9.3.20] Caledonia (Dougie MacLean) http://www.dunkeld.co.uk/ http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/9_3_21.html Alba (Runrig) http://www.runrig.co.uk/ The First Minister has also suggested we have a debate on the matter http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4837078.stm Tunes only (new lyrics required) -------------------------------- Scotland the Brave Farewell to Sicily Wild Mountain Thyme Callor Herring (sp?) Annie Laurie The Wild Geese All the Fine Young Men Willie McBride. See [9.3.9] Bonnie Dundee John McLean March An Ubhal as aird A Ribhinn Og, bheil cuimhne agad? Fear a' Bhata A Riubhinn Donn Canan nan Gaidheal Amazing Grace Both Sides the Tweed (Dick Gaughan) http://www.dickalba.demon.co.uk/songs/texts/tweed.html 'Hey, tuttie taitie.' (Scots wha hae) is a Scottish tune of such antiquity that there is belief in many quarters, (including Burns himself) that it was indeed the very battle tune used during the Wars of Independence. Others and less serious contenders ---------------------------------- If all leads to independence, "Ae fond kiss and then we sever" might be apropos... Parcel O' Rogues (Burns) Loch Lomond (traditional) See [9.3.5] No gods and precious few heros (Brian McNeill / Hamish Henderson) http://www.b-mcneill.demon.co.uk/ [4.3] Scottish Music record labels Alphabetic order, WWW addresses only. Those with e-mail addresses but no WWW are listed at the end of this section. Labels ------ B&R http://www.capebretonet.com/Music/BRHeritage/ Back Porch Music http://www.bpm.on.ca/ Bryan's Room Recordings http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~derham/ Caber records http://www.caber-records.com/ Culburnie http://www.culburnie.com/ Divine Celtic Sounds http://www.goodnet.com/~slywiz/ Dunkeld http://www.dunkeld.co.uk/ Eisd http://www.gael-net.co.uk/eisd/ Gael-Linn http://www.gael-linn.ie/ Green Linnet http://www.greenlinnet.com/ Greentrax http://www.greentrax.com/ Harbourtown Records http://www.rootsworld.com/harbourtown/ Highlander Music http://www.highlandermusic.com/ KRL http://www.krl.co.uk/bulk/ Lismore http://www.lismor.co.uk/ MacDonald Music http://www.macdonaldmusic.co.uk/ Macmeanmna http://www.gaelicmusic.com/ Rounder Records http://www.rounder.com/ Ross Records http://www.rossrecords.com/ Springthyme http://www.springthyme.co.uk/ Shanachie http://www.dmn.com/shanachie/ Tayberry Music http://tayberry.com/ Temple http://www.templerecords.co.uk/ Indexes of Folk Labels ---------------------- http://www.musicscotland.com/ http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/gaelic.html http://www.ceolas.org/ref/Internet_Sources.html http://www.rootsworld.com/rw/labels.html Folk Labels e-mail only ----------------------- Ceardach Music, The Smiddy, Palace Road, Essendy, Blairgowrie, Perthshire, PH10 6SB. mailto:birncd@globalnet.co.uk Veesik Records, Brae, Shetland mailto:veesik.records@zetnet.co.uk Whirlie Records and Productions 17-23 Calton Road, Edinburgh EH8 Tel: 0131 557 9099 (has Aly Bain's first solo album) See [4.10] for artists and groups [4.4] Folk Events Listings What's on guides ---------------- Check out the Gig Guide for what's happening in the pub folk scene in Edinburgh. http://www.gigguide.co.uk/ or for Edinburgh/Glasgow info look in the folk section of The List http://www.timeout.com/ (look for the Glasgow and Edinburgh sections here) Blackfriars also produce a double sided A3 broadsheet called "Folk around the Forth", circulation about 10,000 and published every two months. You can pick it up free in most folk pubs around Edinburgh as well as selected venues in Stirling, Glasgow and Fife. http://www.scotfolk.org/ Skye Live http://www.skyelive.com/ Folk Clubs ---------- See [4.7] Publications ------------ See [4.8] for books detailing contacts and general reference information regarding the Scottish folk music business. [4.5] Folk and Traditional Music Record shops Internet -------- http://www.tradtunes.com/ For pay per download MP3s. Special emphasis on traditional material http://www.scottishmusic.co.uk/ Very good Internet site for buying Scottish music. Virtual Music, Alloa Business Centre, Whins Road, Alloa FK10 3SA, Scotland http://www.sms.clara.net/ Scottish music http://www.portlandamerica.com/ The primary U.S. distributor for music of Scotland and Nova Scotia, plus selected Irish, other Canadian, and some related US music. They also offer a broad selection of music to mail order customers, through their website and by phone, fax, or mail. The website includes their articles written for Scottish Life magazine on the music. Anyone wishing to submit a review is welcome to do so. Edinburgh --------- A good shop which specialises exclusively in folk is Blackfriars Music, Blackfriars Music, 49 Blackfriars St, Edinburgh EH1 1NB Tel: 0131 557 3090. http://www.scotfolk.org/ mailto:scotfolk@compuserve.com The large general music shops often have folk sections which are far larger than Blackfriars but the Blackfriars staff are generally much more knowledgeable on folk matters. Good places to try in Edinburgh are the Virgin on Princes Street and The HMV on Princes St and also in the St James Centre. Sometimes the folk and Scottish sections are in different areas. Folk is often subdivided in these shops into subcategories (i.e. Scottish, Irish, pipe bands, folk etc). I'd also suggest Coda music, 12 Bank Street, The Mound, Edinburgh Tel: 0131 622 7246 / Fax: 0131 622 7245 They claim to have the biggest selection of folk music in Scotland and don't charge extra for mail order. Glasgow ------- Highly recommended is Real Music, 23 Parnie Street, Glasgow G1, phone 0141 553 1195 next to Adam McNaughton's book shop (tel: 0141 552 2665 and also worth a visit!) Tower records also has a very good range. There is also a very good shop in Glasgow on the corner of Havelock Street and Byres Road; like Blackfriars, this also sells sheet music and instruments. Sheet music ----------- Blackwells's is also worth trying for folk music - I haven't used their record department much, but their sheet music selection is reasonable. (The best place in town - and probably in Scotland - for folk music on paper is Rae Macintosh Music, 6 Queensferry Street, Edinburgh EH2 4PA, phone 0131 225 1171, fax 0131 225 9447; but they are very disorganised and you'll have to rummage for yourself). For bagpipe music, see [8.5] Instruments ----------- For musical instruments, try Mev Taylor's Music shop, 212 Morrison Street, Edinburgh EH3 8EA. Phone 0131 229 7454 mailto:101361.1412@compuserve.com http://www.mevtaylors.co.uk/ [4.6] Primary folk music pubs and sessions Edinburgh ========= The Folk'n'Friends singing session is on every Tuesday evening at The Waverley Bar (upstairs), St. Mary's Street, Edinburgh, roughly 8.30pm to 11.30pm. http://www.singingsession.com/ Recommend listening to "The Reel Blend" on Radio Scotland on Sunday mornings for listings. Most of these start around 9 ALP/SMOG = Denotes Adult Learning Project Scots music group session - If you go to ALP you'll probably know some of the tunes A = Denotes afternoon session Mon West End Hotel ALP/SMOG session Oxford Bar ALP/SMOG singing session http://www.oxfordbar.com/ Fiddler's Arms Anne Hughes led session Sandy Bells Jenny and Hazel Wrigley Tue Green Tree Mainly Irish session Wed The Diggers ALP/SMOG session Sandy Bells mixed session West End Hotel Bill Purves, mainly singing Shore Bar Angus R. Grant and friends The Tass, Royal Mile/Jeffrey Street ALP slow session, mainly supported by ALP students. Thu West End Hotel ALP/SMOG session Sandy Bells Alan Johnstone and John Martin The Antiquary, St Stephens St, Stockbridge - *very* mixed session Fri Sandy Bells mainly Irish (occasionally) The Tass, Canongate - instrumental, mostly Irish Sat Sandy Bells mainly Irish The Tass, Canongate - instrumental, mostly Irish Sun West End Hotel ALP/SMOG tutored youth session (1-2:30) (A) Upstairs Family session for everyone from 2:30 (A) Sandy Bells 2.30-7pm (A) Scottish instrumental (lots of pipe tunes) Drouthy Neebours singing session with guest Ensign Ewart Sandy Brechin and friends All nights Whistlebinkies 8:30 - 11:30 The Royal Oak (best pub for sing arounds) Scruffy Murphy's Glasgow ======= The Scotia Bar and Clutha Vaults (Stockwell Street) Victoria Bar (Bridgegate) Hielan Jessie's (Gallowgate) Park Bar Oban ==== Session takes place on Wednesday evenings in The Lorne Hotel, Stevenson Street. Pitlochry ========= Moulin Inn, first Sunday afternoon of the month - contact Stan Reeves at the Adult Learning Project, Tollcross Community Centre, 117 Fountainbridge, Edinburgh EH3 9QG 0131 221 5800. His half-sister runs the hotel. Dunkeld ======= Wednesdays and Thursdays 8pm The Taybank Bar Further information =================== General Listings ---------------- http://www.ceolas.org/pub/session-list.html Central Scotland ---------------- Check out the Gig Guide for what's happening in the pub folk scene in Edinburgh. http://www.gigguide.co.uk/ For Edin/Glasgow info look in the folk section of The List http://www.timeout.com/ [4.7] Folk Clubs For a complete list, please refer to the Scottish Folk Directory mentioned in [4.4], or the Scottish Music information centre's book mentioned in [4.8]. Much of the information here was gathered from the Scottish Folk Directory. Many thanks to Blackfriars music for permission to use this. The Scottish Folk Directory is on-line at http://www.scotfolk.org/ Alphabetic by town Aberdeen -------- Aberdeen Folk Club now meets on Wednesdays 8.30pm at The Blue Lamp on the Gallowgate in Aberdeen. Contact Pauline Alexander on 01224 495802,or e-mail them on mailto:aberdeenfolkclub@yahoo.co.uk http://beehive.thisisnorthscotland.co.uk/default.asp?WCI=SiteHome&ID=275 Biggar ------ Clydesdale Folk Club Tel 01899-221236 Last Thursday monthly Elphinstone Hotel, Biggar. Blackford --------- Blackford Hotel: Friday night session Crail ----- Crail Folk Club Jill Saunderson 01333 312485, and Bernie McConnell 01333 451126 (mob: 07764 161891) Weekly Thursday 8.30pm Golf Hotel, Crail. Singers and guests alternate weeks. Visiting singers or musicians welcome. http://www.CrailFolkClub.org.uk/ Dalbeattie ---------- The Pheasant Pluckers F.C. runs fortnightly, in the Pheasant Hotel. Dalbeattie. On Thursday evenings from 9.00 till whenever; Sessions, Guests.-Sessions, Guests, etc. For more info. contact; Phyllis Martin. (01556) 612306 Dunblane -------- Dunblane Folk Club Tel 01786-824092 Weekly Sunday Dunfermline ----------- http://www.ceilidhfolk.co.uk/Folkclub.htm The Dunfermline Folk Club The Thistle Tavern, Baldridgeburn, Dunfermline 8.00pm for 8.30 start every Wednesday Contact Gifford Lind 01383-729673. Edinburgh --------- Edinburgh Folk Club http://www.edinburghfolkclub.org.uk/ Meets in The Pleasance Bar, The Pleasance on Wednesdays Tel 01383-738922 Edinburgh University Folk Club (oldest folk club in Scotland) Tel Caroline Brett on 0131 667 6413 Fyvie ----- Mike and Elaine Rodgers 01651 891797 mailto:fyviefolk@4i2i.com http://www.4i2i.com/fyviefolk/ First and second Wednesday monthly (free) at 8pm Vale Hotel, Fyvie. All welcome. Glasgow ------- Folk at the Egg. Tel 0141 634 1095 Bob or Roz Gilchrist Second Monday or as advertised Eglinton Arms, Hotel, Eaglesham, Glasgow. Session/singaround most nights with occasional guest nights. Glenfarg -------- Glenfarg Folk Club contact Graham Brotherston on 01337 831116 or 07884 000840 mailto:c_g_b@btinternet.com http://www.glenfargfolkclub.co.uk/ Weekly Monday 8.30pm Glenfarg Hotel. Excellent guests, 1st class residents, appreciative audience, the main emphasis is enjoyment. Haddington ---------- Haddington Folk Club Gordon Pearson (info) Tel:01620 822925 Ian Turnbull (Bookings) tel:01620 822474 Weekly Wednesday 8.30pm: The Mercat Hotel (upstairs loungue), High Street, Haddington. Usual format is a sing around with guests every month or two. http://www.haddingtonfolkclub.co.uk/ Irvine ------ Irvine Folk Club Tel 01294 551047 Joyce Hodge Second Wednesday 8.30pm The Redburn Hotel, Kilwinning Road, Irvine. Kilmarnock ---------- Kilmarnock Folk Club Tel 01560 321102 Maggie MacRae Weekly Thursday 8pm The Hunting Lodge, Glencairn Square Alternate guests and singers/musicians nights. Leslie ------ Leslie Folk Club meets on the 2nd and 4th Wednesday of each month for sessions at the Burns Hotel, High Street, Leslie at 8.30pm. All welcome. Contact George Fisher on 07813 987519. Milngavie --------- Black Bull Folk Club Tel 0141 634 1095 Bob, Roz Gilchrist Alternate Sundays or as advertised in The Black Bull Hotel, Main Street, Milngavie. Montrose -------- Montrose Folk Club Tel 01674-830658 Ken Bruce Every second Tuesday 8.30pm Corner House Hotel, High Street. Guest performers every meeting. All, including visiting singers and musicians, are welcome. Nitten ------ Nitten Folk Club meets every Thursday at 8.30 throughout the year in the Dean Tavern, Main Street, Newtongrange, Midlothian for a singaround. Guests appear on the first Thursday of every month September to May. The Annual Charity Concert is in early June and the ceilidh is held in November. Contact details are: Jim Weatherston Tel 07850-869759 (Mobile) mailto:nittenfolk@aol.com Penicuik -------- Penicuik Folk Club meets at the Craigiebield Hotel, Bog Road, Penicuik Tel Brian Miller 01968-678153, Alan Murray 01968-678610 or Brian Cherrie 01968-673930. The club holds a concert once a month (generally the second Tuesday of the month). All other Tuesdays are free Singers Nights. http://www.penicuikfolk.org.uk/ http://fuzzyhaggis.org.uk/folkclub/singers/ Rosehearty ---------- Rosehearty Music Night, Every Third Friday Night in The Bay Hotel, The Square, Rosehearty, for more information contact John on 01346-571382. mailto:john.gault@virgin.net Stirling -------- Stirling FC meets every Monday in The Terraces Hotel, 4 Melville Terrace. Contact Isobel Methven on 01259- 218521 Stonehaven ---------- Stonehaven Folk Club Tel 01569- 767666. Trudi Clayton Weekly Friday St. Leonard's Hotel. Stow ---- Stow Folk Club Tel 01578-730444 Dave Herd 1st, 3rd, 5th Friday Straiton -------- Straiton Tel 01655-770638 Dave Hunter Last Friday monthly Black Bull Hotel, Straiton, Ayrshire. Guest artiste monthly and a warm welcome always given to floor singers. Stranraer --------- Stranraer Folk Club Tel 01776-703487 Weekly Wednesday The Corner House, The Royal Hotel, Stranraer. Regular guests. Uddingston ---------- The new Rowantree Folk Club meets in the Rowantree Inn, Old Mill Road Uddingston. It meets on the first, third and, where appropriate, fifth Fridays of each month, at 8pm. http://www.rowantreefolk.com for up-to-date news and information. Tel. 01698 303407 (Carole Scott) Ullapool -------- Ceilidh Place Tel 01854-612103 Ullapool, Wester Ross. Many regular music events on different nights through the year. [4.8] Scottish music information The Scottish Folk Directory --------------------------- This is a book detailing virtually everything to do with the Scottish folk music scene. contact: Blackfriars Music, 49 Blackfriars St, Edinburgh EH1 1NB Tel: 0131 557 3090. mailto:Scotfolk@compuserve.com mailto:info@scottishfolkdirectory.com http://www.scotfolk.org/ Scottish Music Centre --------------------- The Scottish music centre has compiled a book with over 3,000 entries giving details of Scottish music performers (classical, early music, folk and traditional jazz), music education, sources of funding, suppliers and services, venues, clubs and promoters, festivals and competitions. The book also has sections on young peoples' music, music from other cultures and publicity and marketing. Data: ISBN 0 9525489 0 9 paperback 210mm x 148mm 320pp 12.99 pounds published 30-Nov-95 Available from: Scottish music information centre 1 Bowmont Gardens Glasgow G12 9LR Tel: 0141 334 6393 Fax: 0141 337 1161 mailto:info@scottishmusiccentre.com http://www.scottishmusiccentre.com/ All the directory data from the book is now on their database-driven web site, allowing on-line searching and access. The SMC also has information about music broadcast on some Scottish radio programmes. [4.9] Traditional Music and Song Association of Scotland (TMSA) This is the main organisations for promoting Scots song and music. The TMSA organise local folk festivals and singing competitions and concerts and are in some ways a lowland equivalent of Feisean nan Gaidheal (with whom they have reciprocal membership) and An Comunn Gaidhealach. The TMSA has many branches throughout Scotland, mostly in the Lowlands. Contact: Traditional Music and Song Association of Scotland National Office 95-97 St Leonard's Street Edinburgh EH8 9QY Tel: 0131 667 5587 Fax: 0131 662 9153 http://www.tmsa.org.uk/ mailto:office@tmsa.org.uk the National Organiser is Elspeth Cowie [4.10] Scottish Groups, Folk Groups, Artists and Bands Alphabetic order by artist (Surname) or group Performers ---------- Battlefield Band http://www.battlefieldband.co.uk/ Eric Bogle http://www.windbourne.com/ebogle/ Borrovan http://freespace.virgin.net/stewart.mackay/ Boys of the Lough http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/obm/botl1.htm Art Cormack http://www.gael-net.co.uk/music/arthur1.html Capercaillie http://www.capercaillie.co.uk/ Cameron Brothers http://www.cameronbrothers.co.uk/ Ceolbeg http://www.ceolas.org/artists/Ceolbeg.html Corries http://www.corries.com/ Phil Cunningham http://www.philcunningham.com/ Dannsa http://www.dannsa.com/ Bruce Davies http://www.brucedavies.com/ Ivan Drever http://www.ivandrever.com/ Gaberlunzie http://www.soft.net.uk/gaber/ Dick Gaughan http://www.dickalba.demon.co.uk/ Mary Jane Lamond http://www.maryjanelamond.com/ Dougie MacLean http://www.dunkeld.co.uk/dougiemaclean/dougie.html Kenny MacKenzie http://www.caberfeidhmusic.com/ Brian McNeill http://www.b-mcneill.demon.co.uk/ Anne Martin http://www.whiteact.demon.co.uk/ Men of Worth http://www.menofworth.com/ Ed Miller http://www.io.com/~edmiller/ed.html mailto:edmiller@io.com Rab Noakes http://www.ozemail.com.au/~android/rnoakes.html North Sea Gas http://www.schuerkamp.de/zope/nsg/ Old Blind Dogs http://lummi.stanford.edu/users/b/r/brod/WWW/OBD/OldBlindDogs.html Poozies http://www.karentweed.dk/poozies.html Rock Salt & Nails http://www.collins-peak.co.uk/rsn/ Runrig http://www.runrig.co.uk/ Janet Russell http://www.rootsworld.com/harbourtown/russell.html Sileas http://www.footstompin.com/artists/sileas Silly Wizard http://www.harbourtownrecords.com/silly_wizard.html Silly Wizard Mailing List http://www.mindspring.com/~cwalters/rovers.html The Singing Kettle http://www.singingkettle.com/ Tannahill Weavers http://www.tannahillweavers.com/ Whistlebinkies http://www.taynet.co.uk/users/binkies/ Wolfstone http://www.wolfstone.co.uk/ Wolfstone http://www.lismor.co.uk/wolfstone.html General Links and Music Magazines --------------------------------- http://www.ceolas.org/ceolas.html Ceolas celtic music archive http://www.celticmusic.com/ Celtic Music Magazine On-line http://www.dirtynelson.com/linen/ Dirty Linen--Folk and World Music http://www.hot-press.com/ HOT PRESS Home Page http://www.frootsmag.com/ Folk Roots Home Page http://www.collins-peak.co.uk/celtic/ Celtic Music at Collins Peak http://www.stoneyport.demon.co.uk/ Stoneyport agency http://www.musicinscotland.com/ Music in Scotland http://www.scottish-music.com/ Scottish Music - domain for sale celtic music gigs worldwide http://www.skyelive.com/ Tune and Song Sources --------------------- http://www.mudcat.org/folksearch.html Digital Tradition http://www.ceolas.org/tunes/fc/ Ceolas: The Fiddler's Companion http://www.darsie.net/tuneweb/ The TuneWeb http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1690/lyrics.html Scottish Song Lyrics Music Venues and Concert Schedules ---------------------------------- http://www.gigguide.co.uk/ http://www.grch.com/ The Glasgow Royal Concert Hall http://www.bbc.co.uk/aberdeen/lt/ Live at The Lemon Tree http://www.doughill.demon.co.uk/brenn2.html An 'Irish' pub but supports mostly Scottish celtic acts. Musical Styles and Cultural Connections ---------------------------------------- http://maya.lib.utk.edu/celtic.html Celtic Culture, Languages and Music http://www.electricscotland.com/burns/ Robert Burns http://www.innotts.co.uk/~asperges/burns.html Robert Burns page (see also [5.4]) Instruments ----------- http://www.mhs.mendocino.k12.ca.us/MenComNet/Business/Retail/Larknet/ Lark In The Morning http://www.accordionlinks.com/ Accordion links http://www.bobdunsire.com/bagpipeweb/ The Bagpipe Web http://www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu/~bdaye/bagpipes.html David Daye's Bagpipe Page http://www.ceolas.org/instruments/bodhran/bodhran.html The Bodhran Page http://www-openmap.bbn.com/users/gkeith/fiddles/Fiddle.html Georgi's Home Page of the Fiddle http://plainfield.bypass.com/~arte/celtic.html Celtic Fingerstyle Guitar Page http://www.mhs.mendocino.k12.ca.us/MenComNet/Business/Retail/Larknet/articles TransFlute Transverse Flutes: An Overview http://www.mhs.mendocino.k12.ca.us/MenComNet/Business/Retail/Larknet/articles FlutesWhist FLUTES AND PENNYWHISTLES http://www.mindspring.com/~whistler/tutor.html Mike Simpson's Tin Whistle Guide Indexes/Further information --------------------------- http://www.musicscotland.com/ There is a specifically Scottish page on the Ceolas site at: http://www.ceolas.org/artists/index-sc.html Folk Music Home Page http://www.jg.org/folk/info/artists.html Yahoo Search for Celtic Yahoo http://www.yahoo.co.uk/Entertainment/Music/Artists/By_Genre/Folk/ Rootsworld http://www.rootsworld.com/ [4.11] Fiddle Styles Cape Breton style is the old Scottish style of some 150-200 years ago. Its main influences are pipes and traditional singing. It's highly ornamented and mostly uses single bows. West Coast style is exemplified by the playing of Angus Grant. It's a style which doesn't relate much to the old fiddle style and seems to have come mostly from piping. There's a lot of ornamentation and very long bowstrokes are used to mimic the drone of the pipes. There's a traditional east coast style that is very seldom heard. Most of the east coast players of today are heavily influenced by classical violin style. There's one recording of the old style I know: "The Cameron Men". Shetland is a totally different tradition which relates strongly to Scandinavian fiddling. To compare various fiddle styles from around Scotland, the following tape/CD from Greentrax may be of use: The Fiddler and his art (reference: CDTRAX/CTRAX 9009) there is another one in this series focussing on Shetland music: CDTRAX/CTRAX "Shetland Fiddle Music" Alasdair Fraser has also recorded "Portrait of a Scottish Fiddler" - this is now available on CD. For Cape Breton Fiddle styles, anything by Buddy MacMaster or Natalie MacMaster is recommended. [4.12] Books for learning the fiddle Failte gu Fidheall - The Scottish Folk Fiddle tutor, Book 1. (This book is in English with a bilingual Gaelic-English introduction) A Comprehensive guide for beginners Compiled and arranged by Christine Martin and Anne Hughes Published by Taigh na Teud (Harpstring house) http://www.scotlandsmusic.com/ Address: 13 Breacais Ard, Isle of Skye, Scotland, IV42 8PY Published 1992, ISBN 1 871931 90 8 They also publish "Ceilidh collections", "Ceol na Fidhle" (=music of the fiddle) and "Session Tunes". The book is about 5 pounds and is 42 A4 pages There is also a demonstration tape to accompany the book, available from the publishers. This is a really good book with one of the best selections of tunes (Highland, Lowland and others) I've seen in any book. Here's another, although this is aimed at more advanced players I picked up an excellent book on Cape Breton fiddle music while I was there in May 97 and thought others might be interested. Not only does it have the expected comprehensive selection of traditional tunes, but there's over 20 pages of introduction explaining the Cape Breton fiddle style as well as a very useful discography and pointers to sources of further information, including collections, books and sources on the Internet. Each song also has considerable descriptive notes and references. There is also reference to Jackie Dunn's thesis: "Tha blas na Gaidhlig air a h-uile fidhleir" (The sound of Gaelic is in the fiddler's music). I'd be interested in finding out more about this thesis - does anyone have details? Book details: Traditional Celtic Violin music of Cape Breton 139 transcripts with historical and musicological annotations by Kate Dunlay and David Greenberg (considerably revised from 1986 publication and regarded by the authors as a new book). Published 1996 by DunGreen music, 20 Windley Avenue, Toronto, Canada M6C 1N2 ISBN 0-9680802-0-0. Softback. 158 pages Sorry, can't remember how much it cost. E-mail the authors at mailto:dungreen@astral.magic.ca Online info ----------- Although this page is about learning to play the Irish fiddle, we think you'll find it useful nonetheless! http://www.geocities.com/Athens/6464/fidintro.html [4.13] Where can I get a piper? I just scanned the FAQ and there's one topic I would like to add. Every week or so I see (and answer) a "How do I find a piper" post on the soc.culture.scottish/celtic newsgroups or on the various wedding newsgroups (news:alt.wedding, news:soc.couples.wedding) Could you add a something that recommends that they post their inquiries to the newsgroup news:rec.music.makers.bagpipe or send an e-mail to mailto:bagpipe@cs.dartmouth.edu. Their inquiry needs to include both the location and the date of the event. They should also note what kind of pipes they want. Stirling area ------------- Craig Muirhead is a 15 year old bagpiper from Stirling, available for weddings etc. mailto:weebagpiper@hotmail.com http://www.bebo.com/Profile.jsp?MemberId=2215516869 Other recommendations --------------------- http://www.bagpiper.com/ (has a commercial element) http://www.bagpipeweb.com/ [4.14] Where can I get bagpipes? Blackfriars deserves a good mention here. They have in stock, a good assortment of pipes, particularly smallpipes. It's many a long year since I "squeezed the bag and tuned the drones", but I think that you would be safe to give Kilberry Bagpipes of Edinburgh a toot!! (They're located near the King's Theatre). They would have an even better selection if their "showroom" wasn't a parking space for a very large motorcycle. The Scots Magazine ran an article on them in it's October '96 issue. They are on http://www.kilberry.com/ and for e-mail try them at mailto:kilberry@compuserve.com Highland Pipes: Henry Murdo (Dun Fion Bagpipes) Corriegills, Isle of Arran Tel 01770 302393 Henry is regarded as one of the top pipemakers in the world. Bagpipes of Caledonia Lorn House Links Garden Lane Leith, Edinburgh EH6 7JQ Bagpipes and associated products, tuition packs, chanter kits. [4.15] Early bagpipe references One of the first sources where bagpipes are mentioned is the Old Testament and I heard of some carvings that prove the use of bagpipes a thousand years before Christ somewhere in the east. The first bagpipes in Europe are mentioned in Greece by Aristophanes (445 - 385 before Christ) Not much is known about these pipes but they had probably no drones, just a bag and a chanter. Since the 9th century bagpipes have been used across Europe. Most of them had one to three, some also four or more drones. In some countries like Brittany, Bulgaria, Sweden and others bagpipes are still played, also in Germany by there are quite a number of pipers playing on original German bagpipes. I think there are still pipers in nearly every European country though. In the Middle East bagpipes are first mentioned in the 11th century. Purser's book (mentioned in [4.21]) says (P75-76) The earliest reference to bagpipes in English is in Chaucer's Prologue (1386). In Scots it is Dunbar's Testament of Mr Andrew Kenney (1508). In Gaelic, it is the Irish manuscript of the second battle of Moytura (15th C). There are non-literary references earlier from accounts and from carvings (c. 15th cen) in Rosslyn chapel. [4.16] Learning to play the harp (clarsach) Learning to play the clarsach: If you are interested in learning to play the clarsach, but would like to 'have a go' before you part with a lot of money, I would recommend that you hire a harp from Fountain Harps. They also have learner books and tapes. Based in the Scottish borders, they can arrange the hire to many places throughout Scotland and also England. Fountain Harps Borthaugh Hawick Roxburghshire TD9 7LN Links ----- Scottish Clarsach Orchestra (na Clarsairean) http://www.compulink.co.uk/~pilgrims-home/naClarsairean/default.htm Harp enthusiasts may also appreciate the following pages, about the Irish harper Carolan http://plainfield.bypass.com/~arte/carolan.html Comunn na Clarsaich (The Clarsach Society) http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~arco/ Clarsach Net http://www.clarsach.net/ Contacts -------- John Yule, Carnethy Cottage, Silverburn, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 9LQ (has got to be one of the best in Scotland!) Also Janet Annan of Queensferry teaches clarsach & Harp Tel: 0131 319 1925 Janet also does weddings & events Starfish Designs Unit 4, Old Ferry Road, North Ballachulish by Fort William PH33 6SA Tel: 01855 821429 (fax: 01855 821577) mailto:mandersona@cix.compulink.co.uk Ardival Harps (Bill Taylor) Orchard House, Castle Leod Strathpeffer, Ross-shire IV14 9AA (also offers harp tuition, all levels) Another resource is "Sounding Strings" magazine published Quarterly by Sounding Strings The Old School Finzean BANCHORY Kincardineshire AB31 6NY Tel: +44 (0)1330 850722 mailto:bells@soundingstrings.demon.co.uk They operate mail order music and recordings and we will be restarting publication of the magazine later this year. [4.17] Scottish Arts Council The Scottish Arts Council 12 Manor Place Edinburgh EH3 7DD Tel: 0131 226 6051 Help Desk on 0845 603 6000 (local rate within the UK) Fax: 0131 225 9833 mailto:help.desk@scottisharts.org.uk http://www.scottisharts.org.uk/ They have an interesting page on Scottish arts at http://www.scottisharts.org.uk/1/artsinscotland.aspx [4.18] Living Tradition This is the main magazine for Scottish folk music info, although it covers other forms of traditional music too. The magazine can be reached at mailto:living.tradition@almac.co.uk or The Living Tradition, PO Box 1026, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire KA2 0LG published every two months [4.19] Traditional Scottish Music and Culture List Date: 11 Aug 1997 20:39:07 -0300 From: darkrider1@juno.com (Toby A Rider) Subject: New Scottish listserver: SCOTS-L To All: Please note that I have started the new "Official" Scottish traditional music list server. Devoted entirely to the discussion of the traditional Celtic music of Scotland by those who perform or appreciate it. It is an unmoderated list, I trust that you all will be polite and considerate of opinions different than your own, regardless of how repugnant :-) I look forward to the fine discussions that will develop on this list. * To subscribe to SCOTS-L, send an e-mail to mailto:majordomo@argyll.wisemagic.com with the message body: subscribe SCOTS-L * To post a message to SCOTS-L, send mail to the following address: scots-l@argyll.wisemagic.com In addition, you can subscribe via the web page at: http://www.tullochgorm.com/lists.html Slainte! Toby Arnold Rider mailto:darkrider1@juno.com, mailto:darkrider1@mindspring.com Website at http://www.tardis.ed.ac.uk/~ibb/scd/Music/ [4.20] Cape Breton music mailing list send a mail to: mailto:cb-music@chatsubo.com subject: subscribe [4.21] Reference material for Scottish music Scotland's Music ---------------- A History of the Traditional and Classical Music of Scotland from Early Times to the Present Day by John Purser Published by Mainstream, 1992. (7 Albany Street, Edinburgh, EH1 3UG) ISBN 1-85158-426-9 311 pages; 225mm x 285 mm, hardback, 25 pounds (and worth every penny) I got this book after seeing a lecture given by the author, now Dr. John Purser. This groundbreaking award winning book evolved from John's BBC radio series (covering 45 hours). The book covers the whole of Scotland's music - from 8th Century BC to the present day. The book covers both classical and traditional music individually and the links between them. Includes early Celtic plainchant; ballads in Scots and Gaelic; Renaissance music; music for lutes and virginals; music today: operatic; symphonic; Gaelic; folk revival and pop. Chapters include The Scottish Idiom Bulls, Birds and Boars (800BC - AD400) Briton, Pict and Scot (600-800) The Bell and the Chant (500-1100) Cathedral Voices (800-1300) Ballads, Bards and Makars (1100-1500) Gaelic bards, bagpipes and harps (1100-1600) The Golden Age (1490-1550) Reform (1513-1580) The two Maries (1540-1590) At the courts of the last King (1570-1630) Music of the West (1530-1760) From Covenanters to Culloden (1630-1750) From Rome to Home (1660-1720) The Temple of Apollo (1740-1770) The Scots Musical Museum (1760-1850) The Withdrawing room and the concert hall (1820-1920) Sea, field and music hall (1820-1910) The classical takes root (1910-1970) A new accommodation (1950-) also includes select bibliography; select discography; libraries and archives; glossary of Scottish musical terms; plates in colour and black and white; over 200 musical examples; full index. An absolutely brilliant work, meticulously researched, magnificient in scope and beautifully presented. A must for anyone interested in learning in depth about one of Europe's most musical cultures. A double CD set was also issued, (1) including one track of particular interest to soc.culture.scottish: "Calgacus", by Edward McGuire (for orchestra + pipes), performed by an unnamed piper and the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Can anyone name the piper? George McIlwham, perhaps? (1) "Scotland's Music" (Linn Records 1992, LINN CKD 008; Linn Products Ltd, Floors Road, Eaglesham, Glasgow G76 0EP). Musica Scotica -------------- A new series of scholarly editions of Early Scottish music, edited by Dr Kenneth Elliott of Glasgow University. The series is being published in stages. Titles planned include: The Complete works of Robert Carver The Complete Sacred Music of Robert Johnson 16th Century Scots songs for voice and lute 17th Century Scots songs for voice and lute/harpsichord The Cantatas of Sir John Clerk of Penicuik Early Scottish Music for Keyboard Early Scottish Psalm-settings For more information, contact Dr Kenneth Elliott General Editor Musica Scotica Department of Music University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8QQ Scotland Tel: 0131 339 8877 (extn 4094) Fax: 0141 307 8018 mailto:kenneth@music.gla.ac.uk [4.22] The Piano film music The music for this film is similar to "Gloomy Winter" (Sung often and well by Dougie MacLean) by Robert Tannahill (see [11.14]). Also sung by Chantan on their album "Primary Colours" on Culburnie records. mailto:ukinfo@culburnie.com An addition to the above - although the tune Gloomy Winter is very similar, the stresses are slightly different. There appears however, to be an old Gaelic song which matches The Piano theme music almost identically. This Gaelic song is sung by the group "ho-ro-gheallaidh" who won the Gaelic rock competition at the 1997 National Mod. The tune, with some of the lyrics in Gaelic and English appear on P208 of the Purser book mentioned in [4.21]. The tune is by Alexander Campbell (born 1764) and this was the tune to which Robert Tannahill wrote the lyrics "Gloomy winter's now awa'". The first name of the tune is "Lord Balgonie's favourite" (later renamed to "Come my bride, haste haste away" and Campbell describes it as "A very old Highland tune". The song appeared in print on P67 of Albyn's anthology in 1816. [5.1] Primary literary figures Further information ------------------- http://www.slainte.org.uk/scotauth/scauhome.htm Gateway to Scottish authors Alphabetic order by surname --------------------------- Iain Banks (The Crow Road, The Wasp Factory, etc) Boswell and Johnson's (tour to the Western Isles) George Douglas Brown (The house with the green shutters) John Buchan (The thirty nine steps) Robert Burns (details in [5.2]) William Dunbar Janice Galloway (The trick is to keep breathing) Lewis Grassic Gibbon (Sunset Song, see [5.13]) (voted Scotland's best novel by Herald readers Oct 98 and the Best Scottish Book of All Time. 28/Aug/05 at the Edinburgh International Book Festival.) Alasdair Gray (Lanark) Neil Gunn (particularly recommended is Highland River/The Silver Darlings) George Campbell Hay Hamish Henderson (Alias MacAlias - his autobiography and "The Armstrong nose" - Hamish's collected letters) James Hogg (Confessions of a Justified Sinner) Robin Jenkins (The cone gatherers) Norman MacCaig (Collected poems) Hugh MacDiarmid (especially "A drunk man looks at the thistle") Sorley Maclean (From Wood to Ridge) One of the greatest Gaelic poets of all time. Book is bilingual; author's own translations. Astoundingly powerful stuff. ISBN 0 09 988720 7 (published by Vintage, London) James McPherson ('Ossian') Neil Munro (The new road) J. K. Rowling (award winning and best selling author of the "Harry Potter" series.) Sir Walter Scott (The Heart of Midlothian, Old Mortality, Waverley - see [5.5]) Iain Crighton Smith (in Gaelic: Iain Mac a' Ghobhainn) (Consider the lillies) Muriel Spark (The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie) Robert Louis Stevenson (Kidnapped, Weir of Hermiston, Treasure Island, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde) Jeff Torrington (Swing hammer swing) Nigel Tranter ("The Story of Scotland") Alan Warner (Morvern Callar) Irvine Welsh (Trainspotting) There's a very strong argument which says the best writing in English right now is from Scotland. 'Trainspotting' is about Edinburgh, just as much as 'Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner'. There's a heap of authors to recommend: Jeff Torrington, James Kelman, Robin Jenkins, Alistair Gray, William McIlvanney - these are some I like and frankly, I can't think of any current author whom I would rather read. The Enlightenment ----------------- Any writings by David Hume and Adam Smith from the age of the Scottish Enlightenment are recommended. For those interested in the Scottish Enlightenment and it's enormous contribution to human understanding, I can thoroughly recommend a book by Alexander Broadie. It's published by Canongate Edinburgh, ISBN 0 86241 738 4 price 10.99. It is an excellent anthology for those wishing to get a good grasp of the contribution made to the age of reason by Scots. My only rebuke is the missing scientific contributions which the editor admitted were entirely due to his personal inadequacies on matters scientific. However, the philosophical content is worth the money alone. [5.2] Info on Robert Burns See also Answer [5.3] Robert Burns, the National Bard of Scotland, was born in on 25 Jan 1759, the son of an Ayrshire cottar. A cottar is a Scots word for a tenant occupying a cottage with or (from the late 18th century) without land attached to it or a married farmworker who has a cottage as part of his contract. The word dates from the 15th century. Anyway, back to Burns. He apparently developed an early interest in literature. Between 1784 and 1788, whilst farm-labouring, he wrote much of his best poetry, including "Halloween", "The Cotter's Saturday Night" and the skilful satires "Death and Dr Hornbook" and "Holy Willie's Prayer". In 1786 the "Kilmarnock" edition of Robert Burns' early poems was published, bringing with it fame and fortune, and the second edition, published by William Creech, brought him enough financial security to marry his mistress Jean Armour. The couple settled to a hard life in Ellisland with their four children, and to supplement their meagre income, Burns took a job as an excise man. From 1787, Burns concentrated on songwriting, making substantial contributions to James Johnson's "The Scots Musical Museum", including "Auld Lang Syne" (see [9.3.2]) and "A Red, Red Rose". On 21st July 1796, at the age of 37, he died in Dumfries, his health undermined by rheumatic fever. Most of the above was taken from a recommended book "The complete illustrated poems, songs and ballads of Robert Burns" 12 pounds 95p. Published by Lomond Books, ISBN 1 85152 018 X. This is a reprint of a 1905 publication so the print is a bit strange and unfortunately there is no index and the contents aren't in alphabetical order. However, it is 650 A5 size pages (hardback) and can often be found in bargain bookshops for about 5 pounds. The picture most usually seen of Burns (but not the one on the Bank of Scotland five pound note) is from an engraving after a portrait by Alexander Nasmyth, 1787. Today, many thousands of Scots around the world celebrate Burns night on his birthday, 25th January. Burns night has even been commemorated in the Kremlin. Burns suppers consist of having a meal of tatties (mashed potatoes), neeps (turnips - not swede!) and haggis. Details of how to buy haggis are in [13.1] in this FAQ. There is usually quite a bit of whisky drunk at these occasions too, particularly as Burns was a well known drinker (and womaniser). Usually a man makes a speech remembering Burns and how his thoughts and poems are timeless and as relevant today as they were when they were written. Then there's a "reply from the lassies" where it's usual to point out the other side of Burns and how he left many women broken hearted. Well, that's the general idea anyway, there's lots of variations. Some of the features of Burns Suppers are rather inauthentic: the kilts/tartans worn are really the garb of the Gael, and the Great Pipe is the Gael's instrument. Burns himself wasn't a Gael, and would have been more acquainted with breiks and the fiddle. For more information on Burns Suppers, see http://www.visitscotland.com/aboutscotland/UniquelyScottish/theburnssupper Probably Burns' most famous composition is Auld Lang Syne, however most people do not sing either the right lyrics or the original tune. A lot of people erroneously insert the words "the sake of" in the chorus - this was not written by Burns. The tune is a bit confused too. Burns originally wrote the lyrics to a tune which his publisher didn't like, so he then put the lyrics to the tune which most people know. However, the second tune is also claimed by the Japanese!. The original tune is available on some recordings, including "The Winnowing" by The Cast http://www.the-cast.org.uk/ and "File under Christmas" by Scotland's leading Clarsach (Harp) duo, Sileas (pronounced "Shee-lis") http://www.nigelgatherer.com/perf/group2/silea.html The old tune is rapidly gaining momentum however, and I have heard hundreds of people sing it in Edinburgh without difficulty. The old version of the tune is also in The Digital Tradition (see [9.1] for details) and off http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/songs.html Lyrics are at [9.3.2] in this FAQ. It is someting of a comment on the English-biased nature of Scottish education that Scotland has produced one of the world's greatest and best loved poets and yet he is hardly studied in his own country, most people studying Shakespeare at school. Shakespeare was obviously a world class bard as well, but isn't there room for Burns too? It is also something of a comment on the English education system in England. Burns and Scott tend scarcely to get a look-in on Eng. Lit. courses at univ. - certainly very rarely at Cambridge. This is a comment from an English graduate of Cambridge who says the only Scottish author they recall being vaguely mentioned was Henryson. To hear some of Robert Burns' poetry read by a native of Prestwick, go to http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/gaelic.html and look in the Scots section. To balance this "traditional" information on Burns it should be pointed out that, as well as being quite the poet, Burns was also a sexist, philandering and womaniser. His sentiment of "A man's a man for a' that" doesn't carry over very well into his treatment of women. It is also perhaps true to say that Burns had the same casual relationship with his music as he did with many of his women. Burns is often hailed as the champion of Scots but he was broader than that and drew extensively on Highland music too, perhaps through his relationship with Highland Mary. For a' that, for instance exists as a Gaelic puirt a beul. Whether the Gaelic one predates the Burns version is not known, but it is perhaps possible given that puirt a beul could have arisen from the banning of the pipes in the years 1747 to 1782 and Burns was around between 1759 and 1796. Incidentally, Robert Burns is often known as Rabbie Burns or (chiefly by Americans) Robbie Burns. These are both modern misnomers and are not names he used himself. He did use Robin, Rab, Rab Mossgiel, Rab the Rhymer, Robert and in his formal letters frequently used Robt. Of course in correspondence to Clarinda he was Sylvander and in one letter to Ainslie he signed off with Spunkie. [5.3] Address to a Haggis - Robert Burns To A Haggis ----------- Fair fa' your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o' the Puddin-race! Aboon them a' ye tak your place, Painch, tripe, or thairm: Weel are ye wordy of a grace As lang's my arm. The groaning trencher there ye fill, Your hurdies like a distant hill, Your pin wad help to mend a mill In time o' need, While thro' your pores the dews distil Like amber bead. His knife see Rustic-labour dight, An' cut you up wi' ready slight, Trenching your gushing entrails bright Like onie ditch; And then, O what a glorious sight, Warm-reekin, rich! Then, horn for horn they stretch an' strive, Deil tak the hindmost, on they drive, Till a' their weel-swall'd kytes belyve Are bent like drums; Then auld Guidman, maist like to rive, _Bethankit_ hums. Is there that owre his French _ragout_ Or _olio_ that wad stow a sow, Or _fricasee_ wad mak her spew Wi' perfect sconner Looks down wi' sneering, scornfu' view On sic a dinner? Poor devil! See him owre his trash, As feckless as a wither'd rash, His spindle shank a guid whip-lash, His nieve a nit; Thro' bluidy flood or field to dash, O how unfit! But mark the Rustic, haggis-fed, The trembling earth resounds his tread, Clap in his walie nieve a blade, He'll mak it whissle; An' legs, an' arms, an' heads will sned, Like taps o' thrissle. Ye Pow'rs wha mak mankind your care, And dish them out their bill o' fare, Auld Scotland wants nae skinking ware, That jaups in luggies; But, if ye wish her gratefu' prayer, Gie her a Haggis! [5.4] Robert Burns links Burns and a' that festival http://www.burnsfestival.com/ Particularly recommended http://www.robertburns.org/ and http://www.worldburnsclub.com/ http://www.robertburns.org.uk/ Robert Burns Club based in Alexandria, Scotland http://www.milwburnsclub.org/ The Robert Burns club of Milwaukee. Contains the complete works of Robert Burns and glossary. Other recommendations --------------------- http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/Scots/burns.html http://www.darsie.net/library/burns.html http://www.electricscotland.com/burns/ http://www.rabbie-burns.com/ http://www.bartleby.com/99/315.html http://www.innotts.co.uk/~asperges/burns.html http://www.lochness.co.uk/burns/ http://www.tartans.com/burns/ http://www.thing.net/~strato/ http://www.dgdclynx.plus.com/poetry/poets/rab1.html [5.5] The Celtic muse in Scott's 'Waverley' Article by Christopher Rollason mailto:rollason@9online.fr 3rd November 1996 The Celtic Muse in Walter Scott's 'Waverley' *This article is mainly concerned with the role of Celtic music and song in this novel. However, I have thought it useful to begin with a brief general introduction to the book.* Sir Walter Scott's first published novel, 'Waverley' (1814; references to the Penguin Classics edition, ed. Andrew Hook, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972) is best known for bestowing its name on Edinburgh's main railway station, and to the whole series of Scott's historical works of fiction, collectively known as the 'Waverley novels'. It narrates the story of Edward Waverley, a young English aristocrat posted to Scotland as an army officer, who becomes caught up in the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, in which he sides with the Scottish troops of Prince Charles Stuart, pretender to the British throne, against the ruling house of Hanover. In other words, the novel is about a civil war in Britain, essentially between the Scots and the English, in which the main character fights on the 'wrong' side: Waverley, despite being a ruling-class Englishman, finds himself, in the remote fastnesses of Scotland, wearing the tartan, listening to Gaelic, and fighting alongside the feudal, archaic Highlanders - 'grim, uncombed and wild' (ch. 44, p. 324) - in a world where the chieftains hold 'patriarchal authority' (ch. 58, p. 399) and the clansmen are bound by 'feudal duty' (ch. 24, p. 188). The novel is written in the third person, but the protagonist may be considered a stand-in for the English or, indeed, non-Scottish reader, gradually inducted by the narrative into a society alien to his or her own time and place. The reader is made aware throughout of the divisions existing in the so-called 'United Kingdom', between Whigs and Tories, Hanoverians and Jacobites, English and Scots; the ancient kingdom of Scotland had been united with England only since 1707 (38 years before the events described, and 107 years before the date of publication), and Scotland was itself geographically, culturally and linguistically divided between the semi-Anglicised Lowlands, whose inhabitants spoke either standard English or the 'Scotch' dialect of English, and the 'backward', Gaelic-speaking Highlands where feudal and clan loyalties still ruled. 'Waverley' thus describes a society likely to appear strange and outlandish to most readers outside Scotland, and, indeed, to Lowland Scots not acquainted with the Highlands. Despite, or because of, this visible strangeness of its subject-matter, the novel proved phenomenally popular on first appearance. It is still of major importance in literary history, for it introduces and classically exemplifies the historical novel in its typical modern form: an imaginary narrative based on actual events, whose characters embrace all ranks of society and include both real historical figures (Charles Stuart) and invented individuals who are nonetheless offered as 'typical' or 'representative' of the period. One aspect of this novel which may not have received its due attention is Scott's remarkable emphasis, at least in the middle section of the book, on the strength and vitality of traditional Scottish culture, especially folk poetry and music. The presence of such an element is hardly surprising, as Scott's first important literary work was an edition of Scottish folk ballads ('Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border', 1803), which is still regarded as a landmark in the field. The old traditional culture was, in the early nineteenth century, still alive in more than one region of Scotland: Scott himself collected his ballad material from the lands on the English border, and in Ayrshire, also in the Lowlands, Robert Burns (whom Scott quotes in 'Waverley' - ch. 56, p. 388; editor's note, p. 594) helped keep the tradition alive by composing his own songs in the ballad mode. The Gaelic-speaking Highlands were, however, inevitably seen as the ultimate repository and redoubt of Celtic culture. Curiously, the folk-culture aspect of 'Waverley' is scarcely mentioned by the author in his own prefaces and appendices to the novel, and it may not appear the most obvious facet of a book mostly concerned with warfare and battles. Nonetheless, there is evidence to suggest that exposure to the old Celtic ways plays an important role in Edward Waverley's learning process across the novel. The narrative may be divided into three sections. Chapters 1 to 7 introduce Edward Waverley, his family background (he is of pure English stock, but an uncle has pro-Stuart sympathies) and early years, and show him embarking on a military career and arriving in Scotland, where he is posted to Dundee; chapters 8 to 39 plunge the young English officer, through a chain of chance circumstances, ever more deeply into Scottish society and the world of Jacobite intrigue; and from chapter 40 on, he has formally committed himself to the service of Prince Charles Stuart, and his individual destiny is subsumed into the larger history of the rebellion of 1745 (the government cause finally prevails at the battle of Culloden; the Prince flees into exile; many of his supporters are hanged, though some, including Waverley, are pardoned). Scott's descriptions of the Celtic popular tradition occur mostly in the middle section, before the outbreak of the rebellion proper, and may be seen as forming part of Waverley's gradual education in things Scottish. At the beginning of chapter 8, Waverley, who has obtained leave of absence from his regiment, is on his way to visit the Baron of Bradwardine, an old friend of his uncle's whose mansion is just outside Tully-Veolan, a village in the county of Perthshire - in other words, right on the border between the 'civilised' Lowlands and the 'barbaric' Highlands: 'Edward gradually approached the Highlands of Perthshire, which at first had appeared a blue outline in the horizon, but now swelled into high gigantic masses, which frowned defiance over the more level country that lay beneath them. Near the bottom of this stupendous barrier, but still in the Lowland country, dwelt Cosmo Comyne Bradwardine of Bradwardine' (ch. 8, p. 73). The 'stupendous barrier' is not merely physical; it also symbolises the cultural barriers between the Anglicised Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands, and the 'frown(ing) defiance' of the hills anticipates the revolt with which their inhabitants will defy the English crown. Waverley's experiences in the middle section of the book are, technically, part in the Highlands, part in the Lowlands; but the situation of Tully-Veolan on 'this Hieland border' (ch. 66, p. 454) suggests that the visitor is, in fact, already coming into the purview of the old Celtic ways. When Edward enters the grounds of the manor-house at Tully-Veolan, the first human voice he hears is that of a strange individual dressed in motley, singing an 'old Scottish ditty' (ch. 9, p. 82): 'False love, and hast thou played me thus/In summer among the flowers?'. It turns out to be Davie Gellatley, the Baron's fool, jester, or, to use the local term, 'innocent': a villager not completely in his right mind, whom Bradwardine has nonetheless adopted as his personal servant, and who compensates for his defects with 'a prodigious memory, and an ear for music' (ch. 12, p. 105), and an immense repertory of traditional songs, which he sings incessantly. Scott refers in his notes to the survival in Scotland of 'the ancient and established custom of keeping fools' (ch. 9, p. 85n), and identifies 'False love' as 'a genuine ancient fragment' (p. 82n). Davie, 'half-crazed simpleton' (ch. 12, p. 105) though he may be, is also a custodian of the collective memory, and what Waverley calls his 'scraps of minstrelsy' (ch. 63, p. 435) are not such scraps after all (several examples are carefully and copiously quoted). Indeed, the fool's 'minstrelsy' in a sense parallels, in a spontaneous and unintellectual form, Scott's own more conscious activity of collecting and preserving the 'minstrelsy of the Scottish border'. The Baron's 'innocent' has a Shakespearean dignity, his ditties at times recalling the Fool in 'King Lear' or the 'melodious lay' of the crazed Ophelia. His old mother (herself suspected by some of being a witch) declares: 'Davie's no just like other folk, puir fallow; but he's no sae silly as folk tak him for' (ch. 64, p. 440); and near the end, when the manor-house has been plundered and pillaged by the English troops and reduced to an apparently irrecuperable ruin, Edward identifies Davie's tones among the wreckage: 'Amid these general marks of ravage ... he heard a voice from the interior of the building singing, in well-remembered accents, an old Scottish song: " They came upon us in the night/And brake my bower, and slew my knight ... " ' (ch. 63, p. 435). As it turns out, the fool and his mother are instrumental in saving their master's life, keeping him in concealment till a pardon reaches him. The figure of Davie singing amid the ruins bears witness to the strength and tenacity of the popular tradition which he and his songs embody. Waverley's residence at the Baron's gradually leads him to discover the Highlands proper. One and another circumstance brings him, first to visit the cave of Donald Bean Lean, a freebooting robber, and then to accept the hospitality of the Jacobite chieftain Fergus, head of the MacIvor clan. These adventures are accompanied by music and song. In the robber's lair, the young Englishman is served breakfast by his host's daughter Alice, 'the damsel of the cavern', who wakes him with 'a lively Gaelic song' which she sings as she prepares 'milk, eggs, barley-bread, fresh butter and honey-comb' for the guest (ch. 18, p. 145). This suggests she is singing a work-song, and that music is, as is the case in traditional communities, an integral part of the pulse and rhythms of daily life. At Fergus MacIvor's castle, the military exercises of the clansmen are conducted 'to the sounds of the great war-bagpipe' (ch. 19, p. 161), while the ceremonial dinner that follows, in the great hall, is also enlivened by three bagpipers (ch. 20, p. 164). The Highland feast terminates with a formal address from Fergus' resident 'bhairdh' or bard, one MacMurrough, who 'began to chant, with low and rapid utterance, a profusion of Celtic verses', later rising into 'wild and impassioned notes, accompanied with appropriate gestures' (p. 165). His Gaelic chant acts as an expression of group solidarity, and communicates itself as such to his audience: 'Their wind and sun-burnt countenances assumed a fiercer and more animated expression; all bent forward towards the reciter, many sprung up and waved their arms in ecstasy, and some laid their hands on their swords' (p. 166). The bard is, like the fool, a still-alive archaic figure; both, in their different ways, express through song the collective consciousness of their ancient societies. The musical high-point of the novel occurs in chapters 21 and 22, which introduce the chieftain's sister, Flora MacIvor, as the Celtic musician par excellence. Flora, though a Highlander, has been educated in Paris, and blends native awareness of the tradition with a more intellectual and sophisticated attitude to it: the reader is told that she had studied 'the music and poetical traditions of the Highlanders', carrying out 'researches' and 'inquiries' in a conscious, organised fashion which seems to parallel Scott's own study of the Border ballads (ch. 21, p. 169). It is, accordingly, under the sign of music that her brother Fergus introduces her to Edward: 'Captain Waverley is a worshipper of the Celtic muse; ... I have told him you are eminent as a translator of Highland poetry' (ch. 22, pp. 171-172). Flora informs the guest that 'the recitation of poems ... forms the chief amusement of a winter fireside in the Highlands', and that bards such as MacMurrough are 'the poets and historians of their tribes'. She also pays tribute to the musicality of Gaelic: 'The Gaelic language, being uncommonly vocalic, is well adapted for sudden and extemporaneous poetry' (p. 173). That evening after dinner, she invites the English visitor, in the company of her attendant Cathleen, to a secluded glen in the castle grounds, where, by the side of a waterfall, she sings a 'lofty ... Highland air' to him, in English translation, accompanying herself on the harp and allowing her song to blend with the sounds of the cascade. Flora declares: 'To speak in the poetical language of my country, the seat of the Celtic muse is in the mist of the secret and solitary hill, and her voice is in the murmur of the mountain stream' (p. 177). Waverley is overcome by 'a wild feeling of romantic delight', at her strains 'which harmonised well with the distant waterfall, and the soft sigh of the evening breeze in the rustling leaves of an aspen' (pp. 177-178). Flora's woodland performance images an archaic world where music and song are integrated into nature. After this episode, Waverley, not unsurprisingly, falls in love with the fair Celtic harpist. However, she rejects his suit, and he is soon caught up in the chain of occurrences which will push him away from this romantic Highland refuge into the thick of rebellion and war. The musical references of the novel's third section, which narrates these rougher and harsher events, are noticeably much fewer. They are also more superficial, relating as they do, significantly, mainly to the Lowlands or to the British. Thus, on the road to Falkirk a Lowland lieutenant 'whistled the Bob of Dumblain' - a tune which the narrator neither describes nor quotes (ch. 39, p. 287); a party of Lowlanders is heralded by 'a kind of rub-a-dub-dub' or 'inoffensive row-de-dow' on the drums (ch. 34, p. 264); an English soldier whistles 'the tune of Nancy Dawson' (ch. 38, p. 282); the English cavalry are announced by 'the unwelcome noise of kettle-drums and trumpets' (ch. 60, p. 410). The earlier poetry and depth of musical allusion has disappeared, and does not return till Davie Gellatley the fool comes back into the novel near the end. The Jacobite rebellion is, of course, finally defeated by the English. Fergus MacIvor is hanged, and Flora leaves Britain forever for a French convent; the lives of Waverley and the Baron of Bradwardine hang in the balance until both are in the end pardoned and young Edward marries the Baron's daughter Rose. There is no evidence, either internal or external, to suggest that Scott actually favoured the Jacobite cause or the '45 rebellion. The 'unfortunate civil war' (ch. 71, p. 489) is seen as a forlorn attempt in a lost cause; at the same time, however, Scott gives full credit and due to the courage and devotion of the Jacobite leaders and their troops to a belief-system with which he obviously does not agree himself. His protagonist, near the end, reaches the conclusion that the only rational hope for the future is that 'it might never again be his lot to draw his sword in civil conflict' (ch. 60, p. 415). It is, nonetheless, amply clear from the novel as a whole that Scott wished his English readers to take Scottish culture seriously, and to value and respect the passionate, heroic qualities of the Celtic nation. At a number of points in the narrative, English prejudices against things Scottish are exposed as being empty and stereotyped. Colonel Talbot, an English officer whose life Waverley saves, speaks contemptuously of 'this miserable country', and is described by the narrator as being 'tinged ... with those prejudices which are peculiarly English' (ch. 52, p. 366); he calls the Gaelic language 'gibberish', adding for good measure that 'even the Lowlanders talk a kind of English little better than the negroes in Jamaica' (ch. 56, p. 387). Scott's own sympathies are clearly, by contrast, with the Highland ladies and friends of Flora's who declare Gaelic to be more 'liquid' and better 'adapted for poetry' than Italian (ch. 54, p. 377). As an alternative to national antagonisms, Waverley's marriage to Rose Bradwardine may be seen as symbolizing a certain Anglo-Scottish convergence, a mutual recognition of cultural value on both sides of the divide. Music and poetry emerge from 'Waverley' as essential elements of that traditional Celtic society whose dignity and originality Scott's novel clearly defends, at least in cultural terms. Scott was, of course, more than familiar with the specific musical and poetic traditions of the Lowlands, as is clear from his ballad studies or from a later novel like 'The Bride of Lammermoor'. However, he chose in 'Waverley' to associate the Celtic muse with the Highlands and their hinterland, as symbolizing all that was most classically and irremediably Scottish. In this traditional society, music and poetry are integrated with daily life and work, and make up a tissue of folk history; and Scott's first novel offers the reader memorable images of this archaic but holistic view of the world, through the ancient, archetypal figures of Fool, Bard and Harpist. Christopher Rollason [5.6] Scottish Poetry Library Scottish Poetry Library 5 Crichton's Close Canongate EDINBURGH EH8 8DT Tel: 0131 557 2876 http://www.spl.org.uk/ mailto:inquiries@spl.org.uk [5.7] The Saltire Society The Saltire Society 9 Fountain Close 22 High Street Edinburgh EH1 1TF http://www.saltiresociety.org.uk/ Tel: 0131 556 1836 Fax: 0131 557 1675 The Saltire society is active in encouraging the development of Scottish arts, particularly material connected with the Scots and Gaelic languages and runs an annual competition for the best Scottish books in various categories. [5.8] Women's writing For more information, see A History of Scottish Women's Writing ed. Douglas Gifford and Dorothy McMillan Edinburgh Univ Press 19 pounds 95p 0748609164 Aug 1997 described as "The first ever comprehensive critical analysis of Scottish women's writing from its earliest known beginnings to the present day." [5.9] Scottish literature and writers The Association for Scottish Literary Studies http://www.asls.org.uk/ The Scottish storytelling centre http://www.scottishstorytellingcentre.co.uk/ [5.10] Literature magazines and newsletters Chapman (Scotland's Quality Literary Magazine) Contact: Joy Hendry, 4 Broughton Place Edinburgh EH1 3RX Tel: 0131 557 2207 Fax: 0131 556 9565 Cencrastus is edited by Raymond Ross at Unit One, Abbeymount Techbase, 8 Easter Road, Edinburgh EH8 8EJ Lines Review is edited by Tessa Ransford at Edgefield Road, Loanhead, Midlothian EH20 9SY West Coast Magazine is edited by Joe Murray at Top Floor, 15 Hope Street, Glasgow G2 6AB NorthWords, the magazine from the north for short fiction and poetry is available from: Northwords, 68 Strathkanaird, Ullapool, Ross-shire, IV26 2TN For Scots Gaelic, the premier magazine is Gairm Gairm, 29 Waterloo St, Glasgow G2 6BZ Gairm is completely in Gaelic Lallans, The magazine for writing in Scots: The Scots Language Society The AK Bell Library York Place Perth PH1 5EP Telephone: 01738 440199 Fax: 01738 646505 [5.11] The Selkirk Grace The Selkirk Grace ================= often attributed to Robert Burns, but in fact already in use in his time. Scots ----- Some hae meat and canna eat, and some wad eat that want it, but we hae meat and we can eat, and sae the Lord be thankit. Gaelic translation ------------------ Tha biadh aig cuid, 's gun aca ca\il, acras aig cuid,'s gun aca biadh, ach againne tha biadh is sla\int', moladh mar sin a bhith don Triath. [5.12] Obituary of Sorley MacLean Sorley MacLean - An Obituary I wrote the Gaelic translation in 1996, shortly after Sorley's death. It has been widely circulated as the English translation of his Gaelic obituary. The English obituary appears first. Obituary: Sorley MacLean Born: 26 October, 1911, at Osgaig, Raasay Died: 24 November, 1996, at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, aged 85 by IAIN CRICHTON SMITH "The death of Sorley MacLean (Somhairle MacGill-Eain) will make a colossal hole in the fabric of Scottish literature and not just in Gaelic literature, though of course he was one of the very greatest of Gaelic poets. Indeed, one might say that he was a poet who had attained world-class stature. He read his work frequently in Scotland, England and abroad and most especially in Ireland, where he was a cult figure. Students would flock like pilgrims to his readings. "The Nobel laureate Seamus Heaney has described hearing MacLean read for the first time as mesmeric. There was, he said, a 'sense of bardic dignity that was entirely without self-parade but was instead the effect of a proud self-abnegation, as much a submission as a claim to heritage'. "And indeed he was a wonderful reader of his work, sonorous, rhythmical, strong- voiced. It is hard to think that we won't hear him again - for instance, reading Hallaig, that great poem of desolation and resurrection. "Sorley MacLean was 85 when he died. He had been in hospital, but his friends thought that he was suffering from a minor ailment only, and consequently his death was a shock to them. "For most of his life he had been strong and sturdy and it seemed as if would go on forever. "He was born in Raasay. He loved Skye and the Cuillins, about which he wrote his great long but unfinished poem where the Cuillins became a symbol for human endeavour. Above all, he loved his Gaelic culture and was lucky that he came from a family which was steeped in song and story. "At one time he wrote that he probably would rather have been a singer than a poet and the great songs of the 16th and 17th century informed his poetry with their magical music from anonymous bards. These were at the heart of his poetry and gave them the tunefulness which is lacking for the most part in modern poetry. "He began writing poetry as a student in Edinburgh University, where he gained a first-class honours degree in English. His very first poems were, I believe, in English, but he soon realised that true authenticity lay in Gaelic. By the end of the Thirties he was already an established figure on the Scottish scene. "In 1940 he published Seventeen Poems for Sixpence with Robert Garioch. "But it was Dain Do Eimhir, a sequence of love poems, published in 1943, that made his name and is to my mind the central and most brilliant section of his work. I remember getting this book as a prize in the fifth year in the Nicolson Institute, Stornoway, and realising that here was a new voice unlike any that I had heard before. The book was illustrated with Picasso-like drawings and this gave them a modern look. "Since then I have never wavered in my belief that MacLean was one of the great love poets of the world, like Catullus or Donne or Yeats or Sappho. What attracts one in the poems is their music. But also much more than that. "One of the things that made them seem modern to me were the references to political figures such as Lenin, and to poets who had taken part in the Spanish Civil War, including Auden and Spender. These and even Eliot he dismissed as following 'a small dry way'. "The Spanish War was central to him then. In it he saw the fascism which had been seen in the Clearances. "But at the same time as the war was taking place he was in love, and his loved one and the Civil War became entwined in an embrace which tested him to the limits. "To MacLean at this time the Spanish government, and also the British Empire, were monstrosities. He had a hatred of despotism. We find this also in his long unfinished poem, The Cuillins, where there are references to many of the great rebels and radicals of the past in different countries. He records that when he was young his great heroes were Shelley and Blake, and that in those days he was more interested in politics than in poetry. As far as Scotland was concerned, the great radical figure he admired most was a man from his own clan, the legendary John Maclean, of whom he wrote:" Not they who died in the hauteur of Inverkeithing in spite of valour and pride the high head of our story; but he who was in Glasgow the battle post of the poor great John MacLean the top and hem of our story. "Thus it is that MacLean was a great love poet (who had wished to go to Spain but was unable to do so for family reasons), a great political poet and also a great war poet. He served in the African Desert during the Second World War and was wounded three times, the last time severely. He saw fascism not only in Spain, not only in Nazism, but probably also in the Highlands at the time of the Clearances. Possibly his best- known and perhaps his greatest single poem is Hallaig, which is about a cleared village and which has a strange, eerie picture of the dead haunting a place and walking there. MacLean was also a scholar of the Highlands and had a tremendous interest in Highland genealogy. "He was certainly a Marxist, though he was never, as he said himself, a card-carrying communist, and this philosophy gave him a key to explain what had happened to his beloved Highlands. (Indeed, as he well knew, Marx had written about the Clearances). "By profession he was a teacher. He taught in Mull, where he felt an atmosphere of intense gloom still somehow lingering in the wake of the Clearances. He also taught in Edinburgh, at Boroughmuir High School, and he ended his teaching career as a headmaster in Plockton. "He was a friend of all the leading Scottish poets, such as Hugh MacDiarmid, Sydney Goodsir Smith, Norman MacCaig and others. He sometimes used to complain wryly that teaching gave him no time for writing, and this must certainly have been the case when he was a headmaster. He was an admirer of all these poets, especially MacDiarmid. He didn't think he himself had the kind of imaginative variety which allowed MacDiarmid to finish A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle. And he used to say of Goodsir Smith that he was the most variously funny man he had ever known. "MacLean was a very human, down-to-earth person who had no airs or graces or intellectual or other arrogance. He came from a democratic background and though he won many honours they didn't change him in any way. "He was the recipient of many doctorates and awards, perhaps the most important of which was the Queen's Medal for Poetry. It is extraordinary that a poet who wrote in Gaelic should have received such an award, but by that time he was well known in England as well as in Scotland. "It may be that latterly he didn't write much, but he was a poet of great integrity who would rather not publish than publish inferior and inauthentic work. I admired him greatly for this silence when there must have been many temptations for him to break it. "His parents were steeped in Gaelic history and lore. His whole family, his brothers and sister, were and are all successful and talented people. His brother, John, was my own headmaster and he, too, was a great Gaelic scholar and piper. Others have been doctors and teachers and headmasters. "I think if one were to ask what quality above all one should isolate in Sorley's poetry it would be the passion, and there are many people who would say that poetry without passion is nothing. MacLean admired passion above all in poetry and the greatest poetry to him was the lyric. "In many ways, though he did partially complete a long poem, the long poem was to him a contradiction in terms. How could one sustain passion over a long stretch? "It is this passion which joins the young with the old in their admiration. And what was wonderful about MacLean's poetry was that it continually attracted the younger generations, to whom he was always helpful. People have differing views of most poets, but everyone was united in their admiration for MacLean. "His body of work is comparatively thin. Spring Tide and Neap Tide: Selected Poems 1932-72 was published by Canongate in 1972 in a bi- lingual edition. Poems 1932-82, a collection of English translations, was published by the Iona Foundation in Philadelphia in 1987. The collected poems, From Wood to Ridge, were published by Carcanet in 1989. Ris a' Bhruthaich: The Criticism and Prose Writings of Sorley MacLean was published in 1985. "I remember when I was much younger thinking it strange that a great poet - a great love poet - should be a lover of shinty, but this only shows my ignorance. Great poets have to live in the world like the rest of us and perhaps if Catullus had lived in Skye he, too, would have been a lover of shinty. "I remember once appearing at MacLean's house and finding that he was refereeing a shinty match. This was when he was in Edinburgh many years ago. But surely, I thought, they didn't play shinty in Greece or Rome. "He had a long and happy marriage to Renee (nee Cameron). Whenever I was at a poetry reading, there they were together. She drove him everywhere: for many years he would say wryly he hadn't been allowed to drive far from home. Her easy temper and friendliness were of incalculable value to him. I am sure that at times he was absent-minded and looked to her for help. Our deepest sympathy goes out to her, to his two surviving daughters and his brothers and sister. "But they will be proud to know that for many Sorley MacLean represented the Highlands. His voice was the authentic voice of the Highlands, of Gaeldom. He grieved because of what had happened to them historically, and perhaps he grieved most of all for the adulteration and partial loss of the language, for he himself proved., in spite of any detractors, that Gaelic could be used as a language in which great poetry could be written and in an idiom which could take account of modernity. "What MacDiarmid did for Scots, Sorley MacLean did for Gaelic, and it is heartening to reflect that the two poetic geniuses of the 20th century in Scotland wrote in Gaelic and one in Scots. It may be that Sorley's like will not come again." On 26th November 96, the following touching appreciation of Sorley by Ronnie Black appeared in the Scotsman. Translation of Gaelic text by Craig Cockburn. The translations of the poetry are Sorley's. Saoghal gun Somhairle [Trans: A world without Sorley; An appreciation by R. MacilleDhuibh] Gun ach beagan sheachdainean air ais, siud Somhairle MacGill-Eain shuas air ard-urlar an Taigh A\dhaimh an Du\n E/ideann ri linn na Fe/ise comhla ri Seumas Mo/r MacEanraig agus Sea/n Mac Re/amoinn. [Trans: Only a few weeks ago, there was Sorley MacLean up on the stage at Adam House in Edinburgh during the festival with Hamish Henderson and Sea/n Mac Ra/amoinn.] Abair gun robh fonn math air. Dh'innis e sgeulachd mu rud a thachair an Gleanna Comhann. Am b'ann mun da\ shealladh no mu thaibhs Mhic 'Ic Iain? Neo mu ghrad-bhoillsgeadh bhiodagan 's eirmseachd cainnte air oidhche a' mhuirt? Cha b'ann, ach mu dhra\ibhear Domhnallach, pasaidear Caimbealach agus luchdachadh thurasaichean ann am bus a' cur aghaidh ri rathad a' Ghlinne. Sgeulachd e/ibhinn a thug an taigh mu'r cluasan. (Agus nach e an taigh a bha pacte. [Trans: He was in great form. He told a story about something that happened in Glencoe. Was it about the second sight or the ghost of the Chief of the Glencoe MacDonalds? Or even about the gleam of a dagger and expert talk about the night of the massacre? Not at all, but a story about Donald the driver and a Campbell who was a passenger and a load of tourists in a bus heading for the road through the glen. A funny story which brought the house down. (And how the house was full).] Bus ann am beul Shomhairle MhicGill-Eain? Bus am beul an fhir a rinn Coisich mi cuide ri mo thuigse a-muigh ri taobh a' chuain. Bha sinn comhla ach bha ise a' fuireach tiotan bhuam? Ann am beul an fhir a rinn 'Am faca tu i Iu\dhaich mho/ir ris an abrar Aon Mhac Dhe/? Ann am beul an fhir a rinn 'Bha mi 'n Leipzig le u\idh nuair sheas Dimitrov air bialaibh cu\irt..? [Trans: From the mouth of Sorley MacLean? From the man who composed I walked with my reason out beside the sea. We were together but it was keeping a little distance from me? (From "The Choice") From the mouth of the man who wrote 'Have you seen her, mighty Jew, who's called the Only Son of God? (From "A Highland Woman") From the mouth of the man who composed 'I was in Leipzig, with eager hope when Dimitrov stood before the court? (From "The Cuillin", Part VI)] Bha Somhairle, an duine ta\lantach, smuaineachail, ealanta seo a bha 'na dhrochaid thar linntean, bha Somhairle la\n annasan. Annas a bh' ann gun deach a chuid bha\rdachd a dhe\anamh sa chiad dol a- mach. [Trans: It was Sorley, this talented, thoughtful, artistic man who was the bridge between ages, Sorley was full of surprises. It was a surprise that the first piece of poetry which he did was this one.] Cha robh du\il aig duine as de/idh a' Chogaidh Mho/ir ri dad u\r a b'fhiach a thighinn a-mach a/ dualchas na Ga\idhlig. Ach tha\inig na h- uiread comhla - cha b'e a-mha\in an aigne, an iargain 's an gaol, ach buaidh nan seann o\ran; e/ifeachd gach searmoin, gach sailm 's gach laoidh a chuala e gun an earbsa bhith aige sa chreideamh; cuimhne mhionaideach air gach eucoir a rinneadh air na Ga\idhil, paisean nam poileataigs ri linn Hitler agus Stalin, agus an Roinn Eo\rpa a' dol fodha ann am boglach na bu\irdeasachd. [Trans: No one expected after the end of the Great War that anything worthwhile would emerge from Gaelic heritage. But so many things came together, it wasn't just "the intellect, the pain and the love", but the influence of old songs; the effect of each sermon, each psalm and each hymn that he heard despite the lack of faith which he had in religion; a detailed memory on every injustice which was done to the Gaels, a passion for politics in the century of Hitler and Stalin, while Europe sank in the morass of the bourgeois.] Annas a bh'ann gun ta\inig Somhairle beo\ idir a/s an Darna Cogadh - nach ann a spreadh me\inn- talmhainn fo chasan san Fha\sach an-Iar. Annas nan annas a bha 'na leabhar Da\in do Eimhir agus Dai\n eile, gu i\re 's gu bheil oileanaich Gha\idhlig mo linn-sa a' cuimhneachadh ca\ robh iad a' chiad uair a dh'fhosgail iad e. An aon rud nach robh 'na annas as deaghaidh sin se gun do leanadh Somhairle le tuill de sha\r bha\ird 's de sha\r bha\rdachd. [Trans: A wonder it was that Sorley came home at all from the Second World War, in that war a land-mine blew up under his feet in the African desert. A wonder that his book "Poems to Eimhir and Other Poems" was of such an level that Gaelic students of my generation remember where they were the first time they opened it. The one thing that wasn't a surprise after that was that Sorley would be followed by a flood of exceptional poets and exceptional poetry.] Cha d'ra\inig Somhairle deireadh an 20mh linn. De\anamaid cinnteach ma- tha\ ann an saoghal na Ga\idhlig gu bheil cothrom na Fe/inne aig ar cloinn an guth a thogail san 21mh linn mar a thog Somhairle. Tha e a- nis anns an t-si\orraidheachd comhla ri a dha\intean deachdte 's neo- dheachte: 'Thar na si\orraidheachd, thar a sneachda, chi\ mi mo dha\in neo-dheachdte... an langan gallanach a' sianail thar loman cruiaidhe nan a\m cianail, an comhartaich bhiothbhuan 'na mo chluasan, an deann-ruith ag gabhail mo bhuadhan: re/is nam madadh 's nan con iargalt luath air to\rachd na fiadhach, troimh na coilltean gun fhiaradh, thar mullaichean nam beann gun shiaradh; coin chiu\inecuthaich mo bha\rdachd, madaidheanair to\ir na h-a\illeachd.' bith coin Shomhairle a' ruith gu bra\th - R. MacilleDhuibh [Trans: Sorley didn't reach the end of the 20th century. Let us make certain then that in the world of Gaelic there is an equal opportunity for our children to lift their voices in the 21st century as Sorley did. He is now in the eternity with his written and unwritten poems. [Trans: Across eternity, across its snows I see my unwritten poems.... their baying yell shrieking across the hard bareness of the terrible times, their everlasting barking in my ears, their onrush seizing my mind: career of wolves and eerie dogs swift in pursuit of the quarry, through the forests without veering, over the mountain tops without sheering; the mild mad dogs of poetry, wolves in chase of beauty. From "Dogs and Wolves") - Ronnie Black.] [5.13] Sunset Song The opening text of the main section of the Best Scottish Book of all time Below and around where Chris Guthrie lay the June moors whispered and rustled and shook their cloaks, yellow with broom and powdered faintly with purple, that was the heather but not the full passion of its colour yet. And in the east against the cobalt blue of the sky lay the shimmer of the North Sea, that was by Bervie, and maybe the wind would veer there in an hour or so and you'd feel the change in the life and strum of the thing, bringing a streaming coolness out of the sea. But for days now the wind had been in the south, it shook and played in the moors and went dandering up the sleeping Grampians, the rushes pecked and quivered about the loch when its hand was upon them, but it brought more heat than cold, and all the parks were fair parched, sucked dry, the red clay soil of Blawearie gaping open for the rain that seemed never-coming. Up here the hills were brave with the beauty and the heat of it, but the hayfield was all a crackling dryness and in the potato park beyond the biggings the shaws drooped red and rusty already. [6.1] Scottish folk festivals Edinburgh --------- Edinburgh festival/fringe etc usually starts the second Sunday in August and runs for 3 weeks. http://www.edfringe.com/ at about the same time is the Edinburgh Tattoo http://www.edintattoo.co.uk/ webcam http://www.outdoorexplorer.co.uk/tattoo/ The Fringe starts a week earlier than the 'main' festival and about the same time as the tattoo. Celtic Connections ------------------ This runs for three weeks. Usually starting about the middle of January and running to the first week in February. More info from the Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow. BOX OFFICE:- The Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, 2 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow G2 3NY, Scotland. International Tel:- +44 141 287 5511 International Fax:- +44 141 353 4134 Pay by Access/Visa/MasterCard. Cheques payable to 'The Glasgow Royal Concert Hall' Press & Media Enquiries:- Tracey Kelly Tel:- 0141 332 6633 Fax:- 0141 333 0123 Info is available at http://www.grch.com/ and http://www.lismor.co.uk/ Search ------ The British Council has a searchable database of some major festivals in Britain, see http://www.britcoun.org/scotland/scoeven.htm [6.2] Edinburgh Festival Fringe postal: 180 High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1QS tel: 0131 226 5257 / 5259 fax: 0131 220 4205 mailto:admin@edfringe.com web: http://www.edfringe.com/ You can view the whole Fringe programme, see and make on-line reviews and buy tickets through the web site join the edinburgh festival fringe e-mailing discussion group: send the message: subscribe edfringe-list to mailto:majordomo@presence.co.uk The Gilded Ballon (a comedy venue during the fringe) can be reached at mailto:info@gildedballoon.co.uk http://www.gildedballoon.co.uk/ [6.3] Edinburgh Folk Festival Contact address: David Francis Artistic Director Edinburgh Folk Festival Society PO Box 528 Edinburgh EH6 5YR T/F 0131 557 1050 mailto:dfrancis@netreal.co.uk http://www.edinburghfestivals.co.uk/ Edinburgh Folk Festival/ Shoots and Roots is no more. After over 20 years of operation it has been forced to close due to funding difficulties and cash flow problems. [6.4] Gaelic festivals / Feisean nan Gaidheal Contact: Arthur Cormack Fe\isean nan Ga\idheal Nicolson House Somerled Square Portree Isle of Skye IV51 9EJ Tel 01478 613355 Fax 01478 613399 http://www.feisean.org/ mailto:acormack@dircon.co.uk There is an excellent article on the feis movement here http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3732/is_199810/ai_n8818434 [6.5] Festivals in Edinburgh All festivals in Edinburgh, the Festival City http://www.go-edinburgh.co.uk/ Beltane ------- http://www.beltane.org/ Beltane fire society The Beltane Fire Society is a charitable organisation, it exists to organise the Beltane Fire Festival which happens each year in Edinburgh, it is also an important hub for a large number of groups and individuals, who as well as contributing to the overall Beltane project also work within their local communities and internationally to promote the wealth of arts and culture that Beltane represents. Folk Music ---------- Folk Festival http://www.edinburghfestivals.co.uk/ August Festivals ---------------- Book Festival http://www.go-edinburgh.co.uk/ebf/ The Festival Fringe http://www.edfringe.com/ Film Festival http://www.edfilmfest.org.uk/ The Edinburgh Military Tattoo http://www.edintattoo.co.uk/ Webcam http://www.outdoorexplorer.co.uk/tattoo/ Edinburgh International Festival: mailto:eif@eif.co.uk http://www.eif.co.uk/ the Fringe usually starts a week earlier. Fireworks are the last Saturday of the official festival. Edinburgh's Hogmanay http://www.edinburghshogmanay.org/ Edinburgh's Capital Christmas http://www.edinburghscapitalchristmas.org/ [6.6] Scottish and Celtic festivals worldwide Highland Games and Celtic Festivals ----------------------------------- U.S. Scots Online has spent over five years developing an extensive and rich database of Highland Games and Celtic Festivals across North America and around the world. We currently have more than 400 games listed with current dates, contact information, listings of scheduled events, featured activities, competition championships, scheduled performers, attendance figures, admission prices, and much more. Visit http://www.usscots.com/ for the latest information on all Highland Games and Celtic Festivals. Additions and updates can be made at the site using the information form. Scottish and Celtic Festivals ----------------------------- Updated listings detailing over 350 Scottish and Celtic festivals from around the world have been posted at: http://www.maclachlans.org/games.html The new listings include over 80 events in Scotland plus several new events in North America. There is even a Celtic Festival in Japan listed. If you are aware of any events not in the listings, or have any corrections you wish to share, please let us know. We have an on-line form to make submitting the information we need simple: http://www.maclachlans.org/sendinfo.html Enjoy! Jim Finegan Clan MacLachlan Celtic Colours -------------- http://www.celtic-colours.com/ This is a Cape Breton Celtic music festival held in October each year. See also -------- More info in section [16.5] regarding Highland Games [6.7] Hebridean Celtic Festival See http://www.hebceltfest.com/ further info from mailto:caroline@hebceltfest.com On in Lewis each July Postal mail: PO Box 9901 Stornoway Isle of Lewis HS2 OHH. [7.1] How can I learn Gaelic? Comann an Luchd-Ionnsachaidh (CLI) ================================== The Gaelic learners' association Comann an Luchd-Ionnsachaidh can advise about books, learners near you, classes, correspondence courses etc. The name is abbreviated to CLI and pronounced KLEE. CLI has members around the world. Motto: "For Gaelic learners and supporters". CLI publishes an excellent magazine quarterly called 'Cothrom' which is bilingual and packed full of interesting articles and useful information. There is also a tape of the Gaelic in the magazine. The printed version of the magazine is distributed free to members. Please mention the Internet if you found out about CLI through this medium. Gaelic is pronounced "Gaalic" in Scotland and "Gaylig" in Ireland. In Canada, mostly the "Gaylig" pronounciation is used, but to mean Scots Gaelic. Address: CLI, Tu\r a Tuath, An Caisteal, Inbhir Nis, Alba, IV2 3EE CLI, North Tower,The Castle, Inverness, Scotland, IV2 3EE Phone and Fax: +44(0)1463 226710 http://www.cli.org.uk/ mailto:cli@cli.org.uk On CLI's website is a database of Gaelic classes worldwide. You can also find a lot of useful information on the Learn Gaelic website at http://www.learn-gaelic.info/ Bilingual extracts from CLI's magazine "Cothrom" are on-line at http://www.scottishradiance.com/galcol/galcol.htm - CLI column E-mail lists and IRC ==================== Gaelic-L -------- There's GAELIC-L, a Gaelic medium e-mail list for all 3 Gaelics. Short English only messages from learners are OK mailto:listserv@listserv.hea.ie with a message containing the line sub Gaelic-L yourgivenname yoursurname to join List archives at http://listserv.hea.ie/lists/gaelic-l.html Gaidhlig-A & Gaidhlig-B ----------------------- For beginners of Scots Gaelic there is a list for Gaelic and English, although English should only be used where you are unable to phrase your message in Gaelic. It is Gaidhlig-B - to join, send a mail to mailto:listserv@listserv.hea.ie containing the line sub gaidhlig-b yourgivenname yoursurname There is an archive at http://listserv.hea.ie/lists/gaidhlig-b.html There is also a list Gaidhlig-A which is for fluent speakers and fluent learners and is Gaelic only (no English). To join, send a mail to mailto:listserv@listserv.hea.ie containing the line sub gaidhlig-a yourgivenname yoursurname List archive at http://listserv.hea.ie/lists/gaidhlig-a.html There are also similar -A and -B lists for Irish For Manx, there is a list GAELG at mailto:listserv@listserv.hea.ie Gaidhlig4U ---------- Scots Gaelic complete beginners: A new mailing list -- Gaidhlig4U -- exists for entry-level beginners of Scottish Gaelic, as well as for those who are in the early stages of learning the language. Such topics as conversation and grammar, learning materials and other resources, and Gaelic culture will be emphasised. Particular attention will be given to encouraging new learners to practice and post their Gaidhlig, no matter how elementary it may be at present. Those with more advanced Gaidhlig are wholeheartedly invited to participate, but please remember that communication will be centred on the needs of beginning learners. Postings may be in Gaidhlig with accompanying English translations, or in English only. If you have any further questions regarding gaidhlig4u, please contact Gobnait NicFhilib (Deborah White) mailto:gaidheal@distantoaks.com or Daibhidh Ealaghoil (David Wright) mailto:daibhidh@ealaghol.co.uk To subscribe, please do the following: Send a message to mailto:majordomo@lists.sonic.net Write the following in the body of your message: subscribe gaidhlig4u IRC info -------- For IRC, try #gaidhlig4u on Efnet. There is generally someone there between 8pm-10pm EST, Monday through Thursday. Materials ========= Hugo's "Scottish Gaelic in 3 months". ISBN 0 85285 234 7 Author: Roibeart O/ Maolalaigh, lecturer in the Dept of Celtic at the University of Edinburgh 4.95 (Pounds) $7.95 (US Dollars). Includes useful index at the back. There is also a tape available to accompany the book Distributed in the USA by Hunter Publishing Inc 300 Raritan Center Parkway CN94, Edison, New Jersey, 08818 Teach Yourself Gaelic (book,tape) author: Boyd Robertson. 16.99 pounds for both. ISBN 0-340-55925-X. Book alone is 7.99 (ISBN 0-340-55923-3). Includes useful small dictionary at the back Both of the above are recommended (particularly the Hugo book) and suitable for complete beginners and progress to upper intermediate conversational level. Both books really need the learner to be exposed to additional audio materials and/or conversation as the amount of spoken materials on the tape is a bit limiting. Speaking Our Language (workbooks, tapes, videos), published by Canan (mailto:canan@smo.uhi.ac.uk). Highly recommended for complete beginners through to upper intermediate levels. The entire course covers 4 series, each containing 18 programmes with each programme approx 25 mins. Tel: +44-1471-844345 Fax: +44-1471-844322 Canan PO Box 345, An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, IV44 8XA, Scotland Everyday Gaelic (book) author: Morag MacNeill (intermediate level) Courses and organisations ========================= Telford College run Gaelic classes at various levels including Scotvec 1,2 and 3 and Gaelic Higher. Both evening classes and distance learning. Contact: Telford College, Crewe Toll, Edinburgh EH4 2NZ mailto:mail@ed-coll.ac.uk Fax: 0131 343 1218 Tel: 0131 332 2491 extn 2233 (Communication and Languages Dept) http://www.ed-coll.ac.uk/ This is the only centre in the world offering a Gaelic Higher course by correspondence. Students keep in touch with tutors by mail, E-mail or phone. Learning packs are also sent out and work is returned with comments. Listening tapes and speaking practice are also part of the course. Course fees (1996-97) are 42 pounds for the Scotvec modules and 49 for the Higher. There is a separate fee (about 20 pounds) for actually sitting the exam. http://www.ed-coll.ac.uk/Course/ftmatrix.asp?ID=6118 Courses ------- Gaelic/Highland/Music/Singing courses (1-2 weeks long) Sabhal Mor Ostaig, An Teanga, Sleite, Isle of Skye IV44 8RQ, Scotland tel: 01471 844 373 mailto:gavin@smo.uhi.ac.uk (Sleite is pronounced "Slate") http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/ There is a course "Conaltradh ann an Gaidhlig" which seems to be a little above Higher level and is a distance learning course. Gaelic courses from beginners to advanced available in Sutherland info at: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~maclean/AnCeathramh.html Tel: 01408- 641 474 mailto:anceathramh@mail.enterprise.net Cothrom na Feinne run Gaelic courses Contact: Cothrom na Feinne, Balmacara Mains, Balmacara, by Kyle IV40 8DN. Tel: 01599 566 240 Jewel and Esk Valley College (Edinburgh) offer a National Certificate in Gaelic studies for learners wanting to achieve fluency through a 9 month immersion course (16 hours a week). E-mail: info@jevc.ac.uk http://www.jevc.ac.uk/ Tel: 0131 654 5294/5204 Correspondence course --------------------- Gaidhlig Bheo: Correspondence course, run by The National Extension College, 18 Brooklands Avenue, Cambridge Tel: (01223) 316644 Fax: (01223) 313586 http://www.nec.ac.uk/ On-line Gaelic lessons/software ------------------------------- Canan, http://www.canan.co.uk/ have launched a Gaelic CD-ROM priced 9.95 pounds and based on the first 5 lessons of Speaking our Language. mailto:canan@smo.uhi.ac.uk http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/ionnsachadh/bac/ http://www.scottishradiance.com/galsec.htm Spoken lessons with real audio http://members.aol.com/libphil/ covers many languages including Gaelic Basic Gaelic for parents, with sound samples http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/ionnsachadh/bgfp/ Information particular to the United States An Comunn Gaidhealach America http://www.acgamerica.org/ Information on The Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts in St Anns, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia - Gaelic and other Scottish classes are offered here http://www.gaeliccollege.edu/ mailto:info@gaeliccollege.edu Gaelic College P.O. Box 80 Englishtown, Nova Scotia B0C 1H0 Other links ----------- Other Gaelic links, see [7.2] Gaelic books, see [7.3] Gaelic products from Scotland, see [7.4] [7.2] Gaelic links Gaelic ====== Sabhal Mor Ostaig - Gaelic College on Skye ------------------------------------------ World centre for Gaelic links http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/ and http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/gaidhlig.html Gaelic Scotland --------------- http://www.gaelic-scotland.co.uk/ official tourism portal Accommodation where Gaelic is spoken ------------------------------------ http://tinyurl.com/aznug Save Gaelic ----------- http://www.savegaelic.org/ Am Bratach ---------- http://www.bratach.co.uk/ Am Baile -------- http://www.ambaile.org.uk/ Storlann -------- http://www.storlann.co.uk/ Gaelic podcast -------------- http://www.gaelcast.com/ Tell the time in conversational Gaelic -------------------------------------- http://www.sst.ph.ic.ac.uk/angus/bin/uair.cgi Program written by Craig Cockburn Source here: http://www.siliconglen.com/craig/gaeltime.c Gaelic in Canada ---------------- http://www.gaelic.ca/ The Scottish Parliament ----------------------- http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/language/gaelic/ The Gaelic resource database ---------------------------- http://db.svtc.org.uk/grdb/grdmain.htm Guide to Gaelic Scotland ------------------------ http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/cnag/failte/ (available in English, Gaelic, Spanish, Italian, French and German) Gaelic organisations -------------------- http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/buidhnean/ The Gaelic Homepage ------------------- http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/gaelic.html Comunn Gaidhlig Astrailia - The Scottish Gaelic Association of Australia http://www.ozgaelic.org/ Dalriada Celtic Heritage Trust http://www.dalriada.co.uk/ The Gaelic-L archives http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/liosta/gaelic-l/ Slighe nan Gaidheal - Scottish Gaelic in Seattle http://www.slighe.com/ Siol nan Gaidheal http://www.siol-nan-gaidheal.com/ The Scottish Office dept with responsibility for Gaelic http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Arts-Culture The Book of Deer, the oldest Scots Gaelic book http://www.bookofdeer.co.uk/ The date and time in Scotland, given in conversational Gaelic http://www.sst.ph.ic.ac.uk/angus/bin/uair.cgi Gaelic Orthographic Conventions http://www.his.com/~rory/orthbod.html The Coigach Gaelic Place Names CD http://members.aol.com/coigich/CGPN.htm Celtic ====== Celtic Congress http://www.evertype.com/celtcong/ A' Cho\mhdhail Cheilteach, mailto:seonag@cnag.org.uk Barry John Steen, 7 Grebe Avenue, Inverness IV2 3TD Reference ========= Links to Dictionaries http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/home/scotland/gaelic.html http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/ More info ========= Yahoo http://www.yahoo.co.uk/Society_and_Culture/Cultures/Celtic/ [7.3] Where can I get Gaelic books? The Gaelic Books Council ======================== The Gaelic Books Council stocks every Gaelic book in print including prose, poetry, songs, music, children's material etc. They have a catalogue. The Gaelic books council ships worldwide and takes credit/debit cards. Postage is free to UK addresses, elsewhere add 30%. Comhairle nan Leabhraichean 22 Sra\id Achadh a'Mhansa Glaschu Alba G11 5QP. Fon: 0141 337 6211 Facs: 0141 341 0515 The Gaelic Books Council 22 Mansfield Street Glasgow Scotland G11 5QP Tel: 0141 337 6211 Fax: 0141 341 0515 mailto:sales@gaelicbooks.net http://www.gaelicbooks.net/ Note: All Gaelic addresses can be used fine provided the postcode is written. If you are looking for a Gaelic name for your child, the book to get is Ainmean Chloinne, Scottish Gaelic names for Children. Author Peadar Morgan. Published by Taigh na Teud, Breacais Ard, Skye. ISBN 1871931401 http://www.scotlandsmusic.com/ The book to get if you want to give your house a Gaelic name is "Cuir ainm Gaidhlig air an taigh agad" (Give your home or cottage a Scottish name) by David and Deborah Livingston-Lowe ISBN 0-9681442-0-9. 44 pages. Includes English, Gaelic and phonetics. Published by Celtica, 725 King Street West, Suite 507, Toronto ON M5V 2W9 Canada. Also try -------- Acair specialise in children's Gaelic books and can be reached at http://www.acairbooks.com/ mailto:enquiries@acairbooks.com http://www.canan.co.uk/ (Scotland) http://www.blackwell.co.uk/ (Scotland) http://www.amazon.co.uk/ (All UK Books in print) http://www.npr.org/programs/thistle/ (USA) http://www.scottishbooks.com/ Personalised Gaelic books for children can be obtained from Create-a-book Barra 244 Bruernish Isle of Barra Western Isles HS9 5UY Tel: 01871 890376 [7.4] Scots Gaelic products and catalogue Canan ----- http://www.canan.co.uk/ Also Firtree publishing have a bilingual Gaelic/English Highland calendar http://www.scottish-calendars.co.uk/ See also [7.3] [7.5] Where can I get Gaelic music and lyrics, info on Gaelic songs Contact An Comunn Gaidhealach, 109 Sraid na h-Eaglais, Inbhir Nis, IV1 1EY. Tel: 01463 231226. mailto:info@ancomunn.co.uk http://www.ancomunn.co.uk/ http://www.the-mod.co.uk/english/contact.htm there is also a small office in Stornoway Tel: 01851 703487 Fax: 01851 706467 An Comunn have a lot of Gaelic music and maintain a list of every Gaelic choir in Scotland. Currently the only Gaelic choirs outside Scotland are in London http://coisirlunnainn.wordpress.com/, Sydney (Australia), Melbourne (Australia), Vancouver (BC, Canada), Victoria (BC, Canada), Seattle (WA, USA), Antigonish Gaelic Choir in Antigonish, Nova Scotia and there is one in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. An Comunn also has an American branch. Their web address is http://www.acgamerica.org/ If that fails, try The School of Scottish Studies, 27 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9LD http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk Also worth contacting is Canasg http://www.canasg.com/ Canasg Choral Music Publishing of Scotland specialises in publishing choral and vocal music, offering a wide range of totally original settings and arrangements for choirs and vocal harmony groups; mainly a cappella, but some with instrumental accompaniment. [7.6] The National Mod and Local Mods An Comunn Gaidhealach runs the national Mod and branches of An Comunn around Scotland run the local mods. An Comunn is based at 109 Sraid na h-Eaglais, Inbhir Nis, IV1 1EY 109 Church St, Inverness, IV1 1EY. Tel: 01463 231226 An Comunn don't seem to have their own specific site, but can be reached through The Mod site: http://www.the-mod.co.uk/english/contact.htm The Mods are a series of Gaelic competitions involving singing, poetry, drama, music etc. Similar to the Eisteddfod in Wales - see http://www.eisteddfod.org.uk/ The Royal National Mod is held in Mid-October each year during the end of term break. Forthcoming venues for the National Mod are: 2000 (Dunoon); 2001 (Stornoway); 2002 (not allocated yet); 2003 (Oban - 100th Mod). The National Mod runs from a Friday to the Saturday morning of the following week (the competitions end on the final Friday) See http://www.the-mod.co.uk/ Besides the official Mod programme, there is also a lively Mod fringe. There are also local Mods. Here's a list of them: Caithness/Sutherland; Dalriada (Lochgilphead area); Easter Ross; East Kilbride; Edinburgh; Glasgow; Harris; Inverness; Islay; Kyle; Lewis; Lochaber; Oban; Mull; Perthshire/Angus; Skye; Stirling; Uist; Wester Ross. Local Mods generally run over a weekend. Contact details for the local mods are available off the site at http://www.the-mod.co.uk/english/provincial.htm There is also a Mod in Vancouver held on even years. Calum MacDonald (no connection with the person in Runrig) is the Mod officer with An Comunn Gaidhealach. [7.7] How mutually intelligible are Scots and Irish Gaelic? Irish Gaelic and Scots Gaelic are a bit like Italian and Spanish - fluency in one goes a long way to understanding the other. I am learning Scots Gaelic and can read some Irish with a bit of difficulty, but fluent speakers of Scots Gaelic can more or less understand most Irish - indeed Irish Gaelic is often broadcast on Scots Gaelic radio. The people from Islay however have a Gaelic that is almost a cross so have less trouble than the rest of Scotland. Donegal Irish is the closest to Scottish Gaelic. The written form of Gaelic is easier to understand than the spoken form due to being more standard. [7.8] Gaelic playgroups Comhairle nan Sgoiltean Araich (CNSA) 53 Sra\id na h-Eaglais (53 Church Street) Inbhir Nis (Inverness) IV1 1DR Tel: 01463 225469 mailto:info@cnsa.scotnet.co.uk There are about 150 pre-school playgroups throughout Scotland through the medium of Gaelic and about 50 Gaelic medium primary schools The organisation for parents who have children being educated through the medium of Gaelic is "Comann nam Parant", their newsletter can be obtained at SANAS - (Gaelic parents' newsletter) Contact: Aonghas MacNeacaill The Rock Carlops Peebleshire EH26 9NF http://www.parant.org.uk/ [7.9] Gaelic newspapers Gaelic newspapers ================= (Papers with a significant Gaelic content and untranslated articles) Guth na Ga\idhlig The subscription desk Highland News Group Henderson Road Inverness IV1 1SP Tel: 01463 713700 Stri (magazine of the Scottish branch of the Celtic League) Carn (magazine of the Celtic league as a whole) See [2.7] for information on the Celtic League An Gaidheal Ur (magazine sent to members of An Comunn Gaidhealach). See [7.5] for contact info for An Comunn Am paipear beag; (The West Highland Free Press) See [18.1] for contact details An t-Albannach (The Scotsman) Gaelic column on Fridays and alternate Wednesdays. These columns also appear on the paper's website. http://www.scotsman.com/ Papers with a Gaelic column =========================== Scotland -------- (contact details in [18.1]) The Inverness Courier, The Oban Times, The Press and Journal, The Scots Independent, The Stornoway Gazette, Northern Ireland ---------------- La/ Nuachta/n laethu/il nGael An Chulturlann 216 Falls Road Be/al Feirste (Belfast) BT12 6AH Tel: 01232 239303 Fax: 01232 2393943 [7.10] Gaelic Arts Proiseact nan Ealan / National Gaelic Arts Project An arts development agency promoting Gaelic music, theatre and visual arts through initiatives such as exhibitions, publications, festivals, television programmes, CDs and training courses. Contact: Malcolm MacLean Proiseact nan Ealan 10 Iomair Sligeach Steornabhagh Eilean Leodhais Alba HS1 2EA Tel: 01851 704493/703440 Fax: 01851 704734 mailto:pne@sol.co.uk http://www.gaelic-arts.com/ (10 Shell Street, Stornoway Isle of Lewis HS1 2EA ) Proiseact nan Ealan are on of the sponsors of the excellent "Ceolas" event held in Uist the first week in July. More details: http://www.ceolas.co.uk/ Ceolas is a summer school to explore the interconnections between Scottish traditional music, song and dance. Tutors from Scotland and Cape Breton offer courses on pipes, fiddle, Gaelic song and dance. The course is 160 pounds for the week (accommodation extra). Proiseact nan Ealan also organised an excellent programme of Gaelic events during the Edinburgh Festival a few years ago. [7.11] Info on Scots Gaelic accents Broadly speaking there are three major Gaelic dialects. One includes the Western Isles (except Lewis), Skye, Glenelg, Moidart and Western Lochaber "The Central Western Area". The next area lies around this area and includes Rossshire, Inverness, Badenoch, Fort Augustus, Laggan, North Argyll and Mull. The third area includes Lewis, Sutherland, Deeside, Perthshire, Mid-Argyll, Jura, Mull, Islay and Kintyre. There are of course variations within this, such as Islay's "go robh math agad", peculiar to there. In Uist and Barra, deanamh and words ending in mh are pronounced with a "oo" sound at the end, whereas in many other places it's a "v". Lewis Gaelic is noticeably different in pronounciation and I know native Argyll and Sutherland Gaelic speakers who have trouble understanding Lewis Gaelic (however, the other way around is probably also true). In Lewis they have their own words, such as "bu\rn" for drinking water. Elsewhere it is uisge. The variation between Lewis and Harris Gaelic is very noticable. As has been pointed out, the Scandanavian influence is very strong and it seems to me as if Lewis Gaelic speakers speak it with a Scandinavian accent - completely different to the rest of Scotland. Whilst it's true that Lewis Gaelic has its own vocabularly, the same is also true of many other areas. However, there are similarities between Harris and Sutherland Gaelic (but both different to the rest of the Outer Isles). For instance, they both pronounce "adhart" as "ugurst" whereas the dh almost drops out in most other areas. This is despite Harris and Sutherland falling within different linguistic areas. For more information on this, see Anthony Dilworth's essay "Central Western and Peripheral Gaelic". Tony Dilworth was a linguistic researcher (now retired) with the School of Scottish Studies. For thorough research on Gaelic and Scots dialects contact the school. The School is on-line at: http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk Perthshire Gaelic: See Cothrom 6, published by the Gaelic Learners Association P29-33. mailto:cli@cli.org.uk Sutherland Gaelic mailto:anceathramh@mail.enterprise.net (An Ceathramh Gaelic centre in Sutherland) Wester Ross: Contact: Roy Wentworth, 25 Ea\rradal a Deas, Gairloch, Ross-shire IV21 2AU More info in Companion to Gaelic Scotland, edited by Derick S. Thomson [7.12] Scots Gaelic translation services Contact John MacLeod of An Darach Ltd 15 The Murrays Edinburgh Scotland EH17 8UD tel: 0131 664 2606 (John also offers Historical & cultural trips to Gaelic areas of Scotland) http://www.andarach.com/ Also http://www.akerbeltz.com/ and http://www.lews.uhi.ac.uk/about/contents/fosglan and http://www.cainnt.co.uk/ [7.13] Dog commands in Gaelic Heel - gu sail (nas fhearr saoilidh mi na 'sail' fhein)/(better than 'sail' by itself) Sit - suidh! Stay - fuirich! (fan! mas e Gaidhlig Earraghaidheil a tha sibh ag iarraidh math dh'fhaoidte; Cha bhitheadh 'stad' freagarrach, agus cha bhitheadh 'feith' uamhasach nadarra - 'a' feitheamh' = 'waiting') Come (here) - trobhad!; tiugainn! (Chan urrainn dhuibh 'thig' a radh leis fhein - feumaidh tu facal eile comhla ris, mar eiseamplar 'thig an-seo'.) Fetch - faigh (sin/seo/e) (Get) down - laigh si\os! (Chan e ordugh a tha san fhacal 'dol' - dh'fhaodadh sibh 'gabh sios' no 'sios leat' a radh.) (Be) quiet - bi samhach! Attack - gabh chuige!; gabh air/oirre etc.! (Chan e ordugh a tha san fhacal 'ionnsaigh'. Co-dhiu, tha mi 'n dochas nach bi sibh feumach air an ordugh seo!!) Stop that - sguir dheth! ('sgurr' = mountain peak) ?Off? - chan eil mi a' tuigsinn carson a chleachdadh duine seo an aite 'down', agus co-dhiu chan e an aon rud a tha ann an 'air falbh' - ach 'having gone', no 'somebody is away somewhere'. Mu dheireadh, seo facal eile a bhiodh feumail, 's docha - ma tha sibh a' bruidhinn ri cuilean, canaidh sibh "A Chuilidh" - car coltach ri 'doggy' ann am Beurla. 'S e "A chon" a bhiodh na seann na\baidhean againn a' chanail nuair a bhiodh iad a' bruidhinn ris a' chu\. (Tuiseal gairmeach). Tha fhios nach eil e cho cairdeil ri "A chuilidh". [7.14] Census figures for Gaelic speakers 1991 and 2001 figures 1991 figures ============ These figures were released in October 1992. The first figure is the number of Gaelic speakers, the second is the percentage this represents of the total population in the area. Borders 460 (0.45%) Central 1612 (0.61%) Dumfries & Galloway 515 (0.35%) Fife 1477 (0.44%) Grampian 2491 (0.50%) Highland 14713 (7.39%) Lothian 4206 (0.59%) Strathclyde 18283 (0.83%) Tayside 2479 (0.66%) Orkney 92 (0.48%) Shetland 105 (0.47%) Western Isles 19546 (67.23%) total 65978 (1.34%) The numbers for Skye & Lochalsh (part of Highland Region totals) were: 4715 (41.16%) Only two parishes in Skye had more than 50% Gaelic-speakers: Kilmuir (73.2%) and Snizort (52.5%) other areas: Lochaber (Highland): 1988 (10.52%) Inverness (Highland): 3476 (5.77%) Ross & Cromarty (Highland): 2812 (5.82%) Argyll & Bute (Strathclyde): 4583 (7.23%) Glasgow City (Strathclyde): 6300 (0.96%) Dun Eideann (Edinburgh) 3089 Lodainn an Ear (East Lothian) 322 Meadhan Lodainn (Midlothian) 227 Lodainn an Iar (West Lothian) 567 These figures come from the 1991 Census Scotland, Table L67S (Gaelic Language), by way of an article by Kenneth MacKinnon, "Gaelic and 'the Other Languages of Scotland' in the 1991 Population Census". The Gaelic-speaker numbers are specifically labeled "Gaelic Mother-Tongue speakers", so I don't know if second-language learners were excluded (or if they were, how). 2001 census =========== Numbers from the 2001 census were released on 13th Feb 2003. Surprisingly they took 4 months longer to be released than the figures of 1991. The number of Gaelic speakers fell by 11% over 10 years to a figure of 58,650. ALL PEOPLE 5062011 Understands spoken Gaelic but cannot speak, read or write Gaelic 27219 Speaks, reads and writes Gaelic 31235 Speaks but neither reads nor writes Gaelic 19466 Speaks and reads but cannot write Gaelic 7949 Reads but neither speaks nor writes Gaelic 4758 Writes but neither speaks nor reads Gaelic 901 Reads and writes but does not speak Gaelic 1435 Other combination of skills in Gaelic 319 No knowledge of Gaelic 4968729 [8.1] Learning Gaelic song See also [8.2], [8.3], [8.4], [8.5] The Gaelic Learners' Association CLI (Comann an Luchd-ionnsachaidh) has published "Karaoke Ceilidh" which is likely to be of use to people interested in singing Gaelic songs. The package, produced in conjunction with Clydebank College, consists of a book and tape (ISBN 1 898043 05 1). The tape has six favourite Gaelic songs with spoken, sung and instrumental versions of each song together with eight popular puirt a beul. The accompanying book includes all the lyrics in Gaelic and English together with grammatical notes. The clear pronounciation of the spoken versions of the songs, is likely to be of use to anyone seeking accurate pronounciation. The songs include Fear a' bha\ta, O mo dhu\thaich, An ataireachd a\rd, Maighdeanan na h-a\iridh (also recorded by Capercaillie), Eilean a' Cheo\ (also recorded by Cathy Anne MacPhee) and Chi\ mi na mo\r-bheanna (also recorded by Keltoi). The tape is laid out in such a way that you can listen to the sung version, then turn the tape over at that point to listen to the instrumental and spoken versions. This allows side one of the tape to be listened to as a normal music cassette if you choose. There are both male and female singers on the tape. The package has been very successful since its launch in 1994. Cost is 10 pounds plus 1 pound postage for the UK, 2 for EU, 3 for elsewhere. More info from CLI at mailto:cli@cli.org.uk See also http://www.cli.org.uk/ Temple records are an excellent source of material for Gaelic singers. Artists such as Art Cormack, Christine Primrose, MacTalla, Flora MacNeill and Eilidh MacKenzie all record for Temple and full lyrics in Gaelic and English are available for all Temple recordings by writing to the record company. http://www.templerecords.co.uk/ For more detailed information on traditional Gaelic singing, http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/gaelicsong.html A large number of Gaelic songs are online at http://www.geocities.com/alltandubh/Clar.html Courses ------- There are courses in Gaelic song available at Sabhal Mor Ostaig http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/ during the summer and at Feis Rois in May (in Dingwall). E-mail Rita Hunter mailto:feis.rois@cali.co.uk There is also classes in Gaelic song at the Ceolas summer school held in Uist each July and organised by Proiseact nan Ealan (the National Gaelic arts Project) Tel: 01851 704493/703440 Fax: 01851 704734. See also [7.10]. In Nova Scotia, contact Rosemary McCormack on http://www.capebretonet.com/Music/BRHeritage/ There is also sometimes courses at the Edinburgh Folk Festival, held each Easter. mailto:dfrancis@netreal.co.uk http://www.edinburghfestivals.co.uk/ There may also be course connected with the School of Scottish Studies at Edinburgh University. See [12.1] for address and further information. There is also sometimes short courses in Gaelic song held as part of Celtic Connections in Glasgow each January. http://www.grch.com/ [8.2] Waulking songs and information Article by Craig Cockburn mailto:craig@SiliconGlen.com This article promoted by "The Smithsonian" in their Sept 98 issue. Waulking -------- Waulking is a process for fulling Harris tweed (making it more airtight). The word 'waulking' is a Scots word from the 14th century meaning the same as "full" in English. The waulking process not only fulls the tweed but also shrinks it slightly. Name origins ------------ The term "waulking" was coined by a non-Gaelic speaker who saw a waulking done by the feet and modified the word "walking". Waulkings were done by both hand and foot, but more usually by hand. The Gaelic name for waulking songs is "Orain Luaidh", luaidh translates to "full". In Scotland, waulking was done exclusively by women whereas in Cape Breton both men and women did it - waulking is often seen in Cape Breton at "milling frolics". The process of waulking may also have given rise to the surname "Walker". About 2 miles south-east of Burnley in Lancashire there is a small village called Walk Mill in the Parish of Cliviger. In the book 'A Pennine Parish, the History of Cliviger' (Thornber, Titus., 1987 Rieve Edge Press Ltd. ) the author describes the origin of the name of the village thus: "... along side the river was a Fulling or Walk Mill ... The process of fulling was a laborious one in which men trampled on the cloth inside tubs of a mixture of water and fullers earth. Hence the name walk, and the surname Walker. The earliest record is of a Richard the Fuller who had a 'millpool' in 1270 AD." There are other cases of fulling referred to as 'walking' in the medieval history of the Pennine region which may question be the origin of the term "walking" before it mutated to "waulking". Titus Thornber's suggestion that the surname Walker is connected with the occupation is interesting. Process ------- When tweed is made, it needs to be fulled to increase its ability to keep out the wind. Waulking is a process of repeatedly beating the cloth to full it and prepare it for use. Waulking songs are a musical form unknown elsewhere in Western Europe and often sound African. They are very rhythmic and were composed to keep the beat when the cloth was being waulked. This task was only done by women in Scotland, however in Nova Scotia where it is known as milling then it is generally a male task. Often waulking songs were adapted from other songs. Frequently they tell of local gossip, the material is not usually "highbrow". The tweed was generally soaked in human urine (it was someone's job to collect the urine which had been saved in each house). The women were usually seated around a table and the tweed would be placed on the table, or perhaps a door which had been taken off its hinges. There might be one woman at each end and maybe about 4-5 down each side. One person would sing out the verse and then everyone would join in the chorus. The verses and choruses (sometimes there are up to 4 choruses) are very short, sometimes only a few syllables. The chorus is what is used to classify waulking songs I think - nearly always the chorus is vocables. These are words with no specific meaning, although they have been carefully chosen to fit the rhythm of the tune. I only know of one which has real words - Deannain sugradh ris a nighean dubh (on the Poozies first album). There are a few waulking songs in the book "Folksongs and folklore of South Uist" (Margaret Fay Shaw, Aberdeen University Press ISBN 0 08 032471 1) and particularly Hebridean Folksongs (Campbell & Collinson 3 volumes). During the waulking, the cloth would be pulled towards you, then passed slightly to your left before pushing it back. This way, the cloth turned round the table in a clockwise manner as it was being waulked. The Gaels are superstitious and believe anti-clockwise to be unlucky. It was important to turn the cloth to ensure the cloth was evenly processed. Waulking as a process is now no longer necessary, machines do it now. However, there are societies which preserve the waulking tradition for historical/tourist reasons. I think waulking died out in the 1950s. One of the oldest Gaelic songs in existence (perhaps 13th C?) is "Seathan", a waulking song which appears in Carmina Gadelica (an amazing source of folklore). Seathan (he was the son of the King of Ireland) is several pages long and would easily take over an hour to sing. The waulking process could last about 2-3 hours and there would likely be a ceilidh afterwards (I hoped they washed their hands first!), with the men being invited back in. I think it was usual to start with slower songs and then to speed up towards the end - the speed of waulking songs varies a lot. "Seathan" and "Gur h-e mo ghille dubh donn" are quite slow whereas "He mo leannan" is usually sung a bit faster and "Tha Mulad", "He Mandu" etc are faster still. One of the fastest is "Beann a' Cheathaich" which has been recorded by Christine Primrose and in 1995 The Poozies recorded it on "Danceoozies". It was adapted by Marjory Kennedy Fraser and became "Kishmul's Galley". Recordings ---------- Today, many bands/singers eg Capercaillie, Sileas, Poozies, Mary Jane Lamond, Runrig, Christine Primrose, Cathy Anne MacPhee, Flora MacNeill, Eilidh MacKenzie, etc sing waulking songs - they are proving very popular and the strong rhythms make them quite transportable to so-called mainstream culture (mainstream in whose definition?). It was a waulking song sung by Capercaillie "Coisich a ruin" (also sometimes known as "Fluich an oidhche") which became the first ever Scots Gaelic tune to enter the UK top 40 (in 1991?). I believe this song is about 400 years old. There are three variations of this song that I know of. There are many individuals and groups who have recorded a waulking song or two on an album of Gaelic music, but there are four albums of exclusively waulking songs which may be of interest: 1) Orain Luaidh - Waulking songs Published 1986 by the Harris Tweed Association (sorry no address) This is an excellent tape and has a 29 page A5 book with it which has lyrics for every song, a translation and some notes. There is a 5 page introduction which gives more information and additional reference material. Most of the contributions are from the Western Isles although one is from Cape Breton 2) and 3) both published by Greentrax records Cockenzie Business Centre, Edinburgh Road, Cockenzie, East Lothian EH32 0HL Tel: 01875 814155 Fax 01875 813345 mailto:greentrax@aol.com http://www.greentrax.com/ 2) Waulking songs from Barra This is published in the excellent "Scottish tradition" series which is essential for anyone really interested in authentic Scottish traditional music, particularly from an academic standpoint. This series is produced with the School of Scottish Studies, part of Edinburgh University and the world's foremost authority on Scottish ethnology. All the recordings (which cover both Highland, Lowland and Shetland traditions) have extensive books and notes to accompany them. The cassettes are not general mass market music and the song ones are all unaccompanied. They are however outstanding and in particular William Matheson's Gaelic Bards and Minstrels is incredible. I don't have the waulking tape in this series but I do have 3 others and they are both excellent! 3) Bannal - Waulking songs. Bannal is a group comprising many well known singers, they are: Kenna Campbell, Catherine Fletcher, Christine Grant, Wilma Kennedy, Mairi MacArthur, Chrissie MacInnes, Maeve MacKinnon and Mary C MacLean. 4) The South Harris waulking group has a tape "Waulking songs from Harris". This is available from Lewis Recordings, 1 Millburn Road, Inverness The tape comprises 18 distinct songs of between 1 and 3 mins each and is all unaccompanied with all the women except Chrissie MacInnes having a turn at solo. Most of the women are known soloists in their own right. The tape is excellent entertainment value for listening to in the car but is spoiled considerably by not having any notes on the individual songs and more importantly no lyrics whatsoever in either Gaelic or English with the album and no indication that lyrics are available. This isn't the first time Greentrax have let me down in this way - Canan nan Gaidheal has no Gaelic lyrics either. By contrast Temple records have an excellent reputation for printing lyrics and given the choice between both companies I would feel happier buying a Gaelic recording from Temple knowing I would be able to get lyrics. In addition to the albums mentioned above, it is also worthwhile to get the tape "Music from the Western Isles", by Greentrax records. The accompanying booklet explains waulking songs as well as other types of Gaelic song. The tape is not exclusively waulking songs but is a "sampler" featuring different types of Gaelic music and song. There is also a good number of waulking songs on the album "A tribute to the North Shore Gaelic singers", published by B&R Heritage Enterprises, Iona, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. http://www.capebretonet.com/Music/BRHeritage/ References ---------- The main and best source for information on waulking songs is Hebridean Folksongs by J L Campbell and F Collinson, first published by Oxford University Press in the 70s. There are 3 volumes, which you may be able to find in a library, and volumes 2 and 3 have recently been republished (at 29.50 each, sterling!). Volume 1 has an excellent bibliography, with additions in volume 3. The songs are the repertoire of singers from Barra, Uist and the small islands in that area. The School of Scottish Studies' published series, Scottish Tradition, includes Waulking Songs from Barra, and the booklet that goes with it is informative. This is available as cassette or CD from Greentrax Recordings. Music from the Western Isles, in the same series, also has some waulking songs and some notes on the genre. Orain Luaidh, published by the Harris Tweed Association, has an accompanying booklet with texts and translations into English. Orain, by Christina Shaw, published by Acair, has four waulking songs. C.S. was from Harris. The South Harris group are quite good, but there is at least one bad error in the way the words come within the rhythm. The School of Scottish Studies' magazine Tocher contains texts of waulking songs, with their tunes, particularly Tocher 50. Tocher is published by: The School of Scottish Studies, 27 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9LD http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk More information ---------------- For more information on waulking, see the Harris Tweed website at http://www.harristweed.com/ or The Smithsonian's article on Harris Tweed http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues98/sep98/tweed.html for more info and further links [8.3] Puirt a beul See the following for an introduction: http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/puirtabeul.html [8.4] Gaelic psalm singing Greentrax sells tapes from the School of Scottish studies and one of these is Gaelic psalm singing from Lewis. The album reference is CDTRAX/CTRAX 9006. mailto:greentrax@aol.com http://www.greentrax.com/ Some info from the liner notes, by Morag MacLeod "Lowland Scots took well to ballad metre, which was familiar to them in folksong, & 'reading the line' ("precenting" in Scottish tradition, "lining-out" in American Southern tradition) became so much a part of the church's praise that it came to be regarded as a venerable Scottish custom. Later church music reformers campaigned to abolish it, and it gradually became extinct, except in Gaelic-speaking areas. When the psalms were translated into Gaelic the metre used was again ballad metre, so that the same Lowland tunes could be used. This metre was and is entirely alien to Gaelic literature and any other Gaelic poetry composed in it is parody. The way in which 'reading the line' broke up the quatrain into eight lines of differing length may have been a welcome alleviation of ballad metre for the Gaelic singer. The person who read the line became known as the precentor. Nowadays it is the precentor's duty not only to let the congregation hear clearly the text it is to sing next, but also to give a hint of the melody line by pinpointing its more important tunes. The repertoire varies from seventeen to twenty tunes, which are basically the same as those that appear under the same name in the Church Hymnary or the Scottish Psalter. Melodic modifications do occur in some of the tunes in the process of adaptation to Gaelic modal patterns, but these are not to be taken as the only cause of the unaccustomed listener's confusion as he tries to link the printed tune with the Gaelic version. There is no clear break between the precentor's chant and the beginning or end of the original musical text; the singing is very slow, possibly to convey the solemnity of the occasion even if the psalm is a joyful one; and passing notes and grace notes are introduced to decorate the basic melody - but not to the extent of obscuring it, and the precentor's voice should keep the congregation together on the basic notes, which coincide with the beginnings of syllables." [8.5] Piobaireachd, Pibroch and Piping Recordings ---------- There are some excellent recordings available from Greentrax in the Scottish Tradition series. Relevant album numbers are CTRAX 9010, 9011, 9012 and 9015 mailto:greentrax@aol.com http://www.greentrax.com/ Margaret Stewart (Mod gold medallist) has released a recording along with the famous piper, Allan MacDonald of Glenuig, on the Greentrax label. It features quite a few choice pieces of Ceol Mor. They both study and research ceol mor and its related Gaelic song and their album concentrates on this, in fact Allan has undertaken an academic study of ceol mor at Edinburgh University, resulting in an MLitt degree. The album has received rave reviews in all the piping magazines and folk music magazines and is selling extremely well all over the world. You can order the CD direct from Greentrax on mailto:greentrax@aol.com Also look for an album entitled "Strictly Piobaireachd"- I think Lismore produced it. Any of the "Masters of Piping" series (also Lismore) would have at least one piece of Ceol Mor, usually more than one. Lismore are at http://www.lismor.co.uk/ Books ----- Roderick Cannon, the Highland Bagpipe and its Music is a good source for the facts of bagpipe history. Also, Seumas MacNeill and Frank Richardson "Piobaireachd and its Interpretation for Ceo\l Mo/r" Piping Info ----------- http://www.cna-web.co.uk/MacCrimmon/ The MacCrimmon Piping Heritage Centre The Piping Centre, 30-34 McPhater Street, Cowcaddens, Glasgow G4 0HW phone/fax 0141 353 0220 College of Piping (publishes 'The Piping Times') 20 Otago Street, Glasgow 0141 334 3587 See also Bagpipe web http://www.bobdunsire.com/bagpipeweb/ and Piobaireachd net http://www.pibroch.net/ Newsgroup --------- The newsgroup news:rec.music.makers.bagpipe is where most of the pipers on the internet seem to be. [8.6] Oldest datable Gaelic Song The oldest datable Gaelic song is Piobaireachd Dhomhnuill Dhuibh according to John MacInnes, School of Scottish Studies, Edinburgh University The music to Piobaireachd Dhomhnuill Dhuibh is in the Purser book mentioned in [4.21] and a recorded version is on the Clan Alba Album. This tune is thought to be named for Donald Dubh, 11th chief of the Clan Cameron, who led the clan from 1400 to 1460. There is some evidence that the tune evolved from Ceol Mor: a fiddle version was published by James Oswald in 1760. Sir Walter Scott also put lyrics to it in 1816. The Queen's Own Highlanders often use it as a March Past. I'm not sure what "datable" means here. Francis Collison in the "Traditional and National music of Scotland", mentions 'Ceann na Drochaid Mhoridh' (The end of the great bridge) as being traditionally held as being composed at the battle of Inverlochy in 1427. Of the claim of Donald Dubh to be contemporary with it, he calls "impossible to say". [8.7] Information on Runrig Websites -------- http://www.runrig.co.uk/ Fan club -------- Runrig Fan Club, 1 York St, Aberdeen AB11 5DL Scotland Tel: 01224 573100 Fax 01224 572598 Runrig as a name for the band is a term Blair Douglas thought up when he was studying in Glasgow. A rig is a strip of farmland and a run is a series of those strips. The run-rig system of farming is no longer used, but the marks of it can still be seen particularly on Skye where the core of the band is from. The term run-rig is a Scots word. The Gaelic is "raon ruith" Discography ----------- Play Gaelic (good, very folky, last 2 tracks are very good, limited lyrics in Gaelic available from fan club) Highland Connection (v good, my favourite, mix of ballads and heavy rock, lyrics supplied, but no translations. I have translations of Cearcall a' chuain - one of my all time favourite tracks and an easy one to sing along to and learn). Recovery (v. good, close second, similar to Highland Connection. Translations for Gaelic available from this point on). The last one with Malcolm Jones playing the pipes. Heartland (v. good, slightly more commercial than previous two, less Gaelic) Cutter and the Clan (OK. considerably more commercial than Heartland. 2 Gaelic tracks. An uabhal as airde is a very good song from this album) Once in a lifetime (live album featuring material from previous 4, but only 1 track from Play Gaelic- Chi mi'n Geamhradh) Searchlight (OK. More commercial than "Cutter", 2 Gaelic tracks) Big Wheel (improvement on Searchlight. Commercial, but some good tracks, 2 Gaelic tracks) Amazing things (rather bland and middle of the road. Some good tracks, but many forgettable) Mara (a theme album; excellent production masks some rather middle of the road tunes) The band seem to be struggling to make their albums more and more commercial in sound and the Gaelic content of each is nearly always lower or the same as the last. However, they don't seem to be having much success outside Scotland. They are the biggest selling band in Scotland, and I think Donnie Munro is a very good singer. It's ironic that Capercaillie have managed about the same success with singles as Runrig yet Capercaillie's single was in Gaelic and a lot more traditional. Runrig are perceived as too Scottish by many non-Scottish audiences and their following is very heavily biased towards people from Scotland or with Scottish connections. You might wonder why this should be so. You would never hear it offered as a criticism of Bob Marley that he was "too Jamaican", of Bruce Springsteen that he is "too American", or of Madness that they were "too English". With regard to Gaelic, it is a problem peculiar to English speakers that they are often reluctant to appreciate music in languages other than their own. Runrig have played a major part in bringing Scottish music up to date and reviving the Scottish folk scene, and interest in the Gaelic language. However, I wish they'd accept that they're not going to have a major breakthrough in popularity overseas and go back to the feel of their earlier material. This early material, particularly pre-"Cutter" gets a better response at concerts in Scotland. The fan club has all the albums and can be reached at the address above. Many of the band currently live in the Edinburgh area though Calum and Donnie both have homes in the Highlands. Malcolm Jones is seen frequently at folk events in Edinburgh and also plays with Freeland Barbour in "The Occasionals" ceilidh band. Donnie has bought a house in Portree and was the Labour parliamentary candidate for the Ross, Skye and Inverness West constituency in the 1997 General Election. Calum MacDonald lives in Mid Ross. Donnie Munro announced in May 1997, after failing to win the Ross, Skye and Inverness West seat in the UK General Election, that he wished to follow a career in politics. His last concert with the band was in August 97 at Stirling Castle. The band received about 200 tapes from people seeking to be the new lead singer and auditioned a number of people, however they took out an advert in The West Highland Free Press, 27-Feb-98 advertising for others to come forward. The band was particularly keen to get someone with strong Highland connections and there was talk that the band are wanting to increase the Gaelic content. Donnie's replacement was announced on 18-Jul-98 and is the Nova Scotian singer Bruce Guthro. There is also an excellent instrumental album called "An ubhal as airde" played on whistles and synthesisers - this album contains material which Runrig have either written or recorded. More info on this follows: The Highest Apple - An ubhal as airde ------------------------------------- An intrumental album played by Steve Gwyn Davies (recorders and whistle) with Sabine Barnes-Rauch (orchestral synthesiser). All songs on this album have previously been written by or recorded by Runrig. on Vital Records, 1 Waterloo, Breakish, Isle of Skye, IV42 8QE Scotland released 1994, available on CD - VITAL CD02 (interesting to find out what else is in their catalogue!) it's about 40 mins long and contains 17 tracks (between 35 seconds and 4 mins). also available from Canan at mailto:canan@smo.uhi.ac.uk 7.99 pounds for cassette (code CSAUAA) or 11.99 for CD (code CDAUAA). Some bilingual lyrics included. May also appeal to fans of Enya. This album contains "Clachan Uaine" which is the only song I know of that Runrig have written but not recorded themselves (Mairi MacInnes recorded it on Causeway; she sings on Runrig's Heartland album). Music information ---------------- Get more information on the music listed here via our music page in association with Amazon. http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/music/amazon.html#[8.7] [8.8] Information on Capercaillie Capercaillie is pronounced "Cap-ir-cay-lee", not "Cape-r-cay-lee" A Capercaillie is the largest member of the Grouse family (from the Gaelic words for Wood Grouse) and is an endangered species. Website ------- http://www.capercaillie.co.uk/ Fan club -------- Capercaillie Fan Club Chapmanagement PO Box 1155 Glasgow G3 7TW Fanzine ------- There is also a fanzine called Sidetaulk. Call Mandy Shanks on Hopeman 01343- 835194 for more info, or write to her at: 21 Thom Street, Hopeman, Elgin, Moray, Scotland IV30 2SS (I think Charlie McKerron comes from Hopeman) E-mail ------ There is a Capercaillie e-mail list. Send a mail to mailto:secretmusic@sol.co.uk to sign up (it's managed by hand, so there may be a delay) Discography =========== Album #1: Cascade (recorded 1984) Lineup: Karen Matheson (lead vocal) Joan MacLachlan (fiddle, vocal) Marc Duff (Recorder, Whistles, Rauschpfeife) Shaun Craig (Guitar, Bouzouki) Martin Macleod (Basses, Fiddle) Donald Shaw (Accordion, Keyboards, Fiddle) Published by Taynuilt Records, Highfield, Taynuilt, Argyll, PA35 1JQ This is the village which the band hail from and it's possible the record company has some of Karen's earlier recordings when she was with The Etives. The band met at Oban High School. This is a really good album, but has no lyrics with it and is only on cassette. Album #2: Crosswinds (1987): No lyrics with this, many copies of the lyrics are available in books though. Excellent album. Available on Green Linnet. The band undergoes a line up change - Charlie McKerron joins on fiddle, replacing Joan MacLachlan. Album #3: The Blood is strong (1988) Soundtrack for TV series. Very good tunes (most are quite short though, as is the album). Includes lyrics and translations Album #4: Sidewaulk (1989) Similar in sound to Crosswinds. The first album with any English on it. Full Gaelic and English lyrics supplied. Excellent album, available on Green Linnet. At this point the band leave the Green Linnet label and join Survival records. The fan club starts in a London suburb and later moves to the studio in Glasgow where the band do much of their recording. The sound becomes a bit more contemporary, the Gaelic content goes down slightly but the sound remains much more traditional than Runrig. Album #5: Delirium (published 1991) Coisich a' ru\in (a 400 year old waulking song) from this album becomes the first ever Scots Gaelic tune to enter the UK top 40 after it becomes the theme tune for a UK wide TV programme featuring Prince Charles entitled "A Prince among islands". Charles appeared on this programme supporting Gaelic and has since appeared on TV talking in Gaelic. The "Cape Breton song" on this album which Capercaillie allege has mutated so much the lyrics are meaningless is a real song with real lyrics. I am trying to get a copy of these lyrics. I find it hard to believe that they would select a song (of the thousands written in Cape Breton) in which no meaning is left to the words - kind of goes against the very first principle of Gaelic singing and that is to tell a story! The song is Oran Nan Te/ine. It was written by Lachlan Currie (Am Bard Ruadh) of Grand Mira and Boisdale (source: Songs Remembered in Exile, P90). It had been published in the newpaper The Casket in their Gaelic column, Achadh Nan Ga\idheil. Date unknown. Song is about about a forest fire that got out of hand when a Cape Bretoner was clearing land to sow. This was in the bio details of Mrs. JR Johnston(nee Margaret MacNeil) of Beaver Cove. It also mentions that it was also recorded from Mrs. David Patterson(nee MacNeil) of Benacadie. For lyrics, see here http://collections.ic.gc.ca/leach/songs/CB/2-05.htm Album #6: Get Out - remixes and some new material. Worth getting for the Poll Tax song. Album #7: Secret People Lyrics: The following pointers to sources may be of interest to those seeking music and/or lyrics to the Gaelic material on Secret People An Eala Bhan - Gaelic and English lyrics with sol-fa music available in "Orain nan Gaidheal", Vol 3, Bruce Campbell. Published by Gairm, 29 Waterloo St, Glasgow G2 6BZ ISBN 1 871901 27 8 (Ailein Duinn with lyrics, translation and sol-fa music is in Vol 1, Maighdeanan na h-airidh is in Vol 2). Ailein Duinn (lyrics, music and story) is also in Tocher 22 & 41, published by the School of Scottish Studies, Edinburgh University EH8 9LD. There is also lyrics and the story behind the song at [9.3.12]. Hi ri'm bo - 4 part music and Gaelic lyrics only available in "Coisir a' Mhoid" Vol 2. Available from the Gaelic Books Council, Address in answer [7.3]. These are different verses to the ones Capercaillie do, however. Tobar Mhoire - Lyrics in Gaelic and English available from Temple records to accompany Flora MacNeill's album "Craobh nan Ubhal" Seice Ruraidh, part 1 - no source for this yet Part 2 - Recorded by na h-oganaich - does anyone know which album and does it have the lyrics? Lyrics for "Bonaparte" are in the Frequently Requested Songs section of this FAQ at [9.3.15] Album #8: Capercaillie - the "Disco" album. Almost universally despised by fans of traditional music. Album #9: To the moon Album #10: Beautiful Wasteland the words to Finlay's on Beautiful Wasteland can be found in the Frequently Requested Songs section of this FAQ under [9.3.7] 'Sileas Puirt a beul' More info on the Capercaillie website http://www.capercaillie.co.uk/ Some Capercaillie lyrics are in the Frequently Requested Songs section of this FAQ Karen Matheson also has a solo album "The Dreaming Sea" [9.1] Scottish songs on-line There are quite a few in The Digital Tradition, a free 6800+ strong database (many with tunes to play on your computer's speaker). It is available from the website below, or mailto:digitrad@world.std.com for more information. There is also a lot of other musical info and folk info on that ftp site. http://www.mudcat.org/folksearch.html The discussion forums at http://www.mudcat.org/ are a particularly good source of information. Also, check out the Ceol section of http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/gaelic.html also try http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1690/lyrics.html [9.2] Scottish song books I'm frequently browsing through bookshops to find good songbooks, but most of the time they're of the tourist top 40 genre with only the most popular tunes in. These are the sort of tunes you might hear played at the Edinburgh tattoo, and not the sort you'd here at a folk concert or down the pub. I was at Blackfriars Music and got a copy of an excellent book by them called "The Singing Tradition on Scotland: Book 1, The Birken Tree". This particularly caught my eye as The Birken Tree was a song which our singing group performed in a concert in 1994. The book is 3 pounds 50p, has 56 songs and is 64 pages. All the songs are Scottish, have staff music supplied, as well as a glossary of Scots words, notes on the songs and notes for guitarists. There's the usual tourist songs such as The Lewis Bridal Song (Mairi's Wedding), Scotland the Brave and The Skye Boat Song, but the majority of songs are of the type that folk artists would record or which you would here down the pub. There's about 10 by Robert Burns. Unusually for book not written for the Gaelic market, there is a Gaelic song "Cumha Mhic Criomain" = MacCrimmon's Lament. Blackfriars Music specialise in folk music and bagpipe music and sell instruments, records and books. The also publish the "Scottish Folk Arts Directory", the "yellow pages" of the Scottish folk scene detailing festivals, artists, record labels, societies, radio programmes, folk pubs etc etc. Blackfriars Music can be reached at: Blackfriars Music 49 Blackfriars St Edinburgh EH1 1NB Scotland Tel: 0131 557 3090 mailto:scotfolk@compuserve.com (if you are visiting, the shop is open 7 days and is near The Radisson SAS hotel on the Royal Mile). "The democratic muse" is definitely also worth a read. This covers the Scottish folk movement revival since the 50s and covers the major singers who have influenced the revival, their songs and some history about the folk song revival and the context of the songs. ISBN 1 898218 10 2 The Feis movement (Feisean nan Gaidheal) has a songbook out and it is excellent for anyone interested in Gaelic song or musicians interested in Gaelic tunes. 28 songs; 36 further tunes. Title: Ceol nam Feis. Music (staff format) and translations available for all the songs which range from the traditional to the new. The address is in answer [6.4]. ISBN 0 9528687 0 9, price approx 10 pounds. The Corries Songbook (and their CDs) can be ordered online from Gavin Browne's home page at http://www.corries.com/ He is extremely efficient - My book was mailed the same day I ordered it. This book has full lyrics and staff music and guitar chords for 62 of the Corries' favourite songs. Gavin's e-mail address is mailto:Gavin_Browne@compuserve.com For Gaelic songs, I'd recommend Bruce Campbell's Orain nan Gaidheal, in 3 three volumes each about 5 pounds. Published by Gairm, Glasgow and available from the Gaelic Books Council (address in [7.3]) Each contains about 37 well known songs, lyrics in Gaelic and English and music in sol-fa. No music in staff format. For children's songs, contact The Singing Kettle: Kettle Records, The Post House, Kingskettle, Cupar, Fife. Tel. 01337 31121 http://www.singingkettle.com/ [9.3] Frequently Requested Songs See [4.2] for suggestions for a National Anthem. Contents ~~~~~~~~ [9.3.1] The Flower of Scotland [9.3.2] Auld Lang Syne [9.3.3] Amazing Grace [9.3.4] Oh wee white rose of Scotland [9.3.5] Loch Lomond [9.3.6] Runrig - Skye [9.3.7] Sileas puirt a beul [9.3.8] Eilean nam Bothan [9.3.9] William McBride [9.3.10] Doon in the Wee Room [9.3.11] An teid thu leam a Mhairi [9.3.12] Ailein duinn - from Rob Roy [9.3.13] Theid mi Dhachaidh - from Rob Roy [9.3.14] Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda [9.3.15] Bonaparte [9.3.16] Ca the yowes [9.3.17] Nighean nan geug [9.3.18] Sguaban Arbhair [9.3.19] My Bonnie Moorhen [9.3.20] Scotland the Brave [9.3.21] Caledonia - Dougie MacLean [9.3.1] The Flower of Scotland (The Flower of Scotland is the title given in the Corries songbook, not "Flower of Scotland"). This song was adopted as the official football anthem by the SFA in 1997. It was already the official rugby anthem. Flower of Scotland was composed at 69 Northumberland Street, Edinburgh The Flower of Scotland ---------------------- 1. O flower of Scotland When will we see Your like again That fought and died for Your wee bit hill and glen And stood against him Proud Edward's army And sent him homeward Tae think again 2. The hills are bare now And autumn leaves lie thick and still O'er land that is lost now Which those so dearly held And stood against him Proud Edward's army And sent him homeward Tae think again 3. Those days are passed now And in the past they must remain But we can still rise now And be the nation again And stood against him Proud Edward's army And sent him homeward Tae think again Words and music: Roy Williamson. (c) The Corries (Music) Ltd. Website: http://www.corries.com/ The Flower of Scotland (Gaelic translation) ------------------------------------------- Here is an authorised Gaelic translation FLOWER OF SCOTLAND (translation by John Angus Macleod) O Fhlu\ir na h-Albann, cuin a chi\ sinn an seo\rsa laoich a sheas gu ba\s 'son am bileag feo\ir is fraoich, a sheas an aghaidh feachd uailleil Iomhair 's a ruaig e dhachaidh air chaochladh smaoin? Na cnuic tha lomnochd 's tha duilleach Foghair mar bhrat air la\r, am fearann caillte dan tug na seo\id ud gra\dh, a sheas an aghaidh feachd uailleil Iomhair 's a ruaig e dhachaigh air chaochladh smaoin. Tha 'n eachdraidh du\inte ach air di\ochuimhne chan fheum i bhith, is faodaidh sinn e\irigh gu bhith nar Ri\oghachd a-ri\s a sheas an aghaidh feachd uailleil Iomhair 's a ruaig e dhachaidh air chaochladh smaoin. This is "Flower of Scotland", the unofficial national anthem of Scotland (written in the 1960's by the Corries) translated into Scottish Gaelic. Story behind the song: Aig ce\ilidh ann an Du\n De\agh sheinn Anna NicGillEathain a' Bheurla de seo. Thuirt i rium, "'S bochd nach robh Ga\idhlig air an o\ran." Fichead mionaid an de\idh sin dh'eirich i is sheinn i na facail seo, a chuir mi ris fhad 's a bha sinn ag o\l cupan ti\! <At a ceilidh in Dundee, Anna MacLean sang the English version of this. She said to me "It's too bad that there isn't a Gaelic version of the song." Twenty minutes after that she got up and sang these words which I put to the song while we were drinking cups of tea!> John Angus Macleod, from his book "Na freumhan thug dhomh cothrom fa\s". The book also contains Gaelic versions of "Bridge over troubled water", "Mull of Kintyre", "A red red rose" and "The Dark Island". Available from the author John Angus MacLeod, 76 Brisbane Street, Largs, Scotland, KA30 8QN [9.3.2] Auld Lang Syne Auld Lang Syne -------------- Should auld acquaintance be forgot And never brought to mind Should auld acquaintaince be forgot And auld lang syne. chorus: For auld lang syne, my dear, For auld lang syne, We'll tak' a cup o' kindness yet For auld lang syne. And surely you'll be your pint stowp And surely I'll be mine, And we'll drink a richt guid willy waught For auld lang syne. [chorus] We twa hae run aboot the braes And pu'd the gowans fine, But we've wandered monie a wearie fit' Since auld lang syne. [chorus] We twa hae paidled in the burn Frae morning sun till dine But seas a'tween us braid hae roared Since auld lang syne [chorus] And here's a hand my trusty fere And gie's a hand o' thine And we'll tak' a cup o' kindness yet For auld lang syne. [chorus] Words and original music: Robert Burns See also [5.2] for more information on Burns and this song. See [12.16] for info on Hogmanay / New Year customs The original music for Auld Lang Syne is available at the following locations http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/songs.html http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/auldlangsyne.html http://www.contemplator.com/tunebook/scotmidi/auldlng2.htm You can also hear the traditional version of the song in the movie Sex and the City, see here http://www.the-cast.org.uk/ [9.3.3] Amazing Grace Miorbhail Gra\is ---------------- O Miorbhail gra\is! nach breagh' an ceo\l; 'S e lorg mi 's mi air chall, Air seachdran dorch', gun neart, gun treo\ir, 'S a dh'fhosgail su\ilean dall. 'S e gra\s thug eo\las dhomh air m'fheum; 'S e gra\s thug saors' is si\th; 'S cha cheannaicheadh o\r a' chruinne-che\ Chiad la\ bha fios nam chri\dh'. Tro iomadh cunnart 's trioblaid chruaidh Thug E gu sa\bhailt mi. An gra\s a shaor bhon bha\s le buaidh Chan fha\g 's cha tre\ig gu si\or. San dachaigh bhuan gun uair gun ti\m, 'S deich mi\le bliadhn' mar la\, Cha sguir an ceo\l 's chan fha\s iad sgi\th A' seinn a chaoidh mun ghra\s. (Version sent to me by An Comunn Gaidhealach, translator unknown) For information regarding the original English version of this song, see http://www.cgmusic.com/cghymnal/others/amazinggrace.htm and http://www.tch.simplenet.com/htm/a/amazgrac.htm [9.3.4] Oh wee white rose of Scotland Oh wee white rose of Scotland Susanne Ferguson - 1986 Oh wee white rose of Scotland tell tae me When wad ye rise and bloom wi fient a thorn When wad ye rise up haill and straucht and free Nae mair tae dwine forfochten and forlorn Oh wad ye rise and scent the air again Wi blossom blithe on branches noo abrede Tae gar this land pit life in ye I'd spend My warldis gear tae bring ye some remeid Oh no this land's a kindly nurse tae me It is the sky wi mirk is sair owercast Thir days o dule they will only ended be When fae a new airt blaws a fresher blast When charity shall stand in Scotland's tongue For leal and soothfu band wi aa that lives When riches are nae mair the work o wrang But shall requite the ane that freest gives When Scotland's great are they wha kindest can Lift ithers' loads tae gie their spirits room Then wi a glad upspringin til the sun The winds o aa the world I shall perfume Glossary: hail = whole fient = hardly straucht = straight dwine = dwindle forfochten = worn out abrede = spread tae gar = to make warldis = all the world remeid = relief mirk = darkness thir = these dule = misery leal = loyal soothfu = truthful This song has been recorded by the harp duo Sileas [9.3.5] Loch Lomond From Rudy Ramsey mailto:ramsisle@abwam.com I've been meaning to write the lyrics down, anyway. I couldn't find them anywhere here (though there is a similar version in the CD insert of the Corries' "Silver Collection", which I've misplaced). I know the song well, though, and believe these lyrics to be accurate. I can't remember where I originally got them, but I suspect it was Ewan MacColl. The Corries' version of this song is truly beautiful, by the way. There's a lovely story associated with the song, and I believe it to be the true origin of the "Loch Lomond" and "High Road" songs, of which there are several variants. I admit that I don't have detailed documentation for the story, however, and I'm writing it from memory, too. Caveat emptor, and all. :-) The Jacobite Rebellion came to an end with the Jacobites disastrous loss at the Battle of Culloden, April 16, 1746. After the battle, many of the captured Scottish soldiers were taken by the English to Carlisle, where they were imprisoned at Carlisle Castle. The English treated the Scotsmen rather capriciously, selecting some -- apparently at random -- to be hanged. Others, also seemingly chosen at random, were simply released, and told to walk home, over the roads, to Scotland. One of the captured Scottish soldiers was Donald MacDonald. He felt sure that he would be one of those hanged by the English, and he wrote this song. One can suppose it was meant as a memorial, a message of hope for his fellow Scotsmen, and a last love letter to his beloved Moira, who lived back in the Scottish highlands, near Loch Lomond. The song is written to be sung not by Donald, but by Moira. It tells of the journey of Donalds spirit after his death. He returns to Scotland not by the high road -- the ordinary road over which his countrymen are walking home -- but by the low road of death, a much faster and surer route. Donalds spirit visits Moira and makes love to her one last time. But she can tell that he is gone, and that she will not see him again, in this life. This is not the version most people sing, it starts off "By Yon Bonnie Banks and By Yon Bonnie Braes"..... Loch Lomond ----------- O whither away my bonnie May Sae late and sae dark in the gloamin? The mist gathers gray oer moorland and brae. O whither sae far are ye roamin? O, yell tak the high road and Ill tak the low. Ill be in Scotland afore ye. For me and my true love will never meet again By the bonnie, bonnie banks o Loch Lomond. I trusted my ain love last night in the broom, My Donald wha loves me sae dearly. For the morrow he will march for Edinburgh toon, Tae fecht for his king and Prince Charlie. O, weel may I weep for yestreen in my sleep. We lay bride and bridegroom together. But his touch and his breath were cold as the death, And his hairtsblood ran red in the heather. (chorus) As dauntless in battle as tender in love, Hed yield neer a foot tae the foeman. But never again frae the fields o the slain Tae his Moira will he come by Loch Lomond. The thistle may bloom, the king hae his ain, And fond lovers will meet in the gloamin. And me and my true love will yet meet again Far above the bonnie banks o Loch Lomond. (chorus) I'm still interested in finding out more about this Donald MacDonald (that was the subject of my original posting in this thread). If anyone can point me to likely sources, I would appreciate it. It appears that this version of Loch Lomond was written by Donald McDonnell of Clan Keppoch. The popular Loch Lomond tune is also shared by the Irish song "Yellow is the rose" [9.3.6] Runrig - Skye Translation of the Gaelic words in 'Skye' by Runrig. original: Chi mi an t-eilean uaine Tir nam beanntan arda Ceo a'tuiteam tron a ghleann 'Na shineadh air do raointean translation: I see the green island land of the high mountains mist falling through the glen stretching out over your raointean* (=strips of land) * this is the plural of raon which is the origin of the word "run" in Runrig (once Run-Rig and before that "The Run-Rig Dance band"). Run-Rig is a historical legal term which Blair Douglas gave the band when the band was founded in the early 70s and Blair was studying at Glasgow. A rig is a strip of land associated with a croft and Run-rigs are sequences of those strips of land, many of which are still visible on Skye [9.3.7] Sileas puirt a beul 3 Traditional puirt a beul from the Si\leas album "Beating Harps" see http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/puirtabeul.html for information on puirt. Sileas don't have a home page but can be reached via the Poozies page at http://www.karentweed.dk/poozies.html (1) Tha bann' aig na caoraich uile (x3) All the sheep have milk 'S galan aig a' chaora chruim And the one with the crooked horn has a gallon Ubh oirr' cho mo/r ri gamhain She has an udder as big as a milk cow's 'S e cho sleamhain ris an i\m And it's as slippery as butter (2) Sheatadh cailleach The old woman would set ruilleadh cailleach The old woman would reel Sheatadh cailleach ris a' bhalg The old woman would set to the bag Sheatadh cailleach Uileam Bhuidhe Yellow haired William's old woman would set ris a bhuidheann a bh'air falbh to the company that had gone Ruilleadh cailleach nan cailleach The old woman of the old women would reel ri cailleach bhaile nan cailleach to the old woman of the town of old women 'S gu seatadh a chailleach Hearach and the old woman of Harris would set ris a chaillich a bh'air falbh to the old woman who had gone Ruilleadh cailleach Iain Bhuidhe Yellow haired John's old woman would reel Ris a chailleach a bh'aig Uileam to William's old woman 'S nuair a thug Anna dhith and when Anna took off her mutch an curachd B'fheadar a dh'Iain Curraidh falbh John Curry had to go away (3) Thoir a nall Ailean thugam, Bring Allan over to me, Ailean thugam, Ailean thugam to me, to me Thoir a nall Ailean thugam Bring Allan over to me, seatadh e'n t-urlar he would set the floor Cha teid Fionnlagh a dh'Eige Finlay won't go to Eigg Ged nach po\sda e feasda although he's not married yet Cha teid Fionnladh a dh'Eige Finlay won't go to Eigg Dh'Eige cha teid Fionnlagh To Eigg Finlay won't go Ceann ruadh air a nighean The girl has red hair Buidhe ruadh air a nighean The girl has yellow-red hair Ceann ruadh air a nighean The girl has red hair Mar a bh'air a ma\thair Just like her mother [9.3.8] Eilean nam Bothan Eilean nam Bothan ----------------- Variant 1 Ars an gobha fuiricheamaid Ars an gobha falbhamaid Ars an gobha ris an ogha Na sheasamh aig dorus an t-sabhal Gu rachadh e shuiridhe. Chorus ~~~~~~ 'Si eilean nam bothan nam bothan Eilean nam bothan nam bothan Eilean nam bothan nam bothan Bothan a bh'aig Fionnghal' (Repeat) Bheirinn fead air fulmaire Bheirinn fead air falmaire Liughannan beaga na mara Bheireamaid greis air an tarruing Na maireadh a na duirgh dhuinn. Cha d'fhuair sinn dad ann a seo Cha d'fhuair sinn dad ann a seo Cha d'fhuair sinn dad ann a seo Cail ach racadail na duirgh dhuinn O nach tigeadh Carbhanach O nach tigeadh Carbhanach Mursgainn is leabagan glas A bheireadh na dubhain 'on fheamainn Na maireadh na duirghe dhuinn. Island of Bothies ----------------- The blacksmith said let us wait The blacksmith said let us go The blacksmith said to his grandchild standing at the door of the barn that he was going to go courting. Island of bothies, of bothies Island of bothies, of bothies Island of bothies, of bothies Fingal's bothies. I'd knock spots off the birds I'd knock spots off the hakes [fish] little lythes [flat fish] of the sea. We would take a while hauling them in if our hand lines last. We got nothing here We got nothing here We got nothing here except noises of the hand lines. If only carp would come If only carp would come or razor fish or flounder that would take the hooks from the seaweed if our hand lines last. Variant 2 - Lyrics off "Music from the Western Isles", School of Scottish Studies/Greentrax Thuirt an gobha fuirighidh mi 'S thuirt an gobha falbhaidh mi 'S thuirt an gobha leis an othail A bh'air an dorus an t-sabhail Gu rachadh e a shuirge Chorus 'S a gheala ham botham nam botham Pe ho ro bha hin an doicheam 'S hala ham to han an doicheam Am bothan a bh'aig Fionnaghuala Bheirinn fead air fulmairean Bheirinn fead air falmairean Liuthannan beaga na mara Bheireamaid greis air an tarrainn Na maireadh na duirgh dhuinn It was from the late Calum Johnston of Barra that Micheal (O'Domhnaill) first head this piece. [9.3.9] William McBride I'd just like to post these excellent lyrics here and thanks to Howard Evans for sending them to me! Contact Howard Evans at mailto:100630.222@CompuServe.com --- Message from Howard --- These are the words (and original title) as sung by the author Eric Bogle at the Cottage Theatre Folk Club, Cumbernauld on 19th Feb, 1977. All other versions are corruptions :-) Iain Mackintosh (to my mind) does the *best* cover version. (But I would say that as he's a friend). Chords are what I play (to Eric's tune). Most "modern" (post 1980) versions are based on the Furey's version which as I told you before is very different. They also changed the title between "Willie McBride" and "Green Fields of France" Bogle calls it "No Mans' Land" on his "Plain and Simple" record with John Munro. Enjoy it - but for god's sake, don't Wild Rover it (i.e. don't get them all swinging to the chorus). You should finish it with a lump in your throat. Slainte (my only word of Gaelic) Howard Evans. William McBride --------------- (c)Well how do you (F) do Private (Dm) William McBride Do you (G7) mind if I sit here down(C) by your grave(G7)side And I'll (C) rest for a (F) while in the(Dm) warm summer sun I've been (G7) walking all day and(F) I'm nearly (C) done And I see by your gravestone you were(Dm) only 19 When you(G7) joined the glorious fallen back in (c)1916 (G7) Well I (C) hope you died quick and I (F) hope you died (Dm) clean Or (G7) Willie McBride was it (F) slow and obscene (C) Did they (G7) beat the drum slowly Did they (F) play the fyfe (C)lowly Did the (G7)rifles fire o'er you As they (F) lowered you (C) down Did the (F) bugles play the Last Post in (Dm) chorus Did the (C) pipes play the (F) Flooers o the (G7) Forrest (C) And did you leave a wife or a sweetheart behind In some faithful heart does your memory enshrine And though you died back in 1916 In some faithful heart are you forever 19 Or are you a stranger without even a name Enshrined forever behind the glass pane Of an old photograph, torn and tattered and stained And fading to yellow in a brown leather frame Ah the sun's shining now on these green fields of France The warm winds blow gently and the red poppies dance The trenches have vanished under the plough No gas and no barbed wire, no guns firing now But here in the graveyard it's still No-Man's Land The countless white crosses in mute witness stand To Man's blind indifference to his fellow-man To a whole generation who were butchered and damned And I can't help but wonder now William McBride Do all those who lie here know why they died Did you really believe them when they told you the cause Did you really believe that this war would end wars Well the suffering and the sorrow and the glory, the shame The killing the dying, the dying, it was all done in vain For Willie McBride, it all happened again And again, and again and again and again. [9.3.10] Doon in the Wee Room Lyrics supplied by George Allan mailto:t079@lambton.on.ca Hello everybody. Here's a source for "Doon in the Wee Room", courtesy of another respondent: The Marlettes Songs of Scotland (Lyrics included) Tape # KITV 457 Produced by Bill Garden Recorded at Scotty's Sound Studio, Kilsyth Scotdisc, B.G.S. Productions Ltd., Newtown Street, Kilsyth, Glasgow G65 0JX The Lyrics: The Wee Room Underneath The Stair --------------------------------- Now if yer tired and weary, feelin' sad and blue Don't let your cares upset ye 'al tell ye what tae do Just tak a cor tae Springburn go inta Quin's Pub there Go doon intae the wee room underneath the stair For it's doon in the wee room underneath the stair Everybody's happy everybody's there And they're all makin' merry each in his chair Doon in the wee room underneath the stair A king went a huntin' his fortunes for tae seek He lost his cor at Partick went missin' for a week Days and nights they hunted sorrow and despair They foun' him in the wee room underneath the stair Fur it's doon in the wee room underneath the stair Everybody's happy everybody's there And they're all makin' merry each in his chair Doon in the wee room underneath the stair Noo when am gettin' auld and ma bones begin tae set I'll never worry naw I'll never fret For I'm savin' up ma pennies tae buy a hurrly chair Tae tak me tae the wee room underneath the stair Fur it's doon in the wee room underneath the stair Everybody's happy everybody's there Adn they're all makin' merry each in his chair Doon in the wee room underneath the stair. Thanks again for your help and encouragement. See you at "The Royal Oak". George Allan [9.3.11] An teid thu leam a Mhairi An teid thu leam a Mhairi ------------------------- Seist/Chorus: An teid thu leam a Mhairi Am falbh thu leam thar saile An teid thu leam a Mhairi dhonn Gu tir nam beanntan arda Rann1/Verse1 Tha crodh againn air airigh Is laoigh an cois am mathar Tha sin againn is caoraich mhaol' (=Cheviot sheep) Air aodann nam beann arda (seist) Rann2 Dh'aithnichinn fhin do bha\ta Si\os mu Rudh' na h-Airde Bre\idean geala anns an t-seol Is clann MhicLeoid 'gan ca\radh (seist) Words from Christine Primrose [9.3.12] Ailein duinn - from Rob Roy Due to the success of Rob Roy (and Capercaillie!) a lot of people have asked me about these lyrics - here they are and a story about them "Allan Morrison was a sea captain from the isle of Lewis. In the spring of 1788 he left Stornoway to go to Scalpay, Harris, where he was to marry Annie Campbell. Unfortunately they sailed into a storm and all the crew sank with the vessel. This is the lament she composed. The broken-hearted Annie wasted away through grief and died a few months afterward. Her body was washed ashore near where her fiance's was found. There are quite a few variants of this song." Ailein duinn ------------ Gura mise tha fo e/islean, Moch 's a' mhadainn is mi 'g e/irigh, O\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ ru bhi\, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ rionn o ho, Ailein duinn, o\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat. Ma 's e cluasag dhut a' ghainneamh, Ma 's e leabaidh dhut an fheamainn, O\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ ru bhi\, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ rionn o ho, Ailein duinn, o\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat. Ma 's e 'n t-iasg do choinnlean geala, Ma 's e na ro\in do luchd-faire, O\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ ru bhi\, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ rionn o ho, Ailein duinn, o\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat. Dh'o\lainn deoch ge boil le ca\ch e, De dh'fhuil do choim 's tu 'n de/idh do bhathadh, O\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ ru bhi\, Hi\ ri bho\ ho\ rionn o ho, Ailein duinn, o\ hi\ shiu\bhlainn leat. on the single, they sing: Gura mise tha fo eislean Moch sa mhaduinn is mi g'eirigh O hi shiubhlainn leat Hi ri bho, ho rinn o ho Ailein Duinn, o hi shiubhlainn leat Ma 's'en clusag dhuit a ghaineamh Ma 'se leabaidh dhut an gheamainn Ma 's en t-iasg do choinlean geala Ma 's na Righ do luchd-faire This song is also in Orain nan Gaidheal, Vol 1 by Bruce Campbell. ISBN 901771 85 6, published by Gairm, 29 Waterloo St, Glasgow G2 6BZ Song appears with 4 verses in Gaelic, English translation and music in sol-fa format. Also in Su\il ri cladach, published by Acair. Also in Tocher 22 & 41, published by the School of Scottish Studies, Edinburgh University EH8 9LD. This is online at the following link http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/Tocher/Vol-22/22-216/22-216fr.html A song with the same name but different tune and lyrics (ie a different song entirely but based on the same story) has been recorded by Mac-talla. [9.3.13] Theid mi Dhachaidh - from Rob Roy Date: Thu, 07 Sep 1995 20:44:19 -0400 (EDT) From: KKHJ@delphi.com Subject: Theid Mi Dhachaidh, can you forward? To: craig@SiliconGlen.com Hello Craig, I think you are right that these words in Gaelic and English would be of interest to other readers of the newsgroup news:rec.music.celtic; but my software will not import this text into newsgroups. I am hoping that if I send it to you, you could forward it to that newsgroup? I am sending this to Digitrad. Thanks, Karen Theid Mi Dhachaidh ------------------ Gaelic lyrics to "Theid Mi Dhachaidh", or "Cro Chinn T-Saile " (Courtesy of An Comunn Gaidhealach, many thanks to them for their kindness) Se/ist Theid mi dhachaidh ho ro dhachaidh, Theid mi dhachaidh chro\ Chin t-Sa\ile, Theid mi dhachaidh ho ro dhachaidh, Theid mi dhachaidh chro\ Chinn t-Sa\ile. Rann 1 Theid mi fhi\n, leam fhi\n, leam fhi\n ann, Theid mi fhi\n, leam fhi\n a Gea\rrloch, Theid mi fhi\n, leam fhi\n, leam fhi\n ann 'S gabhaidh mi 'n rathad mo/r Chinn t-Sa\ile. Rann 2 Bi mi nochd am buaile Phearsain, Bi mi 'n a chuid mhart am ma\ireach. Bi mi nochd am buaile Phearsain, Bi mi 'n a chuid mhart am ma\ireach. English lyrics, from Talitha MacKenzie's "So/las" CD I will go home I will go home to the cattlefold of Kintail. I will go home I will go home to the cattlefold of Kintail. I will go myself, by myself, there I will go myself, by myself to Gairloch. I will go myself, by myself, there I will take the high road to Kintail. Tonight I will be in the parson's cattlefold, Tomorrow I will be with the cattle headed for the slaughter Tonight I will be in the parson's cattlefold, Tomorrow I will be with the cattle headed for the slaughter. (She adds another verse:) I will go to Urray, to reap the sea-bent I will go to Urray with you, my love I will go to Urray, to reap the sea-bent I will go to Urray with you, my love. The Gaelic for this is: The/id mi dh'Uraigh bhuain a' mhurain The/id mi dh'Uraigh leat a ghra\idh bhig The/id mi dh'Uraigh bhuain a' mhurain The/id mi dh'Uraigh leat a ghra\idh bhig [9.3.14] Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda Barrachd faclan aig an orain "Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda" air an clar "Sidewaulk" aig Capercaillie. More lyrics for the waulking song "Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda" on Capercaillie's Sidewaulk album. Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda ---------------------------- As do la\imh-sa (ho/ ho\) dh'earbainn tapachd (ho/ ho\) From your arms, I'd expect valour Mharbhadh Tighearn' (ho/ ho\) ach nam Breac leat (trom eile + seist) Achinbreck's laird was killed by you (2nd couplet) Mharbhadh Tighearn' (ho/ ho\) ach nam Breac leat (ho/ ho\) Achinbreck's laird was killed by you Thiolaigeadh e (ho/ ho\) an oir an lochain (trom eile + seist) And was buried at the lochside (vocables and repeats omitted in subsequent couplets purely to save space here) Thiolaigeadh e, etc Ged 's beag mi fhin chuir mi ploc air Though small I may be, I cast a sod on him 'S chuir siod gruaim air Niall a' Chaisteal Which made Neil of the castle gloomy 'S dh'fha\g e lionndubh air a mhac-sa and left his son melancholy 'S bha Ni Lachlainn fhe/in ga bhasadh Lachlann's daughter herself was lamenting 'S bha Nic Dho\mhnaill 'n de/idh a creachadh and Donald's daughter her hands was wringing Cha b'iaonadh sin, b'fhiach a mac e Tis no wonder, her son was worth it Dronncair, po\iteir seo\lt' air marcraichd Copious drinker, clever horseman Ceanndard an airm an tu\s a' bhatail Army leader foremost in battle Sheinneadh piob leat mho/r air chnocan You'd play the great pipes on a hillock Dh'o\ladh fion leat dearg am portaibh You would drink red wine in houses Chuala mi'n de/ sgeul nach b'ait liom I heard today a tale amazing Glaschu bheag bhith 'na lasair That little Glasgow is a-blazing 'S Obair-eadhain an de/idh a chreachadh and Aberdeen has been plundered [9.3.15] Bonaparte Bonaparte from Capercaillie, Secret People Bonaparte --------- O gu sunndach mi air m'astar I'm happy on my journey Falbh gu siubhlach le bheag airtneul travelling swiftly without flagging Dol a chomhrag ri Bonaparte, heading off to do battle with Bonaparte 'S e bha bagairt air Righ Deors'. He it was who threatened King George 'Illean chridheil, bitheamaid sunndach, Brave lads, let's be merry Seasaibh onoir ar duthcha, Stand for the honour of your country Fhad's a mhaireas luaidh is fudar, As long as lead and powder last De rud chuireadh curam oirnn? What could worry us? Chan eil faillinn ann ra chunntas There is no weakness to be described Anns na h-armainn nach diultadh, in the young heroes who never retreat Chan eil gealtachd nan gnuis-san, cowardice is not in their countenance Cha toir iad grunnd do luchd a'bhosd. they will never give ground to the boasters Luchd nan osan gearr 's nam feileadh, Men of the short hose and the kilts Cota sgarlaid orr' mar eideadh; with their uniforms of scarlet coats; Gum bu ghasd' iad an am eirigh - splendid they were in attack- 'S iad nach geilleadh an deidh an leon. they would never yield though wounded. Ann am Bruxelles a chaidh innse In Brussels it was told Gun robh Frangaich tigh'nn nam miltean: that the French were coming in their thousands 'S cha bhreug bhuam gur h-i an fhirinn, I tell no lie but the truth 'S iomadh fear bhois sint' gun deo. many a man will be stretched out without breath of life [9.3.16] Ca the yowes Ca' the yowes ------------- Ca' the yowes to the knowes, Ca' them whare the heather grows, Ca' them whare the burnie rowes, My bonnie dearie! As I gaed down the water side, There I met my shepherd lad, He row'd me sweetly in his plaid And he ca'd me his dearie. Will ye gang down the water side, And see the waves sae sweetly glide, Beneath the hazels spreading wide? The moon it shines fu' clearly. I was bred up at nae sic school , My shepherd lad, to play the fool, And a' the day to sit in dool, And naebody to see me. Ye sall get gowns and ribbons meet, Cauf-leather shoon upon your feet, And in my arms ye'se lie and sleep, And ye shall be my dearie. If ye'll but stand to what ye've said, I'd gang wi' you my shepherd lad, And ye may rowe me in your plaid, And I shall be your dearie. While waters wimple to the sea, While day blinks in the lift sae hie, Till clay-cauld death sall blin' my e'e, Ye shall be my dearie. Recorded by Sileas and others http://www.karentweed.dk/poozies.html [9.3.17] Nighean nan geug On the Cathy Anne MacPhee album "Canan nan Gaidheal", I don't think these lyrics are in print elsewhere. Words from Morag MacLeod (School of Scottish Studies) via Cathy Anne (at Feis Rois Inbhich) and John Shaw. This song is closely related to the song known in Cape Breton as "A chuachag nam beann" and on the excellent Mary Jane Lamond album "Bho thir nan craobh" where the song appears with lyrics in Gaelic, some of which match the lyrics below. Nighean nan geug ---------------- A nighean nan geug , o hao ri iu\ Tha muigh leis an spre/idh, o hao ri o han , o hao ri iu\ (Girl of the branches out with the cattle) Na gabh eagal neo fiamh <vocables> Tha mise an seo siar <vocables> Nach truagh leat mo chlann / bean eile nan ceann Do you not pity my children another woman looking after them Dham bualadh gu teann dham biadhadh gu gann hitting them hard and often feeding them short 's an athair 's a' ghleann a nighean nan geug and their father in the glen (+repeat of first line) [9.3.18] Sguaban Arbhair From Play Gaelic - outstanding tune and lyrics. Na Sguaban Arbhair - The stacks of corn ---------------------------------------- Rann/Verse 1 Bha mi raoir a' siubhal drathair Last night I opened a drawer 'S thainig dealbh do mo laimh and a picture came to hand Dealbh mo sheannmh'ar is mo shean'ar a picture of my grandmother and grandfather 'S balach og na shuidh' ri'n taobh and a young boy sitting by their side Rann 2 'S iad ag obair aig na sguaban arbhair They were working on the corn stacks Shuidh mi g'an coimhead fad' na h-oidhch' I sat and looked at them all night Thainig cianalas na m'chridhe A deep sorrow came to my heart 'S thainig cuideam na mo laimh and a great weight came to my hand Seist/Chorus Uair eile gu bhith dhachaidh (O for) Another chance to be home Uair eile gu bhith beo Another chance to be alive Ruith mu'n cuairt na sguaban arbhair Running around the stacks of corn Uair eile gu bhith og Oh to be young again Rann 3 Cha'n e aois a tha mi sabaid It isn't age I'm fighting against Cha'n e mo bheatha nach eil slan It isn't my life that's unwell 'S e bhith fuireach ann a' saoghal maide It's living in a false world Le chuid daoin' nach tuig mo chainnt With its people who don't understand my language Rann 4 Dh'fhalbh mo sheannmh'air 's mo shean'air My grandmother and grandfather passed on Thuit na sguaban arbhair sios The stacks of corn fell down Dh'fhalbh mi gu saoghal eile I left to go to another world 'S dh'fhalbh a' Ghaidhlig bho mo bheul And Gaelic went from my mouth [Seist a-rithist/Chorus again] Written in 1975 on the M8 from Glasgow to Edinburgh. [9.3.19] My Bonnie Moorhen My Bonnie Moorhen ----------------- My bonnie moorhen, my bonnie moorhen, Up in the grey hills, and doon in the glen, It's when ye gang butt the hoose, when ye gang ben I'll drink a health tae my bonnie moorhen. My bonnie moorhen's gane o'er the faim, And it will be summer e'er she comes again, But when she comes back again some folk will ken, And drink a toast tae my bonnie moorhen. My bonnie moorhen has feathers anew, And she's a' fine colours, but nane o' them blue, She's red an' she's white, an' she's green an' she's grey My bonnie moorhen come hither away. Come up by Glen Duich, and doon by Glen Shee An' roun' by Kinclaven and hither tae me, For Ranald and Donald are oot on the fen, Tae brak the wing o' my bonnie moorhen. This is a song from the Jacobite period of Scottish history and is one of many of the period with double meanings and disguise. In the song, the fugitive is being hunted in the hills by government forces and Ranald and Donald are red coat soldiers. The colours referred to are those of the old Stuart tartan. The Prince is the moorhen. [9.3.20] Scotland the Brave Scotland the Brave ================== A patriotic song, favoured by many as a contender for Scotland's national anthem - usually running second after Flower of Scotland (see [9.3.1]) although unlike Flower of Scotland considers Scotland on its own merits rather than dwelling on wars with England. Scotland the Brave is used at the Commonwealth Games (incidentally, to be hosted in Glasgow in 2014) It started as a pipe tune around the start of the 20th century and lyrics were added in about 1950 by Cliff Hanley (1922-1999). Scotland the Brave ------------------ by Cliff Hanley Hark when the night is falling Hear! hear the pipes are calling, Loudly and proudly calling, Down thro' the glen. There where the hills are sleeping, Now feel the blood a-leaping, High as the spirits of the old Highland men. Chorus Towering in gallant fame, Scotland my mountain hame, High may your proud standard gloriously wave, Land of my high endeavour, Land of the shining rivers, Land of my heart for ever, Scotland the brave. High in the misty Highlands, Out by the purple islands, Brave are the hearts that beat Beneath Scottish skies. Wild are the winds to meet you, Staunch are the friends that greet you, Kind as the love that shines from fair maidens' eyes. Chorus Far off in sunlit places, Sad are the Scottish faces, Yearning to feel the kiss Of sweet Scottish rain. Where tropic skies are beaming, Love sets the heart a-dreaming, Longing and dreaming for the homeland again. In 2007 in the run up to the Scottish General Elections, an alternative version "Scotland the brave 2007" became popular on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KK6jHFezO_8 Lyrics reproduced here with permission from the author Alan Smart Scotland the Brave 2007 ----------------------- by Alan Smart Land of the purple heather Land of some shocking weather Land of Elvis Presley's mother Scotland the brave Land of some high endeavours Harry Potter, Ewan McGregor Land of Sir Sean forever Scotland the brave Land o' tech computer dolls Royal bank and Shopping Malls Burger Kings but nae Polaris Moscow, Houston, Texas, Paris Hip hop, bhangla, Gaelic classes River city, free bus passes Rabbie Burns and bonnie lassies Scotland the brave Land of Mary and Prince Charlie Adam Smith and Mick McGahey Referendums, oor ain Parly Scotland the brave Land where the Poll Tax ended Land where Dennis wis suspended Land where Bairns they were offended Scotland the brave Land where the fox runs safe Folk look forward tae old age Our students get cash tae get clever Warrant sales are gone forever Liz McColgan, Henrik Larsson, Andy Murray, Highland Dancin' Murrayfield, the roar of Hampden Scotland the brave Land of all creeds and colours Polish, English, Moslem brothers Land where we live together Scotland the brave Where gay folks are defended noo that the Clause has ended John Knox was fair offended Scotland the brave James Connolly and John McLean Still standing up for hungry weans Annie Lennox, William Wallace Joining in the freedom chorus Land of the purple heather Land of the shining rivers Land of my heart forever Scotland the brave Land of the purple heather Land of the shining rivers Land of my heart forever Scotland - the brave [9.3.21] Caledonia - Dougie MacLean Caledonia --------- By Dougie MacLean Anthem for Homecoming Scotland 2009 I don't know if you can see The changes that have come over me. In these last few days I've been afraid That I might drift away So I've been telling old stories, singing songs That make me think about where I came from And that's the reason why I seem So far away today Oh, but let me tell you that I love you That I think about you all the time Caledonia you're calling me And now I'm going home If I should become a stranger You know that it would make me more than sad Caledonia's been everything I've ever had Now I have moved and I've kept on moving Proved the points that I needed proving Lost the friends that I needed losing Found others on the way I have kissed the ladies and left them crying Stolen dreams, yes there's no denying I have traveled hard with coattails flying Somewhere in the wind (Chorus) Now I'm sitting here before the fire The empty room, the forest choir The flames that could not get any higher They've withered now they've gone But I'm steady thinking my way is clear And I know what I will do tomorrow When the hands are shaken and the kisses flow Then I will disappear (c) 1982 Plant Life Music Ltd [10.1] Understanding Scottish Dance music I hope this is what you're looking for -- and as a caveat, this is only my understanding based on observation/listening, not on any authoritative source. Also, you must know that this is not the best way to learn this stuff! It would have helped to know which tunes you know; I've included some examples that I think are common, but they might not be in your experience. I hope you can find some kind person to show this to you interactively; reading text is a terrible medium for this kind of information. Nevertheless: What characterises each kind of tune is the rhythm. You must be able to hear differences in rhythm in order to tell one from the other. First of all, listen for the "downbeats" or major rhythmic accents. These kinds of dance tunes are evenly divided into measures (also called bars) and the downbeat is the first beat in each measure. Counting the number of beats from one downbeat to the next is the first step in distinguishing one type of tune from the others. The examples that follow the explanations (the BUMP bahs, etc.) are best understood said aloud if possible, and/or tapped with the hands, fingers or feet, to get a physical sense of the rhythms. THINGS IN FOUR -------------- Reels and strathspeys, and most hornpipes are counted in four, that is, they have four beats to a measure. Jigs of all kinds are in three (have multiples of three beats to the measure). A pickier (or more knowledgeable) person might say that many reels, etc. are in fact counted in two rather than four, but for purposes of simplification, I'm calling it four. Likewise, jigs are counted in three or multiples thereof. Reels and single/double jigs have two beats to the measure. Strathspeys have either 4 or 2 depending on the style (RSCDS - Royal Scottish Country Dance Society - tends to be in 2, while Cape Breton and Highland are in 4). To illustrate, if someone were playing a typical reel, Flowers of Edinburgh, for example, no one would clap 4 beats to the measure. Rather they would normally clap two beats to the measure. Likewise, the musicians will normally tap two beats with their feet, if they tap at all. The same is true of jigs. The difference is what happens in the beat. In reels there is a duple rhythm, which could be expressed as 4 notes to the beat, 8 notes to the measure, while in jigs there is a triple rhythm with three notes to the beat or six notes to the measure. I've seen some people give metronome markings of the beat =240, counting 4 beats to the measure, but that strikes me as ridiculous. It's almost impossible to count at mm=240, but not too hard at mm=120 and two beats to the measure. BTW, RSCDS seems to use about mm=112 for both reels and jigs. In a reel, the notes are for the most part evenly spaced -- that is, all the fast notes have the same time as each other, and the same with the slower ones. And reels are played quickly. Very quickly, usually. Hornpipes and strathspeys are usually slower, though of course this depends on the players. Some people play everything as fast as they can manage, to the detriment of the beauty of the music, IMHO. Though this is not always the case, I think of hornpipes as having what is called "dotted time" (because of the way it is written). The first note is held longer than the second, so a bar of this kind of rhythm might be illustrated: Bump bah bump bah where the "Bumps" have half again as much time as the "bahs" or even twice as long as the "bahs", giving the hornpipe a feeling of triple time within a 4 beat measure. But dotted time is usually only one component of the rhythm. Other rhythmic figures such as triplets and regular quarter notes are sprinkled in amongst the dotted. The triplets work out real well with the dotted rhythm. Another common feature of hormpipes is that the parts often end with three beats. For instance, perhaps the most well-known hornpipe, The Sailor's Hornpipe, ends this way, though, I'm sorry to say, it doesn't have dotted time. The Rights of Man hornpipe has both. Hornpipes can be played in several different styles. RSCDS tends to treat hornpipes as reels, which tends to force the notes into equal value, like a reel. On the other hand, they can be played slowly with the dotted rhythm. Sailor's Hornpipe certainly can be played that way, though most people don't. BTW, do you mean the Popeye tune for Sailor's. That tune is known in most Scottish collections I've seen as the College Hornpipe, with another tune being called the Sailor's hornpipe. Thought I would mention it since it does cause some confusion on this side of the pond from time to time. Strathspeys are even harder to explain, though if you got the bit about dotted time, you might understand this explanation too. As I understand it, strathspeys feature what we might call "reverse dotted time" where a measure might have Bah bump, bah bump or Bah bump, bump bah as a rhythmic feature in many of its measures. This is called the "Scottish snap" since strathspeys are a Scottish invention. They often have regular dotted time, quarter notes, and triplets as well. In general, then, hornpipes and strathspeys are both slower than reels and have more varied rhythmic figures. Marches are also slower than reels, but have that sense of even rhythm that is good for cadence. Strathspeys can be quite fast, if beat in 4. It's not uncommon to have a strathspey (in 4) going at mm=128 while a reel (in 2) is a mm=116. Marches can be played as quick two-steps, such as Duke of Fife's Welcome to Deeside, or as slower pipe marches and retreat marches. There should be a swing and lilt to a march, though, which often involves dotting the rhythm somewhat, not unlike a hornpipe or strathspey. Alasdair Fraser has written a march, the Aberdeen Alternative Festival March, which started out as a strathspey. He decided that the form of the tune called for it to be considered a march. Another interesting category in marches is the 6/3 marches, such as the Atholl Highlanders, and the retreat marches, which are in three beats to the measure, such as the Bloody Fields of Flanders, which is the tune for The Freedom Come-All-Ye. THINGS IN THREE --------------- Jigs are in three, usually counted as six, or nine, or twelve. To my ear, distinguishing between the 6 and 12 often seems somewhat subjective, but that's probably due to a limitation in my powers of discernment. Double jigs, single jigs, and slides all have a sense of two or four-ness about them -- the underlying beat is in twos. I'm not sure what the difference between double and single jigs is -- though I believe that double jigs are counted in six, and slides are in twelve. If you're counting a double jig in six, it'd be ONE two three Four five six <or> ONE two three Two two three ^ | [Sorry to beat this over the head, but the "ONE" gets the major stress (^), and the "Four" or "Two" gets the secondary stress (|). You might try beating this out yourself with the right hand doing the beats with stresses and the left doing the others (or v.v. if you're left-handed)] Likewise for slides, it's ONE two three Four five six Seven eight nine Ten eleven twelve <or> ONE two three Two two three Three two three Four two three ^ | | | Slip jigs, however, have the very different feel of three-ness: ONE two three Four five six Seven eight nine ONE two three Two two three Three two three ^ | | The Butterfly Jig is a good example of a slip jig. Waltzes are also in three (or six), but much slower. As I understand it, single jigs tend to have a predominant rhythm of long-short for each beat, such as The Stool of Repentance opening measure. Off She Goes might be a better example. Double jigs have the three notes to the beat rhythm. Most RSCDS jigs are single or double jigs. Some ceilidh dancing, such as Strip the Willow, can be done to slip jigs. Slip jigs are much less common in Scottish music that, I think, in Irish music. Waltzes are a completely different animal, and should not be confused with jigs in any way. BASIC TUNE STRUCTURE -------------------- I have yet to discover the nuances of the way people write tunes out; for example, most reels can be written as a series of quarter and eighth notes, or as eighth and sixteenths. I'm sorry if this is getting too technical, but the point is that I don't think there are hard and fast rules governing how to write this stuff out. Depending on how you write them out then, tunes usually have four or eight bars in each part, then that part is repeated once immediately after playing it the first time. Most tunes have two parts; call the first part A, the second B, and so forth. So most tunes are sixteen or thirty-two bars. Taking the case of the thirty-two bar tune, it would be two A parts of eight bars each, then two B's of eight bars each. A (8 bars) A (8 bars) B (8 bars) B (8 bars) In RSCDS, most reels and jigs call for 32 bar tunes, so the tune is either played AABB or ABAB once through before going to the next tune. Strathspeys are usually 16 measures in length, so they are usually played twice, so that the same 32 bars are reached before going to the next tune in the set. Some dances call for 40 or 48 bar tunes, which causes odd repeat patterns. As a practicing musician, I don't particularly like 40 and 48 bar tunes because I'm used to playing 32 bar tunes and I actually have to try to remember the odd repeat pattern. Can cause screw-ups at dances, though I usually make it through. Also, MOST of the time, people play this whole shebang twice through before heading off to the next tune in a medley. Sometimes they play it more than twice, but rarely do they play it only once through. RSCDSs, because of the insistance on 32 bar tunes, tends to have but one playing of a reel or jig, most of which are 32 bar tunes if played AABB, before going to the next tune. However, I never let a tune go only one time in concert, unless it's a long, usually 4 part, pipe tune where the 3rd and 4th parts are strongly related to the 1st and 2nd parts. There are many exceptions to all of this, of course. One of my favourite tunes, The Galtee Hunt, has eight bars in the A part, and twelve in the B part. Let me know if this makes any sense to you, or if I'm talking way below or above your understanding. I've tried to explain this before on the net, but as I said, text is hardly the best way to get this across. It's interesting to me to try to verbalise stuff that has become almost second nature to me. Though, I hasten to add, I frequently have to count to figure out what a tune is. One other caveat: Sometimes the title of the tune is the Such-and-such Reel or whatever, and it's not played in that rhythm at all. I don't know why this happens, and it's rare, but it does happen. Sometimes people just change the way it's played for fun. There's a hornpipe called The Banks Hornpipe that Michael Coleman plays as a hornpipe, but I've heard it played here in the States for contradances as a reel. Just human perversity, I guess! A strathspey is actually a type of reel which developed in the valley (strath) of the river Spey area in Northeast Scotland. There are several ways to play strathspeys. For the more formal Royal Scottish Country Dance Society dances, the strathspey is played essentially in two, but with a strong afterbeat on the second beat to lead into the next measure. Since the music is written in 4/4, the basic rhythm for RSCDS dancing would be ONE two THREE Four, with emphasis at least every other measure on the Four. For Highland dancing, the playing is done in a vigouorous four, and somewhat faster than the RSCDS tempo of approximately 60 for the half-note. Highland would be somewhat faster than 120 for the quarter-note. Cape Breton strathspeys are sometimes slower and sometimes faster, but are usually in four beats to the bar. A common pattern is to have a slow strathspey lead into a faster strathspey, which gets faster until the players and dancers break into reels, which are actually slower than the strathspey (in four) is at that point. Strathspeys can often be identified by the Scottish Snap rhythm, usually notated as a 16th - dotten 8th, but played more like a 32nd - double dotted 8th, which occurs at various times in the piece. While strathspeys are in 4/4, not 12/8, I understand that Scottish pipe band drummers often treat them as if they were in 12/8 because of the tendency to make dotted (dotten 8th - 16th) rhythms sound as if they were some form of triplets. However, they are notated either as regular dotted rhythms or as equal notes. Strathspeys often do have triplets notated in them, and they are notated as triplets. They also often have runs of 4 16th notes, and the two features are often found in the same strathspeys. The feel of a strathspey is quite different from that of a slide (an form of jig in 12/8) or of jigs, and the music should be thought of as 4/4 or 2/2 which may have triple or quadruple rhythms, not as a firm triplet rhythm as in a jig. For more information on Scottish Dance, contact the only organisation devoted to the Traditions of Scottish Dance and Dance music, who can be reached at: Liam Paterson Co-ordinator The Scottish Traditions of Dance Trust 54 Blackfriars Street Edinburgh EH1 1NE. tel/fax: 0131 558 8737 [10.2] What is a Ceilidh A Ceilidh (pronounced "Kay-lay", emphasis on 1st syllable) is many things. It derives from the Gaelic word meaning a visit and originally meant just that (and still does in Gaelic). It can also mean a house party, a concert or more usually an evening of informal Scottish traditional dancing to informal music. Ceilidhs in the Lowlands tend to be dances, in the Highlands they tend to be concerts. Dances in the Highlands and traditional ceilidhs in the Lowlands are often called "ceilidh dances". Ceilidh dancing is fundamentally different from Scottish Country Dancing (See answer [10.4]) in that it is much less formal and the primary purpose is the enjoyment of doing the dance. Scottish Country Dancing is much more oriented towards being a demonstration or exhibition. Ceilidhs are extremely popular indeed with young people and often attract from a few dozen people to several hundred. There are world championships for ceilidh bands now (the first winners were Fire in the Glen, now called Tannas). There are also workshops for ceilidh bands at ALP Scots Music Group, The Drill Hall, 36 Dalmeny Street Edinburgh EH6 8RG 0131 555 7668 http://www.alpscotsmusic.org mailto:info@alpscotsmusic.org Venues ====== Best places for Ceilidhs are: Edinburgh --------- See http://www.MikesCommunity.com/ Assembly Rooms and The Hub are the best venues. Also try: Marco's leisure centre, Cafe Royal, Southside Community Centre, St Bride's centre, St Oswald's Hall (Montpelier), Methodist Halls, The Thomas Morton Hall, MacEwan Hall, St Pete's Church Hall in Lutton Place and Caledonian Brewery. The West End Hotel has leaflets on the noticeboard showing when ceilidhs are on, or look in the Folk music section of The List (the Glasgow and Edinburgh what's on guide; out fortnightly available at most newsagents). http://www.timeout.com/ (look for Glasgow/Edinburgh sections). Info on Ceilidhs in the folk music section Glasgow ------- The Riverside Club. OK place for a ceilidh but prone to being busy and too much like a nightclub. There are even bouncers (unheard of at all the good ceilidhs) A good book for anyone wanting to learn how to do ceilidh dances and play ceilidh tunes is Let's have a ceilidh by Robbie Shepherd (well known Radio Scotland presenter of Take the Floor) Price 4.95, 100 pages. Published by Canongate Press, 14 Frederick St, Edinburgh, EH2 2HB ISBN 0 86241 412 1 http://www.canongate.net/ Includes 20 of the most popular dances, plus a selection of music to go with the dances. There are explanations for the various steps with diagrams, as well as some notes on the history of dancing. [10.3] Article on Scottish Step Dancing See also http://www.tullochgorm.com/scottish.html by Maggie Moore and also http://www.siliconglen.com/celtfaq/3_2.html Prepared by: Sheldon MacInnes, Program Director, Extension & Community Affairs, University College of Cape Breton. See the end of [10.5] for details of a mailing list covering step dance and highland dance Article by Dr Margaret Bennett "Step-dancing: Why we must learn from past mistakes" MARGARET BENNETT of the School of Scottish Studies on the history - and possible future - of a unique form of dance. When I read your article "Step-dancing makes its return ..." earlier this year [in the West Highland Free Press (WHFP)] it was not my intention to "join in the dance" as I saw it as a useful piece of publicity for Harvey Beaton's step-dancing class that was to be held at Sabhal Mor Ostaig, [the Gaelic Adult Education and Community College on the Isle of Skye]. Publicity or not, it was a pity the article began with so many historical distortions - all that nonsense about Queen Victoria's "infatuation with the Highlands" which had a "lasting effect upon the style of music and dance". Perhaps it is an attempt at retroactive "Royal bashing" for it has no bearing whatsoever on reality. Based on my own research, I would say that Queen Victoria took a sincere and supportive interest in Scotland's culture and languages and would urge others to read her journals before making such sweeping statements. There are also accounts from oral tradition, such as one which was re-told to me by my colleague, Dr John MacInnes, of Queen Victoria advising the Duke of Atholl to employ a Gaelic-speaking nursemaid so that the language would not be lost. If only twentieth century mothers had applied her clear-thinking principle, Gaelic would be in a much healthier state. In view of the fact that by far the greatest influence on Scottish traditional dance did not appear until well after Queen Victoria's death, it might be as well to remind readers of the facts. Ironically, (though too often the case with people who "mean well") the woman who undoubtedly had the greatest influence on dance had every intention of *preserving* it. She was Miss Jean Milligan, lecturer in Physical Education at Jordanhill College of Education in Glasgow, and as such, was in the ideal position to train teachers in every aspect of the dances she clearly loved. She did not, however, love the wild, undisciplined ways of the "untrained" village hall or kitchen-floor dancers, who, at that time would dance in whatever footwear they happened to be wearing, or, as was often the case in summer, in bare feet. She was certainly willing to study dance, and if, for example, she watched several versions of a particular reel, she would decide on a standard *correct style*, then, with missionary zeal, set about "correcting" rural dances. Beginning with footwear (dance-pumps, please) she tackled "position", having decided it should be based on classical ballet. In 1923 she co-founded The Scottish Country Dance Society, and published books that set out the "proper" way to dance. From then on, there cannot be a teacher who trained at Jordanhill who does not remember the classes - in my own day, mid 60s, we had three years of them - you bought the books, turned up with the proper shoes, learnt the "positions" and dances, and how to teach them. Then, thoroughly trained, five hundred of us girls graduated each year convinced that we were on the right track. (I did, however, wonder at the instructions to the piano player which always began: "Thank you Miss Peterkin, (shouted) *and!*" Just calculate the number of school-teachers, to say nothing of the privately trained village-hall teachers, who have influenced Scottish dance since 1923 - it was the ideal system for "correcting" an entire nation. I have no doubt that some readers will be irritated at what they might perceive as criticism of the RSCDS and its co-founder. That is not at all my intention. I believe that any form of dance is perfectly valid; what is *not* valid is to eliminate traditional forms along the way. There is much to be said in favour of the RSCDS, as the organisation has given pleasure to millions of dancers and spectators over the years, and, in its own way, acts as an ambassador for Scotland. I would, however, suggest that anyone serious enough to research aspects of Scottish dance should read Miss Milligan's own account of what her aims were and how she set about attaining them. The reader will, at the same time, gain an interesting insight into her (lack of) understanding of Scottish culture. To cite one example which will show how inaccurately she perceived dance in the broader scope of Scottish Customs: in 1912, before she cleverly discovered how to train school-teachers to promote her ideas, Miss Milligan founded the Beltane Society in Glasgow in order (she wrote) "to cultivate among the younger generation a knowledge of Scottish folk songs, ballads, dances and ... to maintain all the national customs and quaint ceremonies ...". Our forebears celebrated Beltane, *Latha Bealltain*, for centuries, and, as many of your readers already know, it had nothing to do with Jean Milligan's revolutionary ideas. Fortunately, membership of her Beltane Society was voluntary (unlike the Jordanhill dance classes) and did not last, otherwise we might be faced with the task of re-educating our own people in yet another perfectly valid part of our past. *IT IS NOT* surprising, then, that the older dances which were so popular in the Scottish Highlands were preserved in the New World amongst emigrants who left Scotland before the massive re-education campaign started. There were solo dances and group dances, all of which involved a variety of steps and formations, and depending on where the dances were performed, there were (and are) countless variations. They were not, however, confined to Cape Breton, as they could be found wherever Highlanders settled: New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec, and so on. While it is heartening to watch a revival in step-dancing and to see it taught once again in Scotland, when I hear of revivalists referring to this solo dancing as "Cape Breton step-dancing" and then dictating that all dancers *must* wear hard-soled shoes of a certain type, I wonder if they are not in danger of repeating some of the same mistakes that Miss Milligan is accused of making? In their zeal to "do it right" new enthusiasts may be creating a new set of rules that may be just as definitive as those set out by the RSCDS. As far as the terms of reference are concerned, if we adopt the same logic which is applied to the naming of step-dancing and then, for example, apply it to the Gaelic language, we would be able to state authoritatively that people in Skye, or any other Gaelic-speaking area, speak "Lewis Gaelic", for, after all, that is where Gaelic is spoken most widely. Imagine the outcry! In the space of a few short years, the term "Cape Breton step-dancing" has even taken hold in Canada, and can be heard in provinces where it was completely unknown twenty years ago. This summer I encountered it on the west coast of Newfoundland, where Scottish step-dancing has survived every bit as well as in Cape Breton, albeit with a much smaller area. I was told "well, I guess that's what they're calling it now - you see it on the television." Only two years ago I video-recorded the same step-dancer who never once used the term "Cape Breton step-dancing" although he has often danced in Cape Breton at the invitation of Cape Bretonners who liked his style. On the subject of hard-soled shoes, the same dancer commented that they are "pretty good at a ceilidh," especially on a wooden floor, above the sound of the fiddle, "but years ago, more often or not I'd be dancing bare-feet out in the field and singing for myself." In the past, there were no rules, and it was just as common for a woodsman in his steel-toed boots in the lumber camp bunkhouse as it was for the priest to dance in his black leather shoes at the church social. Another Newfoundland Gael, whose people emigrated from Canna and Moidart in the 1820s and 40s, described where they got their dances (transcribed from tape): "We had people here that taught step-dancing, the Scotch dancing ... there was one woman here, she was a MacDonald, she could dance sixty steps, different steps, and it was all the right dancing, you know, step-dancing. Oh I tell you they were pretty lively! They knew the tunes, a lot of them from Scotland ... they followed the tunes from Scotland right down." There is obviously a crying need for a dedicated individual to document carefully the range of material available. Since I am a folklorist (not a dance ethnographer) who happens to have made a number of video and audio tapes on the subject (and yes, they are at the School of Scottish Studies), I have no plans for writing a book about the history of dance. I have, however, made much of my own collection available to interested individuals. In my 11 years at the School of Scottish Studies I have only encountered three people whose interest was such that they were prepared to spend the time studying all the material available. One was a former Highland dance champion who was writing a post-graduate dissertation on Scottish dance, and during her studies she discovered that her own mother, brought up in the Stirling area, and by then in her seventies, had a repertoire of step-dances which she had never demonstrated until she saw a film of step-dancing in Canada. Till then, the older lady had thought her daughter who "had been trained to dance properly" might ridicule her. The second person was one of our own students who studied village hall dances; and the third person was James MacDonald-Reid, who quite correctly stated in his recent letter to the WHFP that step-dancing did not, in fact, die out in Scotland this century. Since he was courteous enough to ask me if he could refer to my tapes (and without hesitation I agreed) it is only fair that I should take some responsibility for his reference. As is our policy, he did not mention any names, for we had not asked the permission of informants. Apart from the tapes already mentioned, Mr Reid listened to a discussion by a step-dancer in the Spey Valley who can still dance step-dances that had been taught to her by her parents who were from Laggan and Barra respectively. Like the Stirling woman, she did not simply display a glimmer of recognition at the sight of "Cape Breton step-dancing", but she could (and can) get out on the floor and dance the steps. It is easy to understand why individuals such as these have kept silent about their ability, for ever since they went to school they have been shown how to dance "correctly". And, having mastered the RSCDS dances, both women channelled their childhood energy and love of dance into Highland Dance, which also has all the acceptability and status lacking in the steps they had learned at home. It is to this particular recording that James MacDonald-Reid referred, as he not only watched her dancing on video (in this case made professionally by the independent film company Caledonia, Sterne and Wylde) but also visited the dancer. Together they discussed aspects of dance, and though I was only able to observe one session of this discourse, anyone watching the two of them - one born and brought up in the Highlands, and the other brought up in Ontario in a Scottish family - would be in no doubt as to the continuity of tradition. Aside from those mentioned, there are reports of others, granted only few, who still dance the old steps, but to pronounce something dead while it yet breathes is inaccurate, to say the least. *CLEARLY* there is much to be done to promote step-dancing and revive it. If however, those who profess to have its best interest at heart ignore the facts, then we are in trouble. It saddens me to watch the very same bodies who declare a serious interest make so many of the same mistakes that we watched in the past. It is all very well to bring in an expert for a week or two a year, but what of the rest of the time? Those who decide on the appointment of dance teachers must consider carefully what the demands are, as they plan the promotion of traditional dance. The ideal person should possess a profound depth of knowledge, a natural ability to dance, and good, clear teaching techniques. Anyone who has seen Jamie MacDonald-Reid dance, heard him discuss the subject (and *not* when he is unfairly cornered by interviewers determined to set him on edge), or anyone who has seen him teach dance to a class of children or adults could not doubt his abilities, nor imagine that he is responsible for some of the damage that Mike Kennedy attributes to "professional dancers and dance teachers" (WHFP) Interestingly, though not surprisingly, Mr Reid is also the only person whom I have ever encountered who could, after watching the video of the Newfoundland step-dancing, perform the steps himself, as if they were second nature to him. (The usual reaction of new observers is to ask "how in the world does that step go," repeat, and try to figure it out.) I wonder when some organisation, perhaps a local authority, a feis or a festival, might risk asking James MacDonald-Reid to run a dance class? Those who have taken the time to watch him are already convinced. It would be a great pity if some of the so-called enthusiasts spent the rest of their lives "trying to figure it out" instead of enlisting the talent of someone who has taken the subject seriously all of his life. If there is anyone who is more passionately committed to traditional dance in Scotland then I would very much like to hear from him or her. Better still, I'd love to watch the dance. (c) from West Highland Free Press, 14/10/94 *emphasis* - the asterisks are to emphasise various words that might otherwise be in bold or italic fonts. [10.4] What is Scottish Country Dancing? Contributed by Anselm Lingnau Scottish Country Dancing is a modern form of the 'country dancing' popular in England and Scotland in the 18th century. It involves groups of six to ten people (most of the time) of mixed sex (most of the time) -- a 'set' -- dancing to the driving strains of reels, jigs and strathspeys played on the fiddle, accordion, flute, piano, drums, etc. (no bagpipes, mostly!). The dance often combines solo figures for the 'first couple' in the set with movements for all the dancers, although there is considerable variation -- there are over 7000 different dances catalogued, of which maybe 1000 or so are of lasting and non-local importance. Many of these dances derive from traditional sources such as old manuscripts and printed dance collections, but a lot have been devised in the fairly recent past, say the last fifty years or so. This fusion of the traditional and the modern as well as its ongoing evolution are part of the attraction of Scottish Country Dancing. Think of SCD as a cross between square or contra dance (although there is no caller) and ballet; there are about a dozen basic figures which will get you through quite a number of dances, although many dances have their own quirks and specialities which make them unique and fun to dance. There is also more emphasis on 'steps' than in, say, Ceilidh dancing, but the basic technique can be learned at a week-end workshop or through a couple of months' worth of practice evenings once a week. Even though there are so many dances, you don't have to learn any of them by heart if you don't want to -- the programmes for balls and social evenings are usually published well before the event, so everybody can check their crib sheets. Also, at the event itself dances are often recapitulated or even sometimes walked through slowly before the music starts (although local custom may vary). SCD is a very social form of dancing, not only because you get to dance with seven or so people at once instead of just with one partner (smiles and eye contact are almost mandatory, and if you want there is a lot of opportunity for relaxed 'flirting') but also because there are workshops, balls and social dances being held in places all over the world. It is nice to be able to travel and join a SCD group for a night nearly everywhere you go. When country dancing came to Scotland in the 18th century, it was at first popular among the townspeople in places like Edinburgh, but spread throughout Scotland (at varying pace) and thrived there even when, during the 19th and early 20th century, more modern dances like the Waltz, One-step etc. became fashionable in other places. Country dancing in Scotland was also influenced by other Scottish dances such as Highland Reels and so acquired a particular 'Scottish' flavour. In 1923, the Scottish Country Dance Society (SCDS, later 'Royal' Scottish Country Dance Society or RSCDS) was founded in order to preserve traditional Scottish country dancing. Its patrons went out to watch people dance and collect the dances for publication. In the process, they also tried to reconstruct and publish dances from old manuscripts that were no longer actually danced, and standardised technical points like steps and footwork (which the common folk rarely bothered a lot about). It is debatable whether this standardisation was actually a good thing as far as preserving the tradition of Scottish country dancing was concerned, but it has certainly done a lot for making SCD into something that can be enjoyed internationally. In fact, Scottish Country Dancing is probably more alive today than it ever was in the past, and this is to a large extent due to the efforts of the RSCDS. Today the RSCDS numbers about 25.000 members and has 'branches' in various countries all over the world. Lots of SCD groups are affiliated with the RSCDS even though they aren't actually branches of the Society, and even more people enjoy SCD without being members of the RSCDS (or any group) at all. The RSCDS is at 12 Coates Crescent telephone: 0131 225 3854 Edinburgh EH3 7AF fax: 0131 225 7783 Scotland http://www.rscds.org/ There is an Internet mailing list (not affiliated with or endorsed by the RSCDS) for discussing Scottish Country dancing and music, which goes by the name of 'Strathspey'; send a message containing a 'Subject: help' to mailto:strathspey-request@tm.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de There is also a Web server containing an archive of the mailing list as well as lots of other interesting items connected with SCD at http://www.strathspey.org/ (Yes, that's in Germany. So much for the international character of SCD!) The books I would recommend on the topic are _Traditional Dancing in Scotland_ by Joan and Thomas M. Flett (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985) -- this is a seminal work detailing much of the recent (pre-RSCDS) history of Scottish dancing according to living memory, and it forms the research basis of a lot of what is said by Emmerson -- and _Scotland's Dances_ by Hugh Thurston (reprint edition; Kitchener, Ontario: Teacher's Association (Canada), 1984), which is a small and easy-to-read book giving an introduction to the various genres of Scottish dancing, including Highland dances, solo dances, Reels and country dances. This book was originally published some time ago and so reflects the research done until, I think, the late 50s, but it has a lot to say about things like recreating dances from ancient manuscripts which aren't in any other book. The following review is by Jim Healy (of Perth) mailto:The_Healys@compuserve.com and originally appeared in 'The Highland Gateway', the Perth & Perthshire RSCDS Branch newsletter. The Collins Pocket Reference *Scottish Country Dancing, Compiled in association with The Royal Scottish Country Dance Society,* edited by Peter Knight, published by HarperCollins. The ISBN is 0 00 470987 X. I picked up my copy in Scotland this summer for 5.99. This little book has been compiled in association with the RSCDS. It gives a brief history of dancing and some instructions on the steps and various formations. The bulk of the book, however, is given over to descriptions of various popular dances, both RSCDS and others. It is perhaps unfortunate that the publishers have picked up the illustrations used for the Miscellanies showing the ladies in long white dresses and sashes - not exactly typical of SCD in the 1990s. The dance instructions include about 50 popular RSCDS dances; 30 others such as The Bees and Mairi's Wedding and some fun ballroom type dances like The Palais Glide, not normally on an SCD programme and some of which I havent seen done for many a year - but none the worse for that. I was very interested to see both the RSCDS and the "County" versions of the Foursome Reel are given in some considerable detail: time for a revival? Less fortunate in my view is that the only Strip the Willow is the 40 bar Society version which is not the one actually danced. Any criticisms are minor though: overall this is a very useful book and an excellent buy for any inexperienced dancer. It has just been announced that the book is one of those chosen for the Scottish Book Fortnight and various promotional activities for the book (and by association for SCD) will be taking place around the country at the end of October. Keep an eye on the local press for details. The book is available in book stores for GBP 5.99. RSCDS members can get a reduction to 5 pounds 9p through HQ. [10.5] Scottish Highland Dancing See the end of this article for details of a mailing list covering step dance and highland dance contributed by Nancy Burge mailto:nancy.burge@pobox.com with amendments from Anselm Lingnau mailto:lingnau@tm.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de Highland Dancing ================ Introduction ------------ Scottish Highland dancing is one of the oldest forms of folk dance, and both modern ballet and square dancing can trace their roots back to the Highlands. Dating back to the 11th or 12th century, the Highland Dances of Scotland tended to be highly athletic male celebratory dances of triumph or joy, or warrior dances performed over swords and spiked shield. According to tradition, the old kings and chiefs of Scotland used the Highland Games as a way of choosing the best men for their retinue and men at arms. Highland dancing was one of the various ways men were tested for strength, stamina, accuracy, and agility. The Scottish military regiments used to use Highland dancing as a form of training to develop stamina and agility, but this has become less common these days. Competitive Highland dancing started during the Highland revival of Victorian Britain, and was for men only. Ladies began competing only at the turn of the century. Over the centuries the dancing style has become more refined and now shares many elements from classical ballet. Although historically Highland dancing was restricted to men, today it is mostly performed by females. No matter who dances them, Highland dances require both athletic and artistic skill. The Highland dances =================== The Highland Fling ------------------ This is the oldest of the traditional dances of Scotland and is a dance of joy performed at the end of a victorious battle. It was danced by male warriors over a small round shield, called a Targe, that the warriors carried into battle. Most Targes had a sharp spike of steel projecting from the centre, so dancers learned early to move with great skill and dexterity. The Highland Fling is danced on the spot, and is said to be based on the antics of a stag on a hillside; the grouped fingers and upheld arms representing the antlers. I would be interested to see anybody do a Highland Fling on a targe with a spike without impaling himself. Presumably the toe-and-heel step would be very interesting to watch. Hopefully there will be a doctor at hand. The Sword Dance (Gillie Challum) -------------------------------- It is probable that the tune, _Gillie_Callum_, dates back to the days of Malcolm Canmore (Shakespeare's MacBeth). The earliest references to the *dance* are from the 19th century, and it is unlikely that it is very much older. One story is that this was a dance of victory, as the King danced over his bloody claymore (the two-handed broadsword of Scotland) and the even bloodier head of his enemy. Some say that no severed head was used and that the King danced over his own sword crossed over the sword of his enemy. Another story is that the Sword Dance was danced prior to a battle. To kick the swords was considered a bad omen for the impending battle, and the soldier would expect to be wounded. If many of the soldiers kicked their swords the chieftain of the clan would expect to lose the battle. The Seann Triubhas ------------------ Pronounced "shawn trews", this Gaelic phrase means "old trousers". This dance is reputed to date from the rebellion of 1745 when Bonnie Prince Charlie challenged the might of England at Culloden, and lost. As a penalty, Highlanders were forbidden to wear the kilt. Seann Triubhas is a dance of celebration developed in response to the Proscription Repeal which restored to the Scots the right to wear their kilts and play the bagpipes once more. The movements of this dance clearly depict the legs defiantly shaking and shedding the hated trousers and returning to the freedom of the kilt. Some of the steps originate from hard shoe dancing. It is likely that the kicking-off-of-the-trousers bit was retro-fitted to the dance much like the bloody-swords-and-head thing with the Sword Dance. The Seann Triubhas arrived at its present form in the early 20th century, and an itinerant dance teacher from the 1890s is on record as having invented the first step of the Seann Triubhas. See Flett & Flett. -- It does not come as a big surprise that some of the steps in the Seann Triubhas 'come from hard shoe dancing', since that is what people would have worn for dancing in the old days, anyway (if they wore anything). Before the RSCDS, the modern ghillie pumps were only used by competing Highland dancers at Games, and even now there is a certain renaissance of the hard shoe; only a few years ago even the RSCDS put out a newsletter urging teachers to teach the steps in a way so that they can be danced in hard shoes. (Personally, I do prefer the ghillies for SCD, having tried both -- there is much better control.) Strathspey and Highland Reel and Strathspey and Half Tulloch The Strathspey and Reel and the Strathspey and Half Tulloch are performed by four dancers. The Strathspey is never danced on its own in competition but must be followed by the Reel. These dances illustrate the "set" and "travel" steps which are common in Scottish social dancing. Dress ===== In Highland dancing competitions, female dancers wear a velvet jacket with gold or silver braid edging and gold or silver buttons, over a white shirt with lace ruffles at the neck. They wear a kilt and tartan hose, and black laced gillies, or dancing shoes. Men wear the kilt and sporran, with a jacket and bonnet, with tartan hose with a sgian dhubh. For the National dances either a national costume is worn, or the costume appropriate to the dance such as the hornpipe costume, or the Irish Jig costume, which is worn with jig shoes. The national costume consists of a tartan style gathered skirt, a velvet jacket of a different style, laced up the front with silver laces and decorated with silver buttons. There is a plaid which is attached at the waistband at the back, and then comes up and over the right shoulder and is fastened with a brooch onto the shoulder of the jacket. Men wear the kilt and sporran, with a jacket and bonnet, with tartan hose with a sgian dhubh. They can wear tartan trews or Highland dress for national dances, and the hornpipe outfit, and a male version of the Irish Jig costume. The National Dances =================== The Flora McDonald's Fancy -------------------------- This is said to be the last dance Flora McDonald danced for Bonnie Prince Charlie before he fled overseas, but is more likely to be a dance named in her honour. Flora McDonald helped the prince escape from North Uist to Skye disguised as her maid. She emigrated to America but returned home to Skye later in life. The Sailor's Hornpipe --------------------- The Sailor's Hornpipe is a caricature dance developed from the traditional English version. It has become more popular in Scotland than in England and is regularly featured in Highland Games. The movements in this dance portray actions used in the daily work routines of a sailor's life, such as pulling ropes, climbing the rigging, and looking out to sea. A costume like a sailor's uniform is worn by both male and female dancers. The Irish Jig ------------- The Scottish Version of the Irish Jig is another caricature dance depicting an Irish washerwoman who is angry with her erring husband. The costume worn for this dance is either a red or emerald green skirt and bodice and a full white petticoat, with a white blouse, with a white apron. Red or green jig shoes are worn and there is much stamping and facial grimacing in this dance. In the male version, the dancer wears a red or green tailcoat with a waistcoat of the opposite colour, brown knee britches of corduroy, with a paddy hat and he carries a shillelagh, which is a club made from the forked branch of a tree. Scottish Lilt ------------- The original tunes for the Lilt are 'Drops of Brandy' (if you happen to have danced the RSCDS version of the popular ceilidh dance, Strip the Willow, which is a 9/8 running step, you may have heard the tune; it is also sometimes played at sessions) and 'Brose and Butter' (for the folkies, this is the tune used for the song, 'Tak it, Man, Tak it', on the Dublin Lady album by Andy M. Stewart and Manus Lunny). I do the Scottish Lilt either to the Battle of the Somme (which is also a 9/8 tune) or to the original tunes -- I have a very nice recording of them played on the clarsach and bodhran with duet singing which is suitable for 8 steps of the Lilt, but I don't know where that tape originally came from :^( The difference in feeling isn't very pronounced but I do prefer the originals. There are a number of other National dances, which include "The Earl of Errol", "Hielan' Laddie", and "Wilt thou go to the Barracks, Johnny?". They reflect the difficulty of trying to elucidate the history of the dances. The Earl of Errol was originally a hard shoe dance, from the Aberdeenshire area, which was collected by Isobel Cramb, recorded on the Hill manuscript yet there are two different versions. The Scottish Lilt is claimed by both the Hebrides and Perthshire. It was probably very different when danced to its original 9/8 jig tune but nowadays it is danced to a tune called "The Battle of the Somme" which dates from the First World War. The tune is a retreat and has a completely different speed and rhythm. There are several different tunes called "Hielan' Laddie", and different dances to each tune so who knows which is the original? "Wilt thou go to the barracks, Johnny?" is a recruiting song and "the barracks" is probably a corruption of "Berwick", although there was a barracks there. Many of the National Dances, for example, 'Blue Bonnets' and 'Hielan Laddie' were actually devised in the late 19th century by a chap called Ewan MacLachlan, who studied the ballet in France before returning to his native, I think, Benbecula (at any rate, somewhere in the Outer Hebrides). Some of them are really quite balletic but do retain their Scottish flavour. Incidentally, there are new Highland-style dances being devised all the time (similar to what happens in country dancing). To the SOBHD purists, the only Highland dances are the Fling, the Sword Dance, the Seann Triubhas and the Foursome, of course, but there are many dances that were danced in the Highlands which have become lost or which are very seldom danced if at all. IMHO there is also a world of difference between competitive Highland dancing and the Highland dancing 'for enjoyment' that is done by folks like me who are too old, sloppy and lazy to compete. From watching dancers at games, I feel that all the standardisation that's going on is taking the character of the individual dances away. I've seen 'champions' do the Lilt, which is a rather soft and relaxed dance, and they would try to jump twice their own height and do the kind of weapon-grade-steel high cuts one would tend to expect in, say, the Sword Dance. Sigh. Call it 'sour grapes'. Competition Dancing ------------------- Many Highland Games and Highland Dance Competitions are now run according to the Scottish Official Board of Highland Dancing (SOBHD) style of dance. The SOBHD was set up in 1950 and its aims were to stabilise the technique of Highland Dancing (which also includes the National dances of Scotland), to formulate laws and regulations covering every aspect of the art and to further the interests of Highland dancing. Prior to the advent of the SOBHD, dancers competing at the various games throughout Scotland had to vary their style and alter their steps according to the district they were competing in, or to suit the known stylistic preferences of the judges. The address is:- Scottish Official Board of Highland Dancing, 32 Grange Loan, Edinburgh, EH9 2NR. Scotland phone: 0131 668 3965 fax: 0131 662 0404 Dancers compete in one of five groups: Primary (under 7 years old), Beginners, Novice, Intermediate, and finally Premier. There are age classifications in each group, so each dancer will be competing not only in their age group but also against dancers of a similar standard. Dancers are judged on three basic areas: timing, technique and general deportment. Timing is the ability to follow the rhythm of the music in the dance. Technique is primarily the footwork, and co-ordination with head, arm and hand movements. The positioning of the feet is of great importance as however graceful or agile the dancer, it is the neatness and accuracy of the foot positions that give the dances their essential character. The interpretation and the ability to capture the spirit of the dance are also important as are balance, general appearance and bearing, as well as carriage of the head, arms, body and hands. Although the dances are very strenuous, they must be danced gracefully with apparent ease. Music at competitions is usually played by a piper but may be played on the accordion. There are many books, records, CDs and videos available, about Highland dancing and one supplier is the Scottish National Dance Co, whose address is http://www.i-way.co.uk/~kelpi/ They have world wide contacts and if you want to find a teacher or group to learn with, the Scottish National Dance Co would be a good place to start. The Highland-Dance mailing list is a forum for the discussion of all aspects of Highland and other forms of scottish step dancing, e.g., dance descriptions, dancing technique, the history of dances and dancing, learning or teaching how to dance, ... We also welcome descriptions of new dances, announcements of events like courses or competitions, or anything the subscribers might find interesting. The mailing list is unmoderated, i.e. everything that is submitted is forwarded directly to the subscribers of the list. Articles to be submitted should be sent to mailto:highland-dance@tardis.ed.ac.uk To subscribe to the list, send mail to mailto:majordomo@tardis.ed.ac.uk with subscribe highland-dance in the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send a message containing unsubscribe highland-dance your.address@your.domain To retrieve this message again, include a line saying info in the body of your message. For any other queries, please send mail to mailto:owner-highland-dance@tardis.ed.ac.uk We look forward to hearing from you. Disclaimer: This mailing list and its maintainer are in no way officially connected with the Scottish Official Board of Highland Dancing. They can be contacted at the address mentioned earlier in this article. [10.6] Books on Scottish dancing There is an extensive bibliography on country dancing on the Strathspey server at http://www.strathspey.org/ The best book I've seen on Scottish dancing is _A Social History of Scottish Dance_ (George S. Emmerson, 1972; published by McGill). It covers everything from the earliest times to the present. It is a superb synthesis of the social history of Scotland with dance as its centre. The chapters on the Scotch Reel, Jig, Hornpipe, and Folk Jigs are particularly good. [11.1] How do I trace my Scottish ancestry? Genealogy is a very popular activity on the Internet and Scotland has some of the best kept and easily searched ancestral records in the world, if you are researching Scottish Genealogy to trace your ancestors from Scotland, then it is probably quite a lot easier than you would think. General Register Office (GRO) ============================= All the records for births, marriages and deaths in Scotland are held at New Register House West Register Street Edinburgh EH1 3YY Tel: 0131 334 0380 Fax: 0131 314 4400 http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/ Scotland's People ================= http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/ This is an online pay-per-view database of indexes from the genealogical records of the GRO(s). It costs 6 pounds for 30 page credits. Each page consists of a maximum of 15 search results. Further credits can be bought in 30 page increments for a further 6 pound charge each time. There is a link to online rates of exchange http://www.oanda.com/cgi-bin/ncc, although these are provided as a guide only and charges will be made at the exchange rate current at the time of the actual payment processing. About the index --------------- The database contains fully searchable indexes of the GRO(S) index to births/baptisms and banns/marriages from the Old Parish Registers dating from 1553 to 1854, plus the indexes to births, deaths and marriages from 1855. Birth records over 100 years old are available, marriage records over 75 years and death records over 50 years. One additional year will be added per annum to protect the privacy of living persons. However, more recent records can be obtained by ordering directly from the GRO. Searching is possible on the following fields: Surname Event type (birth/christening, marriage, death) Sex Forename (or first initial) Year of registration (or range of years) Age (or age range) - deaths only Registration District (Statutory Index) County (Old Parish Register) Searching is also possible on other names which are mentioned within a particular record. This includes spouse's name, father's name, mother's name and mother's maiden surname, depending on the entry. Current data includes Births & Christenings (1553-1901) Old Parish Register Index & Statutory Register Index. Marriages (1553-1901) Old Parish Register Index & Statutory Register Index. Death records (1855-1926) Statutory Register Index 1881 Census. 1891 Census + images. 1901 Census + images. So if you are looking for the 1901 Census data for Scotland, this is your place! Extract Ordering ---------------- An extract is a transcription of all the information held as an entry in the original records held by GRO(S). Entries themselves often contain additional information that is not held within the indexes and can be of historical interest. Extracts of the original entries in the GRO(S) records can be ordered directly from the database. Extract orders are processed by GRO(S) and sent via ordinary mail as paper documents. They are very efficient indeed and the certificates will be with you in days or weeks (contrast the US where for New York records it takes 10 months). Extracts of entries not accessible via the online database can be ordered directly from the GRO(S) website by printing off a form and either faxing or mailing it. For further details about the GRO(S), visit their website. http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/ Manual searches or searches by post ----------------------------------- If you use New Register House you have to know what you want because it is a bit bureaucratic and you have to order each item individually and one at a time. So it is tedious work, but naturally rewarding. The censuses only started in the 1800s so it is very difficult to track back earlier. Other records at Register House permit further research. In particular a computer driven search of parish registers can be very productive, very quickly. Western Isles ============= If your ancestors are from the Western Isles, there is a service there run by Bill Lawson in Harris called "Co leis thu" which may turn up information not at New Register House. http://www.seallam.com/ Address: An Seann taigh-sgoile, An Taobh Tuath, Na Hearadh, HS3 3JA Scotland Phone: 01859 520258 There is a book published by HMSO (Her Majesty's Stationery Office) called "Tracing your Scottish Ancestry". "Surnames of Scotland" by Black gives the general history of surnames, together with spelling variations and the earliest occurrences in written texts. Another useful address or two: Scottish Ancestry Research Society 296 Albany Street, Edinburgh Tel 0131 556 4220 Scottish Genealogical Society 15 Victoria Terrace, Edinburgh EH1 Tel 0131 220 3677 Ancestral Scotland ================== http://www.ancestralscotland.com/ A genealogical tourism site. Doesn't contain records but does contain data on parishes, counties and surname distribution as well as associated local information and resources of use. Further Information =================== There is a newsgroup news:soc.genealogy.britain which may also be of use. If you don't find what you want there, also try the more general newsgroup news:soc.genealogy.misc Scottish sites -------------- http://www.scottishroots.com/ We have been tracing Scottish family trees for over 22 years - longer than any other Scottish research firm. http://www.scottishancestor.co.uk/ Specialist in Ancestral Visits to Scotland Scotland Marriage Records http://www.genwed.com/UK/scotland.htm Directory of Scottish marriage records from online resources for genealogical research. http://www.yourscottishfamilytree.co.uk/ http://www.scottish-ancestral-trail.co.uk/ Follow in the footsteps of your Scottish ancestors with a luxury tour of Scotland. http://www.scotroots.com/ http://www.scottish-roots.co.uk/ Scottish Genealogy information http://www.rootsweb.com/~genclass/205/gen205.htm includes some interesting components such as a linkable outline of Scottish history at http://www.rootsweb.com/~genclass/205/gen205_2.htm the Scotland GenUKI pages at: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/sct/ GENUKI includes a beginners guide, and general information on all sorts of subjects, including such items as the location of parishes, obsolete occupations, the addresses of local Family History Societies, archives, libraries and other useful institutions, and surveys of which records have survived - and where they can be found. There is a section for each country, and this is then sub-divided into its assorted parishes. Most counties now have associated surname-interest lists. On the GENUK site is an introduction to Scottish Family History http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/sct/intro.html People looking for Genuki should only use this URL http://www.genuki.org.uk/ This lists several other books and gives a description of using both New Register House and the Scottish Record office. Scottish Genealogy Consultants http://www.web-ecosse.com/genes/ (Gordon Johnson) and also Carole Wilson mailto:sfs@cwsoft.demon.co.uk Scottish Family Search is here to help you locate your Scottish ancestors. SFS provides a quality service for all kinds of family research. Whether your ancestors came from Scotland in recent times or in the past then we can help trace them. http://www.lineages.co.uk/ Genealogy FAQ ------------- http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/RJWinters/gene-faq.htm Scottish Family Research ------------------------ Scottish Family Research is a professional genealogical service agency based in Edinburgh. http://www.scottishfamilyresearch.co.uk/ The Statistical Accounts of Scotland ------------------------------------ http://edina.ed.ac.uk/StatAcc/ The two Statistical Accounts of Scotland, covering the 1790s and the 1830s, are among the best contemporary reports of life during the agricultural and industrial revolutions in Europe. Learn more about the area in which you or your ancestors have lived, or use this key source to study the emergence of the modern British State and the economic and social impact of the world's first industrial nation. Based largely on information supplied by each parish church minister, the old (first) Statistical Account and the New (second) Statistical Account provide a rich record of a wide variety of topics: wealth, class and poverty; climate, agriculture, fishing and wildlife; population, schools, and the moral health of the people. General sites ------------- http://awt.ancestry.com/ http://www.genealogy.com/ http://www.familysearch.org/ http://www.scottishdocuments.com/ [11.2] Scottish Monarchs Kenneth I MacAlpin 843 - 858 Donald I 858 - 862 Constantine I 862 - 877 Aed 877 - 878 Eochaid 878 - 889 Donald II 889 - 900 Constantine II 900 - 943 Malcolm I 943 - 954 Indulf 954 - 962 Dubh 962 - 966 Culen 966 - 971 Kenneth II 971 - 995 Constantine III 995 - 997 Kenneth III 997 - 1005 Malcolm II 1005 - 1034 Duncan I 1034 - 1040 Macbeth 1040 - 1057 Lulach 1057 - 1058 Malcolm III Canmore 1058 - 1093 Donald Ban 1093 - 1094 Duncan II 1094 - 1094 Donald Ban (again) 1094 - 1097 Edgar 1097 - 1107 Alexander I 1107 - 1124 David I 1124 - 1153 Malcolm IV 1153 - 1165 William I 'The Lion' 1165 - 1214 Alexander II 1214 - 1249 Alexander III 1249 - 1286 Margaret, Maid of Norway 1286 - 1290 John Balliol 1292 - 1296 Robert Bruce (Robert I) 1306 - 1329 David II 1329 - 1371 Robert II (the Stewart) 1371 - 1390 Robert III 1390 - 1406 James I 1406 - 1437 James II 1437 - 1460 James III 1460 - 1488 James IV 1488 - 1513 James V 1513 - 1542 Mary (I) 1542 - 1567 James VI 1567 - 1625 Charles I 1625 - 1649 Charles II 1649 - 1685 James VII (II of England) 1685 - 1688 William 'III' & Mary II 1689 - 1694 William 'III' 1694 - 1702 Anne 1702 - 1714 George I 1714 - 1727 George II 1727 - 1760 George III 1760 - 1820 George IV 1820 - 1829 William 'IV' 1829 - 1837 Victoria 1837 - 1901 Edward 'VII' 1901 - 1910 George V 1910 - 1936 Edward 'VIII' 1936 George VI 1936 - 1952 Elizabeth 'II' 1952 - The Scottish Monarchy merged with the English Monarchy in 1603 when James VI of Scotland became James I of England and VI of Scotland. After James VII and II the Scottish numbering system was ignored in favour of the English one (William III and not William III & II). The current practice is now to use the higher of the Scottish and English numbering systems to derive the next in the sequence. [11.3] Declaration of Arbroath The Declaration of Arbroath (English Translation) Source: Charles Macgregor mailto:chic.m@zetnet.co.uk To the most Holy Father and Lord in Christ, the Lord John, by divine providence Supreme Pontiff of the Holy Roman and Universal Church, his humble and devout sons Duncan, Earl of Fife, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, Lord of Man and of Annandale, Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, Malise, Earl of Strathearn, Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, William, Earl of Ross, Magnus, Earl of Caithness and Orkney, and William, Earl of Sutherland; Walter, Steward of Scotland, William Soules, Butler of Scotland, James, Lord of Douglas, Roger Mowbray, David, Lord of Brechin, David Graham, Ingram Umfraville, John Menteith, guardian of the earldom of Menteith, Alexander Fraser, Gilbert Hay, Constable of Scotland, Robert Keith, Marischal of Scotland, Henry St Clair, John Graham, David Lindsay, William Oliphant, Patrick Graham, John Fenton, William Abernethy, David Wemyss, William Mushet, Fergus of Ardrossan, Eustace Maxwell, William Ramsay, William Mowat, Alan Murray, Donald Campbell, John Cameron, Reginald Cheyne, Alexander Seton, Andrew Leslie, and Alexander Straiton, and the other barons and freeholders and the whole community of the realm of Scotland send all manner of filial reverence, with devout kisses of his blessed feet. Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. The Britons they first drove out, the Picts they utterly destroyed, and, even though very often assailed by the Norwegians, the Danes and the English, they took possession of that home with many victories and untold efforts; and, as the historians of old time bear witness, they have held it free of all bondage ever since. In their kingdom there have reigned one hundred and thirteen kings of their own royal stock, the line unbroken a single foreigner. The high qualities and deserts of these people, were they not otherwise manifest, gain glory enough from this: that the King of kings and Lord of lords, our Lord Jesus Christ, after His Passion and Resurrection, called them, even though settled in the uttermost parts of the earth, almost the first to His most holy faith. Nor would He have them confirmed in that faith by merely anyone but by the first of His Apostles -- by calling, though second or third in rank -- the most gentle Saint Andrew, the Blessed Peter's brother, and desired him to keep them under his protection as their patron forever. The Most Holy Fathers your predecessors gave careful heed to these things and bestowed many favours and numerous privileges on this same kingdom and people, as being the special charge of the Blessed Peter's brother. Thus our nation under their protection did indeed live in freedom and peace up to the time when that mighty prince the King of the English, Edward, the father of the one who reigns today, when our kingdom had no head and our people harboured no malice or treachery and were then unused to wars or invasions, came in the guise of a friend and ally to harass them as an enemy. The deeds of cruelty, massacre, violence, pillage, arson, imprisoning prelates, burning down monasteries, robbing and killing monks and nuns, and yet other outrages without number which he committed against our people, sparing neither age nor sex, religion nor rank, no one could describe nor fully imagine unless he had seen them with his own eyes. But from these countless evils we have been set free, by the help of Him Who though He afflicts yet heals and restores, by our most tireless Prince, King and Lord, the Lord Robert. He, that his people and his heritage might be delivered out of the hands of our enemies, met toil and fatigue, hunger and peril, like another Macabaeus or Joshua and bore them cheerfully. Him, too, divine providence, his right of succession according to or laws and customs which we shall maintain to the death, and the due consent and assent of us all have made our Prince and King. To him, as to the man by whom salvation has been wrought unto our people, we are bound both by law and by his merits that our freedom may be still maintained, and by him, come what may, we mean to stand. Yet if he should give up what he has begun, and agree to make us or our kingdom subject to the King of England or the English, we should exert ourselves at once to drive him out as our enemy and a subverter of his own rights and ours, and make some other man who was well able to defend us our King; for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom -- for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself. Therefore it is, Reverend Father and Lord, that we beseech your Holiness with our most earnest prayers and suppliant hearts, inasmuch as you will in your sincerity and goodness consider all this, that, since with Him Whose Vice-Regent on earth you are there is neither weighing nor distinction of Jew and Greek, Scotsman or Englishman, you will look with the eyes of a father on the troubles and privation brought by the English upon us and upon the Church of God. May it please you to admonish and exhort the King of the English, who ought to be satisfied with what belongs to him since England used once to be enough for seven kings or more, to leave us Scots in peace, who live in this poor little Scotland, beyond which there is no dwelling-place at all, and covet nothing but our own. We are sincerely willing to do anything for him, having regard to our condition, that we can, to win peace for ourselves. This truly concerns you, Holy Father, since you see the savagery of the heathen raging against the Christians, as the sins of Christians have indeed deserved, and the frontiers of Christendom being pressed inward every day; and how much it will tarnish your Holiness's memory if (which God forbid) the Church suffers eclipse or scandal in any branch of it during your time, you must perceive. Then rouse the Christian princes who for false reasons pretend that they cannot go to help of the Holy Land because of wars they have on hand with their neighbours. The real reason that prevents them is that in making war on their smaller neighbours they find quicker profit and weaker resistance. But how cheerfully our Lord the King and we too would go there if the King of the English would leave us in peace, He from Whom nothing is hidden well knows; and we profess and declare it to you as the Vicar of Christ and to all Christendom. But if your Holiness puts too much faith in the tales the English tell and will not give sincere belief to all this, nor refrain from favouring them to our prejudice, then the slaughter of bodies, the perdition of souls, and all the other misfortunes that will follow, inflicted by them on us and by us on them, will, we believe, be surely laid by the Most High to your charge. To conclude, we are and shall ever be, as far as duty calls us, ready to do your will in all things, as obedient sons to you as His Vicar; and to Him as the Supreme King and Judge we commit the maintenance of our cause, casting our cares upon Him and firmly trusting that He will inspire us with courage and bring our enemies to nought. May the Most High preserve you to his Holy Church in holiness and health and grant you length of days. Given at the monastery of Arbroath in Scotland on the sixth day of the month of April in the year of grace thirteen hundred and twenty and the fifteenth year of the reign of our King aforesaid. Endorsed: Letter directed to our Lord the Supreme Pontiff by the community of Scotland. [11.4] History and Archaeology information Websites ======== An excellent site for Scottish Historical information is: http://www.rampantscotland.com/history.htm Scottish history tours http://www.scottishhistory.com/ http://www.rootsweb.com/~genclass/205/gen205_2.htm Stonepages http://www.stonepages.com/utenti/dmeozzi/Scotland/Scotland.html Scottish stone monuments (cairns, brochs, standing stones, circles etc) http://www.stonepages.com/ancient_scotland/ Archaeolink ----------- Insch, Aberdeenshire Information on 7,000 recorded prehistoric sites, including stone circles, Iron Age hill forts and Pictish symbol stones, http://www.archaeolink.co.uk/ Scottish Archaeology News ------------------------- and the online verion of The Digger (UK excavators newsletter) plus links to all archaeological units in Scotland. http://www.archaeo.freeserve.co.uk/ Scottish History online ----------------------- http://www.north-scotland.co.uk/ Kilmartin House Trust --------------------- This group has opened its multi award winning archaeological centre and museum in the village of Kilmartin on the West Coast of Scotland. This site gives a taste of the museum and also allows visitors to preview the collection of ancient sites that surround the village. http://www.kht.org.uk/ There is an on-line historical Scottish newspaper, "The Latest", at Gordon Johnson's homepage http://www.ifb.co.uk/~kinman/ (also has Scottish genealogical information) British Archaeological Directory for Scotland is at: http://www.cix.co.uk/~archaeology/directory/scot.htm Antique style maps of the battlefields, clans and families of Scotland are available mail-order from: http://www.borderart.com/ Border reivers http://www.reivers.com/ CD-ROMS / Software ================== Dunedin Multimedia http://www.webpost.net/dunedin/ Educational software publishers Mailing lists ============= There is a mailing list for Scottish/Celtic/Medieval history: mailto:Skyelander@aol.com for more information. I was sent a sample issue and it looked excellent. See also http://members.aol.com/skyelander/ Join via http://www3.dundee.net/scripts/lyris.pl?join=scot-celt-medieval Books ===== A recommended book on Scottish history is Scotland: A new history by Michael Lynch. ISBN 0-7126-9893-0 500+ pages, shortlisted for Saltire book of the year award. Covers 20 centuries, from the Picts to the present day [11.5] The Picts Article by Lorraine MacDonald mailto:lorraine.macdonald@dalriada.co.uk The Picts Background - Early Scotland --------------------------- The question of the Picts should be approached as an integral part of the heritage of Scotland (and Celtic Britain and Europe as a whole) rather than as some isolated oddity. Early Scotland was populated by various individual tribes who were ruled by people of Celtic origin. The oldest recorded language found in Scotland is of Celtic root but what should be remembered is that there are a number of different Celtic languages. (Watson: Celtic Place Names of Scotland). Also present at this time were the people whom the Romans called the Hiberni. These Hiberni were the Irish of the time. In Southern Scotland there were also the various tribes of the Britons. Both the Hiberni and the Britons were of Celtic origin. To the Romans, the tribes were recognised by the Latin equivalent of their tribal names. However, it was only the tribes which came into contact with the Romans, usually in the form of battles, that were naturally considered by them to be the most powerful and prominent. From this came the Roman habit of calling the land after whoever they saw as being the most powerful tribe. Origin Myth of the Picts ------------------------ An early Irish origin myth gives 'Cruithne' as the eponymous ancestor of the Picts. In this myth it is said that the seven sons of Cruithne gave their names to the seven divisions of the Pictish kingdom. The names of the seven sons were Fib, Fidach, Foltlaig, Fortrenn, Caitt, Ce and Circinn. Fib is equated with Fife, the site of Fidach is uncertain, the others being Athfotla, Fortriu, Caithness, Aberdeenshire and Angus respectively. Regardless of the accuracy of the myth, these seven divisions did exist historically within Pictish territories. It is interesting to note that Athfotla, ie Atholl, is equated with one of the sons, Foltlaig. Athfotla means 'new Ireland' and an area once identified as being occupied by the Picts, Argyll, is omitted entirely from the divisions of the Pictish Kingdom. So it seems that this creation myth came at a time when the Dalriada kingdom was already in place in the Argyll area. There is also a possibility that the Picts were of Gaulish descent. The Pictones, sometimes given as Pectones, were a Gaulish tribe to be found on the Bay of Biscay south of the Loire Historical Records ------------------ The first ever written record of the people known as the Picts came from Roman sources. In 297 A.D. the orator Eumenius referred to the Britons as 'already being accustomed to the Picti and Hiberni as enemies', implying that they had been making their presence felt for some time. The people we call the Picts never used such a term for themselves. Scotland at that time was made up of tribal peoples who identified themselves simply by the name of their tribe. The idea of kings and kingdoms was only beginning to come into being. Concerning the tribal identity of the peoples who came to be called the Picts, one reference came from a Roman in 310 A.D. who mentions "the Caledones and other Picts". There is some controversy over this translation,others giving it as "the Caledones, Picts and others". Depending on which translation you accept, this could either imply that the Caledonians were Pictish, or that the Caledones and Picts were only two of several tribes in the area. Other tribal names of early Scotland, of Celtic root, include: Caereni, (people of the sheep) Lugi, (of the raven) Smertae (the 'smeared ones') and Decantae (nobles). Besides the Caledonii (the 'hard ones'?) were the Vacomagi and Venicones. Other tribes included the Epidii on the west coast and the Damnonii, Novantae and Selgovae further south. In later times a number of these tribes merged to form what became the 'Pictish kingdom'. It was not long after this point that the influence of the Picts began to be felt in the north of the country. It is also from this point that confusion can set in. While the Caledonians were the power in the north, the Romans called the country Caledonia. So when the Picts came into power they likewise called the country Pictavia. The people were also then called Picts. At the same time the Irish were still calling them Cruithne. In Watson's own words: "it is important to keep in view that while all Picts were Cruithne, all Cruithne were not Picts". The Picts were therefore one tribe amongst many others who happened to gain control over a particular area. They did not gain control over the areas in Ireland that the Irish Cruithne or non-Gaelic tribes lived on. Therefore, the Irish Cruithne were not Picts and should never be called such. Further information ------------------- See the series of articles on the Picts and Scotland's Early History published by Dalriada Celtic Heritage Trust at: http://www.dalriada.co.uk/ http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/ Picts in the Dee and Don valley Further reading --------------- "In search of the Picts", by Elizabeth Sutherland, Ed.Constable, London. "Picts", HMSO press, ISBN 0 11 493491 6 The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland by J Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson The Pinkfoot Press, Balgavies, by Forfar Angus DD8 2TH ISBN 1 874012 03 2 and ISBN 1 874012 04 0 republished 1993 This is a web offset reprint of the 1903 ***Tome*** 2 volumes 1000 pages 8-O 8-O Contains everything which was then known about its subject and is still very up to date. Strongly recommended. [11.6] Antiquarian books Domhnall MacCormaig Antiquarian Bookseller Specialising in Scottish Gaelic books, Highlands and Islands topography, Scottish history and Celtic studies Visitors by appointment 19 Braid Crescent, Edinburgh, EH10 6AX Tel: 0131 447 2889 Fax: 0131 447 9496 Member of the Scottish branch of the antiquarian booksellers' association See also http://www.blackwell.co.uk/ (Antiquarian catalogue link off here) [11.7] Historical re-enactments Scottish Reproduction Weaponry: Castle Keep Unit 7B1, Portree Industrial Estate Portree, Isle of Skye Tel. 01478 612114 Rob makes hand forged swords, knives, dirks and sgian dubhs, also wrought iron and leather goods, for historical re-enactments. [11.8] Museum of Scotland project See http://www.museum.scotland.net/ The museum should be finished in November 98. see also http://www.nms.ac.uk/ (National Museums of Scotland) [11.9] The story of Glasgow's emblem (fish and ring) Here's the relevant excerpt from Iain MacDonald's "Saint Mungo" (Floris Books, Edinburgh, 1993): ************************************************************************ HOW THE SAINT MIRACULOUSLY RESTORED TO THE QUEEN THE RING WHICH SHE HAD IMPROPERLY GIVEN AWAY Queen Languoreth, living in plenty and delights, was not faithful to the royal chamber or the marital bed, as she ought to have been: for the wealth of her treasures, the exuberance of her means of sensuality, and the elevation of power, gave incentives and fuel to the will of the flesh. She cast her eyes on a certain youth, a soldier, who seemed to her to be beautiful and fair of aspect beyond many at court. And he, who without external temptation, was himself ready enough for such a service as this, was easily induced to sin with her. As time passed, the forbidden pleasures, frequently repeated, became more and more delightful to both of them; so from a rash act they proceeded to a blind love, and a royal ring of gold, set with a precious gem, which her lawful husband had entrusted to her as a special mark of his conjugal love, she very imprudently bestowed upon her lover. He, more impudently and more imprudently placing it upon his finger, opened the door of suspicion to all who were conversant in the matter. A faithful servant of the king, finding this out, took care to instil the secret of the queen and the soldier into the ears of the husband, who did not willingly lend his ear or his mind to her disgrace. But the detector of the adultery, in proof of the matter, showed the ring on the finger of the soldier; and so persuading the king to believe him, he succeeded in kindling the spirit of jealousy within him. The king veiled under a calm demeanour his wrath against the queen and the soldier, and appeared more than usually cheerful and kind. But when a bright day occurred, he went out hunting, and summoning the soldier to accompany him, sought the woods and forests with a great company of beaters and dogs. Having loosed the dogs and stationed his friends at different places, the king with the soldier came down to the banks of the river Clud, and they, in a shady place on the green turf, thought it would be pleasant to sleep for a little. The soldier, suspecting no danger and resting his head, straightaway slumbered; but the spirit of jealousy exciting the king, suffered him neither to slumber nor to take any rest. Seeing the ring on the finger of the sleeper, his wrath was kindled, and he with difficulty restrained his hand from his sword and from shedding of blood; but he controlled his rage, and after drawing the ring off the finger threw it into the river, and then, waking the man, ordered him to return to his companions and go home. The soldier waking up from sleep, and thinking nothing about the ring, obeyed the king's order, and never discovered what he had lost till he entered his house. But when, on the return of the king, the queen in the usual manner came forth from her chamber and saluted him, from his mouth there proceeded threats, contempt, and reproach, while with flashing eyes and menacing countenance he demanded where the ring was which he had entrusted to her keeping. When she declared that she had it laid up in a casket, the king, in the presence of all his courtiers, commanded her to bring it to him. She, still full of hope, entered the inner chamber as if to seek the ring, but straightaway sent a messenger to the soldier, telling him of the king's anger, and ordering him to send the ring back quickly. The soldier sent back to the queen that he had lost the ring and could not tell where. Then, fearing the face of the king, for the sake of concealment, he absented himself from court. In the meantime, as she sought further delays, and was slow in producing what, of course, she could not find, uselessly seeking here and there, the king in fury frequently calling her an adulteress, broke forth in curses saying: "God do to me, and more also, if I judge thee not according to the law of adulterers, and condemn thee to a most disgraceful death. Thou, clinging to a young adulterer, hast neglected the king thy spouse; yet I would have made thee the sharer of my bed and the mistress of my kingdom: thou hast done it in secret; I will do it in public, and the sun shall manifest thine ignominy and reveal thy more shameful things before thy face." And when he had said much after this sort, all the courtiers praying for some delay, he with difficulty conceded three days, and ordered her to be imprisoned. Cast into a dungeon, she now contemplated death as imminent; but not the less did her guilty conscience torment her. By the inspiration of the Lord, the woman in her great strait sent a faithful messenger to Saint Kentigern, told him her whole misfortune, and urgently requested help. She also begged that at least he would use his influence with the king and beseech pardon for her, for there was nothing so great which he would, or could, or ought to deny him. The saintly bishop, knowing the whole story before the arrival of the messenger, ordered him to go with a hook to the bank of the river Clud, to cast the hook into the stream, and to bring back to him straightaway the first fish that was caught upon it and taken out of the water. The man did what the saint commanded, and exhibited in the presence of the man of God a large fish which is commonly called a salmon; and on his ordering it to be cut open and gutted in his presence, he found in it the ring in question, which he straightaway sent by the same messenger to the queen. And when she saw it and received it, her heart was filled with joy, her mouth with praise and thanksgiving. Therefore the queen returned to the king the ring he had required, in the sight of all. Wherefore the king and all his court were sorry for the injuries done to the queen; and humbly on his knees he sought her pardon, and swore he would inflict a severe punishment, even death or exile if she willed, upon her slanderers. But she wisely desired that he should show mercy. And so the king, and the queen, and the accuser were recalled to the grace of peace and mutual love. [11.10] Scottish historic buildings and sites Historic Scotland is the government organisation which looks after many of Scotland's historic sites and ancient buildings http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ There is also the National Trust for Scotland http://www.scotlandonline.com/sntrust/ The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/ Historic places to go in Scotland http://www.electricscotland.com/historic/ and Scottish Natural Heritage http://www.snh.org.uk/ The Architectural Heritage society of Scotland http://www.ahss.org.uk/ may also be of interest If you are interested in conservation, the site at http://www.treesforlife.org.uk/ is well worth a visit. They are a Scottish conservation charity dedicated to the regeneration and restoration of the Caledonian Forest in the Highlands of Scotland. [11.11] William Wallace / Braveheart Historical references --------------------- If you want to read about the history rather than the Hollywood tale, a scholarly work is 'William Wallace' by Andrew Fisher from John Donald Publishers Ltd., 138 Stephen Street, Edinburgh, Scotland at 8.95 pounds plus postage. The Hollywood tale has a large number of invented storylines and major historical inaccuracies and only has a passing resemblance to historical fact. Other references: "Robert Bruce", by GWS Barrow, Edinburgh University Press. "The Scottish and Welsh Wars 1250-1400" by Christopher Rothero, Osprey Men-at_Arms Series. "Robert the Bruce, King of Scots" Ronald McNair Scott, Canongate Pub. "The Battle of Bannockburn, a Study in Medieval Warfare" by WM MacKenzie, M.A., The Strong Oak Press Ltd. "The Bruce Trilogy" by Nigel Tranter, Coronet Books. "The Wallace", Nigel Tranter, Coronet Books. "The Costume of Scotland" by John Telfer Dunbar. B.T. Batsford Ltd, London. Further information ------------------- Islay Woollen Mills Bowmore Isle of Islay Scotland PA43 7LB The owner/operator, Gordon, did the weaving for the Braveheart tartans. Links ----- http://bay1.bjt.net/~melanie/bravehea3.html and http://www.highlanderweb.co.uk/wallace/ William Wallace Stonehaven day http://www.geocities.com/stonehavenday/ [11.12] Clan Links General ------- Gathering of the Clans: http://www.tartans.com/ http://www.tartans.com/ http://www.tartans.scotland.net/ Specific -------- Clan Cameron http://www.clan-cameron.org/ Clan Donald USA: http://www.clan-donald-usa.org/ UK Clan Grant Society: http://www.clangrant.org/ Clan Gregor http://www.clangregor.com/ Clan Graham Association http://www.clan-graham-association.org.uk/pages/ Clan Stewart: http://www.stewartsociety.org/ Clan MacDonald http://www.macdonald.com/ Clan MacIntyre http://www.clanmacintyre.org/ Clan MacTavish http://www.mactavish.org/ Achlain medals - clan crest medals ---------------------------------- We are a company based in the Highlands of Scotland near Loch Ness who are selling 99.9% pure silver clan crest medals. Our medals have been approved by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Please have a look at our site at: http://www.achlainestates.co.uk/ The standing council can be reached at: Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs Hope Chambers 52 Leith Walk Edinburgh EH6 5HW Clan Gregor mailing list ------------------------ There is a new Mailing List for persons interested in the heritage of the Clan Gregor (MacGregor), Clan Alpine (MacAlpine), and septs of Alpine and Gregor. Subscription is via E-Mail from the home page of the American Clan Gregor Society: http://www.webcom.com/us_scot/acgs.html or directly to mailto:us_scot@webcom.com The mailing list is known as "Ard Choille". It is a moderated list for all parties with an interest in MacGregor history, lineage, and current events. The primary interests are to: bring persons interested in Clan Gregor, its septs, and related clans together in clan friendship; collect and publish historical and genealogical material; and inform participants about the history of the Clan in Scotland and America; and aid descendants within the Clan. Further clan information ------------------------ See also [11.1] and [12.5] [11.13] John MacLean Article by Abby Sale, and from an extract by Sorley MacLean, Craig Cockburn and Jack Campin John Maclean was born 14 August 1879 (died St Andrews Day, 30-Nov-1923). He was Scotland's great turn-of-the-century labour leader. He is mentioned in two Hamish Henderson songs - Freedom Come all Ye and of course The John MacLean march. He was a schoolteacher and member of the Social Democratic Federation, who believed passionately in workers' education (his teaching of 'Marxian economics' attracted classes of over 1000 at times). He was anti-militarist, and was imprisoned four times between 1916 and 1921. His position as a socialist and a nationalist is unequalled in Scottish politicial history. Some history books fail to mention him at all and they can be judged on that. John MacLean has a street named after him in St. Petersburg. The lyrics of the John MacLean march are at http://www.dickalba.demon.co.uk/songs/texts/johnmacl.html Maclean's triumphant return to Glasgow from Peterhead Jail was 3 December 1918. See The biography by James D. Young, _John Maclean: Clydeside Socialist_ (Clydeside Press.) It's still available from AK Distribution, who have a US office: http://www.akpress.org/ Sorley MacLean wrote of John MacLean Clann Ghill-Eain ---------------- Chan e iadsan a bha\saich an a\rdan Inbhir-che/itean dhaindeoin gaisge is uabhair ceann uachdrach ar sgeula ach esan bha'n Glaschu, ursann-chatha nam feumach, Iain Mo/r MacGill-Eain, ceann is fe\itheam ar sgeula. The Clan MacLean ---------------- Not they who died in the hateur of Inverkeithing in spite of valour and pride the high head of our story ; but he who was in Glasgow the battle-post of the poor, great John MacLean the top and hem of our story. [11.14] Robert Tannahill Information on the Scottish composer Robert Tannahill, based on David Semple's "The Poems and Songs and Correspondence of Robert Tannahill, with Life and Notes." Paisley: Alex Gardner, 1876. Robert Tannahill's family had been weavers for several generations at Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. They moved to Paisley in 1756, which a that time had more than 1300 working looms and only about 4000 people. They did well, married, raised large families, served their church, and owned their houses. In 1786 James Tannahill, Robert's father, was chosen Deacon or Boxmaster of the Paisley Old Weavers' Society. Family connections have a bearing on Tannahill's work, not only because prosperity made possible both the education and the leisure to pursue the arts, but more specifically because his mother, Janet Pollick, was related to the Brodie family, which had produced several poets and actors among its farmers and weavers. One of her cousins, Robert Brodie, was a poet of some local renown, and a frequent visitor to the Tannahill home. Robert was the 5th child and 4th son, born June 3, 1774, and was sickly from the start. Through careful nursing, he survived, and "a slight bend in the right foot was straightened." His constitution remained delicate throughout his life, however, and he endured considerable pain and embarrassment from a lifelong limp. He wore extra stockings on his thin right leg to make it look more like his other leg, and all his life was bashful of meeting strangers. Both Robert's parents had had a liberal education, and the children were sent to school from the age of 6 to 12. Robert did not distinguish himself at school, though by age 10 he was entertaining his friends with verses about public figures in the town. After leaving school he bought a dictionary with a grammar included and continued to instruct himself in his chosen avocation. In 1786, aged 12, he was apprenticed to his father, working in the relatively light trade of muslin, linen and silk weaving. Apparently some biographers have asserted that this was a sign of family poverty, but Semple asserts it was the custom of the town for boys to go to work at that age, and that wages were good. Robert also spent a good deal of time walking, to strengthen his leg and his constitution, though it also increased his pain. The "woods of Craigielee" were but a 3 minute walk from his father's house, and the countryside around Paisley served as setting and material for many of his later songs. Robert's apprenticeship ended in 1791, the year Tam O'Shanter was published (expensively). It came out cheaply in 1794, and folks in Paisley felt especially attached to the story because of the reference to a "cutty sark o Paisley harn." Robert and his friends walked from Paisley to Alloway Kirk & spent six weeks in Burns' country.. At this time, when he was about 20, Robert seems to have begun a conscious self-education by reading and correspondence, toward the "treating of poetry and music". His declared purpose in this period was to restore the popularity of old Scottish airs by writing new words for them. He must have been working feverishly (perhaps literally so, given his health) for he attached an inkpot to the frame of his loom so he could write down whatever came to him as he worked. (Which makes one wonder to what extent the rhythm of weaving affected the rhythms of his poems.) In 1795, the poet met Jenny Tennant, a girl about 4 years older than himself, who had come with her mother to Paisley from Dunblane to seek employment. They "walked out together" for 3 years but she married another in 1798. How much this disappointment contributed to Robert's later despondency is of course a favourite topic of speculation. By the end of the century, the population of Paisley had ballooned to nearly 24,000, and when a widespread crop failure in 1799 caused a stagnation in trade throughout the UK, the town was thrown into a crisis. Provisions rose to famine prices and committees were formed to operate soup kitchens. Robert, then 26, and his youngest brother, Hugh, then 20, went to England looking for work, but found the "distress" there equally severe. In Bolton, Lancashire, they were taken in by a former Paisley weaver and through him were able to find work. They were called home, however, by the end of 1801, to attend their father's death bed. Robert moved back in with his mother and returned to his loom and his poems. The correspondence included in Semple's collection begins in the spring of 1802. Tradesmen of Paisley had been forming reading clubs and other societies for "mental culture" since about 1770. Robert and his friends formed a new one in 1803 devoted exclusively to music, poetry, and literature. Its 15-20 members "considered themselves the cream of the intellectual tradesmen of the town," and their meetings included the vociferous and detailed critique of various poems and publications, including Robert's poems. The proceedings were in general well lubricated, and Robert endured a lot of ridicule for abstaining from liquor--whether for moral or health reasons is not clear. Robert valued the opinions of these men (and at least one woman, who hosted them when they travelled from Paisley to meet with like-minded men in Kilmarnock) and continued to court their good opinion until the day of his death. He wrote "The Soldier's Return," a "dramatic interlude," on request from a local actor (who died before he finished it), and submitted it to the club for critique. They disliked it, and apparently told Tannahill the reasons in some detail, and with a deal of drunken enthusiasm, when he inquired. The poet was crushed by this reaction, and sullenly continued to believe the drama was his "complete masterpiece". The "interlude" did include some good songs, however. John Ross of Aberdeen had been employed to write the music for "Our Bonnie Scots Lads" (a song on the Paisley recruits) and "The Dusky Glen," and the performance of one of these songs brought Tannahill together with another composer, R.A. Smith, who, along with William McLaren became a close friend. (Smith was the son of an English weaver who relocated to Paisley. Unlike Tannahill, he had no aptitude for a weaver's life and hated the work.) McLaren wrote an early biography of Tannahill, and described him in these years as a staid, quiet, inoffensive man, about 5'4", with a halt in his walk, not a fine dresser (some of his siblings were the setters of fashion in Paisley), who spent most of his money on books, stationery, postage, and occasional traveling expenses". He was not strong, and had a permanent dry cough (He and the rest of his club were heavy smokers). Tannahill's first publication was in 1804 or 1805 in a literary magazine in Edinburgh -- its title has never (at least to 1876) been satisfactorily identified. His next publication seems to have been in another unidentified magazine in England. It seems logical that he must have published more extensively than this in 1804, as 17 of his poems were included in a pair of Glasgow publications of 1805 and 1806--"The Selector" and "The Glena," both of which, as their names suggest, were "gleanings" from other publications. In any case, from then on Tannahill was published regularly, in "The Paisley Repository", "The Nightingale", "The Caledonian Musical Repository" and other publications. Tannahill's fame and popularity were growing. Many of his poems had been put to music by Smith and by Ross, and their lyrics were easily memorised. Women singers were fond of his songs, and those from "The Soldier's Return" had an added patriotic appeal. But his first audience remained his most cherished one, and he continued to show new pieces to his club and to other friends--the careful saving of these copies by his acquaintance subsequently saved many poems from oblivion. In 1806 he was instrumental in opening a lending library for tradesmen in Paisley (there already was one for gentlemen), and he remained a working weaver and full member of his community. In May 1807 an edition of his poems was published, with an advance subscription of 900. The "interlude" and the songs received the same reception from critics as they had in Paisley--they hated the play and loved the songs--and once again the poet was cast into despair. The drama was his masterpiece, he insisted again, and his songs "commonplace", elevated to greater interest only by the music supplied by others. Still, the book made money, at least 20 pounds, and increased his fame. It allowed him to pursue his next desire, the collection of Irish airs--a project that proved far more problematic than his similar use of Scottish sources. Judging from one of his letters, he apparently collected unpublished songs from the Irish, had them translated or just talked to the singer about what the song was about, and then wrote verses in what he believed to be the same vein--often using people or events around Paisley as models for a song's situation. In 1808 a number of these new songs were rejected by George Thomson for publication, and in 1810 two other publishers refused a new edition of his poems. All was not discouragement in these years--in 1808 he wrote a comic song, "Caller Herrin," to the air of "The Cameronian Rant," and by 1810 six other new poems had been published in "Scots Magazine"-- but economic times were hard in Paisley, and the three major publication refusals were hard on Tannahill's spirits. In March, 1810, just before he received the second refusal on his new edition, Tannahill received a visit at Paisley from James Hogg. The visit was arranged by Smith, the composer, and the three of them spent a "convivial evening" with other friends in the club room of a tavern. This was the last great event of Tannahill's life. Shortly afterward, friends began to recognize symptoms of mental disturbance: he was despondent and sometimes incoherent. On several occasions he was escorted home by friends afraid to let him go into the streets alone. Wading through the Semple's elevated and euphemistic language, (the only direct phrase is "aberration of mind") one concludes that Tannahill probably suffered from an organic mental illness. On the night of May 16, 1810, he was seen to bed by his mother, but got up later and left the house. When his absence was discovered, a search party was organized and his watch and other effects were found by a canal. His body was recovered shortly thereafter. [11.15] Robert the Bruce I cannot recommend 'The Bruce', John Barbour annotated by A.A.M. Duncan, highly enough. Archie Duncan was professor of Scottish history at Glasgow University from 1962 to 1993. Aside from modernisation of some letter styles this is an unadulterated transcription of the 'E' (Edinburgh) m.s. the nearest to original among extant m.s. His commentary is both rational and logically coherent. It also has the merit of being by a Scot on Scottish history, somewhat of a rarity. Publisher Canongate Classics, Canongate books, Edinburgh ISBN 0 86241 681 7 http://www.canongate.net/ The Scottish Text Society published a very nice 3 volume version called Barbour's Bruce, edited by Matthew P. McDiarmid (1985). That has over 60 pages of a very useful glossary in Volume I. There is a paperback book: The Bruce by John Barbour edited by A.A.M. Duncan, Canongate Books, Edinburgh, (1997) for about 10 pounds which has extensive notes that point out factual errors, redundancies, etc. See also [11.11] The Bruce Film -------------- The Bruce was made in 1996 and mainly funded by private investors buying debentures that gave them certain benefits, e.g. place in the credits as Associate Producer and right to be in the film as an extra. The company had previously made a film called Chasing the Deer about the 1745 uprising and also produced Macbeth (with Jason Connery and Helen Baxendale). Before that they made factual videos of many wars/battles including a life of William Wallace. See here for more information http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/B00004UEYG/scottishmusiccom the film is now available on video [11.16] Thomas Muir An article on the Scottish Political Reformist Thomas Muir. He was transported to Australia for 14 years for attempting to change the political system in Britain, and was involved in political reform in the US, France and Ireland. Thomas Muir is the subject of a song by Adam McNaughton, sung often by Dick Gaughan. Article sent by Charles McGregor mailto:chic.m@zetnet.co.uk Source: Steel's "Scotland's Story". A very good, if succinct history of Scotland and which featured as a TV series about 10 years ago. The first Convention of the Scottish Friends of the People opened in Edinburgh on 11 December 1792. Over 150 delegates representing 150 societies from 35 towns and villages attended. Their aim was to draw up a petition to send to the British Parliament in support of electoral reform. Thomas Muir, a Glasgow barrister with a reputation as a man of principle, had helped organise many of the societies. He had also, before the Convention, been in contact with the United Irishmen movement, a group of professional men in Dublin also bent on political reform. Against the advice of his colleagues, Muir read an address the United Irishmen had sent which urged the Edinburgh Convention to 'openly, actively and urgently' will Parliamentary reform. On the last day of the Convention, a Petition to Parliament was read and approved; but it was suggested that the Convention arm itself so as to be able to help magistrates put down riots that might occur in support of reform. An emotional evening session ended with delegates swearing the French oath, 'To live free or die'. The government at Westminster misread the situation. The Home Office files bulged with reports from spies. As informers were paid piece-rate many had put down gossip as fact, and rumour spread that the delegates were preparing themselves for insurrection. The government panicked and on 2 January 1793 arrested Muir. His trial opened in Edinburgh on 30 August 1793. He was accused of making seditious speeches, of circulating Paine's Rights of Man and of defending as well as reading the Address from the United Irishmen. Muir turned down an offer made by Henry Erskine, the Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, to defend him and conducted his own defence: "I am accused of sedition and yet can prove by thousands of witnesses that I warned the people of that crime, exhorted them to adopt none but measures which were constitutional, and entreated them to connect liberty with knowledge and both with morality." The trial lasted sixteen hours, the evidence heard by five judges and a jury. But the proceedings were dominated bv Lord Braxfield, of whom Lord Cockburn wrote: "Strong built and dark, with rough eyebrows, powerful eyes, threatening lips, and a low growling voice, he was like a formidable blacksmith. His accent and his dialect were exaggerated Scotch; his language, like his thoughts, short, strong, and conclusive. He was the Jeffreys of Scotland. 'Let them bring me prisoners, and I'll find them law', used to be openly stated as his suggestion, when an intended political prosecution was marred by anticipated difficulties." Muir's flowery address to the jury lasted three hours but fell upon deaf ears. "I have devoted myself to the cause of the people. It is a good cause, it shall ultimately prevail, it shall ultimately triumph." Braxfield, who had arrogantly dismissed the evidence of Muir's twenty one witnesses, summed up: "Government in this country is made up of the landed interest, which alone has a right to be represented; as for the rabble, who have nothing but personal property, what hold has the nation of them? what security for the payment of their taxes? They may pack up all their property on their backs, and leave the country in the twinkling of an eye." The jury found Muir guilty, and Braxfield sentenced him to fourteen years transportation to Botany Bay, a novel sentence then tantamount to the death penalty. After 1783 Britain had looked to Australia as a substitute for the American colonies to take the overflow from Britain's prisons. The first fleet of eleven vessels had carried nearly 800 convicts, and had arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788. Many subsequent ships sank before reaching Australia; many convicts died of dysentery or typhoid en route, and by the time of Muir's sentence horror stories about Britain's embryo prison colony abounded. Scots were shocked by the sentence. Robert Burns was moved to write, 'Scots Wha Hae' in protest, a song which was immediately banned as seditious. 'The newspapers gave Muir's trial enormous coverage and three editions of the court's proceedings were published, two of them in America. After sentence, Muir was taken to the Tolbooth and on 14 November put on board the Royal George bound for London. His mother and father presented him with a pocket Bible with the inscription, 'To Thomas Muir from his Afflicted Parents'. The question of his sentence was raised five times in Parliament; but on 13 February, Muir, together with Skirving, Gerrald and Margarot, set sail for Botany Bay. The filthy, stinking, mutinous voyage took nearly six months. Because they were political prisoners Muir and the Edinburgh Martyrs were not obliged to work like the other convicts. Thomas Muir purchased a small farm near Sydney Cove and called it Huntershill, after his father's Scottish home. On 24 January 1796, the Otter, an American ship from Boston, visited the colony and the night before she set sail Thomas Muir managed to board her. His escape, after just sixteen months in the colony, proved a timely one. Within a month of Muir's bid for freedom, Gerrald died at the age of thirty-six and Skining succumbed to dysentery. After many adventures Muir eventually reached France, where he was given a hero's welcome at Bordeaux, and thence conveyed to Paris where the Revolutionary government held a banquet in his honour. But his last years were marked by sad decline, both physical and intellectual. Although he had not seen Britain's shores for four years, he set himself up as an expert on his country's affairs. Talleyrand, the French Foreign Secretary, allowed him a small pension; but once the French had exhausted Muir's propaganda value he became an irrelevance. He died at Chantilly outside Paris in 1798, more extreme in his views and more full of his own importance than ever. I heard one anecdote from Muir's trial recently. Some woolly minded liberal member of the Scottish establishment pleaded with Braxfield: "But rememberber, my Lord, Jesus Christ was a reformer too." "Muckle he made o' that. He was hanget," was Braxfield's retort. In Edinburgh Library there are many accounts of Scotland's links with Australia. Not all the Scots who found themselves on the other side of the world went as prisoners. The second governor of New South Wales, John Hunter, responsible for consolidating the colony, was a Leith man. There is a memorial to him by the Leith dock gates, near the Malmaison Hotel. The 5th governor of New South Wales and Australia's greatest Governor Major-General was also Scottish: Major-General Lachlan Macquarie. Macquarie was a Scottish soldier and Governor of the colony of New South Wales from 1810-1821, whose term of office was noted for humanitarian treatment of ex-convicts, encouragement of public works programmes, inland exploration and the creation of new towns. Lachlan Macquarie was born on the tiny island of Ulva, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland and grew up on the nearby larger island of Mull. As with other other expatriate communities, these links are much better remembered in Australia than they are in Scotland. The excellent Mitchell Library in New South Wales, for example, has a fine collection of material about Muir. Later on in the same book... 1820 is the year of the so-called Scottish Insurrection. The events, which were to culminate in the execution of three weavers for high treason, were, however, in large part the expression of the resentment many in Scotland felt for having fought for Britain against Napoleon only to return home and find themselves treated as seditious rabble and industrial scrap. Attempts had been made by the authorities, after the Napoleonic War, to relieve the hardship caused by unemployment. The Town Council of Glasgow, for instance, employed 324 workless to restyle Glasgow Green. Relief centres were also opened up in the town; but charity did little to ameliorate what was seen as the root of the problem. If the disaffected, as the government called them, were to continue to be intransigent, there was but one solution, namely to create a head-on collision that would put the radical movement in its place. In 1820, government spies once again were ordered to infiltrate the radical ranks. They encouraged the radicals to form a Committee of Organisation for Forming a Provisional Government, and on 1 April placards appeared on the streets of Glasgow, calling for an immediate national strike and a rising on 5 April: "To show the world that we are not that lawless, sanguinary' rabble which our oppressors would persuade the higher circles we are but a brave and generous people determined to be free." The Proclamation, making reference, as it did, to the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights, was probably written by a government spy. Throughout Scotland some 60,000 stopped work on 1 April. Yet unknown to the rank and file of the radical movement, twenty-eight members of the so-called provisional government were in Glasgow jail and had been since 21 March when they had been quietly arrested. On April Fool's Day 1820, the streets of Glasgow were lined with troops. The government had called out the Rifle Brigade and the 83rd Regiment of Foot, together with the 7th and 10th Hussars, under the command of Sir Richard Hussey Vivian, the government's leading expert in cavalry tactics and expressly sent north by the Duke of York in case of disturbances. Samuel Hunter's Glasgow Sharpshooters were also on hand, under his personal command. There was a brief encounter in the evening when three hundred radicals skirmished with a party 'of cavalry', but no one came to harm that day. At Fir Park, now Glasgow's Necropolis, seventy radicals had been directed by government agents to go to Falkirk, where English sympathisers, it was said, would join up with them and help take the Carron Iron Works. When the small band got there, they found nobody and half of them dispersed. Thirty radicals were resting at Bonnymuir, near Castlecary, when a troop of the 7th Hussars advanced towards them. Andrew Hardie, one of the radicals, recalled the scene: "Some of our men were wounded in a most shocking manner, and it is truly unbecoming the character of a soldier to wound, or try and kill any man whom he has it in his power to take prisoner, and when we had no arms to make any defence." Forty-seven radicals were ultimately rounded up and taken to the military prison at Stirling Castle. Twenty-four were tried and sentenced to death. One of the three hanged was a sixty-year-old weaver, James Wilson. A special English Court of Oyer and Terminer, a royal commission court with power to hear and determine criminal causes, was set up in Glasgow. Wilson made an impassioned speech to the court: "You may condemn me to immolation on the scaffold, but you cannot degrade me. If I have appeared as a pioneer in the van of freedom's battles - if I have attempted to free my country from political degradation - my conscience tells me that I have only done my duty. Your brief authority will soon cease, but the vindictive proceedings this day shall be recorded in history". Sentence was passed by Lord President Hope. Wilson was to be drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution, hanged, then his head severed from his body and his corpse quartered. Twenty thousand people witnessed James Wilson's execution on Glasgow Green. His remains were spared quartering and were ultimately allowed to rest in Strathaven, the village of his birth, where in his younger days, it is said, he had invented the purl stitch. Two other radicals, John Baird a thirty-two-year-old weaver from Condorrat, and Andrew Hardie, a weaver from Glasgow aged twenty-eight were executed in Stirling, watched by a crowd of 2000. The night before Hardie wrote to his girlfriend: "I shall die firm to the cause in which I embarked, and although we were outwitted and betrayed, yet I protest, as a dying man, it was done with good intention on my part... No person could have induced me to take up arms to rob or plunder; no, my dear Margaret, I took them for the restoration of those rights for which our forefathers bled, and which we have allowed shamefully to be wrested from us." (I find these words especially moving....chic) The authorities had trouble in finding someone who would chop off the heads of the two radicals at Stirling. Nine days before the ex-ecution two town clerks were sent to 'engage an executioner'. One went to Glasgow, where he witnessed James Wilson's execution and noticed he was first hanged by an executioner and then had his head severed by another masked man 'in a long robe'. Glasgow's hangman demanded ten guineas per victim and, grudgingly, the Stirling Town Clerk agreed to pay it. The decapitator was found in Edinburgh. He demanded twenty guineas per victim for what was regarded as a more dangerous job as the crowd would almost certainly react to his gory task. The sentences of nineteen other radicals captured after Bonnymuir were commuted to transportation to New South Wales, seven for life and twelve for fourteen years. Peter Mackenzie, a Glasgow journalist, campaigned to have them pardoned. He published a small book en-titled, "The Spy System, including the exploits of Mr Alex. Richmond, the notorious Government Spy of Sidmouth and Castlereagh........" [11.17] John Paul Jones This Scot went on to found the US Navy. There is a museum in Scotland about him. More info at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paul_Jones [11.18] The Auld Alliance See here for more info http://www.franco-ecossaise.asso.fr/ [11.19] The Clearances A new fully-moderated version of the Highland Clearances mailing list is now up and running. To subscribe, please send a message to: mailto:majordomo@list.sirius.com with the command: subscribe fuadach-nan-gaidheal in the body of the message. See also http://members.aol.com/skyewrites/menu9.html [11.20] Battle of Culloden http://www.queenofscots.co.uk/culloden/cull.html [11.21] Knights Templar Article by Alan Clayton mailto:Alan1314@aol.com ----------------------------------------------- The Knights Templar were a military Religious Order, to put it somewhat simplictically 'fighting monks' as there was a vow of chastity. They were founded in 1119AD to protect Christian pilgrims visiting the Holy Land and in particular the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, hence the name. They were first established in Scotland by King David 1st. Their main base in Scotland was at Maryculter in Kincardineshire, founded by one of their members, Walter Bisset in 1221AD. The place name Temple is of course a definate indication of their presence and influence in an area (e.g. Temple, Midlothian) By the 14th century they were so wealthy and powerful they had become Europe's bankers, one of history's paradoxes since their secondary name was The Poor Knights of Christ. Due to this they were alleged to have become heretics and King Philip 4th of France induced Pope Clement 5th at Avignon in southern France (another story) to expel them in 1307. King Robert 1st of Scots, The Bruce, offered them sanctuary in return for support in his struggle with England. Although primary source material has not been found (Scottish state documents were destroyed by both Edward 1st of England and Cromwell in attempts to eliminate the existence of a Scottish state from human history) there is strong circumstantial evidence that it was they who led the charge of Sma' folk at Bannockburn and it was the Knights in cavalry charge, with their distinctive white crosses on their shields, rather than the Sma' folk per se that led the English troops to finally break and run in terror. Certainly if they were coming in only when Scottish victory seemed likely there was some 'bet hedging' deal with Bruce. King Edward 2nd of England confiscated all their property in England in 1315AD, another strong circumstantial indication that they were at Bannockburn. From Bannockburn till the Rerformation in 1560AD they acted as parish clergy in a number of Scottish parishes including the collegiate church called Rosslyn Chapel http://www.rosslynchapel.org.uk/ They also acted as parish clergy at Inchinnan in Renfrewshire and several are buried at the Renfrew end of the runway of Glasgow Airport where All Hallows Church of Scotland had to be demolished when the runway was built, as it was in the direct flight path. Several Templar tombstones were removed at that time to the replacement church, St Conval's Church of Scotland, Inchinnan, and are in the Church grounds. The present Minister, Rev Marlyn Maclane would I am sure be delighted to answer any questions that may be asked of her. Entry to the Templar cemetery requires the permission of Glasgow Airport security and can only be accessed with security present. Article by Charles McGregor mailto:chic.m@zetnet.co.uk ------------------------------------------------------ The Knights Templars were formed in 1118 AD (mildly disputed) in Jerusalem, after the crusaders had captured the Holy Land. Ostensibly their task was to protect pilgrims from the still frequent Islamic attacks, however some claim that this was a cover, right from the start. They were a highly secretive organisation and therefore have necessitated and indeed positively invited, much and frequently wild, speculation. Amongst the more famous speculations are those regarding devil worship, worshiping heads and other non-christian practices(Baphomet), the occult, a world control judaic conspiracy, retention of the treasures of Jerusalem, retention of the Holy Grail, knowledge of astonishing secrets (e.g.s Jesus survived the cross and had descendants in Europe. Secret of total power. etc.). All weird and wonderful stuff. Fortunately, the elements of the Templar's story relevant to the voracity of the 'Prince Henry claim' are amongst the least contentious. The following is I believe accepted by certainly the great majority of historians. The Templars had a rule that they could acquire wealth as a body, through their Templar activities, but not individually. Over the years, for services rendered, and possibly with the Jerusalem treasure as a starting fund, the group became very rich. Rather than just have the money sit there, since they couldn't split it up amongst themselves, they loaned it out, at interest of course, to various people (usually kings) all over Europe. This meant that the fund grew at an accelerated rate, and the favours granted by grateful monarchs meant that they became ever more powerful and even richer as a body. Effectively, they became the World's first international banking system. Their services too, developed from the purely marshal and financial, to things like arbitration in all kinds of disputes. The Order spread and grew in number, all over Europe. Eventually, they became extremely arrogant and considered themselves even superior to monarchy or at least, outside it's control and anwerable only to the Pope. Phillipe IV of France (La Belle) became jealous of their power and riches and conspired by papal manipulation to have the order declared heretical aided and abetted by the Templars own predeliction for secrecy. In 1307 the arrests and burnings began across Europe. Here is where Scotland takes centre stage in the story. Because Robert the Bruce was currently excommunicated, Scotland became one of the very few havens in Europe for Templar Knights. The Templars were never proscribed in Scotland, even after the excommunication was lifted. It is believed that refugee Templars even fought at Bannockburn (as of course did Scotland's resident Templars like the Sinclairs), but the number and extent is once more clouded by the secrecy that so characterises Templar history. Some Templars in Scotland are believed to have joined with the Hospitallers there and formed a proto-freemason association [11.22]. So in the 1390's it is highly likely, indeed consensually so, that there would still be a significant number of 'foreign' Templars in Scotland (or at least 1st and 2nd descendants thereof). Furthermore, although some of them may have acquired a degree of wealth and status by dint of marshal rewards, it is probable that, due to their own code, their treasure(which eluded Phillipe's men) could still not be used to deliver them from penury on an individual basis. So what does this have to do with the Prince Henry story? If you recall, I said that the more astute may have noticed a couple of genuine problems with the Prince Henry claim. These are best illustrated by the following questions. Why would Henry undergo the expense and hazard of such a venture? Why, if he had found America, did he not make his fame and fortune by bringing back maize, potatoes, tobacco etc. and seek funding for mass colonization? Why, did he go to all that trouble and not even return there himself? Remember, the Sinclairs were Templars. Amongst the other things discussed above, they had a vow to help other Templars. They also provided two of the Grand Masters of the Templars during their near 200 years of 'legality'. (there is only one at any one time) In Scotland, there were probably still many Templar refugees, although they may have had access to certain funds on a communal basis, many of them were likely to be less well off personally than they would like, neither could they return to their homeland. I think it should be fairly immediately obvious from the above that Templar involvement, in the motivation, the funding and the secrecy of the entire operation, would answer all of the above questions. Henry may well have had a strong desire to help his fellow Templars. They could easily have called upon their communal funding.(12 ships don't come cheap) and he didn't return to the New World because the Sinclairs were quite happily situated in Scotland, he in fact had done it on behalf of others. In fact the Henry expedition may well have been establishing the escape route for what was to be the first of many flights from religious persecution in Europe, to the New World, albeit of a particularily secretive nature. It is not difficult to imagine that Henry was also aware, via his Scandinavian ancestory and the folklore of his principality, of the legend of previous visitations to Vinland (Greenland). Once again, I hasten to add that, the above theory is not of my construction, and the Rosslyn guidebook refers to this fact. For those acquainted with Templar history, the lack of hype, or secrecy surrounding the Prince Henry expedition, is no more than would be expected. Additional information ---------------------- The story of Robert I offering sanctuary to Templars and their role at the battle of Bannockburn is not supported in any way by evidence. Augustin Hay, a writer of romances, invented the tale. By the mid-1200s the Temple order had ceased to have any real military function and had become an international property conglomerate. There is no evidence whatsoever for the arrival of a Templar fleet in Scotland at any time. Also, due to his need for foreign recognition, Robert I would not have done anything to provoke either the king of France or the Pope; he was hardly likely to give succor to an organization that they had gone to such lengths to suppress. These tales have gained a currency in recent years through being re-hashed by unscrupulous people publishing conspiracy novels and pretending that they are history. Absolutely no one with any grounding in medieval history has, or would, accept such offerings as being valid research for the good reason that they are NOT valid research. One of the reasons that Baigent, Leigh, Knight, Lomas, Lincoln and Sinclair have been able to get away with their claims - and make lots of money - is that Scottish people are badly served when it comes to history in our schools. Nobody would get away with such rubbish if it were set in medieval England because English people have a much better grasp of their history. Grail/Templar/Roslin mythologizing does nothing to help, but it does undermine scholarship. There are many fine pieces of work that further our understanding of medieval Scotland. Readers should be pointed in the direction of Professors Nichols, Duncan and Barrow and Drs Reid, Boardman, Watson, Penman and Ewan. More info here http://www.rosslyntemplars.org.uk/ [11.22] Freemasonry Scotland has the oldest Masonic records in the world, dating back to January 1598. The first lodge in Scotland was founded in 1105. See here for history and information http://www.grandlodgescotland.com/ Freemasonry Today publication - an independent magazine for everyone with an interest in Freemasonry http://www.freemasonrytoday.co.uk/ Kilwinning Lodge, the oldest in the world - dates from early 12th C http://thelonious.mit.edu/Masons/Reports/kilw.html [11.23] Vikings The end of the Viking threat to Scotland. In 1263, King Haakon led his great Viking battle fleet to subdue the Scottish resistance. Leaving his base in the Western Isles, he sailed south to the Clyde estuary. His fleet was anchored on the western shores of the Firth and a recce was made by a smaller group on the eastern shore at Largs. The Scots gave but a tiny view of their presence whilst their king called to arms all those who would join him to repulse the Vikings.He managed to stall the Viking emissaries until his countrymen could assemble. His proposals had to be referred to Haakon. The Vikings decided to attack the Scots even though bad weather over the Clyde was playing havoc with their much-vaunted fleet. When the assault boats beached at Largs and the Vikings advanced from the beach the latter were beset by a great Scottish army which trounced them. The living Vikings escaped to their boats, sailed to their fleet, but it had been greatly abused by the gales and the Scots on the water repeated their thrashing of the Viking battle fleet. Haakon scuttled off to the Hebrides and made pact with the Scots to assualt Scotland no more. Haakon died in Orkney before he could return to Norway. (1263 was the year that the Grammar School of Glasgow was founded, the precursor of the University of Glasgow.) [11.24] Scots emigration/immigration to the US When did the Scottish come to the US? ------------------------------------- The first Scots began coming to the New World in the early 1600's, Emigration picked up during the Cromwellian Civil War in Britain, as many Scots from both sides were transported to the American Colonies in the mid-1600's. The Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745 also saw numbers of Scotsmen transported to America, as did the Highland Clearances which came somewhat later. Scottish emigrants who had gone to northern Ireland as colonists of the Ulster plantations in the first half of the 16th century also emigrated to America in the early 1700's. These people, who were referred to as the "Scotch-Irish" were by far the most numerous group of Scottish Colonists to come to America. Between 1715 and 1776 some 250,000 of them arrived, mainly in the Chesapeake Bay region, and settled all along the east coast, particularly in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, North and South Carolina and later in Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma, and beyond. A second wave of Scottish immigration came during the late 1800's and most of these Scots settled in the northeastern U.S. in the larger industrial cities, and included such worthies as Andrew Carnegie and Alexander Graham Bell. Why did the come? ----------------- Some were transported, they had no choice other than prison or execution, the reasons ranging from political prisoners of rebellions, to paupers, to petty thieves and criminals. Others came because of poverty. They had no hope of ever breaking out of their set place in the Class-system which existed in Britain, but in America, a man could make something of himself, regardless of his background. Mst of these came as bonded-servants and would be given passage to America, paid by the person who brought them over and would have to work off their passage upon their arrival as per their contract, a period which often lasted for seven years. At the end of that time, they were on their own and it was up to themselves to make something of their life in the New World. How were the Scots treated? --------------------------- The Scots were looked down upon by the English, Dutch and Germans, who saw them as being less civilized, orderly and less interested in bettering themselves materially through hard work. They were thought to be good fighters and in that capacity they were often set out on the frontier to act as a first line of defence against Indian attacks. The Scots quickly disproved the sterotypical views of the English and other colonists by becoming enormously successful in the New World. Among those who signed the Declaration of Independence were a number of Scotsmen, and the names of such political giants as Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton, James Monroe, James Buchanan, John K. Polk, William Drummond, Hugh Mercer,and many other Scotsmen echo throughout the pages of American history. Where did the Scots settle? Why? -------------------------------- The early Scots colonists who arrived in the first half of the 1600's tended to prefer Virginia over New England and a preference for those colonies south of the New England states continued through the time leading up to the Revolutionary War, though numbers of both Scots and Scots-Irish could be found in New York, New Hampshire, Massassachusets, Conneticut and elsewhere. Primarily though, the main concentration of Scottish settlement was from Pennsylvania southward to Georgia. How did the Scots make a living in the US? ------------------------------------------ Any way they could, as farmers, soldiers, blacksmiths, cattle-ranchers, lumber men, factory workers, whatever way they could succeed. What were the roles of different family members? ------------------------------------------------ This was the same as with other ethnic groups, the husband was generally the main provider, the wife the home-maker, mother, nurse, and the children usually did their share to help the family out, whether it was in farming, or working in the factories, or the streets as labourers. What traditions did they bring to the US? ----------------------------------------- They brought their language, which influenced American English to some extent, particularly in Appalachia, but more than anything else, they brought their music, especially fiddle-music, which became what we know today as American "bluegrass" music. Was the US really the "promised land" for them? ----------------------------------------------- Definately. Most of the Scots who came to America turned out to be far more successful than they would have if they stayed at home. At the worst, they were no worse off than they would have been had they not immigrated. America is the land of opportunity, Britain was a land of privilege, status and class-systems that were carved in stone. What is the status of the Scots in the US today? ------------------------------------------------ The Scots in America today are your typical Americans. They are the hard working, materialists who generally try to conform to the Norman Rockwell image of America. They are the backbone of the American economy and political system, the very foundation upon which America was built. If it were not for the Scots, America would probably still be a British colony. Compared to other immigrant groups? ----------------------------------- Here's a good reference of how the Scots stack up against other ethnic groups. This is from an Associated Press newspaper article which appeared in 1980: "Americans of Scottish descent tend to be better educated and have higher incomes than other European based ethnic groups, according to a new Census Bureau study. "Based on a survey taken in late 1979, the study said Americans who traced their ancestry to Scotland had median family incomes of $20,018, highest of eight single ancestry groups studied. "Second in family income were those of German background, at $17,531, while those of Spanish background had the lowest median income at $10,607. "The Scots were the only group to record no illiteracy in the survey, had the lowest unemployment rate at 2.1%, and the highest rate of high school graduates, 81.2%. "The study looked at characteristics of Americans of English, French, German, Irish, Italian, Polish, Scottish and Spanish descent. "Among them, those of Spanish descent, 30.3% were most likely to have been born outside the United States. The Italians were a distant second at 13.1%, while only 2.7% of the Irish were born outside the United States. "Scots recorded the highest proportion of married men, at 79.6%, followed by 75.5% for those of French extraction. The lowest male marriage rate was 62.8% among the Spanish. Among women, the French were most likely to be wed, at 68.6%, with Germans second at 64.3%. Polish women were the least likely to be married, at 60.6%. The highest divorce rates were 4.8% among Irish men and 6.6% for Spanish women. At 3.5%, Polish men had the fewest divorces, as did Polish women at 4.3%. Here are how the various groups fared statistically in some other social characteristics: "Male high school graduates: Scottish, 81.2%; English, 74.6%; German, 72.4%; Irish, 68.8%; French, 67%; Polish, 64.4%; Italian, 62.7%; Spanish, 42.5%. "Female high school graduates: Scottish, 78.1%; English, 76.7%; German, 72%; Irish, 70%; French, 65.7%; Italian, 60.4%; Polish, 59.1%; Spanish, 40.5%. "Unemployment: Scottish, 2.1%; German, 3.1%; English, 3.6%; Italian, 4.7%; Irish, 5%; Polish, 5.4%; French, 5.6%; Spanish, 9%. "Median family income: Scottish, $20.018 ; German, $17,531; Italian, $16,993; Polish, $16,977; English, $16,891; Irish, $16,092; French, $15,571; Spanish, $10,607" So, you see, we Scots are the richest, best-educated, hardest-working and make the best lovers of all Americans. "Here's tae us! Wha's like us? Damn few, and their all deid! More's the pity." Steven Akins of that Ilk mailto:sjakins@sonet.net [11.25] The fairy flag of MacLeod legend Article by Jeff Ramsden (MacLeoid) mailto:macleod@centricsoftware.com Many, many years ago, the Chief of Clan MacLeod was a handsome, intelligent man, and all the young ladies in the area were very attracted to him, but none suited his fancy. One day, he met a fairy princess, a bean sidhe, one of the Shining Folk. Like all the other females he met, she fell madly in love with him, and he with her as well. When the princess appealed to the King of the Fairies, for permission to marry the handsome Chief, he refused, saying that it would only break her heart, as humans soon age and die, and the Shining Folk live forever. She cried and wept so bitterly that even the great King relented, and agreed that she and the Chief could be hand-fasted for a year and a day. But, at the end of that time, she must return to the land of Faerie and leave behind everything from the human world. She agreed, and soon she and the young MacLeod were married with great ceremony. No happier time ever existed before or since for the Clan MacLeod, for the Chief and Lady MacLeod were enraptured of each other totally. As you might expect, soon a strapping and handsome son was born to the happy couple, and the rejoicing and celebration by the Clan went on for days. However, the days soon passed and a year and a day were gone in a heartbeat. The King led the Faerie Raide down from the clouds to the end of the great causeway of Dunvegan Castle, and there they waited in all their glamourie and finery for the Lady MacLeod to keep her promise. Lady MacLeod knew that she had no choice, so she held her son to her, hugged him tightly, and at last, ran from the castle tower to join the Faerie Raide, and returned with them to the land of Faerie. Before she left, however, she made her husband promise that her child would never be left alone, and never be allowed to cry, for she could not bear the sound of her son's cries. The Chief was broken-hearted with the loss of his wife, but he knew, as did she, that the day would come when she would return. He kept his promise, and never was the young MacLeod allowed to cry and never was he left unattended. However, the Laird of MacLeod remained depressed, and grieved for the loss of his lady. The folk of the clan decided that something must be done, and on his birthday, a great feast was proclaimed with revelry and dancing until dawn. The Laird had always been a grand dancer, and at long last he agreed to dance to the pipers' tunes. So great was the celebration that the young maid assigned to watch the infant Laird left his nursery and crept to the top of the stairs to watch the folk dancing in all their finery and to listen to the wonderful music. So enraptured was she that she did not hear the young Laird awaken and begin to cry. So pitiful was his crying that it was heard all the way in the Land of Faerie, and when his mother heard it, she immediately appeared at his crib, took him in her arms, and comforted him, drying his tears and wrapping him in her fairy shawl. She whispered magic words in his ears, laid her now-sleeping son in his crib, kissed him once more on the forehead, and was gone. Years later when the young lad grew older, he told his father of his mother's late-night visit, and that her shawl was a magic talisman. It was to be kept in a safe place, and if anyone not of the Clan MacLeod touched it, they would vanish in a puff of smoke. If ever the Clan MacLeod faced mortal danger, the Fairy Flag was to be waved three times, and the hosts of Faerie, the Knights of the Faerie Raide, would ride to the defense of the Clan MacLeod. There were to be three such blessings, and only in the most dire consequences should the Faerie magic be used. The Chief placed the Fairy Flag in a special locked box, and it was carried with the Chief wherever he went. Hundreds of years later, the fierce Clan Donald of the Lord of the Isles had besieged the MacLeods in battle, and the MacLeods were outnumbered three to one. Just before the Donalds' last charge, the Chief opened the box, and placing the fairy flag on a pole, waved it once, twice, and three times. As the third wave was completed, the Fairy magic caused the MacLeods to appear to be ten times their number! Thinking that the MacLeods had been reinforced, the Donalds turned and ran, never to threaten the MacLeods to this very day. On another occasion, a terrible plague had killed nearly all the MacLeod's cattle, and the Chief faced the prospect of a winter of starvation for all his people. Having no alternative, he went to the tallest tower of Dunvegan Castle, attached the Fairy Flag to a pole, and waved it once, twice, three times. The Hosts of Faerie rode down from the clouds, swords drawn, and rode like the wind over the dead and dying cattle. They touched each cow with their swords, and where there once had been dead and dying cows, now stood huge, healthy, and well-fattened cattle, more than enough to feed the Clan for the winter to come. There remains one more waving of the Fairy Flag, and the Flag is on display at Dunvegan Castle, there awaiting the next threat to the Clan MacLeod. It is said during World War II that young men from the Clan MacLeod carried pictures of the Flag in their wallets while flying in the Battle of Britain, and not one of them was lost to the German flyers. In fact, the Chief of Clan MacLeod had agreed to bring the Fairy Flag to England and wave it from the Cliffs of Dover should the Germans attempt to invade Great Britain. [12.1] Learning and studying Scottish Culture Edinburgh --------- Centre for Continuing Education CCE, Freepost No EH3376 The University of Edinburgh 11 Buccleuch Place Edinburgh EH8 0LW Tel: 0131 650 4400 Fax: 0131 667 6097 mailto:CCE@ed.ac.uk http://www.lifelong.ed.ac.uk/ The School of Scottish Studies (Sgoil Eolais na h-Alba), University of Edinburgh, 27 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9LD Tel: 0131 650 1000 http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk (they run a number of summer schools) The main work of the dept is with teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Scottish ethnology (there is a separate dept of Celtic). They also run summer classes though The Adult Learning Project (ALP) Tollcross Community Centre 117 Fountainbridge, Edinburgh EH3 9QG Tel: 0131 221 5800. http://www.alpscotsmusic.org/ mailto:info@alpscotsmusic.org ALP has about 20 classes and about 300 students in culturally related evening and day classes. Scots Fiddle Festival 18 - 20 November 2005 and Edinburgh Youth Gaitherin 3 - 6 April 2006 are contactable via the above address too. Glasgow ------- Royal Scottish Academy of Music & Drama (RSAMD) has an excellent degree course in traditional Scottish music Contact: Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama 100 Renfrew Street, Glasgow, G2 3DB, Scotland Tel: 0141 332 4101 Fax: 0141 332 8901 http://www.rsamd.ac.uk/enhanced/som/som_staff/scottish_staff.html Course leaders are Jo Miller BA, BMus, MLitt Peggy Duesenberry BA, MA Tutoring includes Accordion, Highland Bagpipe, Clarsach, Fiddle, Scots Song, Gaelic Song, Percussion, Guitar, Gaelic, Scots and Dance Studies Skye ---- Sabhal Mor Ostaig, An Teanga, Sleite, Isle of Skye IV44 8RQ Scotland Tel: 01471 844 373 Fax: 01471 844 383 http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/ St Andrews University --------------------- St Andrews University has a distance learning programme which offers courses in fiddle, voice and traditional music. Tutors include Adam McNaughton, Robbie Shepherd and Sheena Wellington. Further details from The Secretary at: University Music Centre, University of St Andrews, KY16 9AJ Stirling -------- The University of Stirling runs summer schools which cover a wide range of Scottish cultural topics including Gaelic, various music classes and much more. See: http://www.stir.ac.uk/epd/suschool/ mailto:m.f.stirling@stirling.ac.uk On-line ------- Celtic Music. Regional Cultures and Modern Success is a provocative, well-researched on-line culture and history course offered by the Continuing Education in Music program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Anyone in the world can take this starting at any time. Find out more or register now at http://www.dcs.wisc.edu/lsa/online/celtic.htm Or call (USA) (608) 262-2451 to register for course number 3750. The course is permanently open to enrollment. [12.2] Cultural Newsletters and websites Tocher ------ Tales, Songs and Tradition. First published 1971 Selected from the archives of the School of Scottish Studies. Two issues a year, annual subscription 6 pounds. Each issue contains approx 65 A5 pages and includes material in Scots and Gaelic (Gaelic with translation). Songs have tunes in staff format. UK ISSN 0049-397X Contact: Mrs Frances Beckett School of Scottish Studies University of Edinburgh 27 George Square Edinburgh EH8 9LD Tel: 0131 650 3060 http://www.pearl.arts.ed.ac.uk/SoSS/ mailto:Scottish.Studies@ed.ac.uk Suil na h-Iolaire (The Eagle's Eye) ----------------------------------- Cultural news from Argyll, the Highlands and Islands. Published every 2 months, info at: http://www.dalriada.co.uk/Resources/freearchives/freearchives.html Scottish Affairs ---------------- For comment and debate on Scottish politics, society and current affairs Published in book form every quarter. Independent of political parties and pressure groups Annual subscription (4 issues), 25 pounds (40 for institutions) Published by Unit for the study of government in Scotland Chisholm House High School Yards Edinburgh EH1 1LZ Tel: 0131 650 2456 Fax: 0131 650 6345 U.S. Scots Magazine ------------------- http://www.usscots.com/ U.S. Scots Magazine is the premiere print magazine for the Scottish-American Community. Visit to read past articles, reference the online databases, explore the extensive links database, and learn how to subscribe. [12.3] Kilts and their history There is no documentation for "kilts" before 1575. Tartan yes. Kilts no. The Leine Croich or belted saffron shirt, yes; cloaks, yes; tunics, yes; armour that might appear kilt-like on an ancient engraving, yes. Kilts - no. The Leine Croich: A tunic like garment usually worn with a belt around the middle. Made of - linen - of course, which was also cheaper to get (from Ireland mostly) than wool as sheep had not yet begun to make serious inroads yet. With more sheep, the woolen weaving industry followed. In a very general way, depending on fashion of a certain time and of course the wealth of the individual, just look at what anyone else in Europe was wearing at any certain time and a good basic idea will emerge. For instance - compare a portrait of England's Henry VIII with his Scottish contemporary James V - one will almost always see they are wearing near identical styles of clothes. Not a kilt ever to be seen on James, King of Scots. The "little kilt", what you see today worn as the wrap around pleated garment, is ascribed to invention in the 1720's. It was eventually taken up and preserved by the British military in the Highland Regiments - in fact most of what is called "Highland Attire" today was ironically either preserved or invented by the British Army Highland Regiments in their dress and then also invented by or for said regiments. The "little" kilt was adopted for use by the military as soon as the expense and cumbersomeness of the 'great" kilt was seen (i.e. by 1800). Glengarry caps are a military invention of about the 1820's, not adopted for regulation use until the 1850's. Sgian Dubhs (or some such knife) were normally carried under the jacket until officers of the Black Watch started sticking them in their kilt hose in the 1840's, then it caught on with everyone else. Metal Clan bonnet badges date from the early Victorian era and copied as a style from the regimental bonnet badges (the symbols within the badges may be ancient - it is the idea of the Clan metal/pin on badges themselves that is new - the usual Clan bonnet badge was a sprig of a local plant). Feather bonnets are another military invention. The cut and style of most modern "kilt jackets" are off-shoots of military patterns. The writings of Sir Walter Scott, the Royal visit of George IV in full "Highland" regalia (organized by Scott), and the works of others such as the spurious "Sobieski Stuart" brothers, all in the early 1800's, followed by the keen interest and love of Scotland by Queen Victoria all helped in the "fad" of things Scottish in the 19th century. This is not to debunk Scottish "history" or pride, but just to put the true face on the matter. What people wore in Scotland, whether Highland or Lowland, - just as it is today - imitated or was influenced by the rest of Britain/Europe/Western civilization. Until fairly recently, only the poorest of the poor would only own a piece of material to wrap around themselves. No Highland "Chief" worth his name would have been caught dead in such a low-class garment! -- Not until it became "fashionable" that is, well into the 1700's and mostly in the early 1800's. References on the history of the kilt ------------------------------------- Beyond the Pale: A Survey of Gaelic Garb, 1500-1650_ Compiled by Ld. Cormac MacCliuin O'Domnaill. Reprint Copyrighted 1987 by Moongate Designs. (Good one for no kilt pre1575) A short history of the Scottish dress, R.M.D. Grange; London 1966. The costume of Scotland, John Telfer Dunbar; B.T.Batsford, Ltd., L ondon, 1981. History of Highland Dress, by the same author, is a more comprehensive work, including photos of pre 1745 tartans and other details. The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, James Logan and R.R.McIan, first published 1845, Reprinted 1980 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NY (This source must be used with caution, as not all the author's information is accurate). Highland Clans and Tartans by RW Munro. Companion to Gaelic Scotland, edited by Derick S. Thomson, published by Gairm (Glasgow) For info on doing the traditional plaid outfit (Great Kilt, feilidh-bhreacain)like the costumes in Braveheart, see http://www.ibiblio.org/gaelic/john/greatkilt.html or http://www.tartanweb.com/greatkilt/ See also -------- See [12.5] for information on tartans See [12.6] for Where to buy/hire kilts and Highland accessories See [12.7] for information on Kirking of the Tartans See [12.3] for info regarding what is worn under the kilt http://members.aol.com/SconeMac/kilt.html History of the Kilt http://www.reconstructinghistory.com/kilts/kilts.htm Evolution of the kilt http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~wew/celt-clothing/ Celtic Dress of the 16th Century [12.4] Plaid Plaid (pronounced "plad") is the name of the material which is used for making kilts. It isn't the name of the pattern on the material, this is called "tartan". In the US, plaid is sometimes pronounced "plaid" and usually refers to the material - plaid and tartan are interchangeable terms there, they aren't in Scotland. Ray Dunn adds: "plaid" is also the specific name for the tartan "cape" worn over the shoulder in full "highland dress", e.g. by pipers. In my experience, from my long gone pipe band days, this was indeed called a "plaid" and not a "plad". Dwelly wrote in 1901 under the entry for "fe/ileadh-bhreacain" The kilted plaid. This consisted of twelve yards or more of narrow tartan, which was wrapped around the middle, and hung down to the knees. It was more frequently fastened round the middle by a belt, and then it was called "breacain-an-fhe/ilidh" or "fe/ilidh-bhreacain". The breacain, or plaid part of this dress, was, according to occasion, wrapped round the shoulders, or fastened on the left shoulder with a brooch (brai\sd) of gold, silver or steel, according to the wealth of the wearer. By this arrangment there was nothing to impede the free use of the sword-arm [12.5] Tartan and Tartan Day Tartan Day ========== History of Tartan Day --------------------- Dear Craig; I was just looking at your site and thought I would drop you a line. With reference to Tartan Day you may wish to link to http://www.scotsns.ca/ Tartan Day started in Canada in 1986 with a motion passed at a meeting of the Federation of Scottish Clans in Nova Scotia that we should have a date to honour our forebearers who came to this country (Canada) and through faith, hard work, and determination went on to help build our country and others like it. We encouraged all to wear the tartan on April 6th. We picked April 6th because it was the date of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath in Scotland hand had strong significant meaning to Scots. I was put as a one person committee to promote the date and it has now spread from coast to coast in the provinces in Canada with Quebec declaring it in 2003. We are happy and pleased that the USA picked up on Tartan Day once it was passed in Ontario and it has become a large event there We are still working to have it put on calendars and we hope this will gradually be achieved yours very truly Jean MacKaracher-Watson mailto:jean.watson2@ns.sympatico.ca Tartan day in the US -------------------- April 6th 1998 was declared National Tartan Day in the US for the first time. This date was chosen because 6th April 1320 was the date of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath (see [11.3]). Coincidentally, this document formed the basis for the US Declaration of Independence. See http://www.tartanday.com/ The official Scottish government website for Tartan Day is at http://www.tartanday.gov.uk/ Tartan Day domains available ---------------------------- http://www.tartanday.info/ http://www.tartanday.biz/ History of Tartan ================= Dwelly (Gaelic Dictionary - published 1901) writes (under breacan) Parti-coloured cloth was used by the Celts from earliest times, but the variety of colours in the breacan was greater or less according to the rank of the wearer. That of the ancient kings had seven colours, that of the druids six, and that of the nobles four. In the days of Martin the tartans seemed to be used to distinguish the inhabitants of different districts, and not the members of different families as at present. He expressely says that the inhabitants of the various islands were not all dressed alike, but that the setts and colours of the various tartans varied from isle to isle. As he does not mention the use of a special pattern by each family, it would appear that such a distinction is a modern one, and taken from the ancient custom of a tartan for each district, the family or clan originally most numerous in each part eventually adopting as their distinctive clan tartan the tartan of such district. Martin's information was not obtained on hearsay, he was born in Skye and reared in the midst of Highland customs. MacLennan (Gaelic dictionary - published 1925) writes (under breacan) A parti-coloured dress, used by the Celts from the earliest times. "Breacan an fhe/ilidh", the belted plaid (consisting of twelve yards of tartan, worn round the waist, obliquely across the breast and over the left shoulder, and partly depending backwards). According to Keating it was the custom in ancient time to have one colour in the form of a slave, two in the dress of a peasant, three in the dress of a soldier or young lord, four in the dress of a brughaidh (land-holder), five in the dress of a district chief, six in the dress of an ollamh, and in that of a King and Queen. This info about number of tartan colours and rank should perhaps be taken with a pinch of salt. The use of tartan in Scotland predates the kilt as tartan appeared as a design before the small kilt was invented. The first recorded use of the modern kilt was in 1575, but the use of tartan predates this significantly. See also -------- Scottish Tartan Society http://www.tartans.scotland.net/ Also see: ftp://members.aol.com/sdullman/programs/tartan20.zip - displays about 60 tartans the Tartan Finder http://www.house-of-tartan.scotland.net/house/default.htp http://www.tinsel.org/tinsel/Java/Tartan/ A combination of a Java program and an online database that can be used to browse a collection of tartans with a web browser. There's currently about 270 setts online, adapted from the popular X-Windows program xtartan. http://www.strathearn.com/tartan/ http://www.tartans.com/ See [12.7] for information on Kirking of the Tartans [12.6] Where to buy/hire kilts and Highland accessories See [12.3] for information on kilts and their history. Scotland ======== (US and Canada sections follow) Broughton --------- Tartan Web Ratchill, Broughton, Peeblesshire, Scotland ML12 6HH Telephone: +44 (0) 1899 22 00 88 Fax: +44 (0) 1899 22 04 47 mailto:enquiries@tartanweb.co.uk http://www.tartanweb.com/ Dufftown -------- Ann Higgins Kiltmaker 5 Fife Street Dufftown Scotland AB55 4AL Tel/Fax (01340) 821136 http://www.gvis.co.uk/annhiggins/ mailto:ANNHIGGINS@kiltmaker.freeserve.co.uk Ann supplies locally and mail-order to the U.S. and other places. Edinburgh --------- Geoffrey (tailor) Highland Crafts Ltd 57-59 High Street (2 doors up from John Knox's house) Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1SR, Tel: 0131 557 0256 on-line at http://www.geoffreykilts.co.uk/ Their Edinburgh shop is open 7 days and late on Thursday. Although it's on the Royal Mile, the prices should be reasonable. They hire outfits; sell outfits and also sell ex-hire outfits. Note that women in Scotland don't wear kilts, they wear kilted skirts. Hugh Macpherson, Ltd. Jean Macpherson, Managing Director 17 West Maitland Street Edinburgh EH12 5EA SCOTLAND Tel: 0131 225 4008 Fax: 0131 225 9823 (this shop is also known as Macphersons of Haymarket) http://www.hughmacpherson.demon.co.uk/ Kiltsdirect http://www.kiltsdirect.com/ mailto:sales@kiltsdirect.com We currently do a good amount of trade particularily to USA over the web Celtic Craft Centre Paisley Close 101 High Street "The Royal Mile" Edinburgh, Scotland Kinloch Anderson Ltd Commercial Street / Dock Street Leith, Edinburgh, EH6 6EY Telephone: +44 (0)131 555 1355 Fax: +44 (0)131 555 1392 http://www.kinlochanderson.com/ Falkirk ------- http://www.stewarthighland.com/ Stewart Highland Supplies Motherwell ---------- Brave Trading 316 Shields Road Motherwell ML1 2LP Tel 01698 230720 Mobile 07932 066428 mailto:david@bravetrading.com http://www.bravetrading.com/ Paisley ------- Houston Traditional Kiltmakers http://www.kiltmakers.com/ Houston Kiltmakers are a third generation family run business with over 90 years experience as gentlemans outfitters, Highlandwear & Tartan Specialists. They do a massive range of tartans, and can produce any tartan to buy. Tel: +44 141 889 4879 Tel: 0800 072 0386 In the US ========= Great Scot P.O. Box 1817 Nashville, Indiana 47448 1-800-572-1073 (812)988-8094 (fax) http://www.greatscotshop.com/ Scottish Lion ------------- http://www.scottishlion.com/ The Scottish Lion Import Shop is located in North Conway, New Hampshire, USA, where, for the last 27 years we have been offering fine Scottish, Irish and British imported items. They are the largest mail order catalogue and store in the eastern U.S and large wedding rental business with the kilt and Prince Charlie jackets. Tel: 603-356-5517 There is a kiltmaker named Ann Stewart, of Leeds, New York, whose work is apparently very good. She shows at the St. Andrew's Society Scottish Festivals in Goshen, CT. Ann's e-mail address as listed in their latest program is mailto:kiltmaker@aol.com; telephone (518) 943-0975 Address is 384 Main Street, Catskill, NY, 12414. Don't know what her prices are, just that her work is good. J. Higgins Ltd. P.O. Box 14341 Lenexa, KS. 66215 1-800-426-7268 http://www.jhiggins.net/ Highland Heritage Ltd. 1601 Concord Pike, Suite 69 Wilmington, De. 19803 (302) 656-4007 Scottish Products (212) 687-2505 m,t,th,f 11:30-5:30 Tartan Imports of Florida 813 or 888-734-3606 margret 10-1 atlantic The Village Weaver Center for the Arts ll785 Highway 441 N. Tallulah Falls, GA 30573 (mailing address: P.O. Box 7l, Dillard, GA 30537) Tel: 706-746-2287 (hand weaver only, not a full service retailer of all things Scottish). mailto:TheVillageWeaver@gldist.com Celtic Craft Centre 1323 Columbus Ave Fisherman's Wharf San Francisco, CA 94133 800-535-5458 or 415-567-6520 415-567-5918 fax 10-5:30 T-SA Scottish Heritage Center Queen Mary Seaport 1119 Queen's Highway Long Beach, CA 90802 310-499-1760 10-6 365days/year Hector Russell Scottish Imports 83 University Street The Harbor Steps Seattle WA 98101 Phone: (206)242-1768, (206)242-0291 Fax: (206)439-8066 Texas Scottish Festival Association 817-654-2293 Patrick Roper Northchannel Kilts (206) 706-0757 Canada ====== Rob McCarthy McCarthy Highland Services 61 Borealis Crescent Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1K 4T5 phone: (613) 842-3288 http://www.mccarthyhighland.com/ mailto:office@mccarthyhighland.com Burnett's & Struth Scottish Regalia Ltd http://www.burnetts-struth.com/ 61 Patterson Road Barrie, Ontario L4N 3V9 Canada Phone: (705) 728-3232 Fax: (705) 728-2962 MacLeods Scottish Shops 80 Ontario Street Stratford, Ontario, N5A 3H2 Canada Ph.: (519) 273-5850 Fax: (519) 273-6287 mailto:info@kilts.biz http://www.kilts.biz/ MacNeils Scottish Imports 1825 Avenue Road Toronto, Canada 416-782-5227 The Scottish Company 4687 Yonge Street Toronto, Ontario M2N 5M3 (416) 223-1314 Scottish Factory Outlet http://www.scottishfactory.com/ The Kiltmaker 704 Arlington Park Place Kingston, Ontario K7M 7N7 Canada Tel: (613) 634-4118 mailto:kilt@on.aibn.com [12.7] Kirking of the tartans by Tom McRae. mailto:T.Mcrae@mailbox.uq.oz.au To give you an idea of the pseudo Scottery we have to put up with here I'm appending something I put out over on H-ALBION British History Group. Not a single respondent cited an example of this silly bit o' Brigadoonery in Scotland. My name's mud with the local so-called Clans Congress, if they only knew I've hardly started yet. I'm currently doing a long series of articles on the early Scottish National Movement and am just recovering from the trauma of doing 3 articles covering the West Coast Insurrection of 1820 and its ghastly repercussions. I'm quite narked with the S.N.P. as I wrote to them in Edinburgh outlining my project and asking for information on its history for inclusion in later articles. Three months later I have still to receive the courtesy of a reply. Seems they've yet to get their act together. Slainte, Tom McRae Kirking of the Tartans ---------------------- On a Sunday close to St Andrew's Day this ceremony is practised in at least Sydney and Brisbane. Organised by the local Clans Congress it involves clan leaders marching into some presbyterian or uniting church in strict order of precedence. (I neither know, nor care who follows who). They are led in by someone carrying a saltire flag alongside another with the Australian flag. Clan tartans are worn and so-called clan banners are carried in the procession. Highlight of the ceremony is when wee bits of tartan are brought out and prayed over or blessed. If people enjoy themselves marching up and down like this I've no objection. What concerns me is the mythos developed around the rite. It all started, so the story goes, when the tartan was banned after the fall of Bonnie Prince Charlie. To cherish its memory parishioners took wee bits of the stuff to kirk every sabbath to have it blessed, the ceremony has persisted up until today. Nice tale, but garbage! First off Charlie's army consisted largely of Roman Catholics and Scottish Episcopaleans. Had they won the Kirk would probably have been oppressed yet again. Presbyterians of the time had no truck with the Jacobites, they'd suffered too much already at the hands of Stewart kings. Second point. Blessing of bits of cloth, or anything else inanimate, was anathema to all good Calvinists. Any kirk goers practising such rites would have been severely dealt with. Thirdly. No native born Scot I've discussed the matter with recalls such a ceremony in Scotland. Any group stupid enough to act out such a pantomime would have been laughed out of the church. Fourth I've searched historical records but could find no mention of the ceremony. In desperation I consulted the encyclopaedic "Dictionary of the Scottish Language" There are dozens of entries on tartan and on kirk and kirking; not one makes mention of this rite. I then went to a dictionary of the older Scottish tongue, once again no records. Finally. If this is true where are all those wee bits of tartan? Surely they' have become cherished family heirlooms. After the banning the tartan sticks used to mark out traditional weaves were destroyed; we don't know what pre '45 tartans looked like, apart from a few paintings. Those we use today are post 1780. Relics of the early tartans would be invaluable to Scottish history so where have they all gone to? I wrote the whole thing up in the newsletter of our Scottish radio programme group here in Brisbane. In my article I promised that if anyone could give me proof of this ceremony's antiquity I would gladly recant. Six months later the sole response was a letter from the Secretary of our local Clans Congress complaining bitterly at my unfair attack. I answered his letter gently pointing out the questionable origins of the Kirking but never received reply. My main objection is the ridiculous light in which this sort of Brigadoonery puts real Scots culture. Best example of this was some years back in Sydney. After the Kirking ceremony all the clan leaders and their retinues marched from the kirk to New South Wales' Upper House of Parliament, In they marched, banners awave, up to the bar of the House. Members were discussing some legislation and totally ignored them, after standing like gallahs for 10 minutes or so all they could do was about turn and march out again. I seem to have traced the origins of the thing to New York State, U.S.A. where a presbyterian minister invented it as a war bond scheme. Any information from The States, Canada, etc would be appreciated. Best of all can any Scots tell me I'm wrong and that the ceremony is a genuine hand me down from the days of The '45? Regards Tom Mc Rae %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Tom Mc Rae Entomology Department University of Queensland BRISBANE Qld 4072 AUSTRALIA Home (011617)3713966 Work (011617)3652196 Fax (011617)3651922 mailto:t.mcrae@mailbox.uq.oz.au Additional Information ====================== Some subsequent research has turned up the following: What has become known as "Kirking of the Tartans" was introduced in the United States by the Rev. Peter Marshall in April 27, 1941 at New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C. Dr. Marshall was a Scottish immigrant who arrived in the U.S. in 1927 at age 24 (ergo, born @1903), was the pastor of NYAPC until his death in 1949 and served as Chaplain of the U.S. Senate from 1947-1949. [12.8] Scotch This is a term used to mean various things, but is now considered mildly offensive when referring to people - generally use "Scots" for people and "Scottish" for everything else. Whisky is usually not referred to as "Scotch" - see note on whisky [13.4] Historically, the word was widely used in Scotland as a adjective meaning the same as "scottish". In fact, it was not until circa 1925 that the Scotch Education Department became the Scottish Education Department. Burns used the word Scotch "The sma', droop-rumpled, hunter cattle, Might aiblins waur'd thee for a brattle; But sax Scotch miles, thou tried their mettle, An' gart them whaizle: Nae whip nor spur, but just a wattle O' saugh or hazel." ("The Auld Farmer's New Year Morning Salutation To His Auld Mare, Maggie") In The Oxford Companion To The English Language, OUP 1992, there is an entry on "Scotch", written by Professor A. J. Aitken, Honorary Professor, University of Edinburgh, formerly editor of "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue." "SCOTCH: A late 16th century contraction of "Scottish", first in Early Modern English then in Older Scots. It ousted "Scottish" as the prevailing form in England. In Scotland, the native form "Scots" predominated until in the 18c Anglicizing vogue "Scotch" became fashionable in both countries. In the early 19th c., however, some Scottish writers were expressing doubts about it as a supposed innovation and returning to the more traditional "Scottish" and "Scots", while others, such as J. A. H. Murray, editor of the OED, continued to use it. By the early 20th c., disapproval of "Scotch" by educated Scots was so great that its use was regularly discountenanced by teachers, except for such entrenched phrases as Scotch broth, Scotch mist, Scotch terrier, Scotch tweed, Scotch whisky. In England and North America, "Scotch" has remained the dominant form into the late 20c, although awareness of middle-class Scottish distaste for it has been spreading. The OED Supplement, (1982) reported that in deference to Scottish sensibilities the English have been abandoning "Scotch" for "Scottish" and less frequently "Scots", and prefer "the Scots" to "the Scotch" as the name of the people. Paradoxically, for working-class Scots the common form has long been "Scotch" (sometimes written "Scoatch") and the native form Scots is sometimes regarded as an Anglicized affectation." The concise OED (publ 1999) states that the use "Scotch" for the people of Scotland is "dated". [12.9] Scottish Wedding Information Scottish Weddings ================= Traditional wedding customs in Scotland http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/weddings.html Info: The Blacksmith shop in Gretna Green is Scotland's second most popular free tourist attraction after Kelvingrove Art Gallery and the third most popular tourist attraction if you include paid attractions (Edinburgh Castle is the most popular tourist attraction in Scotland). Weddings in Scotland -------------------- http://www.visitscotland.com/aboutscotland/gettingmarried/ Information supplied by visitscotland.com http://pw1.netcom.com/~kiltsusa/Scotwed.html http://www.kinlochanderson.com/ Highland Weddings ----------------- http://www.highland-wedding.com/ Information supplied by the Highlands of Scotland Tourist Board Orkney courtship and marriage traditions http://www.orkneyjar.com/ Romantic Scotland ----------------- http://www.romantic-scotland.com/ Destinations for romantic breaks, weddings and honeymoons in Scotland Handfasting ----------- A traditional Celtic way of signifying an engagement. If you want a handfasting ceremony, speak to Scotland's only Celtic Bishop, the Most Rev William Mackie (sorry, no contact details). Scottish Wedding vows in Gaelic and English ------------------------------------------- http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/marriagevows.html Source: Sabhal Mor Ostaig Gaelic wedding blessing ----------------------- Supplied by Christopher Lau, University of Calgary Mi\le fa\ilte dhuit le d'bhre/id, Fad do re/ gun robh thu sla\n. Mo/ran la\ithean dhuit is si\th, Le d'mhaitheas is le d'ni\ bhi fa\s. Translated as: "A thousand welcomes to you with your marriage kerchief, may you be healthy all your days. May you be blessed with long life and peace, may you grow old with goodness, and with riches." This is attributed to the Rev. Donald MacLeod, minister of Duirinish, Skye, Scotland c. 1760. The bit about the marriage kerchief probably isn't applicable these days, so you could just ignore it (any Bards fancy thinking up a suitable replacement?) Celtic wedding rings ==================== Scotland -------- http://www.ortak.co.uk/ http://www.scotweb.co.uk/shops/ortak/ Ortak - traditional Scottish jewellery. Shops around Scotland. http://www.scottish-weddings.com/ Domain available Elsewhere --------- http://www.davidmorgan.com/ 11812 North Creek Pky N, Suite 103 Bothell WA 98011 USA http://www.rhiannon.co.uk/ Celtic jewellery from Wales UK Weddings =========== General info about UK weddings. Not much Scottish content http://www.weddingguide.co.uk/ http://www.confetti.co.uk/ [12.10] The Church of Scotland The home page for the church of Scotland is at http://www.cofs.org.uk/ A chart showing the various churches in Scotland is available at http://www.btinternet.com/~stnicholas.buccleuch/chart.htm The Scottish Bible Society http://www.scottishbiblesociety.org/ [12.11] Choosing a Scottish name for your child Scottish Names -------------- Scottish Christian Names by Leslie Alan Dunkling ISBN 0717946061 Publishers Johnston & Bacon, PO Box 1, Stirling, Scotland "Christian name", now that's a term which has rapidly vanished from use! Note, if you want to change your name in Scotland you have to do this by deed poll in order for official (UK) government bodies to recognise it, even though a deed poll is an English legal instrument. Scottish Gaelic names --------------------- Ainmean Chloinne Scottish Gaelic names for Children, by Peadar Morgan. Available from The Gaelic Books Council 22 Mansfield Street Glasgow Scotland G11 5QP Tel: 0141 337 6211 mailto:sales@gaelicbooks.net http://www.gaelicbooks.net/ Published by Taigh na Teud, Breacais Ard, Skye. ISBN 1871931401 http://www.scotlandsmusic.com/ Information from the register of births regarding the most popular names used in Scotland 1900-2000 is available at http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/grosweb/grosweb.nsf/pages/name00 for 2001, the information is here http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/grosweb/grosweb.nsf/pages/name01 The most popular children's names in Scotland in 2003 are listed here: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2004/01/4851 Medieval Names -------------- For info on pre-1600 Scottish names (for all you SCA people), click on the "Scottish Names Resources" link at http://www.MedievalScotland.org/ [12.12] Couthie on the Craigie - Hyperreal Scottish culture Written by Martin Burns, mailto:martin@easyweb.co.uk (this was written a few years ago) Couthie on the Craigie Scotland the Hyperreal and the Unionist paradigm In recent weeks, an advertising campaign for Grant's whisky has utilised proverbial-sounding pseudo-Scots phrases such as Couthie on the Craigie, and challenged the Scots public to work out their meaning. Whether the phrases have any meaning is irrelevant to the perceptional objectives of the campaign - an image of an authentic Scotland is created. It is my objective to explore this hyper-reality, and to discuss what relevance it has to the Unionist paradigm. John Major sought to plant a sense of Britishness in the face of a greater Europeanisation by calling to an identity which all know to have passed, but which nevertheless retains substantial power as a mythical landscape: Fifty years from now, Britain will still be the country of long shadows on county grounds, warm beer, invincible green suburbs, and - as George Orwell said - old maids bicycling to holy communion through the morning mist. And, if we get our way, Shakespeare will still be read - even in school. Britain will survive in all essentials. Similarly, from as early as the eighteenth century, the landscape of Scotland is represented as a mythical one. Guidebooks and travel writing emphasised wild grandeur, remoteness and peace, and a romantic history. The process of myth-making can be observed in paintings. The eighteenth century artist Paul Sandby produced two paintings. The first - painted in the early part of the century - shows straightforward realistic detail. The second of thirty years later shows the same mountains made more rugged, with fir trees and a man in a kilt added, presumably for greater authenticity. In the twentieth century, this fiction is still perpetuated. Scottish Tourist Board publications represent Scotland as having peopleless, dramatic landscapes, the everyday melting into the exotic and majestic icons of castles and pipers. As Womack noted: That all Scots wear tartan, are devoted to bagpipe music, are moved by the spirit of clanship and supported Bonnie Prince Charlie to a man - all these libels of 1762 live on as items in the Scottish tourist package of the twentieth century. These representations of Scotland show an almost hysterical rush from the reality to the image, where the sign has more potency than the reality if it carries a greater impression of reality. This is clearly demonstrated in the Grant's campaign, and in such works as Capercaille's 1993 album, "Secret People" in which Gaelic songs are given a greater authenticity by the not being translated. This reflects Baudrillard's conclusion that Art today has totally penetrated reality, and is a classic demonstration of post-modern hyper-reality. But why does Scotland place such an emphasis on cultural and historical signifiers, rather than political ones? Why are Scots content with being "Ninety minute Nationalists" at Murrayfield and Hampden Park? And why is there a separation between the two discourses? Scots such as Michael Forsyth are more than happy to value aspects of Scottish cultural difference. Why then does it take the prospect of electoral suicide to force him to recognise political difference? There is perhaps no more potent symbol of political power in Scotland than Edinburgh Castle. In any nation, a castle in such a prominent place would be a symbol of national pride. In Scotland, the castle flies the Union flag, a flag which grows every year, particularly when Edinburgh is the centre of national attention. And yet, the castle is a key element in the marketing iconography of Scotland. How is this allowed by the people of Scotland? The answer is that they no longer need the threat of military action, and the power over their bodies which was required for Wallace and the Jacobites. The people of Scotland have internalised the political power which England has over Scotland. As the Westminster parliament commented shortly after the signing of the Act of Union: (on-line at http://www.forscotland.com/aou.html) We have catch'd Scotland, and we will bind her fast. This Foucaultian episteme predicts that once such an internalised system of power is established, no substantial political opposition is possible. And yet, to be effective, such a discourse has to be seen as productive and enabling rather than coercive. While there is certainly a demand for greater autonomy for Scotland, the general opinion - as measured by the support for the manifestly unionist Labour, Liberal Democrat and Conservative Parties - is that there is value in the Union. It is a central plank of the ideological makeup of the Conservative and Unionist Party in Scotland that Scotland is a financial - in terms of the Barnet funding formula - and political - in terms of the number of Westminster seats for it's population - beneficiary of its constitutional position. That it has been shown to be the reverse is not acceptable to those who have internalised English domination. However, it is to be noted that this internalisation of power is by no means universal. A symbolic reclaiming of power took place at Edinburgh Castle in 1991, and Stirling Castle in 1994 when the Gaelic band Runrig played a number of concerts. That this was allowed at all was a significant retreat by the strongly Unionist military establishments which have responsibility for the sites. In creating a discourse of the acceptability of an internalised acceptance of the Unionist hegemony, it was necessary to create excluded groups. Runrig, in common with much of Scottish traditional music embodies many of these excluded threats to the peace of mind of the British state. Excluded histories have long been a rich vein of material for folk-songs in Scotland and its close musical cousin, Ireland. There is a dictum within folk music circles that the victors write the history books, while the vanquished write the songs. Songs articulate the experience of working people - on the land or in cities: Come bonny lass lie near me, and let the brandy cheer ye For the road fae Fife tae Falkirk's lang and wet and weary. Ma trade it is the weavin', fae the boony toun o' Leven And I'll drink a health tae the fairmers' dames wha'll buy my cloth the morn Well ye can see them a', the lads o' the Fair; Lads fae the Forth and the Carron water Workin' lads and Lads wi' gear; Lads wha'll sell ye the Provost's daughter; Soldiers back fae the German wars; Fiddlers up fae the Border And Lassies wi' an eye for mair than the kye at the Trystin' Fair at Falkirk Songs enable those outwith the Anglophone community to express their world view as here, or in the Scots extract above: Failte gu mo chainnt Welcome to my language Is i dh'ionnsaicht mi 'nam phaisde The one I learned as a child Canan uasal mor nan Ghaidheal The huge dignified language of the Gael Mar bhratach dhomh gach la That stands like a banner for me daily Direct political comment is also common in the Celtic tradition, particularly in relation to Ireland. The following extract was written by Bobby Sands for his comrades from Derry in the H-Blocks, and sung out through the keyhole to them. In 1803 we sailed out to sea, out from the sweet town of Derry For Australia bound if we didn't all drown and the marks of our fetters we carried. In rusty iron chains we sighed for our wains, as our good wives we left in sorrow. As the mainsails unfurled our curses we hurled at the English and thoughts of tomorrow. Oh Oh Oh Oh I wish I was back home in Derry Twenty years have gone by and I've ended me bond and comrades' ghosts are behind me A rebel I came, and I'll die the same. On the cold winds of night you will find me. Finally songs enabled immigrants - particularly the Irish immigrants - and travelling people to speak for themselves, or to have singers speak on their behalf: Don't forget your shovel if you want to go to work Or you'll end up where you came from like the rest of us...diggin'....Ow di diddle ow And we want to go to heaven but we're always diggin' holes Well there's one thing we can say, we know where we are goin' -Any chance of a start? - No - ok Enoch Powell will give us a job, diggin' our way to Annascaul And when we're finished digging' there he'll close the hole and all Now there's six thousand five hundred and fifty-nine Paddies over in London all trying to dig their way back to Annascaul and very few of them boys is going to get back at all - I think that's terrible. Born on the common by a building site Where the ground was rutted by the trail of wheels The local Christian said to me "You'll lower the price of property" You'd better get born in some place else. Move along, get along Go! Move! Shift! But whose excluded history does Scottish popular culture represent? One problem is that all the role models presented are essentially masculine. Military heroes such as Bruce or Wallace, socialist leaders such John MacLean or James Connolly, writers such as Scott or Burns only speak in a masculine voice. Even the leading contemporary Gaelic writers - Aongus Dubh, Sorley Maclean and Calum Macdonald of Runrig speak of a masculine landscape. Only the waulking songs preserve a female voice, and even that is a voice which often spoke at the request of men, reciting the story of battle victory and spoils: Chunna' mi do long air saile I saw your longship on the sea Hi 'illean beag ho ill o ro Bha stuir oir oirr' 's da chrann airgid There was a helm of gold on her, and two silver masts Hi 'illean beag ho ill o ro 'S cupaill de shioda na Gaillmhinn And shrouds of Galway silk Hi 'illean beag ho ill o ro In pondering the desirability of reconstructing a Celtic identity, it is perhaps useful to consider why such a reconstruction has become so attractive in recent years. To claim the Highlands is to claim the identity of a residual Celtic nation, a pre-industrial nation. This claim axiomatically rejects the capitalist hegemony, as is echoed by the contrast between Edwin Muir's socialist interpretation of the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, and this more sympathetic treatment of Scotland's countryside in his Scottish Journey. Such a rejection is inherent in youth movements since the 1960's, and it is perhaps surprising that a Celtic identity has only recently come to prominence. Any cultural signifiers which mark a Highland culture would be expected to be appropriated to support this assumption of identity. It is therefore no surprise that wearing of Tartan - independently of Vivien Westwood - ceilidh dancing, musical genres such as Puirt a Beul and above all an interest in Gaelic language have grown at a substantial rate among young people in Lowland Scotland. Such a preference of the hyper-reality of Scotland the mythical-Brave over Scotland the late-twentieth-century-Reality positively disenfranchises the people of Scotland from the political and socio-economic process. As Brian McNeill and Hamish Henderson savagely commented: And tell me will we never hear the end o' poor bloody Charlie and Culloden yet again though he ran like a rabbit in the glen leavin' better folk to be butchered Or are you sittin' in your council house thinkin' o' your clan Waitin' for the Jacobites to come and free the land? Try goin' doon the broo wi' a claymore in your hand and then count all the princes in the queue. For there's no Gods and there's precious few heroes, but there's plenty on the dole in the land of the leal. And it's time now to sweep the future clear o' the lies of a past that we know was never real. Given that cultural signifiers have been created to enforce the Unionist paradigm, is it then necessary to proscribe references to them before political change is possible? Cultural signifiers can be used as part of a mobilisation of a political will. However, it is necessary to use them as a means of awakening interest in political gains only, otherwise they become tools of a system of power which emasculates the political process. [12.13] Burns night / St Andrews Day / Tartan Day Burns night: 25th January Tartan Day, 6th April - See [12.5] Bannockburn Day: 24th June (not widely observed) St Andrews Day: 30th November Only St Andrews day is a holiday in Scotland and only a bank holiday following the passing of the St Andrew’s Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 which was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 29th November 2006 and received Royal Assent on 15th January 2007 Info on Robert Burns at [5.2] Info on Burns night at http://www.visitscotland.com/aboutscotland/UniquelyScottish/theburnssupper Contact mailto:craig@siliconglen.com regarding using the following domains http://www.standrewsday.org http://www.standrewsday.info http://www.burnsnight.org http://www.burnsnight.info If you want reminded of any of these events, these services might be of interest: http://www.memotome.com/ (recommended) http://www.emailremind.co.uk/ (free) http://www.myreminderservice.com/ (not free, but no advertising) [12.14] Saint Andrew's society Saint Andrew's Society - an International Scots network, with information on all Scottish societies, pipe bands, Burns societies, haggis eaters etc. worldwide PO Box 84 Edinburgh Contact: Michael Brander mailto:nwp@cqm.co.uk http://www.nwp.co.uk/ Michael has also written a directory of World Scottish Associations ISBN 1-897784-27-9 [12.15] Christmas Customs Christmas itself was until recent times a purely Religious festival and New Year was and still is the main holiday for Scots. Christmas was not traditionally celebrated in Scotland because it was banned for nearly 400 years until the 1950's. Hogmanay was the real traditional celebration. The reason Christmas was not celebrated until recently go back to the time of John Knox in the 1580's as it was seen to be papist in origin - the ban was strictly enforced in law. Until recently, Christmas was fairly low key. It wasn't even a public holiday until 1958. Up till then, people worked normally on Christmas day, although the children did get presents. Therefore the Christmas 'traditions' in Scotland are pretty much the same modern US version. If you wanted to have a real traditional Scottish Christmas, you should go into work on Christmas day! In 1997/98 and 2001/2002 there were strikes at Scottish banks because the bank staff were getting English holidays rather than the Scottish ones which have more time off at New Year. As a result, most if not all Christmas celebrations nowadays have been brought in from other cultures (notable England and the US) and thus I'd be interested in finding out about Christmas customs unique to Scotland prior to the 20th century. Presumably both Christmas and New Year are both linked to the ancient midwinter festival; with Christmas being created as a means to make the early Christian church more acceptable to the pagans who already had a festival about that time. The same was done for Easter. Thus there a few similarities between the Halowe'en traditions and the New Year. In many parts of the Highlands there are traditional New Year celebrations which follow the Julian calendar and fall on Jan 12th. On this night, girls would celebrate "Hallowe'en" whilst boys would celebrate New Year. There are some Christmas Scottish tunes at http://www.maggiesmusic.com/mm215.html South Uist customs ------------------ Article by Bill Innes Christmas (as a non-religious celebration) is a fairly recent importation into Scotland. When I was a little lad, Santa Claus didn't visit us on Christmas Day. He would be coming after Hogmanay Night on the first day of the New Year, although we had a Christmas tree and although we had Christmas parties in the church hall. The celebration of Christmas was complicated by varying church attitudes. The day itself was chosen by the early church to replace the pagan midwinter solstice celebrations - which is why some Christmas customs have a pagan connection. Although my own island of South Uist was remarkable for the high level of peaceful co-existence between different faiths, the Presbyterian churches tended to regard Christmas as a Catholic feast and ignored it almost completely -which is why Scotland's celebrations were transferred to New Year's Eve. Even in South Uist some Protestants would go out to work on Christmas day - unless of course it fell on the Sabbath. In Carmichael's "Carmina Gadelica" you will find that some of the rituals now associated with New Year were originally part of the Christmas celebration. Even in Catholic households in the old days it was very much a religious feast centred round Midnight Mass - with none of the commercialism and ritual gift-giving of to-day for the simple reason that people were too poor. Those of you familiar with South Uist will understand why there were no Christmas trees. :-) See also [12.16] [12.16] Hogmanay customs Hogmanay Festivals ------------------ Edinburgh's Hogmanay http://www.edinburghshogmanay.org/ Glasgow's Hogmanay http://www.hogmanay.co.uk/ Books ----- The Silver Bough A four volume study of the national and local festivals of Scotland by F. Marian McNeill Vol. 3 Hallowe'en to Yule (also covers Hogmanay!) ISBN 0-948474-04-1 available from: Stuart Titles 268 Bath Street Glasgow G2 4JR Phone: 0141 332-8507 Full of things done by both Highlanders and Lowlanders in the olden days (and perhaps some still today) to celebrate the new year. Auld Lang Syne -------------- The original tune for Robert Burns Auld Lang Syne is available off http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/songs.html and http://www.siliconglen.com/culture/auldlangsyne.html Note, this is the tune which Burns wrote and which he set the lyrics to. It is not the version which most people currently sing, that version was imposed on Burns' lyrics by his publisher. History of New Year's Day ------------------------- In 1599 the Privy Council, "undirstanding that in all utheris weill governit commoun welthis and countreyis the first day of the yeir begynnis yeirlie upoun the first day of Januare, commounlie callit new yeiris day..."* resolved that Scotland should from 1 January 1600 start the New Year on January 1st. Prior to that time the New Year officially started on March 25th (Lady Day). Ths change reflects the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in various European countries from the 1580s. *See Register of the Privy Council 17 December 1599 _or_ Osborne & Armstrong: Scottish Dates. Birlinn, 1996. If Jan 1 was already "commounlie callit new yeairis day" then perhaps Hogmanany was always celebrated on 31 Dec and the Lady Day date was simply a legal formality - somebody will surely know! Oidhche Challuinn, Hogmanay, New Year's Eve ------------------------------------------- The Gaelic name for New Year's day is Calluinn, with lads who go out on Hogmanay being called "Gillean Calluinne". The name Calluinn is derived from the Latin "Calendae" (the first day of the month; the day announcements were called and is related to the word "call"). Thus there is a link between the Gaelic word "Calluinn" and the English word "Calendar". The eve of New year's Day was on of supreme importance in the Highlands and Islands of the West and took precedence even over Christmas. It was a time of much ceremony and gaiety, but underneath the levity lies a sinister hint of the old ritual and sacrificial nature of the festival. The Eve of New Year was known as Oidhche Challuinn, and New Year's Day as La Challuinn. First Footing is still carried out, as in other parts of the Highlands, although, as elsewhere, it is a dying custom. Up to the beginning of the century at least, the festivities of New Year's Eve were fully in operation and people went round the houses in every town shop carrying dried cow-hides and chanting special rhymes continuously. They beat the skins with sticks and struck the walls of the houses with clubs; this ritual was believed to have an apotropaic effect and to keep at bay the fairies and evil spirits and hostile forces of every kind. The part of the hide used was the loose flap of the beasts neck; this was called in Gaelic caisean-uchd. This they used to singe in the fire and present it to the members of the family, each in turn; every member of the household was required to smell it as a charm against all things evil and harmful. One example of the type of rhyme chanted is as follows: Great good luck to the house, Good luck to the family, Good luck to every rafter in it, And to every worldly thing in it. Good luck to horses and cattle, Good luck to the sheep, Good luck to everything, And good luck to all your means. Luck to the good-wife, Good luck to the children, Good luck to every friend, Great fortune and health to all. Carmichael gives the following example of a Hogmanay rhyme: Tonight is the hard night of Hogmanay, I have come with a lamb to sell - The old fellow yonder sternly said He would strike my ear against a rock. The woman, better of speech, said That I should be let in; For my food and my drink, A morsel due and something with it. Apparently lads with no better rhyme used to chant the following: I have no dislike of cheese, I have no dislike of butter, But a little sip of barley bree I am right willing to put down! The young people used to travel in groups round their own townships. In different areas, different rites would be performed at each house, but some form of Duan Challuinn, 'Hogmanay Poem', would always be chanted. There were two types of visitation; in one instance the duan was recited outside the house and the cant described the ritual of approaching and entering the house. Another duan was sung after the house had been entered, the caisean Calluig, 'Hogmanay Hide', was beaten. This is also called the Caisean a' Bhuilg, 'Hide of the Bag'. The basic form of the ritual was universal in spite of regional variants in ritual and terminology. These old practices have virtually died out, but the ancient and pagan ritual discernible in them requires no comment. The boys who took part in these rites were known as gillean Callaig. 'Hogmanay Lads', and the ceremony was performed at night. One of the boys was covered with the hide of a bull to which the horns and hooves were still attached. When they came to a house in some areas they climbed to the flat edge of the thatched roof and ran round it in a sunwise direction, the boy, or man, wearing the hide would shake the horns and hooves, and the others would strike at he bull-man with sticks. He was meant to be a frightening figure, and apparently the noise of the ritual beating and shaking of the hide was terrific. After this part of the ceremony was performed, the boys came down from the roof and recited their blatantly pagan chants; afterwards they were given hospitality of the house. The rhyme when the hide was in the process of being struck was as follows: Hogmanay of the sack, Hogmanay of the sack, Strike of the hide, Strike of the hide, Hogmanay of the sack, Hogmanay of the sack, Beat the skin, Beat the skin, Hogmanay of the sack, Hogmanay of the sack, Down with it, Up with it; Strike the hide. Hogmanay of the sack, Hogmanay of the sack, Down with it, Up with it; Strike the hide. Hogmanay of the sack, Hogmanay of the sack, The ritual rhyme was of course, chanted in Gaelic. Its very monotony imparted a certain eerie relentlessness to the ceremony.. When it was finished, another carol or chant would be sung at the door of the house; this would praise - in anticipation - the generosity of the occupiers and would request entry and reward. In some areas the skin was singed by the man of the house, and the fumes it gave off were believed to have powers of purification, imparting health to all the family for the next twelve months. A New Year's blessing, widely used and having a number of variants, could also be heard in both the island, and the Gaelic mainland. Pennant records, for the Dingwall region of Easter Ross, that he was told in the locality that on New Year's Day the people burned juniper before their cattle to protect them - another custom going back to Druidic times. He also learnt that on the first Monday of every quarter, the beasts were sprinkled with urine - a potent evil-averting substance. Campbell, in his Witchcraft, gives other details of the Hogmanay ceremony. He says the hide of a cow was wrapped round the head of one of the men and he went off, followed by the rest of the party who struck the hide with switches so that it made a booming sound, similar to the noise of a drum. Again, the procession went three times deiseal, or sunwise, round every house in each township, beating on the walls of the house and chanting their rhymes at the door. The amount of drink taken must have been very considerable and as the evening wore on, the noise and rowdiness must have been quite alarming. On entering each house each member of the party was offered refreshments of the traditional kind - oatmeal, bread and cheese, and meat, followed by a dram of whisky. The man of the house was then given the caisean-uchd, which Campbell described as the breast-skin of a sheep which was wrapped round the point of a shinty stick; this was, as in other instances, singed in the fire, and carried three times sunwise round the family, grasped in the right hand, and held to the nose of each person. This was the focal point of the ritual. Campbell also records that as many people who wished to do so could carry a caisean, and that it could be made of goat or deer skin as well as from the breast-skin of a sheep. The houses were decorated with holly on order to keep out the fairies always a troublesome race; it was believed that if a boy were whipped with the branch of this plant it was an assurance that he would live for as many years as the drops of blood drawn by the sharp holly - a painful way of ensuring longevity! Cheese, which as we have seen, was believed to have magical properties was an important item of the festive fare and the cheese eaten on this occasion was referred to as the caise Calluinn, the Christmas Cheese. A slice of it was preserved, and if this happened to have a hole through it, it was believed to have special virtues. This sacred slice was known as the Laomacha, and a person who had lost his way at any time during the ensuing twelve months had only to look through the hole in the slice and he would know where he was - this was especially valuable to one lost on the hill in the mist. It was regarded as a very magical festival in every respect, and games of all kinds were played. Some of those concerned with the endlessly-fascinating desire to find out who one's future husband or wife was destined to be. Sometimes the boys in the a Hogmanay procession were preceded by a piper. No matter how long or short the chant was, some words at least must be recited. It was the tradition to keep the fire, which was usually 'smoored' or extinguished at night, alive all through New Year's night. Only a friend might approach the sacred blaze, and the candles were likewise kept burning in the house. This custom gave rise to another name for the festival, Oidhche Choinnle, 'Candlemass'. These various rites were performed in the belief that, by observing them, evil would be kept from the dwelling for the ensuing year. When the fire was being fuelled on this night, a special incantation was recited, but Campbell was unable to obtain an example of this. If the fire went out that night, it boded ill for the coming year, and no neighbour would provide kindling to light it on the following day. Ritual even accompanied the extinguishing or 'smooring' of the fires; the putting out of flames was called in Gaelic 'smaladh an teine'. The main fuel used in the Highlands and Islands was, of course peat; wood was scarce, and although much more coal is used today, peat is still burnt. The fire was not entirely extinguished but kept barely smouldering during the night. Until very recently the fire was in the centre of the floor of the so-called black houses, and the embers were smoothed out evenly on the hearth; these were then covered over with large peats and ashes to prevent the fire from blazing up in the night, but ensure easy kindling in the morning. The whole process was regarded with superstition, and was accompanied by many incantations. One incantation taken down by Carmichael invokes; The Sacred Three To save, To shield, To surround The Hearth, The House, The Household, This eve, This night, Oh! this eve, This night, And every night, Each single night. There are many variants of invocations for this important function of smooring the fire, all of a sacred nature, and going right back to the ancient pagan belief in the miraculous power of fire. The kindling in the morning, on which all domestic comfort depended, had it's own repertoire of charms and incantations for blessing: I will raise the hearth-fire As Mary would. The encirclement of Bride and St. Mary On the fire, and on the floor, And on the household all. Who are they on the bare floor? John and Peter and Paul. Who are they by my bed? The lovely Bride and her fosterling. Who are those watching over my sleep? The fair loving Mary and her Lamb. Who is that at the back of my head? The Son of Life without beginning, without time. Deeply and sincerely Christian as these devout Highlanders were, they managed to keep the essence of the old religion in being by turning from the many pagan gods and goddesses - although, as we have seen, some of these were retained underneath a veneer of Christianity - the many saints and angels, as well as the Virgin and the Trinity, thus continuing to surround themselves with divine protection, of a Christian kind, but according to the ancient pre-Christian formulae. Campbell, in his Witchcraft, notes that Latha na Bliadhn' Ur, "New Year's Day" was also known as the Day of Little Christmas. After the family had got up in the morning, the head of the house gave a dram of whisky to each member of the household; then a strange custom followed in some areas; a breakfast was provided of half-boiled sowens - austere fare for a festive occasion. This was supposed to bring luck to the household. Campbell does say that this tradition was not observed on Mull, Morvern or the Western Isles. Then each member of the family exchanged traditional greetings and did likewise with every person they met. The boy then went off to play shinty and meanwhile a late and luxurious breakfast was prepared. Apparently, no substance of any kind was allowed to be removed from the house on New Year's Day - dirty water, sweeping from the floor, ashes and so on. If a neighbour's fire had gone out one must not give fire from one's own house to them; this was regarded as one of the most unlucky things that could be done. It would ensure a death within that family during the coming year; it also gave power to the black witches to take away the produce from the cattle. No woman should enter the house first on the portentous day. Extracted from "The Folklore of the Scottish Highlands", By Ann Ross. 1976, Published by Barnes and Noble. [12.17] New Year Fire Festivals Comrie ------ As midnight strikes on Hogmanay in Comrie a strange, time-honoured ceremony takes place - the lighting of the Flambeaux, to herald in the New Year. It is a ceremony that goes back far beyond the memory of folk and when questioned about its origin, they say "There have aye been flambeaux, in my father's time and my granfather's". The flambeaux are great tall torches, some ten feet in length, swathed for about two feet on top. The poles are usually smallish birch trees which are cut around October. The swathing is of canvas formly bound to the shaft with wire, and is subjected to being soaked in a large barrel of paraffin for several weeks. On Hogmanay night they are brought out and laid against the dyke at the northeast corner of the Auld Kirkyaird, and when the clock strikes at midnight they are set alight. The torches are then seized by the strongest young men and hoisted shoulder high. Preceded by the Comrie Pipe band followed by a procession of people gathered in the village square they are paraded down Drummond Street, back over the Dalginross Bridge and down Strowan Road to the Square, then along Dunira Street to the Public Hall in Burrell street and finally returning to the Square. Once there they are ceremoniously thrown into the river Earn. It takes strong men to complete the circuit and no shortage of volunteers. A motley collection of guisers and people in fancy dress add to the ambiance and there is dancing and laughter. Prizes are awarded for the best costumes. Therafter people first foot their family, friends and neighbours. It is important that a dark - haired "stranger" be allowed into your house before a fair haired one - this may have something to do with Viking raids - invariably Vikings were fair haired. The "stranger" may carry a lump of coal signifying warmth or heat, or a piece of cake signifying food or Scotch signifying liquid. A good time is then had by all and sundry. No-one is turned away at the door. The ceremony may be Druid - to exorcise the witches because people until very recently believed in witches or it may have something to do with protecting the village from marauding Vikings or it may have something to do with the Flems who came there 200 years ago and taught the local folk how to weave. (Flambeaux = beautiful flames) Burghead and Stonehaven ----------------------- The fire festivals are typical of those which used to be held in many communities in Scotland, but which were largely stamped out by the Church of Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries. A few survived, such as the Burning of the Clavie at Burghead (Moray), and the fireball whirling at Stonehaven. These days they are often an excuse for the public to consume various quantities of appropriate alcoholic beverages. The Clavie fire ceremony is conducted under strict accordance with tradition and takes place around January 1st by the old calendar, which equates to January 10th/11th. The Clavie is dated back to pre-Christian times and is held in the highest regard by the people of Burghead, more than Xmas and January 1st itself. A position in the Clavie crew (the organisers) is hereditary, and has been handed down from father to son for many generations. (I wonder if any women have ever wanted to take part?) A barrel is halved and filled with tar and faggots, mounted on a pole and carried round the streets of the town, with burning bits of wood tossed into doorways where they are snapped up by the joyous householders and preserved to bring good fortune throughout the year. They used to take the clavie round ships in the harbour, but after a few accidents this practice ceased. The clavie is finally mounted in a special pillar on a mound within the Pictish fort, where it burns itself out. Similar ceremonies used to occur at other Moray fishing villages, including Findhorn and Lossiemouth, but this was stamped out by the church in the 17th century. Burghead didn't have a church until the mid-19th century, so it survived there. Shetland -------- Shetland has a similar fire festival in January "Up helly aa" - this is a series of fire festivals. The biggest takes place on the last Tuesday in January and is a procession of flaming torches, carried through the streets of Lerwick by 'guizers' and led by the Jarl Squad in full Viking costume, before setting alight a specially built full-size replica longship. Smaller festivals are held throughout Shetland from January to March, these are more accessible but still very spectacular. [12.18] Ba' game, Orkney No doubt you'll know about this already but one particular custom we have in Orkney is the Ba'. Although the ba' is played on Christmas Day and New Year's Day every year, it's origin's were probably in New Year's Celebrations (The New Year's day Ba' was originally the only one of any importance until 1880 at which point the Christmas Ba' began to achieve some stature.) On Xmas Eve and Hogmanay each year all the householders and shopkeepers along Kirkwall's main streets barricade up their premises in preparation for the ba'. The idea of the "game" is that the men of the town are either "Uppies" or "Doonies" and fight over a cork filled leather ball. The Uppies must touch the Ba against a wall in the South End of the Town whereas the Doonies must get the Ba into the water of the Harbour at the North. The streets are their playing field. A typical game can go on for hours with a heaving throng of men pushing and pulling to try and gain a few metres ground. When the crowd breaks the man with the Ba' will try and get as close to the "goal" as possible before being stopped again. Numerous tactics are used. Players have been known to smuggle the ba through Kirkwall's winding lanes and even attempt to reach their goal via the rooftops. The origins of the Ba' are uncertain but it may stem from the tradition of the old year fighting the New. Numerous legends grew up around it's origin, one being that it stemmed from the defeat of an evil tyrant named Tusker. A young Orcadian man rowed across the Pentland Firth and travelled on horseback until he met and defeated Tusker (so called because of his protruding teeth). The boy severed Tusker's head and was taking it back to Orkney tied to his saddle when one of Tusker's teeth punctured the Earl's leg. The wound became infected and the boy died, but not before making it to the Mercat Cross outside Kirkwall's cathedral and throwing the head into the midst of the gathered townsfolk. The people of Kirkwall were so outraged that they kicked the severed head through the streets in anger - hence the legendary (but historically untrue) origin of the Ba'. Interestingly this tale parallels almost exactly a historical campaign by the Orkney Earl Sigurd, who travelled to the mainland and defeated his enemy Maelbrigte Tusk, a Scottish Earl. Sigurd defeated Maelbrigte and his men and strapped their severed heads to the saddles of their mounts. Sigurd spurred his horse and Maelbrigte's tooth punctured the Earl's leg. This wound poisoned and Sigurd died and was buried on the mainland. It's interesting to note the severed head connection with the Ba' and the Celtic motif of the Beheading Game - most well known via "Gawain and the Green Knight". One theory as to the origins of the beheading game motif is that it is all that remains of an ancient new year ritual - the challenge of the new year (Gawain beheads the knight representing the old year and symbolically becomes the "New Year" - he is then told by the beheaded knight that he must return in a year at which time his head will be struck off) to the old year. Gawain through the head of the Green Knight to the watching people in the court of Camelot who kicked the severed head as it rolled around the ground towards them. I wonder about the connection? Another possibility of its origin lies in the Orkney legend of the Sea Mither (the Benign Spirit of the Sea) and her nemesis Teran (spirit of Winter). These two battle twice per annum - once at the spring equinox at which time Teran is defeated and bound and again at the Autumn equinox when Teran breaks free and banishes the sea-mither. The Ba' has been likened to these struggles and possibly originated as a ritual contest based on folk memories of the strife between these two characters. More info at http://www.velvia.demon.co.uk/ There is also a lot of information on the Ba' game in Tocher 53. [12.19] Halloween The Celtic festival Samhain is one of the four quarter festivals. In Gaelic it is Samhuinn which means hallow tide or season, the feast of all-souls. The souls of all the dead are said to be free on that day, 1st November. 1st November was the first day of the Celtic new year and the transition between old and new year was believed to set free evil spirits which would visit your house. Halloween is actually the night before where lanterns (Gaelic: samhnag), Hallowfires and such are supposed to scare the souls that will emerge at midnight, away from your house. Samhuinn is also used in Gaelic for the entire month of November. The name "Samhain" entered Canadian folklore as "Sam Hain", the name of the guy doll which children would wheel round. Halloween customs in Scotland these days consist chiefly of children going door to door "guising" (or "Galoshin" on the south bank of the lower Clyde) dressing up and offering entertainment of various sorts in return for gifts. The Witchcraft Act of 1735 contained a clause preventing the consumption of pork and pastry comestibles on Halloween although these days sausage rolls seem to a popular treat for children - the act was repealed in the 1950s. The children are invariably dressed up as something supernatural or spooky and the entertainment usually consists of singing, telling a poem or joke etc. They don't 'trick' you if you do not give, as in America. However, after the showing of ET in the early 80s, the influence of American "trick or treating" seems to have become more prevelant at least in England. Hollowed out turnips with candles in them are sometimes displayed or carried. Note that many children in America do not 'trick' either. Halloween parties often consisted of various games, for instance 'Dooking fur aiples' where the children had to bite apples floating in a basin of water, once they had one by the teeth they could retreive and obtain it. Sometimes flour would be sprinkled on the surface of the water. For younger children a more modern game is 'Forkin fur aiples', an easier task, where the children stood on a chair and held a fork handle in their teeth, taking aim, they would release it into the basin of apples and water and retreive and keep any apple they so skewered. Another game was 'treacle scones' where children had to eat a scone covered in treacle hanging on a piece of string. One custom associated with Halloween in the Western Isles was to put two large nuts in the fire. These were supposed to represent yourself and your intended spouse. If the nuts jumped together when they warmed up then this was deemed to be a good omen, but if they jumped apart then it was time to look for someone else! See [12.15] for further details of Halloween customs - some of these migrated from the Celtic hogmanay of 31 October to the modern hogmanay of 31 December with the change from the Celtic calander to the modern calendar. However, according to Brewster's Dictionary of Folklore which is on line, 'guiser' was a Scottish Mummer at Christmas time, so this is one tradition that has gone in the other direction i.e. from yuletide to Halloween. Further info ------------ http://www.scottishradiance.com/halstory.htm The story of Halloween Recommended further reading: Tocher 7 (Autumn 1972) P201-207, P220 Tocher 15 (Autumn 1974) P241, P257 Published by the School of Scottish Studies, see [12.2] See also "Halloween", a poem by Robert Burns (written 1785) [12.20] Use of Mc Vs Mac in Scottish Surname See here for full information on the use of Mc, Mac and other prefixes used in Scottish and Irish surnames http://www.scottishhistory.com/articles/misc/macvsmc.html [12.21] What is worn under the kilt? It is traditional custom that no undergarments are worn underneath the kilt, and it is military regulation for soliders in Highland regiments. However, there are exceptions. In Highland step dancing, athletes for Highland games, and band leaders (who raise their knees to chest level as a way of keeping time) wearing undergarments is more seemly and permitted. For civilians, undergarments is a personal choice, not a regulatory requirement. Some wear underwear, usually bikini briefs (which are easier to get in and out of when nature calls), some do not. One of the reasons that I recommended specially made kilt shirts with longer tails is that this would provide a layer between the skin and the worsted wool for those who wear their kilts in the traditional fashion, especially if they are sensitive to wool. Last but not least, there is the answer given by all Scotsmen - regardless of whether they have underwear or not - to the age-old question of "What is worn underneath the kilt?" It is: NOTHING WORN, ALL IN FIRST CLASS WORKING ORDER! [13.1] Haggis information Buying haggis ------------- The best known haggis maker in the world is Charles MacSween of Edinburgh. He makes about 1 ton a day and ships it all over the UK and overseas too (it keeps remarkably well in the post). Many shops in the UK (including supermarkets) sell MacSween's haggis. There is also a vegetarian version which is quite tasty. The vegetarian one is made from black kidney beans, lentils, nuts, mushrooms, swede and carrots. It accounts for 10% of MacSween's haggis sales. contact: Macsween of Edinburgh Dryden Road Bilston Glen Loanhead Edinburgh EH20 9LZ Scotland, UK. Tel: +44 131 440 2555 Fax: +44 131 440 2674 http://www.macsween.co.uk/ As an alternative, you should try the haggis at Sandy Crombie's on Broughton Street. There is a guidebook to the best food shops in the UK (I can't remember the title, but I can find it if you want), and you'll find Sandy's shop in there. It is a truly excellent butchers, and is regarded by many as an equal to McSweens. See also the excellent site at http://www.scottishhaggis.co.uk/ Cooking haggis -------------- From interview with John MacSween of MacSween's the butchers in The Times, 2-Jan-93, P7. "Wrap the haggis tightly in tin foil and place in a large saucepan of cold water. Bring to the boil and simmer gently for 45 minutes per lb. When ready to serve, remove from foil and drain off the excess water. Split the skin with a sharp knife and spoon the contents onto a hot (most important) plate with mashed turnip and mashed potato." Allow about 6-8oz per person. Haggis in the US ---------------- US customs seem to have problems allowing Haggis into the country. If you live in the US and want a haggis, try Lamb Etc. http://www.tcfb.com/lambetc/ Haggis recipie -------------- Source: mailto:Micheil@Ireland.com HAGGIS This is the most traditional of all Scottish dishes, eaten on Burns Night (25th January; the birthday of Scotland's national poet, Robert Burns, 1759-1796) and at Hogmanay (New Year's Eve), accompanied by the traditional Black Bun, Het Pint and Shortbread. It is really a large round sausage; the skin being a sheep's paunch. The finest haggis of all is made with deer liver, served to the skirl of the pipes, cut open with a traditional 'sgian dubh' (black stocking knife) and accompanied by small glasses of neat Scotch whisky. This recipe dates from 1856. 1 cleaned sheep or lamb's stomach bag 2 lb. dry oatmeal 1 lb. chopped mutton suet 1 lb. lamb or venison liver, boiled and minced 2 c. stock sheep heart and lights, boiled and minced 1 large chopped onion 1/2 tsp. cayenne pepper 1/2 tsp. allspice 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. pepper 1. Toast oatmeal slowly until crisp. 2. Mix all ingredients (except stomach bag) together; add stock. 3. Fill bag to just over half full, press out air, sew up securely. 4. Have ready a large pot of boiling water. 5. Prick the haggis all over with a large pin so it doesn't burst. 6. Boil slowly for 4 to 5 hours. 7. Serve with Clapshot. CLAPSHOT Clapshot is delicious with Haggis. A traditional Orkney dish, it is widely eaten in the North of Scotland. 1 lb. potatoes 1 lb. white or yellow turnips (or swedes) 4 chopped shallots, or 1 tbs. chopped chives 1 tbs. butter or dripping, heaped salt and pepper to taste sprinkle of mace or nutmeg if desired 1. Boil potatoes and turnips separately, drain. 2. Mash very well, adding all other ingredients. 3. If desired, add sprinkle of mace or nutmeg. 4. Season to taste, serve hot. [13.2] Scottish cooking and recipes Great Scottish Food when dining out ----------------------------------- The definitive guide to eating good traditional Scottish food is "The Taste of Scotland" published by Taste of Scotland, 33 Melville St, Edinburgh, EH3 7JF Links ----- http://www.nairns.co.uk/ - Nick Nairn, award winning TV chef. Scotland Hampers http://www.scotlandhampers.com/ This is probably the best page on the Net for Scottish recipe site links: http://www.rampantscotland.com/food.htm Books ----- F. Marian McNeill - The Scots Kitchen, its lore and recipes. A classic and as much a source of folklore and history as a culinary reference. First published in 1929. 300+ pages. Published by Grafton Books, 8 Grafton St, London, W1X 3LA. ISBN 0-586-20784-8. Grafton books is a division of Collins, Glasgow. Just about every recipe has a tale, saying, poem, song or bit of history printed with it (the occasional one in Gaelic; with translation). F. Marian MacNeill was a historian by profession. Another book, rather more contemporary (no stories etc but probably biased towards modern eating trends and it also has US-UK conversions). Scottish Cookery: Catherine Brown. ISBN 0-86267-248-1. Published by Richard Drew publishing, 6 Clairmont Gardens, Glasgow G3 7LW. Really good traditional stuff and well laid out. McNeill's book gives several recipes for haggis. The Traditional Cottage Recipe includes : "The large stomach bag of a sheep, the pluck (including heart, lights and liver), beef-suet, pin-head (coarse) oatmeal, onions, black pepper, salt, stock or gravy. Meg Dod's recipe includes "Sheep's pluck and paunch, beef-suet, onions, oatmeal, pepper, salt, cayenne, lemon or vinegar". Haggis Royal includes "Mutton, suet, beef-marrow, bread-crumbs or oatmeal, anchovies, parsley, lemon, pepper, cayenne, eggs, red wine". Deer Haggis includes "Deer's heart, liver and suet, coarse oatmeal, onions, black pepper, salt, paste". It takes about a day to make a haggis from scratch, but very very few people do this as it is particulaly gruesome. Most people buy their haggis from the butcher's. See [13.1] for details of how to get some. [13.3] Best Scottish pubs To find out where to get the best beer (Real Ale), look in The Good Beer Guide, available from all major bookshops. Published by CAMRA. ISBN 1852491868. Published in October each year. http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1852491868/scottishmusiccom http://www.cask-marque.co.uk/ also lists the pubs with the best beer in Scotland. Stagg's Bar in Musselburgh won CAMRA's "Pub of the Year" 1998. Edinburgh: Bannerman's; Bert's bar; Bow bar; Canny Man's; Cumberland Bar; Clark's Bar; Drew Nicol's; Golden Rule; Greenmantle; Guildford Arms; Halfway House; Hampton Hotel; Holyrood Tavern; Kay's Bar; K. Jackson's Bar; Leslie's Bar; Malt and Hops; Oxford Bar (http://www.oxfordbar.com/); Robbie's Bar; Royal Ettrick Hotel; Smithie's Ale House; Southsider; Stable Bar; Starbank Inn; Merman; Caledonian Sample Rooms; Homes Bar; The Cask and Barrel; Mather's; The Cafe Royal; Bennet's, Milne's; Old Chain Pier. The Caledonian Brewery (Slateford Road; http://www.caledonian-brewery.co.uk/) has a big beer festival in early June; The biggest beer festival in Scotland is held at Meadowbank Stadium in early October. See also http://www.electrum.co.uk/pubs/ You should note that many recent Sunday paper reviews make the Basement the 'trendiest pub in Edinburgh'. It also does excellent Mexican food early evenings. Glasgow: Athena Taverna; Babbity Bowser; Bon Accord; Boswell Hotel; Brewery Tap; The Horse shoe; Mitre; Cask & Still; Sloane's; Station Bar; Tennents; Three Judges; Ubiquitous Chip; Victoria Bar There's also a brew pub called The Clockwork Beer Co. at 1153/55 Cathcart Road. Good selection of cask conditioned plus their own ales brewed on the premises. For information on pubs with no-smoking areas, see Craig's list at: http://www.siliconglen.com/fooddrink/pubsfornonsmokers.html As of 26th March 2006 all indoor areas including pubs and restaurants in Scotland are smoke free by law. If smoke free areas in pubs interests you, then the sites at http://www.ashscotland.org.uk/ and http://www.ash.org.uk/ may also be of interest. There is a relevant report here http://www.ashscotland.org.uk/issues/pass_smok_mva_cust.html See also -------- http://www.scottishpubs.com/ http://www.jdwetherspoon.co.uk/ http://www.camra.org.uk/ There is also a lot of good pubs listed in the Scotland the Best guidebook, see [14.2]. [13.4] Whisky (whiskey) Information about whisky ======================== Whisky is the spelling used in Scotland and for Canadian Rye. Whiskey is the spelling used in Ireland, the US and some other countries. People very rarely call whisky "Scotch" in Scotland, they either ask for it by brand name or ask for any malt, or just ask for a whisky. The word "scotch" is used though (scotch is an appellation). A single malt scotch must fulfill three requirements: i) It must be the product of only one distillery ii) It must be made exclusively from barley malt iii) It must be made in Scotland. and, in order to be sold under the description "Scotch Whisky", it must by law be at least three years old. Highland malt whisky must be made in an area north west of a line which passes near Dunblane. It includes both Deanston and Blackford, towns a few miles to the west and north of Dunblane. The best selling single malt in Scotland is "Glenmorangie", pronounced to rhyme with "orangey" (stress on the 2nd syllable of Glen-mor-an-gie). This word comes from the Gaelic for "Glen of Great Tranquility". The best selling single malt scotch in the world is Glenfiddich (=Glen of the Deer). My personal favourites are Highland Park (12 years old, from Orkney). Jackson rates this as "The greatest all-rounder in the world of whisky". For special occasions, I'd recommend MacAllan 18 year old. There are only two single malt whisky distilleries in North America. One is at Glenora, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. It usually opens for visitors in June for the summer season and also for a few days around Christmas. The other is recently opened and is at Clear Creek Distillery in Portland, Oregon. http://www.clearcreekdistillery.com/ Links ===== Try the whisky www page at http://www.dcs.ed.ac.uk/home/jhb/whisky/ More whisky information is also available at http://www.scotweb.co.uk/shopping/whisky/select/ Other whisky links include http://www.scotchwhisky.com/ http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/ http://www.whiskyweb.com/ and http://www.gordonandmacphail.com/ and Diageo (formerly Guinness/GrandMet) owners of many Scotch whisky brands http://www.diageo.com/ Mailing Lists ============= To join the malts mailing list, send a mail to mailto:listserv@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de containing the line SUBSCRIBE MALTS-L yourfirsname yoursurname e.g. SUBSCRIBE MALTS-L Iain MacLeod Useful addresses ================ The Scotch Malt Whisky Society 87 Giles St, Leith, Edinburgh EH6. Tel: 0131 555 2929 http://www.smws.co.uk/ The Scotch Whisky Association 20 Atholl Crescent, Edinburgh EH3 Tel: 0131 229 4383 http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/ Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre 354 Castlehill, Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 Tel: 0131 220 0441 http://www.whisky-heritage.co.uk/ Books ===== The definitive book on Malt Whiskies is: Michael Jackson's Malt Whisky Companion --------------------------------------- A Connoisseur's Guide to the Malt Whiskies of Scotland Published by Dorling Kindersley Ltd, 9 Henrietta St, London, WC2E 8PS The ISBN for the 1999 edition is 0751307084 The price is now UKP12.99 356 pages, hardback. More info at the following link http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0751307084/scottishmusiccom Covers over 250 malts from over 120 distilleries with full tasting notes. Includes all well known brands plus rare and specialist bottlings Includes rating system for both the whisky and the distillery. Includes alphabetic index, and list of distilleries (with phone numbers) that offer tours. The brands that Jackson rates most highly are: Balvenie, Lagavulin, Glenlivet and Highland Park. The Malt Whisky File -------------------- another book is "The Malt Whisky File" by John Lamond and Robin Tucek, "has more tasting notes (over 400) than any comparable whisky guide" . It was described by Esquire as "Unquestionably the best consumer guide to Scotland's finest whiskies". More info at the following link http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1841950726/scottishmusiccom It is published by Canongate Books Ltd, 14 High Street, Edinburgh EH1 1TE The price for the 2000 edition is UKP7.99, and the ISBN is 1841950726 http://www.canongate.net/ It can be purchased direct from the publishers via secure transactions available from the above web sites. Also from on-line booksellers (see [1.9]) [13.5] Ale (Beer) Ale brewing in Scotland predates whisky distillation. Caledonian Brewery (Edinburgh) http://www.caledonian-brewery.co.uk/ There is also Heather Ale, made to a 4,000 year old Pictish recipe http://www.heatherale.co.uk/ Scotland's only ubrew "you brew" centre is in Edinburgh and is at http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/ubrew/ Beer is 75p a pint. (1998 prices) For info on real ale in the UK and British beer festivals, see http://www.camra.org.uk/ [13.6] Irn-bru Scotland's "Other national drink" http://www.irn-bru.co.uk/ [13.7] Traditional bread recipe (Gaelic and English) Seo agad doigh airson aran a cho\caireadh <Here's a Gaelic recipe for bread - takes about 2-3 hours total. We make this frequently, it's quite straightforward. English follows> Aran Sgi\re Raoird Cungaidh: Aran: dusan unnsa flu\r-bracha donn coig unnsaichean flu\r geal la\idir spa\in-ti\ de shalann spa\in-ti\ de shiu\car spa\in-bhu\ird de cho\than ghearrte spa\in-bhu\ird de shi\l neo\inean-gre\ine seachd gramaichean de bheirm Comhdachadh: ugh leth spa\in-ti\ de shalann da\ unnsa-bhu\rn de bhainne si\l de cheann choilich dheirg no si\l sasamaidh Ceuman: Cuir an cungaidh gu le\ir le che\ile le tri\ ceud ml de bhu\rn bhla\th. Taoisnich fad deich mionaidean e agus de\an tri\ roinntean dheth. Fill na roinntean le che\ile mar fhigheachan. Measgaich an ugh, salann agus am bainne le che\ile agus comhdaich an taois leis. Cuir dhan an darna taobh fad leth-uair a thi\de gus e\irigh e. (Feumaidh e a bhith da\ uiread na mo\) Nuair a tha an taois air e\irigh, comhdaich e leis a' bhainne agus an ugh a-rithist. Faodar si\l de cheann choilich dheirg, no si\l-sasamaidh a chur air cuideachd. Cuir e dhan an a\mhainn, aig 230C. mar tha, fad deich mionaidean air fhichead. <English> Nut bread 12 Oz Malted brown flour 5 Oz strong white flour 1 tsp salt, sugar 1 tbsp olive oil (or veg oil), chopped nuts, sunflower seeds 1 pkg yeast (7g) sesame or poppy seeds. Brush on: 1 egg, 1/2 tsp salt, 2 Oz milk Beat lightly and apply as directed below Mix all ingredients together with 300ml of warm water (approx 125ml boiling and 175ml cold). Kneed for at least 10 mins. Shape and cover with "brush on". Cover with cling film and allow to rise in a warm, draft free area to double original size. Prior to cooking re-apply "brush on" and sprinkle with sesame seeds or poppy seeds. Cook for 30 mins at 230C (450F) in a preheated oven. [14.1] What's on Scotland ======== http://www.visitscotland.com/seeanddo/ Glasgow/Edinburgh area ====================== s1play ------ http://www.s1play.com/ The List -------- http://www.timeout.com/ Gig Guide ---------- http://www.gigguide.co.uk/ The Highlands ============= http://www.hi-arts.co.uk/ [14.2] Scottish Guide books The primary guide to finding out the best things to do, go, eat, see etc in Scotland is "Scotland the Best". This is an alternative guide to Scottish culture for both locals and tourists alike. I liked it so much I bought the book then helped work on the next edition :-) This guide is now published by Collins and there a small city guides by the same author for Edinburgh and Glasgow. http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0007165307/scottishmusiccom http://www.harpercollins.co.uk/books/default.aspx?id=28241 Food ---- see here for an eating out search engine http://www.eatscotland.com/ History ------- For a tourist who might be interested in the history of Scotland, the Blue Guide to Scotland is indispensible. I have used this book a great deal, particularly when travelling in the Highlands and the west: it is excellent. It has none of the trendy stuff about where's cool to drink or eat (like the Rough Guide) but it has a fantastic ammount of historical detail which brings places and the landscape alive. On Scotland, The Lonely Planet Guide to Britain is superior to the Rough Guide to Scotland. And the Scottish Tourist Board (VisitScotland) have re-issued 'Scotland: A Touring Guide', which lists all the 'heritage attractions' in Scotland. The Good Food Guide to Britain' is a very good restaurant guide. The List also publishes very fair guides from time-to-time. Edinburgh Guides ---------------- Charles McKean's architectural guide to Edinburgh is first class and Andrew Lownie's Edinburgh: A Literary Guide throws an interesting slant on the city for anyone interested in these matters. A personal favourite of mine is Edinburgh: The Graveyard Guide. Many of the graveyards offer quite beautiful and unexpected views of the city. There is an on-line guide to some Edinburgh restaurants at http://www.spidacom.co.uk/EDG/ See also http://www.gonadovision.demon.co.uk/visitors.htm [14.3] VisitScotland / Scottish Tourist Board VisitScotland is the name for the former Scottish Tourist Board visitscotland.com is the name of the joint venture between VisitScotland, Area Tourist Boards and private investors to run the national contact centre, visitscotland.com website and associated software. This page http://www.visitscotland.com/sitewide/contactus explains who to contact for what! The main website is at http://www.visitscotland.com/ Late deals are at http://search.visitscotland.com/frameset.asp?BranchType=lateavailabilityoffers For information and booking services, use the visitscotland.com National Scottish Contact Centre, call: 0845 22 55 121 or from outwith the UK +44 1506 832 121. The US gateway for Scottish Tourism is at http://www.toscotland.com/ Please also view the Silicon Glen accommodation section at http://www.siliconglen.com/accommodation/ Edinburgh --------- In Edinburgh, the main tourist office is in Waverley Market, Princes Street, Tel: 0131 332 2433 From overseas, dial the international access code, then 44 131 332 2433. The code for the UK when dialling from other countries is 44. London ------ VisitScotland (The Scottish Tourist Board) have an office in London and you are welcome to drop in, book accommodation etc The Scottish Tourist Board London Office 19 Cockspur Street London SW1Y 5BL Tel: 0171 930 8661 If you are a Scot in London, these sites may also be of interest: http://www.scotsinlondon.com/ http://www.siliconglen.com/news/2006/03/15-years-scottish-events-in-london.html Areas of Scotland ================= Shetland -------- http://www.shetland.org/ http://www.visitshetland.com/ Orkney ------ http://www.visitorkney.com/ Western Isles ------------- http://www.witb.co.uk/ Highlands of Scotland --------------------- http://www.visithighlands.com/ Aberdeen and Grampian --------------------- http://www.agtb.org/ Angus and Dundee ---------------- http://www.angusanddundee.co.uk/ Argyll, Loch Lomond, Stirling and Trossachs ------------------------------------------- http://www.visitscottishheartlands.com/ ([15.20] may also be of interest) Kingdom of Fife --------------- http://www.standrews.com/fife/ Glasgow and Clyde valley ------------------------ http://seeglasgow.com/ Ayrshire and Arran ------------------ http://www.ayrshire-arran.com/ Dumfries and Galloway --------------------- http://www.visitdumfriesandgalloway.co.uk/ Edinburgh and Lothians ---------------------- http://www.edinburgh.org/ Scottish Borders ---------------- http://www.scot-borders.co.uk/ Miscellaneous ============= Scottish tourism awards http://www.thistle-awards.com/ Association of Scottish Visitor Attractions http://www.asva.co.uk/ [14.4] Travel information Travel resources ================ visitscotland.com http://www.visitscotland.com/ Tel: 0845 2255 121 Travel Scotland http://www.travelscotland.co.uk/ Scottish Accommodation listings, Travel information, venues etc. http://www.aboutscotland.com/ Information on Scotland, aimed at people travelling from the US http://www.travelbritain.org/newhome/whereto/WTscotland.htm Transport ========= Public Transport ---------------- http://www.travelinescotland.com/ - all timetables online http://www.transportdirect.info/ - Transport Direct http://www.pti.org.uk/ unlimited travel on one ticket (bus and many trains) http://www.one-ticket.co.uk/ Trains ------ http://www.scotrail.co.uk/ http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/planmyjourney/ (timetables) http://www.thetrainline.com/ (book train tickets online) Buses ----- http://www.citylink.co.uk/ http://www.firstgroup.com/ online bus timetables http://www.showbus.co.uk/timetables/ Plan journeys by bus and train in and around West Lothian (includes to and from Edinburgh). Brilliant site, if only everywhere in Scotland had this level of integrated information, more people might use public transport! http://routewise.westlothian.gov.uk/routewise/wwwroot/ Taxis ----- http://www.ga-taxis.co.uk/ Glasgow Airport Millennium Taxis Part of the official Glasgow international Airport taxi business, the site includes over 450 pages dedicated to Scottish tourism. Ferries ------- http://www.calmac.co.uk/ Cycling ------- Cycling Scotland http://www.cyclingscotland.com/ Scottish Cycling Development Project (Including information about bikes and public transport) http://www.viewport.co.uk/scottishcycling/ Dales Cycles Ltd. 150 Dobbies Loan Glasgow G4 OJE http://www.dalescycles.com/ Transport Scotland ------------------ Transport Scotland is the transport agency run by the Scottish Executive. http://www.transportscotland.gov.uk/ Weather ======= http://www.visitscotland.com/aboutscotland/Climate/forecast Sunrise and Sunset ================== http://aa.usno.navy.mil/AA/data/docs/RS_OneYear.html use 'form B' [14.5] On-line maps Modern Maps ----------- http://www.multimap.com/ A complete interactive atlas of Great Britain online, complete with directions and routeplanner http://www.streetmap.co.uk/ Scottish (and UK) road atlas maps online http://www.mapquest.com/ More online maps Historical Maps --------------- http://www.old-maps.co.uk/ Free access to first edition historical maps of Great Britain dated between 1846 and 1899. Easy to spend all day viewing this fascinating site! [14.6] Scottish and UK Virtual Reality Map Seen 20-Nov-97 on the newsgroup news:uk.announce We've just released the world's first 3D Mobile Map of UK and Ireland (5MB shareware) at our site. Free to test 24000 sqr km, and only 20 pounds to buy the entire map. http://www.mobilemaps.com/ Its a terrain map that lets you move around hills, coasts, lakes, and cities in real-time. Great for tourists, local travellers, and outdoors enthusiasts who want to see what places look like before travelling there. [14.7] Arts information and events http://www.artwork.co.uk/ Arts information and events in Scotland Mark Fisher's Scottish Theatre Links http://www.theatrescotland.com/ [14.8] Mary King's Close The bit that the tourists (and few locals) have ever seen. Mary King's close, a medieval street under the Royal Mile. Until recently, not generally open to the public. The site opened as a 'world-class' attraction, now called THE REAL Mary King's Close, in April 2003. New, historically accurate information has been uncovered about the site and its residents, double the number of rooms/spaces have been revealed and it is now open to the general public every day except Christmas Day. 'The Real Mary King's Close' ============================ Beneath the City Chambers on the Royal Mile lies Edinburgh's deepest secret - a warren of hidden streets where real people lived, worked and died between the 17th and the 19th centuries. Now a new attraction allows visitors to step back in time to walk through these underground closes and witness some of the dramatic episodes and extraordinary apparitions from this site's fascinating and historically rich past. The Real Mary King's Close consists of a number of underground Closes which would have originally been very narrow walkways with houses on either side stretching up to 7 storeys high and dating back several centuries. In 1753 the Burgh authorities decided to develop a grand new building, the Royal Exchange (now the City Chambers). The houses at the top of the Closes were knocked down and part of the lower sections were kept and used as the foundations for the new building, leaving a number of dark and mysterious underground Closes and ancient dwellings steeped in mystery! Since April 2003, guided parties of visitors have been able to visit The Real Mary King's Close itself, and a range of other Closes and spaces that lie hidden beneath Edinburgh's City Chambers - some of which have never before been open to the public. This new attraction presents a historically accurate interpretation of life in these narrow alleyways from the 16th to the 19th century. Extensive documentary research and on-site survey works has been undertaken to provide an accurate platform for the subtle and unobtrusive interpretation of these A-listed buildings. There are actually 4 Closes under the City Chamber, one of which is Mary King's Close, named after the woman who loved at the head of that Close until 1634. It was also called King's, Alexander King's (no relation to Mary), Towris, Livingstoun's and Browns. See also http://www.realmarykingsclose.com/ and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2335845.stm Anyone interested in finding out about some of Edinburgh's other underground streets may like to enquire about the ones at Niddry Street South. Any details, please pass them on. [14.9] Photographs of Scotland Scottish Viewpoint http://www.scottishviewpoint.com/ The largest collection of Scottish photographs in the world The Photographs of Scotland Website is at: http://www.r-mercer.demon.co.uk/ Multimap has some aerial pictures of Scotland http://www.multimap.com/ [14.10] Gift and Tourist shops http://www.scotsconnection.com/ Large range of high quality Scottish gifts available to purchase online http://www.scotch-corner.co.uk/ Gifts from Crieff http://www.donaldsons-of-crieff.com/ Traditional Scottish Wear and Tartan from Crieff http://www.celticconnections.co.uk/ Scottish music and videos from Scotland http://www.clanshop.co.uk/ Items relating to your clan, family and clan name. http://www.scot-shop.co.uk/ Scottish gifts online http://www.siliconglen.com/companies/grays-edinburgh.html Contact details for the legendary Grays of Edinburgh [14.11] Scottish Youth Hostels Association The best way to see Scotland if you've got a tight budget. Even if you can afford more luxurious accomodation (accomodation is always singular in Britain), Youth Hostels are definitely worth using. All ages use them and cost is typically 10-15 pounds a night. Most of them have lights out at 11pm, except those in large cities which are often open later. Contact for more info, to book accomodation etc The Scottish Youth Hostels Association (SYHA) 7 Glebe Crescent Stirling Scotland FK8 2JA http://www.syha.org.uk/ mailto:admin@syha.org.uk Phone 01786 891400 Fax: 01786 891333 Joining the SYHA, (#2.50 ages 5-17, #6.00 ages 18+) entitles you to use Youth Hostels all over the world. There is also United Hostels of Europe, a different organisation to the SYHA. UHE have an Edinburgh hostel at http://www.hostelwatch.com/hostels/highstreet.html [14.12] Dynamic Earth exhibition The Dynamic Earth is a permanent exhibition designed to change people's perception of the planet we live on. The exhibition will use the latest visual and interactive techniques to demonstrate how the earth was made, how it works and what can go wrong. Visitors of all ages are taken on an exciting journey encountering the various dynamic forces that formed their environment. The Dynamic Earth is located at the foot of Edinburgh's Royal Mile next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse. The project cost 34 million pounds of which 15 million pounds came from National Lottery Funds, and it is Scotland's largest new visitor attraction. The Dynamic Earth opened in July 1999. http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/ [14.13] Museums The Virtual Library:Museums web site has a comprehensive index of museums in the UK at http://www.mda.org.uk/ There is also a list of Scottish museums at http://www.scottishmuseums.org.uk/ There is also the National Archive of Scotland http://www.nas.gov.uk/ [14.14] Travel companies Wild Country Expeditions ------------------------ Wild camping, Whale and Dolphin Expeditions, history and clan links, the Knoydart Experience. http://www.outdoor-scotland.co.uk/ Haggis Backpackers ------------------ http://www.haggis-backpackers.com/ [15.1] Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire council http://www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk/ [15.2] Bonnyrigg Bonnyrigg Community Events Committee http://www.fairbairn1.demon.co.uk/bcec/ [15.3] Central Scotland http://www.heartofscotland.org.uk/ [15.4] Cromarty http://www.cali.co.uk/HIGHEXP/Cromarty/ [15.5] Dalgety Bay Dalgety Bay http://www.db.mcmail.com/ [15.6] Dunblane Dunblane http://www.dunblaneweb.co.uk/ [15.7] Easdale Island http://www.easdale.co.uk/ [15.8] Edinburgh Edinburgh --------- The name Edinburgh comes from the Welsh Dynas Eidyn, fort of the Votadani or Goddodin- see the Poem The Goddodin. The Gaelic is similar and is Du\n E\ideann. Symeon of Durham, Saxonised the name to Edwinesburgh. http://www.edinburgh.org/ This site won the award for best designed website in Scotland 1997 The ultimate guide to Edinburgh http://www.btinternet.com/~kerrin.sheldrake/edin1.htm Edinburgh Information http://www.ebs.hw.ac.uk/EDC/Edinburgh.html The Royal Mile http://www.royalmile.com/ Edinburgh Web http://www.ebs.hw.ac.uk/EdWeb/ City of Edinburgh Council http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/ Derivation of Edinburgh's Street Names http://www.ebs.hw.ac.uk/STREETS/ fascinating site Craig's list Edinburgh http://edinburgh.craigslist.org/ [15.9] Falkirk http://www.falkirk.net/ The Falkirk Wheel http://www.thefalkirkwheel.co.uk/ [15.10] Fort William and Lochaber Fort William and Lochaber http://www.lochaberinternet.co.uk/ [15.11] Aviemore Aviemore http://www.visitaviemore.com/ [15.12] Glasgow http://www.seeglasgow.com/ Official tourism portal http://www.glazgow.com/ If your looking for anything to do with Glasgow city or surrounding areas then "Glazgow" is where you will find all the information and sites you will ever need. Council http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/ Glasgow Hotels http://www.gnws.co.uk/ [15.13] Highlands and Islands http://www.hi-ways.org/ Excellent travel information for the Scottish Highlands and Islands, public information sources, businesses, transport, news, etc Very comprehensive site. [15.14] Kinlochleven Kinlochleven http://www.kinlochleven.co.uk/ [15.15] Knoydart We have set up a Web Site for the Knoydart peninsula of Scotland. The site will act as an interactive forum for those who have hiked, sailed or simply visited this most remote and beautiful area of Scotland. We welcome contributions (reminiscences, experiences from those who have visited, advice, queries, etc) and will update and add the contributions to the site promptly. The site also includes links to Knoydart addresses as well as news articles about the peninsula culled from The Scotsman. The site address: http://users.rcn.com/fodonnel/knoydart.htm [15.16] Loch Ness http://www.lochness.co.uk/ Includes the Official Loch Ness Monster Exhibition [15.17] Melrose http://www.melrose.bordernet.co.uk/ [15.18] Midlothian http://www.midlothian-online.com/ Midlothian, Scotland [15.19] Montrose See http://www.ajlongmuir.clara.net/ [15.20] Oban Oban and Lorn Tourism Association website http://www.oban.org.uk/ [15.21] Queensferry and Forth Bridges Queensferry History Group http://www.queensferryhistorygroup.org.uk/ Forth Bridges http://www.forthbridges.org.uk/ Forth Rail Bridge http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst1053.html (strictly at Hawes rather than Queensferry) Local authority for Queensferry ------------------------------- City of Edinburgh council http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/ The Forth Bridge also adorns the front of this American published book on Java Server Pages (!) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0130307041/scottishmusicc07 [15.22] Road to the Isles http://www.road-to-the-isles.org.uk/ [15.23] Shetland and Orkney Shetland and Orkney are both old Norse holdovers. Orkney and Shetland became Scottish as security for the dowry for the Danish Princess Margaret who married James III. When oil was discovered some wondered if the Danes could get them back if they paid the dowry, but they became permanently Scottish a century later. Shetland and Orkney were speaking forms of old Norn up to the 18th century and the language used there is still filled with special loan words. The place names show heavy Norse influence as do half the west coast names (and in many there is a direct combination of the Gaelic and Norse influences, indicating the level to which the Norse came into the already present gaelic communities and assimilated successfully. Examples would include places like Inverness from Inbhir (Gaidhlig for an estuary, or river mouth) and Nese (Norse for nose or headland). Another example is Suilven from Sula (Norse for column) and Bheinn (Gaidhlig for mountain - Feumaidh sibh a bhith ceart-chainnteach, is Beinn am facal...). On this point it is worth noting that there are written records indicating that the Norse Earls of Orkney had Gaidhlig, no doubt to foster trading relations with the Gaidhealtachd. Most islanders (natives, not incomers) in these places still consider the islands as their own communities and Scotland as a separate entity. This is not to say they want to split off or achieve independence, just an indication of how different they see themselves. In Orkney, one goes to the mainland to go to Kirkwall or Stromness. If you want to go to Aberdeen or Scrabster, you are going to Scotland! :-) For more information on Orkney, see http://www.orkneyjar.com/ or http://www.orknet.co.uk/ See also [12.18] for info on Orkney customs For more information on Shetland, see http://www.shetland.org/ http://www.visitshetland.com/ [15.24] St Andrews Gaelic name: Cille-ri\mhinn Links ----- http://www.standrews.co.uk/ http://www.homeofgolf.co.uk/ St Andrews and Golf [15.25] Stirling Council http://www.stirling.gov.uk/ Stirling Marginal Review http://www.stirmargrev.demon.co.uk/margrev.htm [15.26] The Trossachs See http://www.lenymede.demon.co.uk/ [15.27] Linlithgow Linlithgow Tours http://www.linlithgowtours.net/ Linlithgow -a Great Visit! http://www.linlithgow.com/ Kingsfield Clays http://www.kingsfieldclays.com/ Kingsfield Golf http://www.kingsfieldgolf.com/ Star and Garter Hotel http://www.starandgarterhotel.co.uk/ Linlithgow Business Association http://www.linlithgowbusiness.org.uk/ [16.1] Football This is football (soccer) as opposed to anything to do with American Football. Scottish Football Association website: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/ Tartan Army pages http://www.t-army.com/ World cup 98 http://www.theworldcup.co.uk/ For American Football, we have the Scottish Claymores. http://www.claymores.co.uk/ Domain available: http://www.TheCelticShop.com/ [16.2] Rugby The Scottish Rugby Union homepage is at http://www.sru.org.uk/ [16.3] Camanachd (shinty) Camanachd Association Algarve, Balabrie, Banavie Fort William Tel. 01397 772 461 The Camanachd Association now has an official website at http://www.shinty.com/ which gives all the information anyone could possibly want on the sport. Northern California Camanachd Club http://www.norcalshinty.com/ [16.4] Golf See here http://www.visitscotland.com/golf/ http://www.uk-golfguide.com/scotland/ Info on St Andrews at [15.24] [16.5] Highland Games Origins ------- The games go back to contests of strength held among the clans in ancient times, a way for the chiefs and kings to choose the strongest men to serve as their warriors. During the Celtic revival of the early 19th century which was inspired by the writings of James MacPherson and Sir Walter Scot, a renewed interest in the traditions of the clans of the Scottish highlands occurred and was popularised by the upper crust of Society through the patronage of Queen Victoria, who loved all things Highland and wrote about her holidays in her Scottish castle of Balmoral where she retreated after Prince Albert's death. It was during the high Victorian period that the Highland Games began to come into their own as an attraction. Since that time various revivals have occurred boosting the popularity of Highland Games. The St. Andrews Society of Detroit, and the Caledonian Club of San Francisco have sponsored the two oldest Highland Games in the U.S. which date back to the time of the Civil War. Other large gatherings which have become huge attractions more recently are the Ligioneer Highland Games in Pennsylvania, the Alma, Michigan Highland Games, and those held annually at Grandfather Mountain, N.C. and Stone Mountain, GA, though there are more than 200 different annual games and gatherings across the U.S. and Canada, each year. Contact ------- For info on amateur games, including Highland contact: Scottish Athletics Federation Caledonia House, South Gyle Edinburgh EH12 0131 317 7320 Lists ----- A comprehensive list of Highland Games is available at http://www.maclachlans.org/games.html and http://www.albagames.co.uk/ and http://www.visitscotland.com/sitewide/fivestarfeatures/highlandgames/ Games information is also available at U.S. Scots On-line at http://www.usscots.com/ there is also a form at this site for making updates. [16.6] Curling See here http://www.curlingshoes.com/ http://www.rccc.org.uk/ Millport Cycling http://www.sandymillport.fsnet.co.uk/MCC.htm [16.7] Fishing and Angling see here http://www.dholt.demon.co.uk/ Scottish salmon fishing http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/richd/Salmon.html Allan Water angling improvement association http://mysite.freeserve.com/allanwater Sea fishing http://www.sfsa.freeserve.co.uk/ [16.8] Cricket Cricket is the third (or maybe second) biggest participant sport in Scotland. It is especially popular in Lothian, Fife & places on the East coast (although Glasgow Accies are also pretty good). Freuchie have won the national vilage championship (that's BRITISH national...) and last I heard Scotland are in the semi-finals of the ICC WORLD championship (It looks like they will end up competing against IRELAND for third place & a spot in the next world cup). [16.9] Cycling Cycling Scotland http://www.cyclingscotland.com/ Look here for cycling info http://www.edinburghbicycle.com/ http://www.sandymillport.fsnet.co.uk/Shop.html Scottish Cycling Development Project http://www.viewport.co.uk/scottishcycling/ Cycle-Lobby-Scot ---------------- Cycle-Lobby-Scot is a mailing list for cycle campaigners in Scotland. This mailing list aims to help Scottish cycle campaign groups work better together by sharing examples of best practice, alerting groups to developments in other parts of the country, and discussing the nature of campaigning and providing cycle-friendly infrastructure (whether roads and transport systems or workplaces and neighbourhoods) under the unique legal and governmental systems in Scotland. It is intended to be fairly technical and general discussions about forthcoming events and the 'philosophical' aspects of cycling are not encouraged. To subscribe, send a blank message to: mailto:cycle-lobby-scot-subscribe@egroups.com [16.10] Skiing Scottish Tourist Board / visitscotland skiing information http://www.ski-scotland.com/ Includes the latest reports from the five Scottish Ski Areas Scottish National Ski Council http://www.snsc.demon.co.uk/ (loads of info here) Edinburgh Ski Club http://www.edinburghskiclub.org.uk/ Scottish Avalanche Information Service - Daily forecasts of avalanche risks in the Scottish mountains. http://www.sais.gov.uk/ The Scottish Ski & Winter Activity Report http://www.cali.co.uk/Users/freeway/mackay/ski/ski.html Aviemore http://www.aviemore.co.uk/ [16.11] Walking and Rambling The Ramblers' Association ========================= Ramblers' Association Scotland Kingfisher House, Auld Mart Business Park Milnathort, Kinross KY13 9DA, UK Tel +44 (0)1577 861222 Fax +44 (0)1577 861333 mailto:enquiries@scotland.ramblers.org.uk http://www.ramblers.org.uk/scotland Links ===== Walking in Scotland from VisitScotland http://walking.visitscotland.com/ Contains hundreds of walks (including walks suitable for families and disabled people). Additionally includes information on every Munro and how to climb it. Hillwalking in Scotland Web Site http://www.b-mercer.demon.co.uk/ West Highland Way ----------------- http://www.west-highland-way.co.uk/ http://www.albawest.com/ Tony Connery Scottish Walks http://www.conneryscottishwalks.co.uk/ See [16.12] for books. See [16.13] for information on Munros. Walkers might also be interested in Itch Ease for Midgies http://www.itchease.com/ If you're out and about you might like to know there are only 5 lakes in Scotland, the rest are lochs. Lake of Menteith near Aberfoyle, Raith Lake in Fife, Pressmennan Lake at Stenton in East Lothian, Cally Lake at Gatehouse of Fleet in Dumfries and Galloway Hirsel Lake near Coldstream and the River Tweed However, Lake of Menteith is the only natural area of water in Scotland called "lake", the rest are man made. [16.12] Books for hillwalkers Rambler's Yearbook ------------------ http://www.ramblers.org.uk/info/publications/yearbook.html "The Rambler's yearbook and accomodation guide" is a good source of low cost accomodation (typically 10 - 20 pounds per person per night) Published by The Ramblers' Association, 1/5 Wandsworth Road, London, SW8 2XX Tel: 0171 582 6878 100 best routes --------------- Ralph Storer's "100 best routes on Scottish mountains", Warner books. A division of Little, Brown and Company (UK) Ltd, 165 Great Dover St, London, SE1 4YA ISBN 0 7515 0300 2 223 pages, includes a variety of mountains throughout Scotland. Mountains classified by grade; terrain; navigation difficulty and seriousness. Includes diagrams and Gaelic translations and phonetics Place names ----------- Ordnance Survey: "Place names on maps of Scotland and Wales" ISBN 0-319-00223-3 24 pages of info on Gaelic, Norse and Welsh placenames, meanings, grammar, common Anglicisations. Very useful for translating place names in remote areas. http://www.ordsvy.gov.uk/ [16.13] What is a Munro, Corbett or Graham? A Munro is a Scottish mountain over 3,000ft. A "top" is a secondary peak over 3,000ft. The distinction is not clear cut, and has changed over the years; the current list was made by a committee of the Scottish Mountaineering Council. There are 284 Munros and 517 tops. The name Munro comes from Munros tables compiled by Sir Hugh Munro the Tory MP, but there have been some modifications since the table was first compiled. A Corbett is a separate mountain over 2,500ft. Distinct Corbetts must have a 500ft drop between them. A Graham is a separate mountain over 2,000ft. (does anyone know how many Corbetts and Grahams there are - I have heard 219 and 224). The Corbetts are named after John Rooke Corbett who in 1930 became the first person to climb all the 2000-feet-high peaks in Scotland. The Grahams are named after Fiona Torbet (nee Graham) who published her own list of these peaks in the early 1990s. The Inacessible Pinnacle on Skye is the only Munro to require climbing equipment but in practice very few people do all the others without a rope for some of the hard bits on the usual routes. Don't go unprepared. It is rather easy to die on Scottish mountains if you start with the attitude that they're all going to be an easy stroll you could do in jeans and running shoes. Full list --------- A full list of Munros is at http://www.smc.org.uk/munros/munros.htm More info on walking in Scotland -------------------------------- http://www.jimwillsher.co.uk/ http://walking.visitscotland.com/ This has information on how to climb every Munro [16.14] Diving Scapa Flow http://www.rmplc.co.uk/eduweb/sites/jralston/rk/scapa/ Scapa Flow in Orkney is one of the premier dive sites in the world, due to the number of historical shipwrecks from both world wars. Scotland's coastline generally has lots of excellent dive sites, with the Firth of Clyde, St Abbs Head, and Oban being particularly popular. Scottish sub-aqua club http://www.scotsac.com/ ScotDive Magazine online http://www.mounthigh.co.uk/scotdive/ Scottish Diving Magazine online http://super3.arcl.ed.ac.uk/scotfed/ [16.15] Horse riding holidays West Highland Heavy Horses ========================== West Highland Heavy Horses on Skye (near Armadale) The U.K's only specialised Heavy Horse Riding Centre http://www.westhighlandheavyhorses.com/ [17.1] Intro to Scottish Education Starting School =============== In Scotland, the school (primary; secondary) system seems to have its cut off at variable dates, roughly between the end of Feb and the middle of March. It seems to stretch both ways though and parents are usually given the option of which year they want their children to be part of. As with most things final decisions regarding cut-offs are left to the school administration to decide. In England the cut off generally seems to run with the academic year meaning that all the pupils are the same "age" at the end of the academic year. This means that Scottish children born between August and March are usually one year ahead than their equivalent English counterparts and can go to university younger as a result. Primary and Secondary ===================== In Scotland, primary school runs from age 4/5 for 7 years and High School (both private schools and state schools) runs for up to 6 years. After 4 years of High School children are usually 15 & 16 and sit Standard Grade exams (usually 7). A few children leave school at this point, there is no obligation to graduate from High School as there is in the US and pupils may leave at any time after the age of 16. After 5 years of High School, pupils sit Highers. These can be used for going to university in Scotland and pupils generally sit about 5. Year 5 starts as soon as the Standard grade exams are over, i.e. the end of May, and pupils who have to change schools to take Highers do so at this point. At University level, Scottish courses are generally one year longer than their English counterparts. An 'ordinary' degree usually takes three years in Scotland, an honours degree takes four years. Leaving School ============== About 7% of the students intending to go to further education leave school at this point, aged 16/17. The remainder stay on for 6th year, to do Advanced Highers, additional Highers, resits or other subjects. Advanced Highers are of a standard above that of A-levels and constitute the equivalent of the first year of a university degree. Advanced Highers are necessary for entrance to English universities for subjects studied at both school and university. A small number of Scottish schools offer A-levels. A small number of English schools offer Scottish exams too. Scottish results are generally published the first week in August and receive modest publicity in England. English results receive extensive publicity in Scotland, due to the fact that the UK news is in effect the English and International news and there is no Scottish opt out for English only news stories (maybe the director general of the BBC will start seeing sense on this one?) Exam options ------------ Pupils can study GSVQ's, NC modules, Standard grades, Higher grades, A levels and possibly even Higher National Certificate at school. There is also an 'Advanced Higher' which has replaced Certificates of Sixth Year Studies. The reform has resulted in the amalgamation of the two awarding bodies the SEB (who awarded highers and standard grades) and SCOTVEC. The new body is the Scottish Qualifications Authority (see [17.2]).See http://www.sqa.org.uk/ In practice though you'd have to leave high school and study HNCs at college as no high school could run them as it isn't cost effective to teach a whole separate course to a single student. Comparisons with England ======================== The Scottish "Higher" system is generally regarded as superior to that in England for a number of reasons: 1) It is possible to fail one or two Highers and still have enough qaulifications to enter university. Less pressure is put on pupils to pass everything at the first attempt. 2) It is possible to use 6th year to resit Highers and gain additional qualifications. In England, there is no time to do this if you fail an important exam, the resits are in December (There are Tertiary College courses to cater for pupils whose grades were not up to standard.) 3) Pupils study a wider range of subjects, offering the opportunity for a broader education and perhaps a vocational subject. Holidays -------- The Scottish summer holidays run from the end of June to the middle of August, usually two weeks ahead of those in England although the dates of holidays are left to individual local education authorities (LEAs). Advanced Highers ================ A bizarre quirk of the educational system is that whereas A-levels and CSYS are broadly the same level, English students who have done relevant A-levels may get exemption from certain subjects in 1st year University (or even the whole year), whereas the Scottish CSYS apparently counts for nothing within the Scottish further education system. This appears to be changing (eventually) and some Scottish universities now give direct entry to second year if you have specified CSYS/Advanced Higher grades. Scottish Universities have full control over their degree system and while inspectors from education authorities evaluate the standard subjects are being taught at the results and actual creation of the exam is left up to the university the exam is sat at. Colleges tend to either be affiliates of the SQA or a local university. Due to the rarity of Advanced Highers (people only tend to do them for subjects they plan to study at university) most universities have slight alterations of their entry requirements when considering Advanced Highers (i.e. if the university requires two subjects at Higher in grade B for a subject (as well as other things for example BBBB tends to be the norm for any subject in the faculty of art) it will accept an Advanced Higher at level A or B in place of these two qualifications.) The difficulty with factoring Advanced Highers in when considering entry requirements is that entry requirements vary drastically from one university to another so it is impossible to say what is valued and what is not. While Advanced Highers ARE recognised by universities it is quite possible to get into any degree course without ever sitting one provided you received reasonable results in your highers. Gaelic medium ============= There is education through the medium of English and at playgroup; pre-school; primary school and college level there is also teaching through the medium of Gaelic in Scotland. There are exams for both Gaelic learners and native speakers. In my school in the 1970's and 1980's Gaelic wasn't allowed despite us having a national Gaelic bard as a teacher there. Russian and Latin were offered instead. The following article may be interesting. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4396660.stm Scottish Literature ------------------- It is said that Robert Burns seems to occupy an incidental part of the Scottish curriculum compared to William Shakespeare. What is taught in Scottish schools as the literature portion of the English courses (Higher and Advanced Higher) is left to the discretion of the teacher provided the prose/poetry is of a reasonable standard. At higher level Shakespeare is the only drama which counts in the exam and generally schools teach one example of prose, one Shakespeare play and a selection of work from one poet to fulfil the literature exam. The SQA advises (though I'm not entirely sure if this is mandatory, I'd have to check) that every class be taught at least one example of Scottish text. This is simply to counteract the old system (of about a decade ago I think) when Scottish texts weren't counted as valid examples of English Literature. The teaching of Scottish literature and language is conducted to a point however as the majority of pupils and teachers in Scotland cannot speak Gaelic studying the language can hardly be made mandatory. While schools have the option of teaching it they tend not to unless in the far north as it isn't seen as being especially useful when seeking employment or further education (or at least not as much as German, French, Latin etc ). As far as literature goes there is only so much can be studied in the years at school and with the exception of older works like Burns and colloquial speech like Irvine Welsh or Lewis Grassic Gibbon like to write in, most Scottish writers tend to write in standard English as it is what they, and the majority of their readers, speak. Education History ----------------- With reference to the rest of the world, Scots education is thought of highly and we have a long history of being a well educated country. Scotland had five universities for a long time when England only had two. Scotland had way and by far the largest percentage of primary secondary and tertiary educated population in Europe, until Prussia caught up in the 18th Century. England had one of the *lowest* percentages in Europe. Example 1864 Secondary school : Scotland 1 in 205 Prussia 1 in 249 France 1 in 570 England 1 in 1300 The Scottish Education Act of 1696, heralded the first National system of education in the World since ancient Sparta, and spawned the Scottish Enlightenment, which in turn spearheaded the European Enlightenment. From my own experience in both Scottish schools and on an educational exchange to the US, it seems Scottish schools are approximately 1-3 years ahead of their US counterparts in most subjects apart from US History and US sport. This difference carries on right through University and only equals out at the M.Sc. and Ph.D. level which are about the same in Scotland and the US. Given that a M.Sc. usually only takes 1 year full time in Scotland, and longer in the US it shows that the American undergraduate degree does not reach as high a level. This is borne out also in the way various professional bodies treat US qualifications versus Scottish and British ones. Religious nonsense ================== It is mandatory to attend religious education in Scottish High Schools. It isn't general, though. Many schools subsume RE in Social Education. Why religion has such a high place in the curriculum and Scots literature and language do not is anyone's guess. Religious Education is mandatory to such an extent that when school inspectors discovered it was not being taught in my school to fifth years (note : Fifth and sixth years have the option of not being there at all so why it is necessary to teach them RE god only knows [sic]) they enforced the practice. In Scottish schools RE, Social Education and, I think, Physical Education is mandatory up to an including fifth year. No doubt some schools have not had this enforced yet but it's only a matter of time. Thankfully sixth years are excluded from this ruling seeing as, in general, they tend to have so many free periods that enforced subjects would simply be stupid. One person's experience ======================= In closing I'll give the example of my own school which is currently messing around with its timetabling system in order to increase the uniformity of subjects and period length. In first year pupils are taught English, Maths, General Science, History/Modern Studies/Geography ( on a rotating basis, 3 months each if I recall correctly) Home Economics, Computing, Tech Studies, Graphics, Craft and Design (more complicated system due to the availability of craft rooms or lack thereof) Art, Music, Drama, PE, RE and Social Ed and finally by order of the SQA 'whichever modern language they had begun to have taught to them in Primary school'. As all the schools in our catchment area teach French, the school has decided it will teach French as well. To all of them. Whether they wish to do German or Spanish or not. Subjects such as English, Maths Science get three periods a week, rotational subjects two and subjects like computing, drama and music only one. In second year the exact same subjects are taught the exact same way with the exception that at the end of the year pupils will choose their subjects to study for standard grade based on teacher recommendations as to whether they should be taught Foundation/General or General/Credit. The Scottish Standard grades are graded 1-7 with 1-2 being Credit, 3-4 General, 5-6, Foundation and 7, Fail. Each level ( Foundation, General and Credit ) has a single exam but each pupil sits two level based on what their academic level has been estimated at. The highest grade you attain receives dominance so even if you get a 4 in the general exam a 1 in credit will still be a 1 in credit. In third and fourth years candidates study for their standard grades. Classes for larger subjects tend to be ability filtered but some subjects such as Tech Studies only have enough applicants each year to justify a single class. It is worth noting that Drama screws up the whole system by only having one single paper for all three levels. Candidates can choose whatever they want with the following restrictions - The must choose English, Maths, a science (either Physics, Chemistry, Biology or General Science if it wasn't felt they could handle the individual disciplines), the modern language they were studying (French), An Aesthetic subject (Art, Drama, Home Economics, Music), A social subject ( Modern Studies, Geography or History), a technological subject (Tech Studies, Graphics, Craft and Design, Computing) and finally an additional subject which is either social, a modern language, aesthetic, a science or a technological subject. Personally I opted for English, Maths, French, Modern Studies, Chemistry, Tech Studies, Computing and Drama. In fifth year candidates sit their 'Higher Still' exams. The difference between Higher and Higher Still is that the latter has internal assessments during the year which decreases the emphasis on the final exam. Candidates in my school can either do the subjects they did at Standard Grade, 'Crash' Highers in related subjects or ... leave. Crash Highers tend to be rare in Fifth year. While most people who only received Foundation marks for their standard grades just leave it's worth mentioning that in addition to Higher Still (only available if you got a credit grade in the subject or a related subject) there is Intermediate 2 for those with general grades and Intermediate 1 for those with foundation grades. It's also worth mentioning that there is talk of the standard grades being phased out all together and replaced with the Intermediate exams which means pupils will be doing the same style of exams from 3rd right into 6th. Pupils are limited to maximum of five subjects, no exceptions. I was the only person to receive eight '1's in my school and opted to study English, Maths, French, Computing and Chemistry at Higher Still. In sixth year pupils either leave, re-sit exams from the previous year they needed/wanted to get a better grade in or sit additional exams. Advanced Highers become available for subjects you got either an A or a B pass in at higher (but the latter only if the teacher(s) you had feels you were capable of an A) but only tend to run in my school for English, Maths, The Sciences and Music as there just aren't enough people for the other subjects. You cannot justify running a class for only one or two people. Last years Advanced Higher English only had six candidates. Universities allow applicants from fifth year to enter degree programs so both low and high performers often leave in fifth year however the number of pupils 'staying on' in sixth year is growing. Pupils in my school must do a minimum of three subjects in fifth and sixth year and people applying to do Intermediate 1 or 2 in sixth year are encouraged to leave and pursue those subjects in college (and 'stop wasting everyone's time' to quote my depute principal). As far as Advanced Highers go while a good number of people take them due to the limitations very few do more than two. The norm tends to be one, either English or Maths. A fair number this year are taking Maths and Physics, one English and Physics and one Maths and Music I think I'm right in saying that not a single person is doing three subjects at advanced higher. Personally I'm applying for Advanced Higher English, Higher Still Physics (crash), Biology ( crash) and History (crash). I've applied to do Psychology (Higher Still) on what is called a 'distance learning programme' from Telford College Edinburgh ( which allows schools to run subjects for their pupils via the internet which class sizes and lack of staff would otherwise render infeasible). I am the only person at the school who has applied for five subjects in sixth year however as Telford have not got in touch it's unlikely that Psychology will be going ahead which means not a single person at my school will be taking five subjects in sixth year. Some of these I may later be ejected from, naturally it all depends on the results of the exams I'm in the middle of sitting right now. See also ======== http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Departments/ED The Scottish Office Education and Industry department, information about education in Scotland and http://www.ecommerce-scotland.org/scotorg/scotorg.htm Scotland org's Educational section The Scottish Higher Education Funding Council is at http://www.shefc.ac.uk/ http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Webber/ has information on Scottish Primary schools Learning and Teaching Scotland, see [17.4] http://www.ltscotland.com/ [17.2] Scottish Qualifications Authority This is the new national body responsible for all Scottish qualifications except university degrees. http://www.sqa.org.uk/ See also [17.1] [17.3] Books and information on studying Scottish culture Further info ------------ http://www.scran.ac.uk/ Open University --------------- The Centre for Scottish Studies at the Open University in Scotland has launched "Studying Scottish History, Literature and Culture". which is a rewrite of the former Scottish Studies pack and is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the whole range of Scottish Studies. What follows is copied from the printed flyer - the Web site isn't ready (yet...) 196 pages, illustrated throughout. * Historical topics covered include the Reformation, the Union, the agricultural and industrial revolutions, government and politics, the Highlands, towns and cities, developments since 1945 * Literature includes studies of early Scottish literature, major authors such as Burns, Scott, Hogg and Galt, Stevenson, Grassic Gibbon, Gaelic literature, the modern novel, poetry and drama. * Cultural history before 1560, cultural effects of the reformation and the Union, Enlightenment and Romanticism, questions of identity in the modern age. The writing team, Angus Calder, Ian Donnachie, William Donnelly, George Hewitt, Shiela Lodge and Glenda Norquay are all experts in their respective fields. Available for #12 + #1.50 post and packing from The Open University in Scotland, 10, Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh EH3 7QJ Scotland. http://www.open.ac.uk/ Sterling cheques only, no plastic. Or order it from your friendly local bookshop - ISBN 0 7492 7349 6. [17.4] Learning and Teaching Scotland Learning and Teaching Scotland 74 Victoria Crescent Road Glasgow G12 9JN Tel: +44 (0)141 337 5000 Fax: +44 (0)141 337 5050 http://www.ltscotland.com/ mailto:enquiries@LTScotland.com This organisation specialises in producing, marketing and distributing materials on computer for the Scottish educational market. [17.5] SCRAN - Historical and cultural on-line resource The Web resource base of the Scottish Cultural Resources Access Network was launched by Sam Galbraith, Scottish Office Minister for Arts and Cultural Heritage, on Friday, July 25th 1997. SCRAN is a Millennium project to build a networked multimedia resource base for the study, teaching and appreciation of history and material culture in Scotland. At launch, the SCRAN resource base contained about 60,000 text records of objects from over 30 museums. A few hundred of these are attached to images. By the Millennium we plan this to have grown to 1.5 million text records and 100,000 multimedia objects, including movies, sound clips and Virtual Reality. Please visit the website and choose "search SCRAN", try out the pilot user interface and let them know what you think! http://www.scran.ac.uk/ [17.6] League tables of Scottish schools Scottish school league tables 2001 ---- http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/education/school_tables_2001/scotland/ 2002 ---- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2516247.stm [17.7] Research papers I thought this would be of interest to researchers Computer Science Research Paper Search Engine [.ps] (url temporarily removed) Created by Just Research, an applied research lab in Pittsburgh, PA, this site will find ready use among computer science students and professionals. Using Cora, visitors can conduct keyword searches over the partial text of some 50,000 Postscript-formatted computer science research papers. Alternatively, users can browse top-ranking papers organized under a number of topics and sub-categories. Search returns include title, author, institution, and abstract, with a link to a Postscript version, the referring page, a detailed entry (including references), and a BibTeX entry. Although the site has not been recently updated the sheer number of papers indexed make it a valuable resource. [18.1] Newspapers Papers on-line -------------- http://www.scotsman.com/ - The Scotsman http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/ - Daily Record http://www.theherald.co.uk/ - The Herald http://www.scotlandonsunday.com/ - Scotland on Sunday http://www.sundayherald.com/ - The Sunday Herald http://www.eveningtimes.co.uk/ - The Evening Times (Glasgow) http://www.edinburghnews.com/ - Edinburgh Evening News http://www.timeout.com/ - The List - look for Glasgow/Edinburgh sections http://westernislesonline.co.uk/ - Stornoway Gazette http://www.northern-scot.co.uk/ Northern Scot http://www.shetland-news.co.uk/ (The Shetland News) http://www.shetland-times.co.uk/st/ (The Shetland Times) http://www.freescotland.com/si.html - Scots Independent http://www.dcthomson.co.uk/ - D C Thomson (Sunday Post, Courier, Scots Mag etc) http://www.scotsmagazine.com/ (The Scots Magazine) The world's most widely-read Scottish interest publication. First published in 1739, The Scots Magazine is a monthly periodical with around 300,000 readers worldwide. http://www.argyllinternet.co.uk/scotmem/ Scottish Memories magazine Courier and Advertiser, 80 Kingsway East, Dundee, DD1 9HU Tel: 01382 223131 http://www.dcthomson.co.uk/courier/ Press and Journal, 84 Academy Street, Inverness, IV1 IJY Tel: 01463 222801 http://www.thisisnorthscotland.co.uk/ The West Highland Free Press http://www.whfp.co.uk/ mailto:newsdesk@whfp.co.uk (Broadford, Isle of Skye, IV49 9AP) , tel: 01471 822464 Festival -------- Newspaper dedicated to the Edinburgh Festival: http://www.threeweeks.co.uk/ mailto:info@threeweeks.co.uk Other Scottish Newspapers ------------------------- Edinburgh Herald and Post, 108 Holyrood Park, Edinburgh EH8 8AS Tel: 0131 243 3659. mailto:edinhp@scotsman.com Oban Times, PO Box 1, Oban, PA34 5PY Tel: 01631 563058, Fax: 01631 565470 Stirling Observer, 40 Upper Craigs, Stirling, FK8 2DW Tel: 01786 451110 Linlithgowshire Journal and Gazette 114 High Street, Linlithgow EH49 7AQ tel: 01506 844592 fax: 01506 670281 http://www.linlithgowtoday.co.uk/ mailto:editorial@Linlithgowherald.co.uk The Inverness Courier, Inverness, IV1 1QW Guth na Gaidhlig, Highland News Group, Henderson Road, Inverness IV1 1SP, Tel: 01463 713700 La/ newspaper (Northern Ireland) has a Scottish Gaelic column. Metro (A DC Thomson free paper) Tel 0141 225 3345. Fax: 0141 225 3316 mailto:news@metroscot.co.uk Political bias in newspapers ---------------------------- I understand from The Scotsman journalists I've spoken to (perhaps better not to name names) that Andrew Neil, who is hardly ever there, is detested and there is a constant struggle away from his hard Unionist line. The Scotsman also uses ICM as a polling organisation. The director of ICM has admitted that the allocation of "don't knows" in ICM polls has a bias against the SNP. The ICM poll for the North East Euro seat by-election in Nov 98 was 600% out in terms of the SNP majority over Labour. During Andrew Neil's tenure, the Scotsman reported a drop in circulation of 2.2% for the first six months of 1999 when the Scottish General Election was one of its main stories, and projected ABC figures for the Scotsman for the year are about 3.5% down. The Herald over the same six months only lost 0.5%. This was the period during which I switched from The Scotsman to The Herald because of The Herald's political neutrality. Having got himself a new job presenting a daily afternoon show on Radio Scotland veteran Scotsman columnist Tom Morton felt free to comment on what has been happening at what used to be the establishment voice of the nation, (or at least that part of the establishment living on the east coast). His thoughts were quoted in the Sunday Herald diary 31-March-2002 "The Scotsman is a paper run on the whim of someone who has no insight into or concern for Scotland, its culture or politics. It has become a vanity publication and I want nothing to do with it." Additionally, on 16th April 2002, the staff of The Scotsman and its sister publications passed a vote of no confidence in the group's publisher Andrew Neil in the face of declining revenues and sales. Hint: Maybe the publisher's political stance might have something to do with this. The Herald has gone through bad periods and two editors as it works out where its readership lies, although its history is unionist and Whig. They both give a lot of space to nationalist letter writers with circulation in mind, often tending towards the controversial (but misinformed) simply to stir up a good debate. The Sun has dropped circulation badly since dropping the SNP, and even the arch unionist Record now has Ian Bell as a columnist, at least till they see if he is increasing circulation. The Scotsman has of course held its price well below The Herald for over a year. The general perception and one which The Herald is keen to emphasise is that the Herald is politically neutral. The West Highland Free press has an exceptionally hard anti-SNP line and is often little more than a front for Brian Wilson's press office. One wonders whether the paper should be entered as an election expense for the Labour party. Political bias in Journalists ----------------------------- See also http://www.freescotland.com/media.html Some journalists and columnists with political interests: Margaret Vaughan - The Herald - wife of Social Security Minister Alistair Darling. Gerald Warner - Scotland on Sunday - former spin doctor and adviser to Michael Forsyth. George Birrell - The Herald - former spin doctor and adviser to Michael Forsyth. Michael Kelly - The Scotsman - former Lord Provost of Glasgow and Labour activist Jim Stevens - economist Fraser of Allander Institute and Member of Labour NEC. Michael Fry, who occasionally works for the Herald, is a former Tory candidate in one of the Glasgow seats. Brian Meek, also a Tory activist, also works for the Herald. George Galloway - Scottish Mail on Sunday - current Labour MP for Hillhead. The Economist's Peter Jones is married to Labour MSP Rhona Brankin. Alex Salmond and Tommy Sheridan also have columns in the Scottish Press. Sheridan in the Record IIRC, and Salmond in the Sunday Mail or News of the Screws. Lorraine Davidson, erstwhile Labour spin doctrix, also has a column in either the Sunday Mail or News of the World - don't normally buy 'em so sorry for being so vague. Further Information ------------------- Scottish newspapers on-line http://www.ecola.com/news/press/eu/uk/sc/ Yahoo index for Scotland is http://uk.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/United_Kingdom/Scotland/ Media and newspapers are off there at: News_and_Media/Newspapers/ See also (UK newspapers on-line) http://www.lifestyle.co.uk/fa.htm http://www.smg.plc.uk/publishing/ Scottish Media Watch http://www.freescotland.com/media.html The Press Complaints Commission http://www.pcc.org.uk/ The Scottish News Agency. mailto:iainx@reporters.net fax 0870 787 8961. Free press release publication ------------------------------ http://www.pr-scotland.com/ [18.2] Radio BBC Radio Scotland http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/radioscotland/ Queen Margaret Drive, Glasgow, G12 8DG Tel: 0141 339 8844 Listen to the station live, and also 'listen again' to shows, including music ones, for up to a week after transmission. Essential listening, especially for Scots around the world outside the reception area. Radio nan Gaidheal, 7 Culduthel Road, Inverness, IV2 4AD Tel: (Inverness) 01463 720720 Fax: (Stornoway) 01851 704633 http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/alba/ More information ---------------- See [18.5] for Scots music radio programmes See [18.6] for Gaelic TV and Radio information See [18.4] for Celtic & Scottish stations broadcasting on the Internet See http://www.freescotland.com/media.html for Scottish Media Watch [18.3] Television BBC --- BBC Scotland (TV) Gaelic: http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/bbcalba/ The BBC in Scotland http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/ The BBC raises approximately 164m a year from Scottish TV licence payers but only 84m was spent in 1997 on making programmes in Scotland, including regional programmes and commissions for the national network. The other half of the money went on BBC1 and 2 and Radios 1,2,3,4 and 5 live and towards transmission costs. (Source: Scotland on Sunday 16 Aug 98, P9) ITV --- Border Television http://www.border-tv.com/ Border Television, Television Centre, Carlisle CA1 3NT Phone: +44 (0) 1228 25101 Fax: +44 (0) 1228 41384 Grampian Television Telebhisean Grampian, Crois na Banrigh, Obar Dheathain, AB9 2XJ, (Grampian TV, Queen's Cross, Aberdeen) Tel: 01224 846 846, Fax: 01224 846800 mailto:gtv@grampiantv.co.uk (now part of the Scottish Media Group) http://www.grampiantv.co.uk/ Scottish Television http://www.scottishtv.co.uk/ Scottish Television PLC, Cowcaddens, Glasgow G2 3PR Phone : +44 (0) 141 300 3000 Fax : +44 (0) 141 300 3030 Terrestrial Frequencies ----------------------- TV broadcast channels for the 5 terrestrial channels, broken down by Scottish transmitter frequencies http://www.dtg.org.uk/dealer/freq_sco.htm Tartan TV --------- Tartan TV is a weekly magazine programme which is broadcast in North America and Canada. http://www.tartan.tv/ Gaelic ------ See [18.6] for Gaelic TV and Radio information Media Watch ----------- See http://www.freescotland.com/media.html for Scottish Media Watch [18.4] Scottish and Celtic broadcasting on the Internet Indexes ======= Celtic music ------------ Index of Celtic Music WebRadio Sites http://www.ramsisle.com/celtic/webradio.htm Traditional music weekly show from RTE in Ireland http://www.rte.ie/av.html Celtic MP3s you can play http://www.mp3.com/celtic/genre/798/top/artist.html Ceolas list http://www.ceolas.org/ref/radio.html General Lists ------------- All web radio stations can be found at http://www.broadcast.com/ or http://www.txmusic.com/radio-eur.htm or http://www.timecast.com/ http://www.webradio.com/ http://www.folk-sa.asn.au/webradio.html Stations ======== http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotlandnews/ http://www.scottish.internetradio.co.uk/ http://www.lochbroomfm.internetradio.co.uk/ http://www.celticgrove.com/ The Sounds of Scotland ---------------------- http://www.bluewaterradio.ca/thesoundsofscotland/ The world's most popular on line "Scottish Music" Radio Show There is Manx music information off http://www.manxman.co.im/ http://www.netradio.net/earthbeat/ Select the Celtic channel. Constant feed. http://www.mindspring.com/~dmarten/ Celtic Music on WRUV 90.1 Mondays 6:00-9:00 AM US Eastern Time (GMT -5 hours) http://www.spinner.com/ Follow the "World and New Age" link for Celtic. http://www.kgnu.org/audio/ KGNU-FM Boulder, Colorado Celtic music 7:00-9:00 PM US Mountain Standard Time (GMT -7 hours) http://www.ckua.org/ CKUA broadcasts "The Celtic Show", 6pm-9pm (MST), Fridays [18.5] Scottish music radio programmes In Scotland ----------- Radio Scotland (MW= Medium Wave 810, FM = 92.4 to 94.7). All the programmes below are FM and MW unless otherwise stated. Radio Scotland MW can be picked up as far south as London when conditions are favourable. mailto:radioscotland@scot.bbc.co.uk Mon Mr Anderson's fine tunes: 2:00-4:00 Live at the Lemon Tree 7-8pm Tue Mr Anderson's fine tunes: 2:00-4:00 Celtic Connections 7-9pm Wed Mr Anderson's fine tunes: 2:00-4:00 Thu Mr Anderson's fine tunes: 2:00-4:00 Travelling Folk 7-9pm Fri Mr Anderson's fine tunes: 2:00-4:00 Sat Take the floor 6:30-8pm Travelling Folk 8-10pm Celtic Connections 10-12 midnight Sun The Reel Blend: 10-12am MW & FM Pipeline: 9:00-9:45pm Other Radio nan Gaidheal also has a lot of music. Unsure of exact times of music programmes though. (On 103.5 - 105 & 97.9 FM) Na durachdan (6:05-7:30 on Fridays) plays popular request music Radio nan Gaidheal broadcasts in the Edinburgh area on 104.7FM. Its broadcasting times in Scotland are: 7:30-12:00 and 17:00-19:30 (Mon-Thu) 7:30-12:00 and 17:00-23:00 (Fri); 9:00-13:00 (Sat); 15:00-15:30 and 21:00-22:00 Sun Moray Firth Radio have a folk show on Thursday evenings 7:30 to 9:00. They can be contacted at mailto:moray_firth_radio@cali.co.uk Folk on 2, BBC Radio 2. Wednesdays 8-9pm. Covers British Folk. Presented by Jim Lloyd there is also frequent series of folk & features on Wednesdays between 8pm and 9:30pm on Radio 2 (three half hour programmes) In the US --------- The Thistle and Shamrock. This is hosted by Fiona Ritchie. There is an on-line list of stations carrying this programme - http://www.npr.org/programs/thistle/ Ceolas carries another list, of over one hundred American celtic music radio programs, and several in other parts of the world: http://www.ceolas.org/pub/radio.list The Thistle and Shamrock has a brochure that gives some background on Fiona Ritchie and the show, and includes information about their Newsletter, Playlists, and Souvenirs: T-shirts, a pin, tankard and coasters. If you want this brochure, send a SASE to "The Thistle and Shamrock, P.O. Box 560646, Charlotte, NC 28256 (USA). At Ceolas http://www.ceolas.org/ceolas.html, there is a list "Ceolas Worldwide Celtic Music Radio Listing" [18.6] Gaelic TV and radio information Radio ----- Gaelic Radio is on (103.5 - 105 & 97.9 FM) the same frequency as Radio Scotland VHF - this is 104.3 in the Edinburgh area. It's on in the mornings and early evening. Gaelic is no longer broadcast on Radio Scotland 810MW, a great disappointment as it used to be available in most of England and now the so-called "National" service only has patchy coverage in Scotland! Contact: Radio nan Gaidheal, 7 Culduthel Road, Inverness, IV2 4AD Tel: 01463 720720 Television ---------- Gaelic TV is on BBC Scotland. Scottish Television and Grampian Television. Times ----- Times of Gaelic Radio and TV are also published each Friday in the West Highland Free Press, Broadford, Skye, IV49 9AP Tel: 01471 822464 Fax: 01471 822694 mailto:newsdesk@whfp.co.uk Gaelic Broadcasting Committee ----------------------------- For details of Gaelic Broadcasting in general, contact: The Gaelic Broadcasting Committee. 4 Acarsaid, Cidhe Sraid Chrombail, Steornabhagh, Eilean Leodhais PA87 2DF, Scotland. Tel: 01851 705550 Fax: 01851 706432 mailto:admin@ccg.org.uk http://www.ccg.org.uk/ See also [18.7] Gaelic Broadcasting Provision ----------------------------- Provision for Gaelic television programmes on Independent Television in Scotland was included in general terms in the Broadcasting Act 1981, and was specifically provided for in the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996. Grampian and Scottish Television, but not Border Television, therefore have specific licence conditions to produce and broadcast Gaelic programmes: in the case of Grampian Television, 53 minutes a week of Gaelic programmes funded by themselves plus an additional 30 minutes a week supplied by Scottish Television; Scottish Television has to show 30 minutes a week of Gaelic programmes funded by themselves plus an additional 30 minutes a week funded by Grampian Television. In addition, these companies are obliged to broadcast on a regular basis up to 200 hours a year of Gaelic programmes funded by the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee. The Gaelic Broadcasting Committee (Comataidh Craolaidh Gaidhlig, CCG) manages the Gaelic Broadcasting Fund set up under the provisions of the Broadcasting Act 1990, as amended by the Broadcasting Act 1996. The Committee is charged with funding up to 200 hours of Gaelic television programmes, and with enhancing and widening the range of Gaelic sound programmes, to be broadcast mainly in Scotland. In practice, funded programmes are broadcast by the BBC as well as ITV, although the former has no statutory requirement under the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996 to transmit Gaelic programmes funded by the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee. The BBC, under its Royal Charter and its agreement with Parliament, pledges to broadcast 90 hours a year of Gaelic television programmes funded by the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee. It also provides the Gaelic radio service Radio nan Gaidheal which broadcasts up to 45 hours a week of Gaelic programming. See also -------- http://www.ccg.org.uk/schedules/ [18.7] Attitudes towards Gaelic TV in Scotland Survey results -------------- This survey was conducted by System Three for the Gaelic Television Committee (see [18.6]) and published in July 94 in their 93/94 annual report. The Gaelic TV programmes are not funded by TV licence money, they are funded directly from the Government by Act of Parliament (the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996). Unweighted base: 1052. Figures are percentages The columns are 1) Agree strongly 2) Agree slightly 3) Neither agree nor disagree 4) Disagree slightly 5) Disagree strongly 6) Don't know 7) Mean score Questions: a) There are too many Gaelic programmes on television nowadays Answers: 11 15 13 36 20 4 -0.40 b) I enjoy watching Gaelic TV programmes, even though I may not speak Gaelic myself. Answers: 12 30 12 20 23 4 -0.14 c) Too many Gaelic TV programmes are shown at peak times Answers: 14 14 13 36 17 6 -0.29 d) It is important that the Gaelic language in Scotland is kept alive through Gaelic programmes on TV Answers: 40 35 9 8 5 3 1.00 [18.8] Scottish film industry Scottish Screen --------------- Scottish Screen is the new national body for film and television in Scotland, established in April 1997. It takes on the functions of the Scottish Film Council, the Scottish Film Production Fund, Scottish Screen Locations and Scottish Broadcast and Film Training, forming a unitary organisation. Scottish Screen now works in the areas of production, development, location assistance, exhibition and festivals, training, media education and preserving the heritage and history of the moving image in Scotland through the Archive. Contact: Scottish Screen Chief Executive, Ken Hay 249 West George Street Glasgow G2 4QE Tel: 0141-302-1700 Fax: 0141-302-1711 mailto:info@scottishscreen.com http://www.scottishscreen.com/ For Scottish Film locations, see [18.9] Celtic Film and Television Association -------------------------------------- Contact: Frances Hendron Secretary: AEFI Celtic Film and Television Association 1 Bowmont Gardens Glasgow G12 9LR Scotland Tel: 0141 342 4947 Fax: 0141 342 4948 mailto:mail@celticfilm.co.uk [18.9] Scottish film locations Information for anyone who may be interested Scotland the Movie Location Guide A visitor guide to filming locations for movies and television made in Scotland is now at http://www.scotlandthemovie.com/ Currently covers over 60 movies and television series with hundreds of photos of locations, stills and maps. Site currently has over 300 pages with more added frequently. [19.1] Scottish Government The Scottish Parliament ======================= http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ In Gaelic --------- http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/language/gaelic/ In Scots -------- http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/language/scots/ The Scottish Executive ====================== http://www.scotland.gov.uk/ The Scotland Office =================== formerly the Scottish Office http://www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk/ British Government ------------------ http://www.direct.gov.uk/ [19.2] Sources of political information See [19.12] for details of the Parliament and associated white papers on the referendum and the Parliament itself. Addresses of relevant organisations: Political Parties in Scotland ============================= Scottish National Party (SNP) ---------------------------- Scottish National Party Gordon Lamb House 3 Jackson's Entry Edinburgh EH8 8PJ (Gaelic: Partaidh Naiseanta na h-Alba - PNA) http://www.snp.org.uk/ mailto:snp.hq@snp.org.uk John Webster Scottish National Party, 300 Cree Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3J 3W9. Canada mailto:JHWebster@mts.net In the US, contact John MacInnes mailto:Nmcomm@aol.com The newspaper The Scots Independent is at http://www.freescotland.com/si.html Labour Party ------------ Labour Party, 1 Lynedoch Place, Glasgow G3 6AB. Tel: 0141 332 8946 FAX 331 2566 http://www.labour.org.uk/ (UK) http://www.scottishlabour.org.uk/ (Scotland) Liberal Democrats ----------------- Liberal Democrats, 4 Clifton Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5DR 0131 337 2314 http://www.scotlibdems.org.uk/ (opposite Haymarket station) http://www.users.dircon.co.uk/~dbrack/ldhg/media.html Liberal Democrat History group Conservative ------------ Conservative and Unionist Party Suite 1/1, 14 Links Place, Leith, Edinburgh, EH6 7EZ Tel: 0131 555 2900 http://www.conservative-party.org.uk/ (UK) http://www.scottish.tories.org.uk/ (Scotland) Scottish Independence Party --------------------------- http://www.scottishindependenceparty.org/ mailto:contact@scottishindependenceparty.org Scottish Socialist Party ------------------------ http://www.scottishsocialistparty.org/ Politically Oriented organisations ================================== Charter 88 ---------- c/o Sead, 23 Castle Street, Edinburgh, EH2 3DN Tel: 0131 225 6550 http://www.charter88.org.uk/ mailto:c88scot@cybersurf.co.uk Scottish council for civil liberties ------------------------------------ http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/Law.OLD/student/SCCL/ SCCL is an independent non party-political organisation which campaigns for the defence and promotion of civil liberties in Scotland and provides educational material on civil and human rights The magazine of the Green movement in Scotland is available through Green Scotland, 2 Arbikie Cottages, Inverkeilor, Angus DD11 4UZ tel: 01241 830351 Independence Convention ----------------------- http://www.scottishindependenceconvention.com/ The aims of the Convention are to create a forum for those of all political persuasions and none, who support independence; and to be a national catalyst for Scottish independence. See also -------- Scottish Politics home page: http://www.alba.org.uk/ There is an interesting survey at http://www.alba.org.uk/icmmay.html This is an ICM poll for The Scotsman regarding how the Scots view themselves The University of Edinburgh has a local Government in Scotland site at http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/home/scotland/localgovt.html http://www.forscotland.com/ the Act of Union is on-line here Info on devolution and government --------------------------------- http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ - The Scottish Parliament http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/language/gaelic/ - in Gaelic http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/language/scots/ - in Scots http://www.scotland.gov.uk/ - The Scottish Executive main page http://www.democracy.org.uk/ UK Citizens Online Democracy (UKCOD) is Britain's first national online democracy service. We aim to promote informed discussion on matters of national and local importance by providing a forum for members of the public to discuss political issues. The BBC's Scottish Politics programme Scottish Lobby can be reached at mailto:scottish.lobby@bbc.co.uk and their website for Scottish politics programmes is at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/scotland/default.stm Scottish issues are sometimes discussed in the programme On The Record http://www.bbc.co.uk/otr/ bopcas-scotland --------------- British Official Publications Current Awareness Service (BOPCAS) bopcas-scotland offers weekly updates of the latest UK government publications relating to Scotland and a forum to discuss matters arising from them. Parliament Keywords: Scotland; Scottish; Parliament; devolution; government; politics; UK See http://www.soton.ac.uk/~bopcas/ for more info It costs money to subscribe to this service [19.3] Scottish politics e-mail lists ScotTalk -------- A discussion list about Scottish matters, often with a political bias Information on the ScotTalk list AND subscription form at - http://scottalk.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/scottalk Scottish Politics ----------------- There is also the Scottish politics list. Send a mail to mailto:majordomo@sportsstats.com containing info scottish-politics in the message body for more information. [19.4] Government publications http://www.national-publishing.co.uk/ The Stationery Office is the prime source of government and official publications in the UK. [19.5] Scottish sovereignty Scottish sovereignty was not subsumed by English sovereignty in 1707. In the case of MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1954 (1953 SC 396), Lord Cooper stated that "The principle of the unlimited sovereignty of Parliament is a distinctively English principle which has no counterpart in Scottish constitutional law. ... I have difficulty in seeing why it should have been supposed that the new Parliament of Great Britain must inherit all the peculiar characteristics of the English Parliament but none of the Scottish Parliament...." This case dealt with the styling of the current monarch as the "second" of the United Kingdom (there never having been a previous Queen Elizabeth of the UK). There is a section on the nature of Scottish constitutional law within the UK in G Mitchell's 'Constitutional Law' (2nd Ed. Wm Green and Son, Edinburgh 1968(ish)) "we are sovereign within the Union and we can walk out any time we want". Those are the exact words once uttered by Michael Forsyth, an arch-unionist and Secretary of State for Scotland under the last Conservative government, uttered January 1997 [19.6] Scottish and English oil and energy reserves People often ask, how much of the oil/gas etc in the North Sea would Scotland get if it became independent. The North Sea is already legally divided into a Scottish sector and an English sector. It has to be as Scots law is different to English law. The relevant law is The Continental Shelf (Jurisdictional) Order 1968. Currently this places 90% of the oil in Scottish waters, however this percentage is gradually growing as new fields open up to the North of present fields and also to the West of the mainland. The SNP advocate dividing the North Sea assets based on the 55.50' latitude or upon international legal principles of equidistance. [19.7] Political Quotations "Show me a man who respects the rights of all countries, but is ready to defend his own against them all, and I will show you a man who is both a nationalist and an internationalist". Fletcher of Saltoun (1653-1716) "Independently of my enthusiasms as a Scotsman, I have rarely met with anything in history which interests my feelings as a man equal with the story of Bannockburn. On the one hand, a cruel but able usurper, leading on the finest army in Europe, to extinguish the last spark of freedom among a greatly-daring & greatly-injured people; on the other hand, the desperate relics of a gallant nation, devoting themselves to rescue their bleeding country or perish with her. Liberty! thou art a prize truly and indeed invaluable, for never canst thou be too dearly bought." Robert Burns (1759-1796) " I ken when we had King, and a chancellor, and a Parliment-- men o'our ain, we could peeble them wi' stanes when they werena gude bairnes. But naebody's nails can reach the length o'Lunnon." Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) "There has been in England a gradual and progressive system of assuming the management of affairs entirely and exclusively proper to Scotland, as if we were totally unworthy of having the management of our own concerns" Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) "Freedom" Mel Gibson, "Braveheart" "Tartan Tax" Michael Forsyth, Secretary of State for Scotland 1996. "Separatism" Tony Blair, Prime Minister "Go back to your constituencies and prepare for government" Michael Forsyth, 5 days before losing his seat and 5 days before the Labour party swept to power with a massive majority "We declare the right of the people of Scotland to the ownership of Scotland, and to the unfettered control of Scottish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Scots people. The Scots people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty by arms and by the ballot box. Standing on that fundamental right and asserting it in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim Scotland as a Sovereign Independent State and we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades in arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations." THOMAS J. CLARKE and others (text adapted and modified from the proclamation of the Irish republic) "The Scottish Constitutional settlement should be entrenched by a simple provision in the Scotland Act (the act establishing the Scottish parliament). Proposed amendments should be approved by a simple majority in the UK and Scottish parliaments and in a referendum. The Convention should consider giving the electorate the right to propose an amendment through a constitutional petition" Paragraph 5, Page 47 of "Towards a Scottish Parliament". Consultation document and report to the Scottish people by The Constitutional Convention. October 1989. "We, gathered as the Scottish Constitutional Convention, do hereby acknowledge the sovereign right of the Scottish people to determine the form of government best suited to their needs, and do hereby declare and pledge that in all our actions and deliberations their interests shall be paramount. We further declare and pledge that our actions and deliberations shall be directed to the following ends: To agree a scheme for an Assembly or Parliament for Scotland; To mobilise Scottish opinion and ensure the approval of the Scottish people for that scheme; and to assert the right of the Scottish people to secure the implementation of that scheme." The Claim of Right, agreed by the Scottish Constitutional Convention March 1989. "The piece of Perthshire sandstone of controversial pedigree which has come to Scotland in the general interest of party-political advantage will be sited at a location in Edinburgh, decided upon by the Westminster Establishment, and will be removed from Scotland if and when a London government so decides. It is an almost perfect metaphor for devolution" Alan Clayton, "The Herald", 30-Nov-96 [19.8] Quangos (Quasi-autonomous non governmental organisations - now called non-departmental public bodies apparently) Labour promised us a "bonfire of the quangos" - anyone noticed any difference yet? If you think that quangos are over dominated by politicians of a certain political persuation - here's your chance to go on one yourself: Write to the Scottish Office and ask for the list of Non-Departmental Public Bodies. The address is: Room 237, St Andrew's House, Edinburgh, Scotland EH1 3DG Tel: 0131 244 4999 Fax: 0131 244 2683. You will be asked about your political persuations when you join - this is not used for selection but is simply used for statistical analysis (do you believe that?) [19.9] Local Councils Information on the Scottish local councils http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/data/councils/contacts/contacts.html This Edinburgh University site also has an interactive map showing the local Scottish Councils which is superior to that shown on the Scottish Office website. The Edinburgh University map is at http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/scotland.html and info on local government is at http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/home/scotland/localgovt.html Commission on Local Government and the Scottish Parliament http://www.lg-scot-commission.gov.uk/ Convention of Scottish Local Authorities http://www.cosla.gov.uk/ The accounts commission for Scotland http://www.accounts-commission.gov.uk/ See if your council gives you value for money. Enacting legislation http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/summary/01994039.htm Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 (c. 39) Scottish Local Authorities http://uk.geocities.com/scottishelections/sua/suaindex.htm http://www.alba.org.uk/links/councilwww.html - council web sites Specific authorities -------------------- Aberdeen City http://www.efr.hw.ac.uk/Aberdeen/ Aberdeenshire http://www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk/ Angus http://www.angus.gov.uk/ Argyll and Bute http://www.argyll-bute.gov.uk/ Clackmannan http://www.premier-pages.co.uk/web-demo/showcase/localgov.htm Comhairle nan Eilean Siar http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/ Dumfries and Galloway http://www.dumgal.gov.uk/ Dundee City http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/ East Ayrshire http://www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/ East Lothian http://www.eastlothian.gov.uk/ East Renfrewshire http://www.eastrenfrewshire.gov.uk/ Edinburgh http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/ Fife http://www.fife.gov.uk/ Glasgow City http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/ Highland http://www.highland.gov.uk/ Inverclyde http://www.inverclyde.gov.uk/ Midlothian http://www.midlothian.gov.uk/ Moray council http://www.moray.org/ North Lanarkshire http://www.northlan.gov.uk/ Perth and Kinross http://www.pkc.gov.uk/ Renfrewshire http://www.renfrewshire.gov.uk/ Shetland http://www.shetland.gov.uk/ South Ayrshire http://www.south-ayrshire.gov.uk/ South Lanarkshire http://www.southlanarkshire.gov.uk/ Stirling http://www.stirling.gov.uk/ West Dunbartonshire http://www.west-dunbarton.gov.uk/ West Lothian http://www.westlothian.gov.uk/ Western Isles http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/ [19.10] General Election results 2005 results ------------ 2,333,882 total votes, 60.6% Labour 41 seats (notional 5 loss) 39.5% Lib Dem 11 seats (notional 2 gain) 22.6% SNP 6 seats (notional 2 gain) 17.7 Conservative 1 seat (notional 1 gain) 15.8 No other party recorded over 2% of the votes cast or won any seats 2001 results ------------ 2,315,703 total votes, 58.2% turnout. Labour 56 seats, 43.9% SNP 5 seats, 20.1% Lib Dems 10 seats, 16.4% Conservative 1 seat, 15.6% 1997 results ------------ (2,812,439 total votes) Electorate 3,946,113 71.3% turnout Labour 45.65% of vote, 56 seats SNP 21.96% of vote, 6 seats, (617,260 votes) Conservative 17.54% of vote, no seats (493,059 votes) LibDem 13.00% of vote, 10 seats, (365,359 votes) Referendum party 1.0% of vote, no seats (26,978 votes) Green 0.06% of vote, no seats Others 0.80% of vote, no seats 1992 results ------------ Labour 39% of vote, 49 seats Conservative 25.6% of vote, 11 seats SNP 21.5% of vote, 3 seats LibDem 13.1% of vote, 9 seats Others 0.8% of vote, no seats [19.11] Devolution Referendum Results Here are the results of the referendum held on 11th September 1997 which asked the Scottish electorate whether they wanted a Parliament and whether a Parliament should have tax varying powers. Summary of Results ================== Every region voted Yes-Yes, except Orkney and Dumfries & Galloway which both voted Yes to a Parliament but No to tax raising powers by small margins. Q1) Should there be a Scottish parliament Agree 1,775,045 (74.3%) Disagree 614,400 (25.7%) Q2) Should the parliament have tax varying powers Agree 1,512,889 (63.5%) Disagree 870,263 (36.5%) Turnout 60.4% Breakdown by local authority, alphabetically Aberdeen City ------------- Q1: Agree 65,035 (71.8%) Disagree 25,580 (28.2%) Q2: Agree 54,320 (60.3%) Disagree 35,709 (39.7%) Turnout 53.7%. Declared 04:13 Aberdeenshire ------------- Q1: Agree 61,621 (63.9%) Disagree 34,878 (36.1%) Q2: Agree 50,295 (52.3%) Disagree 45,929 (47.7%) Turnout 57.0%. Declared 04:20 Angus ----- Q1: Agree 33,571 (64.7%) Disagree 18,350 (35.3%) Q2: Agree 27,641 (53.4%) Disagree 24,089 (46.6%) Turnout 60.2%. Declared 03:27 Argyll & Bute ------------- Q1: Agree 30,452 (67.3%) Disagree 14,796 (32.7%) Q2: Agree 25,746 (57.0%) Disagree 19,429 (43.0%) Turnout 65.0%. Declared 04:27 City of Edinburgh ----------------- Q1: Agree 155,900 (71.9%) Disagree 60,832 (28.1%) Q2: Agree 133,843 (62.0%) Disagree 82,188 (38.0%) Turnout 60.1%. Declared 03:05 Clackmannanshire ---------------- Q1: Agree 18,790 (80.0%) Disagree 4,706 (20.0%) Q2: Agree 16,112 (68.7%) Disagree 7,355 (31.3%) Turnout 66.1%. Declared 00:41 Dumfries & Galloway ------------------- Q1: Agree 44,619 (60.7%) Disagree 28,863 (39.3%) Q2: Agree 35,737 (48.8%) Disagree 37,499 (51.2%) Turnout 63.4%. Declared 02:44 Dundee City ----------- Q1: Agree 49,252 (76.0%) Disagree 15,553 (24.0%) Q2: Agree 42,304 (65.5%) Disagree 22,280 (34.5%) Turnout 55.7%. Declared 02:20 East Ayrshire ------------- Q1: Agree 49,131 (81.1%) Disagree 11,426 (18.9%) Q2: Agree 42,559 (70.5%) Disagree 17,824 (29.5%) Turnout 64.8%. Declared 03:46 East Dumbartonshire ------------------- Q1: Agree 40,917 (69.8%) Disagree 17,725 (30.2%) Q2: Agree 34,576 (59.1%) Disagree 23,914 (40.9%) Turnout 72.7%. Declared 04:16 East Lothian ------------ Q1: Agree 33,525 (74.2%) Disagree 11,665 (25.8%) Q2: Agree 28,152 (62.7%) Disagree 16,765 (37.3%) Turnout 65.0%. Declared 02:37 East Renfrewshire ----------------- Q1: Agree 28,253 (61.7%) Disagree 17,573 (38.3%) Q2: Agree 23,580 (51.6%) Disagree 22,153 (48.4%) Turnout 68.2%. Declared 02:27 Falkirk ------- Q1: Agree 55,642 (80.0%) Disagree 13,953 (20.0%) Q2: Agree 48,064 (69.2%) Disagree 21,403 (30.8%) Turnout 63.7%. Declared 02:53 Fife ---- Q1: Agree 125,668 (76.1%) Disagree 39,517 (23.9%) Q2: Agree 108,021 (64.7%) Disagree 58,987 (35.3%) Turnout 60.7%. Declared 03:37 (this result secured the first question) There was probably a counting error when totalling the Q2 results in this area as the Q2 votes exceed the Q1 votes by about 2,000. The number of Q2 votes also exceeds the number of ballot papers issued. Q2 agree was misrecorded. It should have been 106,214. Glasgow City ------------ Q1: Agree 204,269 (83.6%) Disagree 40,106 (16.4%) Q2: Agree 182,589 (75.0%) Disagree 60,842 (25.0%) Turnout 51.6%. Declared 03:32 Highland -------- Q1: Agree 72,551 (72.6%) Disagree 27,431 (27.4%) Q2: Agree 61,359 (62.1%) Disagree 37,525 (37.9%) Turnout: 60.3%. Declared 05:44 Inverclyde ---------- Q1: Agree 31,680 (78.0%) Disagree 8,945 (22.0%) Q2: Agree 27,194 (67.2%) Disagree 13,277 (32.8%) Turnout: 60.4%. Declared 03:21 Midlothian ---------- Q1: Agree 31,681 (79.9%) Disagree 7,979 (20.1%) Q2: Agree 26,776 (67.7%) Disagree 12,762 (32.3%) Turnout 65.1%. Declared 03:09 Moray ----- Q1: Agree 24,822 (67.2%) Disagree 12,122 (32.8%) Q2: Agree 19,326 (52.7%) Disagree 17,344 (47.3%) Turnout 57.8%. Declared 02:15 North Ayrshire -------------- Q1: Agree 51,304 (76.3%) Disagree 15,931 (23.7%) Q2: Agree 43,990 (65.7%) Disagree 22,991 (34.3%) Turnout 63.4%. Declared 03:50 North Lanarkshire ----------------- Q1: Agree 123,063 (82.6%) Disagree 26,010 (17.4%) Q2: Agree 107,288 (72.2%) Disagree 41,372 (27.8%) Turnout 60.8%. Declared 04:07 (This result secured the second question) Orkney Islands -------------- Q1: Agree 4,749 (57.3%) Disagree 3,541 (42.7%) Q2: Agree 3,917 (47.4%) Disagree 4,344 (52.6%) Turnout 53.5%. Declared 01:54 Perth & Kinross --------------- Q1: Agree 40,344 (61.7%) Disagree 24,998 (38.3%) Q2: Agree 33,398 (51.3%) Disagree 31,709 (48.7%) Turnout 63.1%. Declared 03:02 Renfrewshire ------------ Q1: Agree 68,711 (79.0%) Disagree 18,213 (21.0%) Q2: Agree 55,075 (63.6%) Disagree 31,537 (36.4%) Turnout 62.8%. Declared 01:59 Scottish Borders ---------------- Q1: Agree 33,855 (62.8%) Disagree 20,060 (37.2%) Q2: Agree 27,284 (50.7%) Disagree 26,497 (49.3%) Turnout 64.8%. Declared 03:40 Shetland Islands ---------------- Q1: Agree 5,430 (62.4%) Disagree 3,275 (37.6%) Q2: Agree 4,478 (51.6%) Disagree 4,198 (48.4%) Turnout 51.5%. Declared 03:13 South Ayrshire -------------- Q1: Agree 40,161 (66.9%) Disagree 19,909 (33.1%) Q2: Agree 33,679 (56.2%) Disagree 26,217 (43.8%) Turnout 66.7%. Declared 02:31 South Lanarkshire ----------------- Q1: Agree 114,908 (77.8%) Disagree 32,762 (22.2%) Q2: Agree 99,587 (67.6%) Disagree 47,708 (32.4%) Turnout 63.1%. Declared 00:50 Stirling -------- Q1: Agree 29,190 (68.5%) Disagree 13,440 (31.5%) Q2: Agree 25,044 (58.9%) Disagree 17,487 (41.1%) Turnout 65.8%. Declared 02:57 West Dumbartonshire ------------------- Q1: Agree 39,051 (84.7%) Disagree 7,058 (15.3%) Q2: Agree 34,408 (74.7%) Disagree 11,628 (25.3%) Turnout 63.7%. Declared 03:17 West Lothian ------------ Q1: Agree 56,923 (79.6%) Disagree 14,614 (20.4%) Q2: Agree 47,990 (67.3%) Disagree 23,354 (32.7%) Turnout 62.6%. Declared 01:49 Western Isles / Comhairle nan Eilean Siar ----------------------------------------- Q1: Agree 9,977 (79.4%) Disagree 2,589 (20.6%) Q2: Agree 8,557 (68.4%) Disagree 3,947 (31.6%) Turnout 55.8%. Declared 02:11 [19.12] The Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament web site -------------------------------- http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ - English http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/gaidhlig - Gaelic The Parliament was elected on 6 May 1999, reconvened after a 292 year gap on 12 May 1999, and assumed its full powers after the official opening by the Queen on 1 July 1999. The Scotland Act 1988 --------------------- http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980046.htm Statutory Instruments --------------------- http://www.scotland-legislation.hmso.gov.uk/ Results ------- The full breakdown by constituency of the votes in the Scottish Parliament election (including the regional list vote) is off http://www.crest.ox.ac.uk/results.htm Background ---------- See also http://www.scottish-devolution.org.uk/ The powers of the Scottish Parliament are based on those established by the Labour led Constitutional Convention. The final report of the constitutional convention is at http://www.almac.co.uk/business_park/scc/scc-rep.htm The Scottish parliament extends democratic control over the responsibilities formerly exercised administratively by the Scottish Office. The responsibilities of the UK Parliament will remain unchanged over UK policy, for example economic, defence and foreign policy. The UK Government has published a short free guide concerning powers of the parliament. It is available in Scots, Gaelic, English and other languages. Write to: The Constitution Group, the Scottish Office, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ. Site of Parliament ================== It was leaked to the media on 5th January 1998 that the Parliament will be in Holyrood, near Holyrood Palace. Most political parties and most members of the general public wanted the parliament to be at Calton Hill, but this was ruled out on cost grounds. However, Holyrood palace offers plenty room for expansion if/when the Queen is no longer the head of state.... Any suggestions as to what the Parliament should be called? Thomas Muir house has been suggested, after the Scottish political activist (see [11.16]). The actual site was originally that of Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun's house - he was one of the main opponents to political union in the previous Scottish parliament. Until the new Parliament building at Holyrood was constructed, the Scottish Parliament met in the General Assembly buildings on The Mound. These buildings are only a few minutes walk from Parliament Square where the Scottish Parliament met prior to being suspended in May 1707. The postal address of the Parliament is The Scottish Parliament Edinburgh EH99 1SP You can contact your MSP by e-mail. The format is firstname.surname.msp@scottish.parliament.uk Parliament Building =================== There is an exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland showing the latest design of the new Scottish parliament by the Catalonian architect Enric Miralles. Since everyone cannot go and visit the display, you can view photos of the models and illustrations together with some other info at: http://scottishculture.miningco.com/ Constituencies ============== 129 seats - 71 of the present 72 constituencies plus Orkney & Shetland with one each giving 73 elected by FPTP. The remaining 56 elected by party list in the eight Euro-constituencies - seven seats each. List regions Central Scotland ---------------- Airdrie & Shotts; Coatbridge & Chryston; Cumbernauld & Kilsyth; East Kilbride; Kilmarnock & Loudon; Hamilton North & Bellshill; Hamilton South; Motherwell & Wishaw; Falkirk East; Falkirk West (10 seats). Glasgow ------- Glasgow Anniesland; Glasgow Baillieston; Glasgow Cathcart; Glasgow Govan; Glasgow Kelvin; Glasgow Maryhill; Glasgow Pollok; Glasgow Rutherglen; Glasgow Shettleston; Glasgow Springburn (10 seats). Highlands & Islands ------------------- Argyll and Bute; Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross; Inverness East, Nairn and Lochaber; Moray; Orkney; Ross, Skye and Inverness West; Shetland; Western Isles (8 seats). Lothians -------- Edinburgh Central; Edinburgh East and Musselburgh; Edinburgh North and Leith; Edinburgh Pentlands; Edinburgh South; Edinburgh West; Linlithgow; Livingston; Midlothian (9 seats). Mid Scotland and Fife --------------------- Central Fife; Dunfermline East; Dunferline West; Kirkcaldy; North East Fife; Ochil; Perth; Stirling; North Tayside (9 seats). North East Scotland ------------------- Aberdeen Central; Aberdeen North; Aberdeen South; Angus; Banff & Buchan; Dundee East; Dundee West; Gordon; West Aberdeenshire & Kincardine (9 seats). South of Scotland ----------------- Ayr; Carrick, Cumnock & Doon Valley; Clydesdale; Dumfries; East Lothian; Galloway & Upper Nithsdale; Cunninghame South; Roxburgh & Berwickshire; Tweeddale, Ettrick & Lauderdale (9 seats) West of Scotland ---------------- Clydebank & Milngavie; Cunninghame North; Dumbarton; Eastwood; Greenock & Inverclyde; Paisley North; Paisley South; Strathkelvin & Bearsden; West Renfrewshire (9 seats). The original proposed powers of the parliament, detailed in the white paper are limited by the following, control of which is proposed to remain at Westminster. Exceptions to the home rule =========================== 1 Succession to Crown 2 Treason 3 UK titles of honour 4 Defence, civil defence, armed forces 5 Making of peace & war 6 Relations with foreign states, membership of EU 7 Immigration 8 Payments from UK Consolidated Fund and National Loans Fund 9 Tax payable to the UK Exchequer, except as otherwise prescribed 10 Currency and coinage 11 Interest rates and credit 12 Competition policy 13 Business regulation 14 Financial services regulation 15 Loan guarantees to public body, except as otherwise prescribed 16 Import & export licensing 17 Gas, electricity and telecommunications regulation 18 Regulation of charges and prices other than those charged by Scottish secretary 19 Social security 20 Employment regulation 21 Discrimination issues 22 Control of drugs and medicines 23 Environmental protection 24 Civil aviation regulation 25 Maritime shipping, inland water navigation 26 Road traffic regulation 27 Railways regulation 28 Elections to UK and EU parliaments 29 UK statistics, census 30 Data protection 31 Continued existence of High Court of Justiciary, Court of Session, the sheriff courts, the district courts 32 Appeals to House of Lords and High Court of Justiciary. 33 Courts-martial and the Courts-Martial Appeal Court; Election Courts; Restrictive Practices Court; Employment Appeal Tribunal 34 Posts and telegraphs, including telephones, radio satellite cable and terrestrial television 35 Prevention of terrorism 36 Quarantine of animals 37 Human rights 38 Genetic research, human fertilisation and embryology 39 Intellectual property 40 Weights and measures, including time [19.13] How the Scottish Parliament might work Readers interested in a proposed model for how the Scottish parliament could work might find the following of interest To make the parliament of Scotland a model for democracy prepared for the John Wheatley Centre by Bernard Crick and David Millar The publication (published 1997), is a revised version of Standing Orders for a Scottish Parliament prepared by the authors in 1991 for the Scottish Constitutional Convention. About the authors ----------------- Bernard Crick, founding secretary of the Study of Parliament group in 1963 and author of The Reform of Parliament (1963) and of In Defence of Politics, is Emeritus Professor of Politics, London University and an Honorary Fellow of the Politics Department of the University of Edinburgh. David Millar OBE, was formerly a clerk of the House of Commons, then Director of Research at the European Parliament, now an honorary fellow of the Europa Institute of the University of Edinburgh The publication is 54 A4 pages and costs five pounds. ISBN 1 873 11809 0 available from John Wheatley Centre, 20 Forth Street, Edinburgh EH1 3LH Tel/Fax: 0131 477 8220 This FAQ was first published in 1994 and then the above proposal was of interest. Now we have a parliament, and finally a building, the above is only included for historical reference. [19.14] Scottish Elections Scottish General Election ========================= First held on 6 May 99. Thereafter the first Thursday in May at fixed 4 year intervals unless the parliament is dissolved early due to a vote of no confidence or failure to form a government. Two ballot papers, one for a constituency MSP the other for PR seats on a list. Total PR votes -------------- Figures are presented in the form: Party, No. votes (% share) actual seats won, Top-Up regions fought Electorate 3,986,886 Turnout 2,305,987 (57.84%) Labour 786,818 (34.12%) 56 All Scottish National Party 638,644 (27.70%) 35 All Scottish Conservative & Unionist Party 372,213 (16.14%) 18 All Scottish Liberal Democrats 277,656 (12.04%) 17 All Scottish Greens 84,024 (3.64%) 1 All Socialist Labour Party 55,232 (2.40%) 0 All Scottish Socialist Party 46,635 (2.02%) 1 All Pro-Life Alliance 9,784 (0.42%) 0 C,G,L,M&F,W Scottish Unionist Party 7,009 0 C,G,W Natural Law Party 4,906 (0.21%) All Cairdeas - The Highlands & Islands Alliance 2607 (0.11%) H&I Scottish Liberal Party 2,056 (0.09%) L UK Independence Party 1,502 (0.07%) S Scottish Family & Pensioners' Party 1,373 (0.06%) C Witchery Tour Party 1,184 (0.05%) L Civil Rights Party 806 (0.03%) L Socialist Party of Great Britain 697 (0.03%) G,L Communist Party of Great Britain 521 (0.02%) G Humanist Party 447 (0.02%) G Independents (Various Lists) 41,319 (1.79%) 1 C,G,H&I,L,NE,W Local Authorities ================= Held on 6 May 99 and thereafter the first Thursday in May at fixed 4 year intervals. 10 June 1999 ============ Elections to the European Parliament. 5 year term. Scotland formed a single constituency for the purposes of this election with all candidates being elected on a closed list PR basis. May 2011 --------- Latest date for UK General Election [19.15] Understanding Parliament For understanding how the UK parliament works, the web page for the UK Parliament is: http://www.parliament.uk/ They have links to how Parliament works (bills, etc..) at: http://www.parliament.uk/parliament/guide/parliamt.htm Just general information but cuts right through to the basics.. and http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/FACT.HTM has many public information office fact sheets. This info is here in order to help people understand the process by which they are governed in Scotland. This section will be expanded once the Scottish Parliament is running. Announcments are often made through the Central Office of Information http://www.nds.coi.gov.uk/ (UK) http://www.ndsregions.coi.gov.uk/ (Scottish info off here) For political information, see also http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/ [19.16] The Monarchy Crown Estate ------------ http://www.crownestate.co.uk/ Info on the Crown Estate - property owned by the sovereign of the United Kingdom "in right of the Crown" with origins dating back almost 1000 years. Do you want a monarchy? ----------------------- On Tuesday 7th January 1997, there was a televised debate shown across the UK on the future of the monarchy. There was a phone-in vote which attracted 2.5 million votes, the biggest ever total for a phone-in (the previous largest was 1.25 million). The question put to voters was "Do you want a monarchy" and the breakdown of votes is as follows: Scotland 56% AGAINST (the only part of the UK to vote against) Northern Ireland 64% in favour Wales 59% in favour England: The South East of England 72% in favour The South West of England 71% in favour East Anglia 70% in favour The English Midlands 69% in favour North East England 66% in favour London 66% in favour North West England 64% in favour Further information in The Scotsman, 8-Jan-97, main story, P1. Scottish Crown Jewels (Honours of Scotland) ------------------------------------------- For information on the Scottish Crown Jewels (Honours of Scotland), see http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page451.asp There are pictures of the jewels there. The Honours of Scotland are the oldest sovereign regalia in the British Isles. [19.17] OBEs, honorific titles, "gongs" etc John Major began to eform to the the "gong" or honorific title scheme to award knighthoods, OBEs, MBEs etc to more members of the general public. The Labour government has extended this and honours are now awarded to people from all walks of life. If you know of someone who you feel is worthy of an award then the following website should help you: http://www.honours.gov.uk/ If you want to know about courtesy titles, see http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/courtesytitles.html [19.18] Scottish Independence information Websites -------- The Scottish National Party http://www.snp.org.uk/ Independence oriented websites http://www.freescot.com/ http://www.forscotland.com/ http://www.freescotland.com/ Further reading --------------- Information on the legal issues around independence is covered in the Vienna convention, on-line at: http://www.tufts.edu/departments/fletcher/multi/texts/BH883.txt A recommended read is Scotland: An unwon cause by P. H. Scott ISBN 0-86241-700-7, published 1997. [19.19] Article on Independence Article by DOBSCAN mailto:dobscan@aol.com I am forever reading comments about an independent Scotland. The reasons often given are; a hatred for England, a wish for a return to Gaelic, and other such emotional issues. Now while these and other emotional issues may play a small part I doubt, due to the mass differences in opinion that any of these will have any affect on the independence of Scotland. I grew up in an extremely nationalist environment and the issues I heard to support a separate Scotland, and I believe they are the ones shared by most Scots and in general most thinking people. 1: Economic self rule so as to decide where our tax pounds went. A very simple idea and principal, that would allow the people to decide what was important to them and how their money was spent and to insure that their money was spent in Scotland to meet the needs of the Scottish people who paid them. This was always the main issue. 2: Our own polititians who would be more concerned with the problems affecting Scotland than those in London who are resposible for a larger area and a higher population. Since the governing people are elected the issues of the majority get a priority over the issues of a minority. England has a greater population thus more votes, thus more pull with the political parties. Again a simple reality. I never heard vote for Scottish rule because we hate the English, or we want our own Royal Family, or other issues. They may exist in some cases but not in the main stream. In fact if one was to look at the issues of Scottish rule one would see the plans already in place for a great deal of cooperation with the countries around Scotland. The reason for an independent Scotland is to improve the life of the Scots, not to harm the lives of other nations. The issue is prosperity and responsability for Scottish issues by the people of Scotland. As an example of the emotions involved, one of my uncles, a very staunch nationalist, and a, rightfully so, proud vetran of the Scots Guards used to make us stand for God Save The Queen, while everyone else left the pictures (movies) Because it was the right thing to do. At 14 to 16 I would of been the ideal terrorist and would of welcomed the chance of running into Westminister with a bomb on my back. I suggested it a few times, and even the hardest core fringe separatists/nationals were aghast at my suggestion. "We don't do that" was the reply and the disgust was very clear in the voices. As much as I thought of them as cowards in my foolish youth I respect and admire their stance today in my mature foolishness. Again the ecomonic and logic of separation were explained to me. When I would, as a child, express a horray for the IRA or such, I would be chastised and told some poor soldiers mother, wife or child would be missing them. Think of the poor bairns was always a prominent remark. Steps were taken so that I would not hate the English people with the constant emphasis being placed on economics and logic. I hope this will clear up some of the issues about Scottish Nationalism. Will help clear up some missconceptions about the movement. As you can see by the sign off of Mr. Chick McGregor when he says " Don't vote Labour because of your Parents. Vote SNP because of your children." You will note that there is no other reason for an independent Scotland that to benefit the people of Scotland. Scottish Nationalisn is not based on history it is conceived on the hopes of the future. Dave M. [19.20] Contacting MPs, MSPs by E-mail Members of the Scottish Parliament ---------------------------------- You can contact your MSP by e-mail. The format is name.name.msp@scottish.parliament.uk Some Apparently don't read e-mail or respond to it. Members of the UK Parliament ---------------------------- There is a list of MPs contactable by E-mail at http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/area/uk/mpsorted.htm [19.21] Health and the NHS http://www.hebs.scot.nhs.uk/ Health Education Board for Scotland [20.1] The computer industry in Scotland - Silicon Glen Traditionally, Silicon Glen focussed on the inward investment of electronic companies. We are now seeing the problems caused by such a narrow strategy. Viasystems, National Semiconductor and the like are foreign companies which are now closing down, with devastating knock on effects for the Scottish economy, an economy which has focussed too narrowly on such industries. The current trend towards massive growth in call centres is another case in point - whilst these provide quality jobs in the short term, their long term prospects are in grave doubt due to the growth of automated systems and electronic commerce on the Internet as well as outsourcing from Scotland's Silicon Glen to India's Silicon Plateau. It is estimated that like electronics, there will be a scaling down of call centre jobs. An article in PC Week (29-Sept-98, P7) indicated that 50% of front line jobs (including call centres) will disappear by 2010. There is hope though. Scottish software, whilst still relatively small scale, is starting to grow thanks to the efforts of the Scottish Software Federation, now ScotlandIS. However, we still live in a climate where people are often expected to gamble the roof over their head to start a business in Scotland and at the same time foreign investors are paid thousands of pounds of money in grants for each job created. It is hardly surprising therefore that there is such an imbalance in the Scottish software business towards foreign companies at the expense of home grown talent. Public sector money is also often surrounded by so much red tape that it isn't unknown for the funds to have to hand the money back to investors because insufficient businesses were eligible to apply. In an age when we should be attempting to eliminate ageism and sexism in the workplace and to encourage people to balance work and family life, when you start a business there is completely rampant sexism (funds only availale for women), ageism (funds only available to young people) and no special help at all for anyone balancing a startup with a family! Talk about conflicting government messages! For business startup information, see [1.10]. Magazines and Journals ---------------------- NB Magazine will provide you with news about the computer industry in Silicon Glen, Scotland http://www.nb-mag.com/ Scotland's Premier IT Trade Magazine http://www.computerheadline.com/ Scottish Development International ---------------------------------- http://www.lis.org.uk/ The body dealing with inward investment in Scotland Scotland IS ----------- The trade organisation for Scottish hi-technology http://www.scotlandis.com/ Website project management and e-commerce ----------------------------------------- Please contact mailto:craig@siliconglen.com Chartered IT Professional, PRINCE2 Practitioner Website link monitoring and quality assurance --------------------------------------------- http://www.siliconglen.com/software/links.html Website hosting --------------- http://www.xcalibre.co.uk/ (the company hosting the siliconglen.com website) Web Warehouse Ltd UK web hosting http://www.web-warehouse.net/ Content filtering and security ------------------------------ http://www.bloxx.com/ Helpdesk Software ----------------- For Helpdesk Software, visit Serio Ltd, based in Livingston http://www.seriosoft.com/ Object Oriented software estimation ----------------------------------- http://www.tassc-solutions.com/ Now-Business ------------- http://www.sharedbiz.net/ The forum for entrepreneurs to meet venture capitalists. The British Computer Society ---------------------------- Gain computing qualificaitons and professional status, e.g. Chartered Engineer or Chartered IT professional http://www.bcs.org/ An Interesting Read ------------------- http://digg.com/ http://reddit.com/ http://www.scottishdevelopers.com/ http://www.agilescotland.com/ Interesting Blogs ----------------- http://www.robertlally.com/ http://www.clarkeching.com/ http://www.mattcutts.com/ http://www.siliconglen.com/news/ (news, blog) Scotland Internet Guide ----------------------- http://www.siliconglen.com/ (General site) http://www.siliconglen.com/companies/ http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/ (web design guidelines) http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/pants.html (The Pants Website award) The Chartered Management Institute ---------------------------------- Gain managerial qualifications and professional status, e.g. Chartered Manager http://www.managers.org.uk/ WOW Web Competition ------------------- For Scottish businesses, a competition run by the Scottish Enterprise network with corporate sponsors. http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/wow/ The winners are usually websites with lots of glitz and trendy technologies rather than websites which are useful from a consumer's point of view (e.g. one recent winner didn't even have an email address on their site - doh!) Combat Spam - The Spam Filter ----------------------------- http://www.scot.demon.co.uk/spam-filter.html The Spam Filter - Mentioned on TV across the US. Combat spam - sign the free petition ------------------------------------ http://www.siliconglen.com/spampetition/ Embarrass leading vendors into doing something http://www.thespamfilter.com/ http://www.spam-filter.com/ http://www.themailfilter.com/ http://www.theemailfilter.com/ http://www.themailfilter.com/ http://www.the-mail-filter.com/ http://www.the-spam-filter.com/ http://www.filterjunkmail.com/ E-mail ====== To keep abreast of developments about the internet community in Scotland, please join the Scotland internet community email list by sending a message with the single word 'subscribe' to mailto:scotland-request@scotland.org Jobs ==== For information on jobs in Scotland, see [1.15] Free Press Release Distribution =============================== http://www.prweb.com/ [20.2] General Internet information Societies --------- Scottish chapter of the Internet Society http://scotland.isoc.org/ Statistics on Internet use -------------------------- http://www.nop.co.uk/ Scottish Internet Exchange -------------------------- http://www.scotix.net/ Articles on Website Usability ----------------------------- http://www.siliconglen.com/usability/ http://www.useit.com/ FTP by mail ----------- See here mailto:bitftp@pucc.princeton.edu mailto:ftp.uni-stuttgart.de [20.3] Creating a top level domain for Scotland Background ---------- A number of people and organisations are calling for a global top level domain (DNS entry or TLD) to be created for Scotland on the Internet. What this would mean is that Scottish e-mail, WWW, FTP addresses could be assigned a two letter "country" suffix signifying Scotland. Currently Scottish addresses end in .uk or one of the general "international" suffixes such as .net, .com or .org. Scottish businesses in particular, rather than having a Scottish address are forced to use either a "UK" version, or an international one which might already be in use by a different company elsewhere in the world. From a Welsh point of view, a separate DNS entry also makes sense for companies as limited companies there can put Cyf. (Cyfyngedig) after their names, making their name unique in a Welsh context only. e.g. www.companyname.cyf.<wales-code> corresponding to the current www.companyname.ltd.uk The organisation which allocates Internet numbers to names is ICANN (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Number), http://www.icann.org/ The responsibility was previously handled by http://www.iana.org/ (The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). The two letter country suffixes which they use are those defined in ISO3166. This standard is on-line at various locations, one such location is http://www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/iso3166ma/codlstp1/en_listp1.html Incidentally, ISO3166 predates the Internet and is used in a wide variety of contexts besides Internet country domains. Independence is not a prerequisite for getting a country domain. "The codes represent the names of countries, dependencies and other areas of special interest for purposes of international exchange, without indicating expression of any opinion whatsoever concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its' authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its' frontiers." Any area of "special interest" can get one with the support of the relevant standards body. For instance, the Isle of Man is (.im), Jersey is (.je) and Guernsey is (.gg). These ones slipped through to IANA (the forerunner of ICANN) by "mistake". IANA states: "Jersey is part of another ISO 3166 list which defines reserved codes. All UPU (Universal Postal Union) codes on this list we allowed into the top level domain list. We have now been advised to not use this reserved code list any further. However, all top level delegations from that list remain current." It appears that the UK government was not at all pleased about Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man being granted full ISO3166 status. The UK government should have been consulted and their subsequent stance indicates that they would have opposed such a move, as they are presently doing with Scotland. The codes ICANN now uses are exclusively those from the ISO 3166-1 standard, although codes previously allocated under previous rules are maintained. In particular, uk (seen on most UK e-mail addresses) is not in ISO3166, the appropriate country code in ISO3166 is GB. There is at least one address using this: dra.hmg.gb (hmg.gb is a rough equivalent of gov.uk) Why GB was the country code in the first place rather than UK is explained here: http://tinyurl.com/loqh Britain's (and hence Scotland's) representative on ISO is the British Standards Institute or BSI. They can be reached at mailto:info@bsi.org.uk The situation in the UK as regards ISO3166 is now rather a mess. Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man shouldn't have codes but do, and the UK's is listed as "GB", but "UK" is what appears in the DNS. Scotland has its own parliament with devolution but still does not have its own DNS entry, even though other areas such as Antartica do. So do many minor islands. Some of them are barely inhabited (Pitcairn/.pn, population 48). Some are now dependencies of Australia or New Zealand but still have their own ISO 3166 codes and DNS entries. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands are Crown Dependencies rather than parts of the UK or Great Britain (but they are classed as part of the British Isles). Despite what HMG might say on the matter, they *should* have had ISO 3166 codes long ago - they have different legislation, have different postal rates, etc. The creation of a top level domain for Scotland not only has the support of many IT professionals, but also some manufacturers and Internet providers as well as the SNP. The .co.uk namespace is also oversubscribed - too many people chasing the same names. That's why Nominet introduced .plc.uk and .ltd.uk - theoretically the names registered at Companies House (and mangled according to Nominet rules to turn them into domain names) are not very memorable. Even the .plc.uk and .ltd.uk expansion has still resulted in uk.com becoming quite widely used. One way of increasing the effective namespace is to add Scottish, Welsh, English and Northern Irish TLDs. That *might* be a justification that ICANN would accept for adding those TLDs without ISO 3166 country codes. It is also possible to lodge a case with the domain name arbiter http://www.arbiter.wipo.int/domain_name/start-case/ In contrast to the problems with the DNS, Scotland has had its own usenet domain for a very considerable length of time (in Internet terms). The scot.* hierarchy has been around since at least 1985, more info on this in [20.4]. Furthermore a top level domain may be introduced soon for American Indigenous Peoples. There is also likely to be a ".eu" domain for the European Union. If there is a case for these domains, surely there is a case for Scotland? Possible codes -------------- The possible codes Scotland could be allocated range from aa to zz although the country codes AA, QM-QZ, XA-XZ and ZZ are reserved by ISO 3166 as user-assigned codes and are not available. There is no process for reassigning codes already in use. Maybe having one might be a step forward? "Scotland" letter combinations (all allocated): SC = Seychelles SO = Somalia ST = Sao Tome and Principe SL = Sierra Leone SA = Saudi Arabia SN = Senegal SD = Sudan "Caledonia" letter combinations: CA = Canada CL = Chile CE = UNASSIGNED CD = Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) CO = Colombia CN = China CI = Ivory Coast/Cote d'Ivoire "Alba" combinations AA = reserved as user-assigned AB = UNASSIGNED AL = Albania Finally, people who use the unofficial "SCO" country sticker on their cars may be surprised to learn that Scotland has been granted an official three letter country designation under part 2 of ISO3166 - this indicates names of subdivisions of countries. Under this standard, Scotland is not SCO but GB-SCT. This seems the most likely route at the moment - rather than getting a two letter country suffix, we get a three letter designation. See here for more info http://www.dotsco.org/ [20.4] Scottish usenet newsgroups (alphabetical order) ed.* Edinburgh -------------- news:ed.accommodation - Edinburgh accommodation. news:ed.followup - Edinburgh - followups to articles. news:ed.general - General Edinburgh topics. news:ed.review - Reviews of events in Edinburgh. scot.* Scotland --------------- news:scot.announce - Scotland/North England Wide: General Announcements. news:scot.bairns - Discussions about Scottish children. news:scot.birds - Birdwatching in Scotland. news:scot.business.internet - Scottish business discussions about the Internet. news:scot.environment - Scottish environmental issues. news:scot.followup - Followups to scot.general articles. news:scot.general - Scotland/North England Wide: General Articles. news:scot.jobs - Jobs wanted and offered in Scotland. news:scot.legal - Scottish legal issues. news:scot.newsgroups.announce - Official scot.* announcements news:scot.newsgroups.discuss - Discussion of proposed new groups, rules etc. news:scot.politics - Scottish politics discussions. news:scot.scots - Scots language discussions. news:scot.sports.soccer - For the discussion of Scottish football. news:scot.test - Test postings in the scot.* hierarchy. Announcements of proposed new groups in the scot.* hierarchy currently take place in scot.newsgroups.announce, with the discussion taking place in scot.newsgroups.discuss. The committee who manage the scot.* hierarchy is comprised of: Simon Brooke, Craig Cockburn, Duncan Dewar, Neil Fernandez, David Marsh, Sandy Morton and Bob Scott. The Scot* netnews committee can be contacted on mailto:committee@scot.news-admin.org Committee proceedings are currently posted to news:scot.general. http://www.scot.news-admin.org/ has more details regarding the management of the scot.* hierarchy, the committee and procedures for creating new groups and amending existing ones. For control messages in the scot.* hierarchy, see ftp://ftp.isc.org/pub/usenet/control/scot/ Global/UK Groups ---------------- news:alt.arts.storytelling - Storytelling news:alt.politics.british - British Politics news:alt.scottish.clans A group has been created called alt.scottish.clans. The purpose of this group is to discuss the folklore, traditions and history of the various Scottish clans. Current clan gatherings and announcements will also be found here. Anyone interested in this sort of thing is invited to join in the discussions. "Crest of the Clan Chief" in Gaelic is "Suaicheantas a ceann cinnidh" news:alt.tv.highlander - The Highlander TV show news:alt.uk.edinburgh.misc - Edinburgh news:alt.uk.virtual-glasgow - Glasgow news:rec.heraldry - Heraldry news:rec.music.celtic - Celtic music (Irish & Scottish bias) news:rec.music.folk - General Folk music (US/England bias) news:rec.music.makers.bagpipe - Discussions about bagpipes, playing them etc. news:rec.org.sca - Recreating history, re-enactments etc news:sci.archaeology - Archaeology. Scottish sites occasionally discussed. news:soc.genealogy.britain - Genealogy in Britain news:soc.culture.british - British culture in general (strong England bias) news:soc.culture.celtic - Celtic culture in general (Irish/Scottish bias) news:soc.culture.scottish - Anything regarding Scotland or things Scots. news:uk.local.borders-region - The Scottish Borders news:uk.local.glasgow - Glasgow news:uk.local.lothians - The Lothian region news:uk.local.scot-highlands - The Scottish Highlands news:uk.music.folk - Folk music in the UK (England bias) There are a large number of other groups in the uk.* hierarchy, some of which have Scottish relevance (eg news:uk.politics.misc) Other ----- news:ns.general - General Nova Scotia discussions There is also an eduni.* hierarchy for Edinburgh University a hw.* hierarchy for Heriot Watt University and a strath.* hierarchy for Strathclyde University but none of these is intended to propagate outside the university. A gla.* hierarchy also seems to exist and appears to be private to Glasgow university (i.e. the .gla.ac.uk domain). The west.* groups serve the West of Scotland but these are poorly propagated and hardly anyone knows about them. There is also confusion between these groups and an ISP in the US. More info on usenet ------------------- http://www.ibiblio.org/usenet-i/ Information about usenet in general, links to groups and FAQs [20.5] How to get scot.* hierarchy groups The scot.* hierarchy -------------------- http://www.scot.news-admin.org/ Read the groups at ------------------- http://groups.google.com/groups?hl=en&group=scot Google carries the full list, they just don't show it. Public news feed servers: pubnews.demon.co.uk Also see: http://www.jammed.com/~newzbot/ [20.6] Getting hooked up to the Internet Have a look in the UK Internet List, Britain's first guide to Internet providers. Particularly suitable for home based dialup info http://www.limitless.co.uk/inetuk/providers.html Founded by Craig Cockburn, mailto:craig@SiliconGlen.com in June 1992. For UK based web hosting options, check out http://uk.tophosts.com/ [20.7] Internet Cafes and Public Internet Access Points Dunfermline: Cosmic PCs http://www.cosmicpcs.com/ 19 St Andrews Street, Dunfermline, Fife KY11 4QG TeleFax 01383 432296 Edinburgh: Connections, 5 Colinton Road, EH10 5DP Tel: 0131 446 9494 mailto:admin@heimdall-scot.co.uk Cyberia, 88 Hanover Street. (0131 220 4403) mailto:edinburgh@easynet.co.uk http://www.cybersurf.co.uk/home/cafe/ Entertainment World, 138 Lothian Road.(0131 229 5333) mailto:eworld@btinternet.com Web 13, 13 Bread Street. (0131 229 8883) mailto:queries@presence.co.uk http://www.web13.co.uk/ There's also one in Leith, near the Royal Bank. Glasgow: The Internet Cafe, 239 North Street. (0141 221 8447) mailto:tim@linkcafe.co.uk (currently closed due to demolition work) There is another Internet Cafe in Park Road - opened October 96 Java, 152 Park Road. (0141 337 6727) and possibly another in Charing Cross John Smith & Sons Bookshop mailto:coffee@johnsmith.co.uk 57 St Vincent Street. (0141 221 7472) Greenock: Cafe Roslin, Dalrymple Street. (01475 730 576) mailto:roslin@easynet.co.uk Inverness: http://www.invernet.co.uk/ [20.8] How can I find someone in Scotland on the Internet? This is a usenet FAQ which can apply to finding people anywhere in the world. See the FAQ for more information, the URL is: http://www.qucis.queensu.ca/FAQs/email/finding.html [20.9] Faxing Scotland by E-mail Send a mail to mailto:tpcfaq@info.tpc.int for information on a free service which will allow you to send an e-mail and have it converted into a fax and faxed from a server in the UK to the phone number of your choice. Visit them on the web at http://www.tpc.int/ [21.1] Scottish links http://www.rampantscotland.com/ Rampant Scotland - over 7,000 links to web pages about Scotland http://www.discover-scotland.com/ A very rich site with on-the-fly GIS mapping capabilities for over 30,000 Scottish resources. (Yep, it locates them in proper geographic space). It even locates the closest pub to your target destination. http://celt.net/og/angscot.htm http://scottishculture.miningco.com/ http://thecapitalscot.com/ http://www.destination-scotland.com/ http://www.electricscotland.com/ http://www.scotweb.co.uk/ http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/home/scotland/scotland.html http://www.hebrides.com/ http://www.highlanderweb.co.uk/ http://www.scotland.com/ http://www.scotland.org/ http://www.scotlandonline.com/ http://www.yahoo.co.uk/ - UK based but some relevant to Scotland http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Heritage/FSCNS/ScotsHome.html - Nova Scotia http://www.lochness.co.uk/ http://www.onlinescotland.com/ http://www.webcom.com/us_scot/ http://www2.wcoil.com/~highlndr/ - United States http://www.scottishradiance.com/ A Hebridean Journal Huge amount of information about Scottish culture in an electronic magazine format. Buy books, find out Scottish facts, practice your Gaelic and much much more. The alternative Scottish FAQ from Scot.general http://www.gonadovision.demon.co.uk/visitors.htm ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/academic/languages/gaelic/Scc/scot.general http://www.gla.ac.uk/World/ (Needs that capital 'W') For info regarding Glasgow's environs including hotels, on-line papers, theatres, etc. Contains links to places wider afield in Scotland too. http://www.pictphd.demon.co.uk/ Info on Constitution, Stone of Destiny, Treaty of Union etc. http://www.britannica.com/ Encyclopaedia Britannica (founded in Scotland) [21.2] Mailing lists Lists-of-lists For information on public Internet mailing lists, see: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/mail/mailing-lists For information on all listserv lists, send an e-mail to any listserv (e.g. mailto:listserv@listserv.hea.ie) containing the line list global alternatively you can refine the search by adding a subject: list global/poetry or search via http://www.lsoft.com/lists/listref.html There is a HUGE file the "SRI list of lists" which describes every public mailing list and has instructions on how to subscribe. ftp://ftp.nisc.sri.com/netinfo/interest-groups or mailto:mail-server@nisc.sri.com with a message containing the line send /netinfo/interest-groups (the message will come back in several parts which you will then have to piece together) See also [19.3] for info on Scottish politics e-mail lists [21.3] Celtic information and Celtic FAQs Celtic ====== Encyclopaedia of the Celts http://home.worldonline.dk/~kmariboe/ http://celt.net/Celtic/celtopedia/indices/encycintro.html Celtic FAQ ---------- newsgroup news:soc.culture.celtic FAQ location http://www.siliconglen.com/celtfaq/ Celtic Music FAQ ----------------- newsgroup news:rec.music.celtic FAQ location http://www.collins-peak.co.uk/rmc/ Celtic Countries ================ Brittany -------- newsgroup news:soc.culture.breton FAQ location http://www.irisa.fr/prive/cedelle/breizh/faq/ Cornwall -------- newsgroup news:soc.culture.cornish FAQ location http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~marcie/kernow/faq.html Ireland ------- newsgroup news:soc.culture.irish FAQ location http://www.enteract.com/~cpm/irish-faq Scotland -------- newsgroup news:soc.culture.scottish FAQ location http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/ Wales ----- newsgroup news:soc.culture.welsh FAQ location http://www.fydd.org/zone/scw/ Isle of Man ----------- Manx Information http://www.manxman.co.im/ http://www.iomguide.com/ An online guide to the Isle of Man. Manx Bulletin Board http://www.isle-of-man.com/information/bulletin/ Isle of Man/Manx mailing list mailto:manx@egroups.com Nova Scotia ----------- Nova Scotian Information http://www.gaeliccollege.edu/ [22.1] Alphabetic list of links in this FAQ I've extracted all the WWW addresses from this soc.culture.scottish FAQ - here they are. Thought this might be useful to maintainers of Scottish or Celtic WWW sites or for searching. Here they are sorted alphabetically I also find this page handy for submitting to link checkers to ensure the links in the FAQ work. These links were verified by http://www.faqs.org/cgi-bin/faqs/vlinks/ and Xenu Link Sleuth http://www.snafu.de/~tilman/xenulink.html and the pages have been developed by the excellent HTMLValidator http://store.eSellerate.net/a.asp?c=0_SKU3886190400_AFL6034313878 We have also developed our own unique real time link checker that places no load on the server hosting the site being checked. mailto:craig@siliconglen.com for more information or see here http://www.siliconglen.com/software/links.html <deleted to save space> [22.2] Links to pages of this FAQ This is a list of links to pages in the FAQ itself and acts as a site map for the FAQ. This allows search engine spiders to quickly index the whole site. http://www.siliconglen.com/ http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/ http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/contents.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/celtic.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/dance.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/education.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/festivals.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/fooddrink.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/gaelic.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/gaelicsong.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/general.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/history.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/internet.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/literature.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/media.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/moreinfo.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/music.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/places.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/politics.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/scots.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/songs.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/sport.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/traditions.html http://www.siliconglen.com/Scotland/travel.html <deleted to save space> <<< END OF FAQ >>> -- Craig Cockburn ("coburn"). Director, Siliconglen.com Ltd Web project and programme manager. M.Sc., CITP, C.Eng http://www.linkedin.com/in/siliconglen