Note from archiver<at>cs.uu.nl:
This page is part of a big collection
of Usenet postings, archived here for your convenience.
For matters concerning the content of this page,
please contact its author(s); use the
source, if all else fails.
For matters concerning the archive as a whole, please refer to the
or contact the archiver.
Subject: The soc.culture.new-zealand FAQ (part 3 of 6)
This article was archived around: 12 Aug 2002 01:01:04 +1200
Posting-frequency: monthly, and a pointer is posted to s.c.n-z on Mondays.
Subject: B3 LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND
Subject: B3.1 The Political Scene
Would anyone care to write a brief summary of the main political parties
and post them to the net for comment?
B3.1.1 Why 'New Zealand'
It is simply "New Zealand" - not the "People's Republic of" or
"Commonwealth of" or "Kingdom of" or anything like that. It used to be
"The Dominion of New Zealand" pursuant to a long-forgotten dream of a kind
of federal British empire that one of our early prime ministers (Bill
Massey) was keen on, but the "Dominion of" bit was dropped several years
Robin Klitscher gives us:
"The Royal Charter effecting the separation of NZ from the Colony of NSW in
1840 said "the principal Islands, heretofore known as, or commonly called,
the 'Northern Island', the 'Middle Island' and Stewart's (sic) Island'
shall henceforward be designated and known respectively as 'New Ulster',
'New Munster' and 'New Leinster'".
"In 1846 a further Royal Charter changed this into two Provinces only, New
Ulster and New Munster, with New Munster incorporating New Leinster and the
North Island up to the latitude at the mouth of the Patea River. Each of
the two was to have a Governor and Legislative and Executive Council under
the Governor-in-Chief and Executive Council for the whole colony. Limited
elections were held in 1851 but before they were completed the New Zealand
Constitution Act 1852 unravelled all that and substituted the six Provinces
Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago, each with
limited elective Councils.
"In 1858 the province of New Plymouth was renamed Taranaki; and between
1858 and 1873 Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Southland and Westland were
"The whole provincial arrangement was undone (in the sense of political
mapmaking) by the Abolition of the Provinces Act of 1975.
"(Source - McLintock's Encyclopaedia of New Zealand Vol 2 pp 880, 881)"
[I have a long debate about the origins of the names for NZ which I'm still
editing into shape. It will probably go in here.]
New Zealand shares with Britain and Israel the distinction of being one of
the three developed countries that does not have a codified Constitution on
the U.S. model. When the country was annexed by Britain in 1840, the
British parliament enacted that all applicable law of England as at 1840
became the law of New Zealand. In 1856, the New Zealand parliament was
given the power to enact its own law and nothing changed when full
independence was achieved (26-9-1907) except that the British parliament
lost its overriding authority. We have, thus, never had the problem that
Australia and Canada have had of "repatriating" a constitution that was
really an Act of the British parliament.
Our constitution, like the British, consists of parliament's own
conventions and rules of conduct, some legislation such as the New Zealand
Constitution Act (1986, not enacted), and fundamental rules applied by the
Courts which go back into English history. It evolves rather than is
The flag of NZ is blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the
outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross
You can view it from the following pages:
B3.1.3 Form Of Government
Paul Gillingwater wrote:
"Constitutional monarchy, with a single-chamber parliament.
"The monarch is said to `reign but not rule': except for a residual power
to actually govern in the event of some complete breakdown of the
parliamentary system, the monarch has merely ceremonial duties and advisory
powers. When the monarch is absent from the country, which is most of the
time, those duties and powers are delegated to the Governor-General who is
appointed by the monarch for a limited term after approval by the
"Parliament is the consitutional `sovereign' - there is no theoretical limit
on what it can validly do, and the validity of the laws which it enacts
cannot be challenged in the courts (although the courts do have and use
wide-ranging powers to control administrative acts of the government). A
new parliament is elected every three years (universal suffrage at age 18).
The leader of the party which commands majority support in parliament is
appointed prime minister and he or she nominates the other Ministers of the
Crown. The ministers (and sometimes the whole majority party in
parliament) are collectively called `the government'. Our system almost
entirely lacks formal checks and balances - the majority party can
virtually legislate as it likes subject only to its desire to be re-elected
every three years.
"Until now, members of parliament have been elected on a single-member
constituency, winner takes all, system similar to those of Britain and the
U.S.A. As a result of referenda conducted in 1993, future parliaments will
be elected on a mixed-member proportional system modelled on that of
"The administration is highly centralised. The country is divided into
`districts' (the urban ones called `cities') each with a District (or City)
Council and Mayor, but their powers are limited to providing public
facilities (not housing) and enforcement of by-laws (local regulations)
such as parking regulations. The Police are a single force controlled by
the central government.
"The draft of the new electorate Boundaries under MMP is available from
http://actrix.gen.nz/general/politics.html. There are 3 files:
nth_isle.gif --> north island electorates
sth_isle.gif --> South island electorates
auckland.gif --> Auckland electorates"
Ross Stewart (WWG IT recruiters, Akld, NZ) writes:
For interest, we've put up (as best we can) details as to how seats will be
allocated under MMP. Have a look at:
Colin Jackson adds:
Announcing the NZ Elections Home Page on the government web server:
Material on the server includes:
- A Guide to the MMP voting system
- How to Enrol, with an Internet form
- Maps of all the new electorates
- A text search tool to establish which electorate(s) a given place is in
- Results of the last election
It will carry the results of the 1996 election as these become available.
The address of the elections home page is:
B3.1.4 The Justice System
There is a four-level hearings and appeals system:
Top level Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (London)
Court of Appeal (Wellington)
High Court (in all cities)
Bottom level District Courts (most towns)
There is also the Small Claims Court which handles smaller personal
Civil and criminal cases start in the District or High Court, depending on
their seriousness and appeals go up the chain. Certain rare cases can
start in the Court of Appeal. District and High Court judges sit alone or
with juries. The Court of Appeal (and on certain rare occasions the High
Court) consists of three or five judges sitting "en banc". The Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council consists mainly of British Law Lords with
New Zealand judges also sitting in New Zealand cases; in theory its
decisions merely "opinions" for the benefit of the monarch as the fount of
all justice, but in practice its rulings have the force of ultimate appeal.
All judges are appointed by the government - High Court judges are
nominated by the Law Society, but District Court judges apply for the job
like any other. Various special-purpose courts (Industrial Court, Maori
Land Court, Family Court, etc.) exist and have the same status as either a
District Court or the High Court.
For the NZ Statutes:
and there's a pointer to it from http://www.govt.nz/
B3.1.5 Organisation Membership
New Zealand is a member of the following organisations:
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM, (cooperating country), EBRD,
ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO
Subject: B3.2 Economy
Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy
dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy
that can compete on the global scene. The government had hoped that
dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and
permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed:
inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth has been sluggish
and unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since
May 1991. In 1988, GDP fell by 1%, in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and
was flat in 1990-91. Current (1994) growth is around 2-4% and rising.
The economy is based on agriculture (particularly dairy products, meat, and
wool (68 m sheep, 2 m dairy cows)), food processing, wood and paper
products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and
insurance, tourism, mining. Fish catch reached a record 0.5 m tonnes in
1988. Highly dependent on external trade, NZ is currently trying to move
from being a primary to a secondary producer.
B3.2.1 Defence Against Silly Questions
Lyndon Watson wrote:
"Look in on sci.economics and sci.econ.research.
In response to yet another request from abroad about NZ's supposedly
interesting economic past and present structure, Lyndon Watson composed the
What is it with these idiots from Canada? This garbage seems to come round
three or four times a year - is some fool teaching it to students there?
Some notes for these twits (and their teachers) -
1. New Zealand was not subsidized from England, or anywhere else.
2. The nation did not at any time go bankrupt (or default on its
debts, or become subject to IMF or World Bank or any other outside
3. Our terms of trade worsened catastrophically in the early 1970s (not
the 1980s) as a result of (a) the oil shock that also affected
our trading partners and (b) the erection of tariff and quota
barriers against our trade by the U.K.
4. The Labour government of 1972-75 and the National government that
followed it tried to deal with adverse terms of trade by borrowing
in foreign markets, with the result that by the early 1980s we had
(and we still have) a debt ratio that looked bad even by Third World
5. The Labour government of 1984-90 and the current National government
have restructured the economy by abruptly stopping all state
subsidies, removing nearly all tariff and quota barriers against
imports, greatly reducing income tax and substituting the Goods and
Services Tax on the sale of goods and services, greatly reducing the
the state's involvement in trading activities and social services,
and the reform of labour laws to promote individual workplace
6. The removal of subsidies and import barriers saw many incompetent
and uneconomic businesses, many of which were reliant on subsidies,
fail and the official unemployment rate exceed 10% of the workforce.
7. After a decade of restructuring, our net terms of trade are in our
favour and the official unemployment rate is the fourth lowest in
the OECD (currently just over 7% for the country as a whole, 5.9%
in most of the South Island). A major current problem is the
shortage of skilled workers in many industries."
Kindly submitted by Paul Walker. These were published in the Christchruch
Press on September 13th and 14th, 1995. Anyone prepared to archive these
and the following references for ftp and such?
BRINGING HOME THE CUP
Senior Lecturer in Economics
University of Canterbury
When Australia wrested the America's Cup from the New York yacht club in
1983, Tom Schnackenberg was a member of the shore team (a sail designer).
When New Zealand won the cup in San Diego, Tom was head of the design team
and navigator on NZL 32. His progression from shore to ship was far less
imposing than that in his native country. In 1983, a New Zealand
challenge for the America's Cup would have been inconceivable. The
domestic boat building industry was struggling. It had been decimated by
the imposition of an ill-conceived sales tax in 1979, which cut turnover
from $57 million to $8 million in two years.
Like Schnackenberg, many of New Zealand's best talents lived and worked
overseas, driven away by high tax rates and the lack of opportunity.
Innovation was discouraged by regulations, import controls and selective
taxes. The idea of a New Zealand team taking on the might of corporate
America was laughable.
At the end of 1984, I left Australia to return to New Zealand. Some of my
Australian colleagues laughed. They saw New Zealand as a basket case, a
joke, small isolated islands drowning in a sea of debt. My Australian
friends wondered when, not if, Australia would have to come reluctantly to
Ten years later, how things have changed. Our triumph in San Diego is due
in no small measure to the changes which have be wrought in the New
Zealand economy over the last 10 years. Moreover, bringing home the Cup
was only the most visible sign of the new vigour, confidence and strength
in New Zealand and its people.
New Zealanders are justifiably proud of the performance of Team NZ in San
Diego. They could be even more proud of the performance of home team, of
the radical transformation of their economy over the last ten years.
Domestic critics talk of the "New Zealand experiment" as though New
Zealand has pursued a lone path in recent years. Nothing could be further
from the truth. Massive economic change has occurred throughout the world
over the last fifteen years. Deregulation and privatization are universal
trends. No country remains untouched, from Britain and the US to the
former constituents of the Soviet block to Latin America, Africa and Asia.
Around the world, there is a feeling that New Zealand has done it better
than most. The Australians are now looking cautiously over their shoulder,
as their economy is consistently eclipsed by their Tasman rival. The
Economist regularly cites New Zealand as exemplifying the benefits of
economic reform. Monetary economists pay significant attention to the
Reserve Bank Act. Experts on telecommunications watch with interest New
Zealand's system of light regulation. New Zealanders are employed as
consultants advising on economic reform all round the world.
>From the laggard of the OECD, New Zealand has emerged to one of the
strongest economies in the world. It is an achievement to be proud of, an
accomplishment which surpasses even the yacht races in San Diego. That is
not to say that we have got everything perfect. Mistakes have been made,
implementation of some policies was less than perfect, and there is still
much to be done. But, from an international perspective, New Zealand's
transformation in a single decade has been remarkable. At a time when
some politicians are promoting a return to the past, it is sobering to
recall the changes which have been made and to reflect on the way we were
ten years ago. It is also interesting to remark how the opponents of
change have often become its most vocal advocates, as exemplified by
Federated Farmers and recently the Manufacturers Federation.
Much of the current political debate on economic policy is futile and
distracting, driven by poor memories and wishful thinking. If only New
Zealanders could achieve some consensus that we have been moving in the
right direction, debate could turn to the more constructive issues of how
to secure continued growth and equitable distribution. Prospective
voters could do their part by signalling more clearly to aspiring
politicians that they want to build on the present rather than return to
Tomorrow, we look back to the way we were in 1984 and review some of the
changes which have been made in our economic lives.
LOOKING BACK TO 1984
Senior Lecturer in Economics
University of Canterbury
Eleven years ago, the Fourth Labour Government came to power in a snap
election. They inherited control of country whose economy had been
devastated by years of mismanagement. Aided by a willing and able
bureaucracy, they set about implementing an ambitious programme of
economic reform. As New Zealand approaches its first MMP election, it is
instructive to look back over these reforms, and to recall the way we
were in 1984.
One of the first changes was the freeing of the financial system from
obstructive regulation and the floating of the New Zealand dollar. This
has promoted a healthy, competitive and innovative financial system.
People may rue market interest rates, but at least it possible to borrow
when required. Remember the old days when obtaining a mortgage required
appropriate obsequiousness before the bank manager, who exercised a
patronizing and crucial power over investment decisions. Since it was
floated, the Kiwi dollar has shown a remarkable stability in a world of
stormy change. So stable has it been, that international bankers use it
has a short term safe haven, and temporary resting place for funds. Why
should we be alarmed at that vote of confidence? A strong currency is a
manifestation of a strong economy. No country has every got rich by
debasing its currency.
One consequence of a floating currency is that New Zealander's are
enabled to convert their currency at will. Remember the days when foreign
exchange had to be squirreled away, carefully collected to finance meagre
purchases. Funds for overseas travel were limited. Obtaining funds for
small purchases such as magazine subscriptions required hoarding post
office money orders.
Similarly, ten years ago, there were an enormous range of import controls
and prohibitive tariffs. Overseas trips where often shopping trips.
Travelers would return laden with booty which was too expensive to
purchase in New Zealand. The main beneficiaries were foreign distributors
and retailers. It was a very inefficient way of restricting consumption
of luxury goods to the rich.
Exchange and import controls spawned a variety of ingenious rackets.
Under one scheme, those with access to foreign currency could go to the
top of the queue for a new car, while ordinary people had to spend three
or four years on a waiting list. Consequently, the favoured few were
enabled to buy a new car every year, and then sell it to the less
fortunate for more than they paid for it. Such rorts are almost inevitable
under a system of controls.
The most spectacular result of the abolition of import controls was the
flood of second-hand Japanese cars. The quality of the New Zealand vehicle
fleet improved dramatically, and the cost of transportation declined. Of
course, there has been a down side. Traffic congestion has also increased
dramatically. But at least congestion is egalitarian. Vehicle ownership
is widespread and not restricted to the rich and powerful.
The relaxation of import controls and tariffs has also had a dramatic
impact on clothing, footwear and consumer goods. The range of clothing
readily available in New Zealand has increased dramatically, and prices
have fallen. Since families spend a higher proportion of their budgets on
clothing and transport, freer trade has been especially valuable to the
less well off. This makes the Alliance's wish to reverse this change all
the more imponderable.
In 1984, New Zealand's production was guided by a system of subsidies,
through which New Zealand taxpayers funded the lifestyles of those with
political clout. Most pernicious were the agricultural subsidies such as
SMPs. Naturally, farmers produced were the subsidies were highest, which
tended to be were demand was lowest. The subsidies became capitalized in
land values, another windfall gain for those of means. When the
government abolished subsidies in 1984, land prices halved. For many
individual farmers, this was devastating. But farmers as a whole soon
recognised that the subsidy system was untenable. They soon became the
most vocal advocates of deregulation, and New Zealand could mount a
credible campaign against protection in world agricultural markets.
Much political flak was attracted by the privatization of public owned
businesses. Yet, this was part of world-wide trend. A recent book on
privatization which I reviewed for the Press cited 120 countries.
Privatization in New Zealand seems to have been handled more sensibly
than in some other countries. This is because serious thought was given to
post-sale market structure, which it is more important than ownership.
For example, Ansett was permitted to fly in New Zealand before Air New
Zealand was floated. Similarly, competition was permitted in
telecommunications before Telecom was sold. The benefits in these cases
are clear. New Zealand enjoys one of the best and cheapest telephone
systems in the world. Competition in transport has certainly improved the
quality of service.
It is plausible to argue that current impasse between Telecom and Clear
stems primarily from the Kiwi share obligation imposed on Telecom, which
was explicitly designed to impede the consequences of competition in the
residential market. The Kiwi share may have been one of the less fortunate
A keystone of economic reform has been the Reserve Bank Act, which has
succeeded in controlling inflation in New Zealand. Inflation adds to the
uncertainty of investment decisions, and leads to arbitrary
redistributions of wealth. Admittedly, the rapid reduction in inflation
was achieved at considerable cost. However, nothing would be gained now
by loosening the controls on inflation embodied in the Reserve Bank Act.
Reform of the tax system was also important.
In 1984, the top marginal tax rate was 66%, which left little incentive
for additional effort. It provided ample incentive for avoidance and
evasion which were widespread. The imposition of GST had two major
advantages: avoidance was almost impossible and the tax fell on
consumption and not saving. By cutting the rates but broadening the base,
tax receipts have actually increased, which is why New Zealand is now
repaying debt rather than accumulating it. The reformed system is also
much fairer, since the opportunities for avoidance under the former system
were very unevenly distributed.
Reform reached beyond market institutions. "Tomorrow's Schools"
revolutionized the ways our schools are run. There have been some hiccups,
but by and large this seems to have been a successful and welcome reform.
A recent review in the Press could find no one who wanted to return to the
former system of centralized Ministry control. Similar decentralization
in the health system has provoked more debate. However, it is notable that
a recent careful survey by Consumer magazine detected widespread
satisfaction with the health system. Much of the criticism comes from
those working in the system, with a vested interest in protecting their
As in similar countries, the process of immigration was changed, from a
system of regional quotas to a points system. Points are awarded to
prospective immigrants for various criteria, and those with the highest
points are admitted. The advantage of this system is its openness and
transparency. On the whole, it is much fairer to immigrants. Other
changes which come to mind include deregulation of shopping hours, the
huge change in planning process embodied in the Environmental Protection
Act, the auctioning of property rights in spectrum and fisheries and of
course the Employment Contracts Acts.
The changes which have been wrought have been massive. They have been
guided by the desire to introduce openness, accountability and rationality
into public decision making. It would be silly to pretend that all the
changes and their implementation have been beyond criticism. We live in an
uncertain world characterized by imperfect information and human frailty.
Mistakes have been made and improvements are available. Inevitably, there
have been winners and losers from change.
Nevertheless, we need to look at the larger picture. Those with nostalgia
for a lost past need to colour their memories with a degree of realism. Do
we really want to return to the days of import and exchange controls,
inefficient state monopolies, old broken-down cars, a gray, dull
uniformity of relative poverty and quaint backwardness. That is the
direction in which some politicians wish to lead.
Following are a collection of references on the changes from Paul Walker
who added: "The one problem they all have is that they were out of date by
the time they were published. For a quick overview of the last 10 years or
so check out":
Australian Economic Review; 0(104), Oct.-Dec. 1993
Prosperity Mislaid: Economic Failure in New Zealand and What Should be Done
GP Publications, Wellington NZ, 1994
New Zealand Economic Reforms: 1984-91, Country Study No. 10.
International Center for Economic Growth, 1992
The Political Economy of Liberalisation in New Zealand.
New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP93/2
Alan Bollard and Robert Buckle (eds)
Economic Liberalisation in New Zealand.
Allen and Unwin, 1987
Alan Bollard and David Mayes
Corporatization and Privatization in New Zealand in The Political Economy
Thomas Clarke and Christos Pitelis (eds)
Routledge, London, 1993
Reshaping Social Policy in New Zealand.
Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 44-85.
Jonathan Boston and Paul Dalziel (eds)
The Decent Society?: Essays in Response to National's Economic and Social
Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1992
Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds)
The Fourth Labour Government: Radical Politics in New Zealand.
Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1987
Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds)
The Fourth Labour Government: Politics and Policy in New Zealand 2nd Ed.
Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1990
Pat Colgate and Joselyn Stroombergen
A Promise to Pay: New Zealand's Overseas Debt and Country Risk.
New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Research Monograph 58
Is New Zealand Slipping up? Some Borda Condorcet Measures of Relative
Economics discussion Papers No.9311 Uinversity of Otago.
Ian Duncan and Alan Bollard
Corporatization and Privatization.
Oxford University Press, 1992
The New Zealand Experience of Liberalisation and Deregulation.
New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP 90/13
G. Hawke (ed)
A Modest Safety Net? The Future of the Welfare State.
Institute of Policy Studies, 1991
Warren E. Johnston and Gerald A. G. Frengley
The Deregulation of New Zealand Agriculture: Market Intervention (1964-84)
and Free Market Readjustment (1984-90).
Western Journal of Agricultural Economics; 16(1), July 1991, pages 132-43.
Susan K. Jones
The Road to Privatization; The issues involved and some lessons from New
. Zealand's Experience.
Finance and Development, March 1991.
Has New Zealand's Employment Contracts Act Increased Employment and Reduced
Working Papers in Economics No.135 July 1994, Department of Economics,
University of Auckland.
New Zealand's Monetary Policy Experiment.
University of Western Ontario Papers in Political Economy: 31 October 1993
Susan St John
Tax and Welfare Reforms in New Zealand.
The Australian Economic Review, 4th Quarter 1993
Radical Tax Reform in New Zealand.
Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 45-63.
The Old New Zealand and the New
New Zealand Business Roundtable, Wellington N.Z., 1994
Simon Walker (ed)
Rodgernomics: Reshaping New Zealand's Economy.
GP Books, Wellington, N.Z., 1989
Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Policy in New Zealand.
Australian Economic Review; 0(92), Oct.-Dec. 1990, pages 45-60
P. C. Dalziel
A decade of radical economic reforms in New Zealand
British Review of New Zealand Studies 7, forthcoming (it may be out by now).
New Zealand: Market Liberalization in a Developed Economy
Macmillan Press, 1995
You could also check out the last 10 years or so of "New Zealand Economic
Papers" and the "Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin".
B3.2.2 Current Status
Govt: going into surplus
Business confidence: on the up and up
Building: both business and residental are doing very well.
Unemployed, welfare, students, solo parents feeling hard done by.
Business (particular exporters), overseas investors very pleased.
GNP 1988 (millions) $25,856
GNP per Capita $7,734
GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $46.2 billion, per capita $14,000; real
growth rate - 0.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1-1.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 11% (mid 1994)
Budget: revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million
Exports: $9.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactured
goods, chemicals, forestry products, beer, wine
Imports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial
Natural resources: natural gas, oil, iron sand, coal, timber, hydropower,
Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 53%;
forest and woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1%
For an up-to-date outline on the current state of NZ's economy, look out
for one of Brian Harmer's excellent weekly WYSIWYG news reports in s.c.n-z.
Decimal system based on New Zealand dollar, with cent denominations.
Coins are 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, 1 and 2 dollars
Notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars
Major credit cards are accepted widely.
Same structure as overseas. Ours tends to fluctuate depending on the state
of the world markets.
NZ Stock Exchange http://www.nzse.co.nz/
NZ Futures and Options Exchange http://www.nzfoe.co.nz/
B3.2.5 Exchange/Interest Rates
Information on exchange rates is available from many daily papers, or you
can get the information through www on:
It's updated weekly, so it's usually a little out of date, but it's a good
Current figures for main currencies:
NZ$ (10/6/95) NZ$ (14/7/97)
Aust$ 93.63c .
Pounds 42.56p .
US$ 67.65c .
Yen 57.78 .
Interest rates are fluctuating between 6 and 10% depending on overseas
markets. Fixed interest (1/4/95):
% call rates 9.00
% 90-day bank bills 9.04
% July 1998 Govt Stock 8.21
Inland Revenue Department Home Page http://www.ird.govt.nz/
New Zealand operates a Goods and Services Tax of 12.5% on ALL goods and
services sold and this is usually included in the display price. The
exceptions are purchases at duty free shops. Visitors cannot claim refunds
on this tax however when a supplier agrees to export a major item to a
visitors home address then GST will not be charged on the goods or the
Income tax (as at May 96):
$1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate)
$9,501 - $30,875 - 28%
$30,876 + - 33%
$1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate)
$9,501 - $34,200 - 24% (up to $38,000 and down to 21% on July 1st 1997)
$30,876 + - 33%
on the July 1st 1996.
Apparently family support will also increase with a guaranteed minimum
family income, and a new independent family tax credit.
For wage and salary earners virtually nothing is tax-deductible except the
first $1500 of donations to churches, schools, and other charities, and
then only at a 33% rate (ie max $500).
There are various rebates for things like low incomes, children, donations,
Housekeeper, Home/Farm/Vessel Ownership, and others.
Government Revenue Source(1990) How it was expected to be spent(1990)
Income Tax $16,950 Education $3,912.5
Goods and Service Tax $5,500 Health $3,791.1
Other Direct Taxes $360 Transport $711.6
Excise Duties $1,670 Administration $2,769.0
Highway tax $670 Development of Industry $1,231.3
Other Indirect Tax $790 Government Borrowing $575.1
Foreign Relations $1,733.7
Social Services $10,292.1
Total $25,940 Total $25,016.4
On a regional scale, all local authorities fund their activities (with some
limited back-up from central government) from 'rates'. These are taxes on
land owners, assessed annually as a fraction of the 'unimproved' (i.e. land
only) value of the land. Each local authority sets its own rates and they
can be challenged as unreasonable in court - some Wellington City rates for
the current year have just been thrown out by the High Court.
Note that we do not have overlapping local authorities as in the U.S. Any
given place is controlled by one, and one only, local authority - either a
"city" or a "district" - and so the only taxes that people pay are local
authority rates and central government taxes.
There are still some anomalous levies and taxes on certain goods - a high
excise duty on wine, for example - that should not really exist in the GST
B3.2.7 Miscellaneous Prices
litre of petrol; $0.90 - 0.96
loaf of bread (700gm/1.5 pound loaf); $1.70 - 2.10
butter (500gms); $1.60 (on special)
milk (1 litre carton); $1.35
eggs (dozen) $3.20
apples (1kg/2lb); $0.60 - 1.20 depending on season
fresh fruit/veges - much cheaper than US city and much nicer/fresher
frozen chicken (2 kg/4 pounds); $6 (good special price)
sausages (3 kg/6 pounds); $10
steak; $10/kg often much more.
coffee (kg, beans) $22
ice cream (2 litres); $3
cheapest hamburger at McDonalds; $0.95 (a LOT more for a big mac)
12 cans of beer; $13.
restaurant prices; can be much less than the US
clothes/shoes; can be much more expensive than the US
60-100 watt light bulbs; $1 each
university textbooks; $80+/-
queen size mattress (without base, reasonable quality); $500
Sony G14 34cmv TV 14 inch; $439
top-loading automatic washing machine (5 kg loads); $919
cars: used Holden Commodore VL automatic 1987 (i.e. 8 years old); $12,700
new Honda Civic (fairly typical for NZ size cars); $33,170
auto insurance for that car; $250/annum (depending on policy, age of owner)
[the bottom has dropped out of the used car market due to cheap imports]
electrician charges; $30 per hour
doctor - standard consultation; adult $35, child $10-20
treatment in public hospital (eg maternity unit, 3 days); free. The trick
is to have something so urgent that they let you in. That's not so easy
unless you're pregnant. Waiting lists can be months long.
For housing rental - see under 'B3.3.3 Cost Of Living'.
The following table is taken from the New Zealand Herald, December, 1996.
Median price ($) by district of real estate for November 1995[??].
Dwelling, previous Novembers
District Dwelling Section 1996 1995 1994 1993
Northland 125,000 64,500 110,000 108,000 97,500 96,250
Auckland 225,000 90,000 212,000 200,000 178,000 150,000
( Auck City 262,000 98,500 ?
( Rodney Dist. 215,000 89,500 ?
( North Shore 255,000 129,000 ?
( Waitakere C. 190,000 52,000 ?
( Manukau City 205,000 152,500 ?
Waikato/ 140,000 52,000 128,000 127,000 120,000 110,000
Bay of Plenty/Gisborne
Hawkes Bay ? ? 118,000 118,000 118,000 118,000
Manawatu/Wanganui ? ? 102,500 101,000 102,750 96,750
Taranaki ? ? 94,000 93,750 95,000 90,000
Wellington 153,000 41,500 145,000 140,000 140,000 132,500
Nelson/Marlborough ? ? 130,000 130,000 135,000 120,000
Canterbury/ ? ? 129,000 128,000 125,000 115,000
Otago ? ? 91,500 91,500 101,000 90,750
Southland ? ? 79,500 84,000 84,000 74,250
Average for NZ 156,000 59,500 143,000 146,000 118,000 107,600
For more info, try:
for info from agents, or
Follow the "New Zealand" link on the home page or try the New Zealand
Official Yearbook ISSN 0078-0170. It is put out by the Statistics New
Ewan McKissock wrote:
"It's interesting what items they list (and what they don't). This is
either very revealing about life in NZ, or about life in Statistics New
Zealand, I'm not sure which. Odd that they quote annual Tennis club
subscription, but no mention of other sports."
Russell Turner wrote:
"You could try looking at New Zealand newspapers. The dominion or evening
post would be a could source of adverts for household gizmos and houses,
rent, cars etc. Try phoning (04) 474 0100 to speak to the newspaper
to which Charles Eggen added:
"The Weekly Wellington - City Voice is on-line at
(watch those Caps in the above address). It will give you some current
info and you can subscribe to the fully paper at a reasonable cost."
Lin Nah adds:
"On observing real-estate property around various parts of North Island this
weekend (2 Dec 1996), I found you can buy a very comfortable 3 bedroom
house in certain parts of the north island with substantially less money
than needed in Auckland.
"For example at $70,000 gets you a nice 3 bedroom on a full section in
Dannevirke and other outlying places like the outskirts of Napier. In
Auckland for that amount will barely get you an outhouse 8)))"
Subject: B3.3 Life In General
B3.3.1 Business Hours
Banks 9:00am to 4:30pm - can vary slightly. Otherwise, Monday to Friday
9:00am to 5:30pm. Late night for shopping is either Thursday or Friday.
Changes to the Shop Trading Hours Act means that most shops are open for
longer hours than this. Almost all are open Saturday morning, many are
open on Sunday with some shops and markets remaining open later during the
Automatic teller machines are widely available including a system in many
supermarkets and petrol stations called EFTPOS where you can buy goods with
your card and a PIN number and/or obtain cash. Many Atm's will accept
All international credit cards are accepted in NZ. Travellers cheques can
be changed in banks, hotels, stores, etc. Mike Gill said; "I used MC and
carried some Travellers cheques for emergencies. This worked out great".
There is no restriction on the amount of foreign currency which may be
brought into or taken from New Zealand. Funds may be in the form of bank
notes, coins, travellers cheques or any other instrument of payment.
Visitors may convert surplus NZ currency at any outlet authorised to deal
in foreign exchange.
Tipping is not expected in New Zealand, but is not unheard of. Employed
people don't depend on tips for their income and service charges are not
[usually] added to hotel and restaurant bills. Tip for service if you
think it's really deserved, but don't be surprised by the response. Some
(many?) consider tipping to be an undesirable practise.
B3.3.3 Cost Of Living
A moderately decent house/week (VERY approx!):
Dunedin $130 - $180
Christchurch $140 - $200
Wellington $160 - $300
Auckland $200 - $350
The average house price is hovering around $140K, mortgage rates are
fluctuating around 11% currently. Mortgage rates include inflation
Lin Nah adds (2 Dec 1996):
"Auckland: Nice comfortable 3 bedroom house around $250 - $350 per week but
you won't be very close to the central city. Broken down 3 bedroom house
close to the city for around $240 per week. A room in a flat for around
$100 per week. An inner city appartment (depending on location) anywhere
from around $200 per week for a studio."
Normally 2 weeks bond and two weeks rent are required in advance. Talk to
the local Tenants Protection Association about your rights.
The govt would have us believe an 'average' income is around $26K, people
with an income over $30K are considered well off. That was in 1994-5.
Superannuation is sorted out with the employer. It's no longer compulsory.
No doubt some will regret this later.
Petrol is $0.93 per litre (+/- $0.05), insurance on a small car (eg. 85
toyota starlet 1.3l) is a mere $240 per year, registration is another $200
per year. There are lots of cheap Japanese used imports over here, so you
can get a good car for as little as $5K, and a cheap car for less than $2k.
Repairs are the worst cost - especially parts for late model cars, so
getting something reliable is a good idea.
Pretty cheap depending on how much you eat of what. It'd be easy to eat
your way through a lot of money, but it is possible to live on less than
$40/wk and probably quite a lot less depending on how keen you were...
B184.108.40.206 Consumer Goods
Most import duties have been abolished, and instead we have a flat 12.5%
goods and services tax (GST). Beware of advertised prices which exclude
this. This means that imported goods (electrical appliances, clothing
etc.) are pretty reasonably priced.
Yes, we have crime. While it may be 'safe' compared to most other
countries, serious crime does exist here and visitors should take sensible
precautions. Always lock your vehicle, and don't leave it in isolated
locations for extended periods. Avoid leaving valuables visible in the
car. Avoid areas/situations which appear unwholesome. The emergency phone
number (police, ambulance, fire) is 111, and ask the operator for the
service required (this can be used from payphones without paying).
John Davis wrote:
"The crime rate isn't overly high, there was some information in the paper
today (1/95) showing the average number of reported crimes per 10,000
people for Chch is 1877. The NZ average is 1457, Chch came second
(Auckland had 2130). The safest place is rural Canterbury at 568. This
may sound rather high, but this _all_ reported crimes, from shoplifting up.
If you break it down into crime types, the NZ average for violent crimes
per 10,000 is 124, sexual crimes is 14, drugs and 'anti-social' crimes
(presumably things like being drunk and disorderly) is 150, property damage
is 98 and property abuse is 74. As you can see from this, the serious
crime rate here is therefore very low, things like murder and rape are
fairly rare (rare enough to make the national TV news), armed offences are
virtually un-heard of (again, and armed hold-up will make the national
news). You're most at risk from petty crime (opportunist car theft,
break-ins etc. - as opposed to 'professional' thieves who are fairly
rare). Your chances of being assaulted, held up, or murdered are virtually
nil. Probably the most dangerous part of day to day life here is the way
people drive :-)
On the other hand, do silly things like leave a nice expensive camera
sitting in your car whilst it's parked in a dark street in the middle of
town at night, and you'll probably find someone's nicked it (lots of
tourists find this out the hard way - wish people would stop telling them
NZ is totally safe)."
Murder Statistics for 1991
Brian Dooley wrote:
(1) All data taken from NZ Year Books and adjusted to include only males
aged 15+ years.
(2) Numbers marked "*" are taken from Year Books where murders and
manslaughter (not incl. deaths by careless driving) were aggregated.
(3) Numbers 1967-82 are taken directly from tables which give
(4) Numbers 1974-94 refer specifically to murder only.
(5) These numbers are approximations but good enough to allow reasonable
conclusions. You will observe that my value of 3.3/100,000 for 1991
accords pretty well with the value of 3.4/100,000 quoted before from the
MURDERS/100,000 of Total Population:
1967 1.4* 1970 1.2* 1980 1.3 1990 1.6
1968 0.7* 1971 0.9* 1981 1.3 1991 1.5
1969 1.1* 1972 1.0* 1982 1.3 1992 2.1
1973 0.8* 1983 --- 1993 1.1
1974 1.4 1984 1.2
1975 1.0 1985 ---
1976 1.1 1986 1.8
1977 1.8 1987 1.7
1978 1.9 1988 ---
1979 1.6 1989 2.0
MURDERS/100,000 MEN for NZ (men=age 15+):
1967 3.2* 1970 2.7* 1980 3.0 1990 3.8
1968 1.6* 1971 2.0* 1981 3.0 1991 3.3
1969 2.5* 1972 2.3* 1982 3.0 1992 4.9
1973 1.8* 1983 --- 1993 2.6
1974 3.2 1984 2.7
1975 2.3 1985 ---
1976 2.5 1986 4.2
1977 4.1 1987 4.1
1978 4.3 1988 ---
1979 3.6 1989 4.8
The thing which strikes me about the table is that it does have a
consistency, which implies that if the Economist's conclusions are true
then not only is NZ comparatively violent now - it has been for a long
time. However I am not persuaded that a simple ratio is applicable to all
situations, particularly where small numbers are involved. The table has a
volatility which I don't think it would have if a population of 50 million
I had a debate with myself about where to put this stuff. After the murder
stats seemed as good as any...
Frank van der Hulst offers:
"Whilst doing a spot of research in Massey's library, I took the time to
look for road traffic accident stats. Like all stats, take them with a
grain of salt. Your mileage may vary :-)
"What I found is somewhat dated, but FWIW here are comparisons of injury
accidents/100mill km for various countries. Illuminating perhaps for those
who claim NZer's are the worst drivers in the world (possibly excepting
NZ 88 *
Great Britain 130
Ivory Coast 539
"These data are for 1970/71. As usual, I ask anyone with more recent stats
to email them to me or post them.
"Don't go driving in Ivory Coast!"
Steffan Berridge has added the following.
Here's some authoritative info which I found in "Motor Accidents in New
Zealand" published by the LTSA, originally entered in the OECD
International Road and Traffic Accident Database held by Bundesanstalt fur
Strassenwesen, Germany. The data are all 1993 except the ones with *s
which are 1992 and the countries are ordered in decreasing vehicles per
Country Deaths per Deaths per
100,000 pop 10,000 vehicles
USA 15.6 2.1*
NZ 17.0 2.7
Italy 12.6 2.0
Luxembourg 19.2 3.1
Canada 12.5 2.0
Australia 11.1 1.9
Switzerland 10.5 1.8
Germany 12.3 2.2
Japan 10.6 1.9
UK 6.8 1.3
Austria 16.2 3.1
Norway 7.6 1.3*
Iceland 6.4 1.3
Sweden 7.3 1.5
Belgium 16.5 3.4
France 16.6 3.4
Spain 16.3 3.6
Finland 9.6 2.1
Netherlands 8.2 1.9
Denmark 10.8 2.7
Ireland 12.1 3.7
Greece 20.3 6.6
Turkey 14.3 -
Portugal 32.9* -
Kind of makes you wonder what they get up to in Portugal... NZ roads are
safe after all! It looks like the figures for 1994 should have been
published by now, and the 1995 due shortly.
Hantie Braybrook wrote:
"all reported crimes per 100 000 of the entire 1994 population:
South Africa 5651
<lots of countries deleted>
Why are the figures for NZ almost 3 times those of SA ?"
The following suggestions are in response.
"According to Statistics New Zealand, Distinct Cases Resulting in
1991 1992 1993
Against the person 7,603 8,454 10,681
Property 20,669 21,166 21,459
Drug 6,930 6,652 7,949
Other 16,115 16,661 20,759
Total convictions, exclusive of traffic: 60,848
And the population:
Census at 31 March 1993 1994 1995
Total Population 3,435.0 3,541.6 3592.4
Since the only overlap is 1993, only consider that year, therefore there
are 34.35 (100,000) divided into 60,848 gives a rate of 1771.412/100,000
CONVICTIONS (not crimes). Since I can't lay my hands on a conviction rate,
or total of crimes committed, this will have to do.
I suspect somebody fouled up, or there are vast differences in reporting
methodologies from country to country, making any statistic meaningless."
"I'd take a wild stab in the dark and guess that these numbers include
everything down to and including speeding tickets, and that the majority
are in fact exactly that."
"Because of changing attitudes towards domestic violence in NZ assaults in
the home are now more likely to be reported as crimes. I think domestic
violence accounts for something like 80% of violence in NZ!
Policy changes have encouraged police to treat these incidents as crimes
rather than 'just domestics'."
"There was a follow-up article the next day which is summarised below.
Anyone interested can search the articles at the Independent Newspapers WWW
site viz. http://www.inc.co.za
"Essentially, the crime and murder rates could be double estimates due to
the 50% rate of under-reporting. According to Nedcor researcher Simon Lee,
the project used current SAPS (SA Police Service) crime statistics and
statistics obtained through its own study to calculate an overall crime
rate of 5,651 per 100,000 people.
"Lee said that the crime rate could be doubled to at least 11,500 if the
under-reporting rate were taken into consideration. This would also apply
to the murder rate of 45 per 100,000 people which could in fact be 90.
"Commenting on the high overall crime rate in countries such as Sweden, New
Zealand and Canada, Lee said it could be attributed to the fact that these
countries had a reporting rate of at least 95%.
"The international rates had been obtained through Britannica World Data,
which publish reliable forms of comparative crime statistics."
B3.3.5 Finding A Job
Employment Resources http://url.co.nz/employ.html
NZ Employment Service http://www.nzes.govt.nz/
NZ Government Jobs Online http://www.jobs.govt.nz/
IT Placement Agencies http://www.jobnetz.co.nz
Professional Engineers http://www.ipenz.org.nz/jobs/index.htm
The Ministry of Health has started a new web site for health related work:
Those interested in teaching in NZ should refer to section B3.3.6
and B220.127.116.11, especially B18.104.22.168 Online resources for Education
There is an outfit called Willing Workers On Organic Farms (WWOOF) which
costs $15 to join. For that you get a booklet containing a list of
addresses and phone contacts for hundreds of organic farms. It is up to
you to make the contact and arrangements with the specific farm where you
would exchange work for food and lodging. Contact:
Janet & Andrew Strange
PO Box 1172
phone 025-345-711 (mobile)
The NZ Employment Service appears to be a final resort. It is far better
to have a job lined up before you arrive (from overseas) or before you're
out of school...
Labour force: 1,603,500 (June 1991)
primary production 9.3% (1987)
B3.3.6 Schools And Education
Compulsory from age 7 to 15, but almost all children start kindergarten at
age 4 and then school at 5.
Primary schools: J or Primer (pron. 'primmer') 1 and 2: approx age 5-6
Standards 1-4: approx age 7-11
Intermediate schools: Form 1-2: approx age 11-13
(these are sometimes included in primary schools
or in secondary schools)
Secondary schools: Form 3-7: approx age 13-18
NZ schools have a high international reputation, especially for their
reading and remedial reading programmes. A growing number of schools have
special programmes for children whose first language is not English.
Most schools require school uniforms except some primary schools. Some
schools do not require 6th and 7th formers (last 2 years of school before
entering university) to wear uniform.
Form 5: School Certificate
Form 6: Sixth Form Certificate
Form 7: Bursary (entrance to university is mostly based on this)
School term and holiday dates:
The term dates for state primary and secondary schools can be
found at the URLs below. The private schools have approximately the
same dates. Usually the difference is only by about a week or 2 only.
1998 : http://www.minedu.govt.nz/Schools/Holidays/1998.htm
1999 - 2000 : http://www.minedu.govt.nz/Schools/Holidays/1999-2000.htm
B22.214.171.124 Online resources for Education
NZ Education http://www.nzeil.co.nz/
Although this web page is set up to inform and attract International
students to study in NZ, it provides the following information:
- a description of the education system in NZ
- Information and contact details of all secondary, tertiary and other
private and public post primary educational institutes (includes
English languate schools)
Ministry of Education http://www.minedu.govt.nz
With links to various papers by the ministry regarding education in NZ.
Education links http://www.minedu.govt.nz/more.htm
You'll find pointers to pages with links to web pages of various schools
in the country.
Links to home pages of Universities in NZ
For those looking for a teaching job in NZ:
Teach NZ - has adverts and other information for overseas teachers
wishing to teach in nz. http://www.teachnz.govt.nz/
Learning Media (Includes the Education Gazette)
NZQA (New Zealand Qualifications Authority)
Otago is the oldest, Waikato is the newest, Auckland is the largest, and
Lincoln is the smallest. Apart from Lincoln which is essentially a
technical university offering a very limited range of courses (but is
expanding fast), all are full-scale universities. Try:
This will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail
mail) of universities in NZ.
As an indication, deadline for enrolment in 1996 closed on 12 Dec for
returning students, 7 Dec for new students and for overseas students it
closed much earlier. The first semester starts at the end of February.
Lin Nah wrote (edited somewhat):
"In New Zealand, it does not matter as much which university you attended,
at least not like in the US where the Ivy League graduates are very much in
demand compared to the lesser known schools. Within NZ they are more equal
although the culture and way things are done within each university is
For many (most?) degrees, there is nothing stopping you from moving to a
different campus if you do not like the uni you choose (assuming they also
offer the course(s)). Of course it would be nice if you pick a good one in
the first place.
"Things you should look for when choosing a university include:
types of papers offered
structure of degree
research interests of staff
publications of staff
"There are certain strengths within each department in NZ, even though at a
BSc level they probably all teach the basics. It is very important to
consider these strengths as they may influence post-grad work.
Cost of living in Auckland is certainly much higher than that in most other
Universities (except perhaps Wellington). While it may be possible to get
a room in Dunedin for $40 a week (yes, I did see at least 2 adverts at this
rate), the cheapest room in Auckland (per week) is probably around $70.
And that does not include expenses like food, transport, phone and
"Fees vary from university to university for the same course, so do not be
surprised if your total bill at one uni is higher than another could have
been. Some universities set a rate for each type of degree, so, for
example, an arts degree would be cheaper than dentistry. Other
universities set a flat rate throughout the whole campus, not
differentiating between arts and science degrees. There are probably
"If you are a NZ permanent resident or a NZ citizen, you pay what other
NZers pay. If you are entering as an overseas students, there is a
separate schedule for fees which differ from institution to institution.
Campus life is very different at each university. Auckland University is
right in the middle of the city. It is therefore a very cosmopolitan
campus and does not have much of a campus life as known by Waikato or
Canterbury students. It also happens to be the biggest University in NZ.
"Check the webpages as they do say a little bit about life on campus."
B126.96.36.199 Teaching Focus
Most Universities have a core of basic subjects common to all; Chemistry,
Physics, Biology, Maths, Stats, Economics, English, Psychology, etc. etc.
University of Auckland (Auckland and Tamaki)
fine art, architecture, engineering, law, medicine, optometry, fine arts,
architecture, engineering, zoology, languages,computer science, music,
maori and pacific island studies, women's studies, commerce, accounting,
finance, economics, management, science and information systems,
international business, management and employee relations and commercial
law, BTech in optoelectronics, Sports Science, Environmental Management,
and BTech (Information Technology)
University of Waikato (Hamilton)
Law, Maori, Computing, Psychology
Massey University (Albany - Auckland's North Shore)
Business Studies, Information and Mathematical Sciences, Social Sciences,
Massey University (Palmerston North)
Agriculture & Horticulture, Business Studies, Information and
Mathematical Sciences, Science, Social Sciences, Technology, Veterinary
Science, Aviation, Education. There is also an arts faculty...
* Many of the Massey programmes are available by distance education (Centre
for University Extramural Studies)
Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington)
arts, law, computing, commerce/economics, geology, meteorology
Canterbury University (Christchurch)
fine art, all sciences, computing, engineering, commerce, law, forestry,
Lincoln University (Christchurch)
agriculture, economics, landscape architecture, cultural studies
Otago University (Dunedin)
medicine, law, phys. ed., computing, consumer sciences, surveying,
Marty Burr wrote:
"Aviation has been around since 1990, when the Massey University School of
Aviation was established. It offers degrees in Aviation (BAv) with majors
in flight crew development (probably one of the most expensive degrees in
NZ!), Aviation Systems, and Air Traffic Systems Management (ATSM This major
trains Air Traffic Controllers in association with the Singapore Aviation
Academy, and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) It also offers
Masters in Aviation (MAv), and Doctorates in aviation.
"Education is offered as a degree in conjunction with the Palmerston North
College of Education. Next year (1996) the Palmerston North College of
Education is to become part of Massey, and come under the Faculty of
Education at Massey. I'm not sure what the name will be. It also offers
several postgrad degrees in Education."
Michelle Elleray wrote:
"I think you'll find Massey, Auckland, Victoria, Canterbury, Otago and
Waikato Universities all offer Maori Studies.
"As for PI studies - Auckland has a PI Studies Centre and teaches Samoan,
Victoria used to teach Samoan and Cook Island Maori. There's sure to be
more at both these universities, and possibly at other universities around
the country - check the web pages."
University of Auckland (Auckland)
Private Bag 92 019 aukuni.ac.nz or auckland.ac.nz
ph (09) 373-7999
University of Waikato
Private bag 3105 waikato.ac.nz
Private Bag massey.ac.nz
Palmerston North http://www.massey.ac.nz/
Victoria University of Wellington
PO Box 600 vuw.ac.nz
University of Canterbury
ph (03) 366-7001
ph (03) 325-2811
University of Otago
PO Box 56 otago.ac.nz
Email to firstname.lastname@example.org for someone who can help. You can
try sending email to email@example.com for details.
There is a NZ Universities page at:
will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of
universities in NZ.
A fair chunk of VUW information is on line. The starting point is
For Victoria's English Department, have a look at:
Computer Science departments at various universities:
You can view the University of Canterbury Dept of Civil Engineering home
B188.8.131.52 The University Hierarchy
Basically, it goes something like this:
Associate Professors/Readers (depends on department)
There are also Head of Departments, Deans, etc., which may or may not be
professors, although they are usually pretty senior.
In NZ universities, a Professorship is a *very* prestigious title. There
may be a rough equivalence between a US associate professor and a NZ
lecturer, and a US professor and NZ senior lecturer. There is likely to be
Per department there is about 1 professor per approx 10 'lower' positions.
For example, in Electrical Engineering at Canterbury there are currently 2
professors, 3 associate professors, 9 senior lecturers, and 5 lecturers
(from the 1994 calendar).
B184.108.40.206 Postgrad Study
I'd appreciate some information on ease of obtaining positions in
post-grad study, what positions are increasing/decreasing, etc. Please.
NZ operates a no-fault accident compensation scheme which covers residents
and visitors. Personal injury through accident entitles the injured party
to compensation for reasonable expenses related to the accident. Due to
abuse, this has been reworked recently and compensation is far harder to
The official line (on the health care reform) can be obtained from The
Ministry of Health at: http://www.moh.govt.nz/new.htm
For general comment and opinion, consult the NZ Doctor magazine online at:
Here's a link to some NZ health sites including the NZ GP organisation:
Life Expectancy (M) 71.0 years
Life Expectancy (F) 77.0 years
Crude Birth Rate 16.3 /1000
Crude Death Rate 8.3 /1000
Infant Mortality 10.8 /1000
Total fertility rate 2.1 children born/woman (1992)
No. of Hospitals 318
No. of Hospital Beds 23,052
No. of Physicians 5,210
No. of Dentists 1,160
No. of Pharmacists 2,300
Nursing Personnel 22,000
B220.127.116.11 Water Supply
NZ cities and towns have good public water. Water is safe to drink out of
the tap. The water in Christchurch *is* totally untreated and is supposed
to be the purist domestic water supply in the world...
In bush walking areas giardia has been found so its advisable to check
before drinking from rivers or streams. Boiling water for five minutes or
more is advised where advice is not available.
Telephone Country Code 64
National Directory 018
International Directory 0172
National Tolls 010
International Tolls 0170
Telex Access Code 791
Ham Radio Prefix ZL
For information about NZ broadcasting, particularly locally produced
material, have a look the New Zealand On Air site:
which has info on broadcasting fees, programme funding news, weekly updates
of funded programmes, contact information, etc.
Air Craft Registration PreFix ZK
Yatch Registration PreFix KZ
X.25 Country Code 05301