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Subject: The soc.culture.new-zealand FAQ (part 2 of 6)
This article was archived around: 6 Aug 2002 01:01:04 +1200
Posting-frequency: monthly, and a pointer is posted to s.c.n-z on Mondays.
Subject: A2 INFORMATION FOR NZers OVERSEAS
Subject: A2.1 NZ Consulates/Embassies Overseas
Links to Information on NZ Consulates and Empassies Overseas:
Alternatively look up a phone book.
In countries where there are no New Zealand representatives, the UK
representatives usually look after the interests of NZ nationals by
NZ Passport Office
For callers in the U.S. the New Zealand Tourism Board has a 24 hour number;
1-800-388-5494. Leave your name, address and particular interests and lots
of free information on New Zealand will be mailed to you. During regular
California business hours it might even be possible to get a real person on
NZ Consulate General
NZ Tourist Board
780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904
New York, NY 10017-2024
Phone: (212) 832 4038
Fax: (212) 832 7602
They opened a couple of months ago. The NZ Tourism Board office at the
same address has been open for business (to travel agents only) for several
years. The office hopes to have full consular capacity "shortly".
Currently it gives advice, dispenses forms and "aids distressed travelling
Kiwis". The East Coast Manager is Anna Synolt and Peter MacDonald
(email@example.com) heads the office.
There's a new e-mail address for the New York NZ Consulate/TRADENZ et al.:
It should be noted that the NY NZ Consulate only answers questions and
distributes forms. All processing - issuing visas, renewing passports etc.
- is performed at the Washington DC High Commission. The NY NZ Tourist
Board deals only with travel agents etc. and will not answer questions from
Subject: A2.2 How Do I Get News From Home?
Check the notes on ftp sites; some current news may be archived there.
Read soc.culture.new-zealand, and nz.general if you can get it. A weekly
summary of NZ News - the WYSIWYG News - is compiled and posted to
soc.culture.new-zealand by the generous Brian Harmer (usually on Sundays).
These postings are all archived on the WWW at
To get a personal e-mail copy of the postings, send mail to:
with the line:
subscribe nznews <email-addr>
in the *BODY* of the message. To check the details of this, read the end
of a copy of the WYSIWYG news!
Online NZ Newspapers, Magazines and Publications
The Press (Christchurch) http://www.press.co.nz
WYSIWYG News http://nz.com/NZ/News/WYSIWYG/
7am News http://www.7am.co.nz/
One Network News http://www.tvone.co.nz/
Xtra News http://www.xtra.co.nz/xworld/news/
Radio New Zealand http://www.rnz.co.nz/
Waikato Times http://www.wave.co.nz/times/
The Evening Post http://www.evpost.co.nz/ (empty page still?)
Otago Daily Times http://www.odt.co.nz/
Wairarapa Times Age http://www.times-age.co.nz
NewsRoom Online http://www.newsroom.co.nz/
NZ Rugby News http://www.rugby.co.nz/
New Zealand News UK http://www.nznewsuk.co.uk/
City Voice http://www.cityvoice.co.nz/
INL Website http://www.inl.co.nz
QNA - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender News
Queer News Links http://nz.com/NZ/Queer/QNA/LinksGalore.html
NZ Computer/Internet News
Infotech Weekly http://www.infotech.co.nz/current/
Political News and Commentaries
Hard News http://nz.com/NZ/News/HardNews/
Ministerial Press Releases http://www.executive.govt.nz
Above and beyond all this, apparently you can read newspapers all over the
"The New Zealander " is a new full colour weekly tabloid available in
Australia for A$2.95. Like other publications we know of, the Dominion,
and the Evening Post are among the sources of its articles, although it can
presumably print articles verbatim.
(I'll be interested to hear what Australian WYSIWYG readers think - BH)
There is a thing called a NewZgram. It's like an aerogram but is printed
with excerpts of news about NZ, including sections about sport, health,
business, etc. It's 4 sides of a page long, sent fortnightly).
Subscription Prices: 24 issues (12 months)
NZ address surface NZ$36
Australia/Sth Pacific - air NZ$55
Rest of world - air NZ$67
The address is:
Peak Communications Ltd
PO Box 54046
PO Box 3882
Phone (+64 3) 3559222
Fax (+64 3) 3559337
New Zealand News UK
New Zealand News UK is an Independent Weekly newspaper, covering NZ
news/current events, United Kingdom jobs, NZ jobs, travel, migrating to NZ,
shipping and accommodation/entertainment in London. There is apparently
also a version called 'Overseas' with lots of info about visa requirements,
etc. for Brits wishing to travel. Try calling NZ News on 0171 930 6451.
NZ news is available free in London and by subscription elsewhere. It does
contain a fair bit of London specific news, but has some quite good
features on Emigrating and NZ lifestyles for people thinking of making a
move to NZ. Prices in Pounds Sterling.
3 Mths 6 Mths 1 Year
UK £ 15 £ 28 £ 52
Europe £ 25 £ 45 £ 80
World £ 350 £ 65 £ 120
Make your cheque payable to New Zealand News UK and send it to
The Circulation Manager
New Zealand News UK Direct,
3rd Floor, 80 Haymarket,
London. SW1 4TE
Distribution: Louisa Sinclair - Ph: 0171 930 6451
Subscriptions: Wendy Pattison - Ph: 01289 306677
Fax: 01289 307377
Alternatively, there's a copy online which apparently has no pictures,
but a good selection of sports news. http://www.nznewsuk.co.uk/
Subject: A2.3 Expatriate Organisations
There's an organisation in HK called the New Zealand Society. Point of
contact is either the NZ Consulate in Central HK (Jardine House) or Grant
Baird at a restaurant called Landaus. They meet regularly and it's fairly
Check Jon Clarke's site: http://air.com.hk/~jonc
There's a Kiwi Club of New York for those interested in such things.
Kiwi Club of New York
780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904
New York, NY 10017-2024
Phone (212) 832-4038 x222 (Brenda Henderson)
The club's secretary is/was Beatrice Cheer at firstname.lastname@example.org who used to
post occasionally in s.c.n-z.
Jeff Freeburg's site set up specifically for expatriates:
Subject: A3 INTERNET ACCESS WITHIN NZ
Public internet access is available from a growing number of sources
throughout New Zealand, particularly around the main centres. Access for
university staff and students (sometimes only post-grads) is usually
available. For more detailed information, read Simon Lyall's monthly faq
on the subject;
newsgroups: (news.answers, nz.net.announce, nz.general, s.c.n-z)
is slightly better and has a few other FAQs.
Subject: B1 THE COUNTRY
Subject: B1.1 Where Is New Zealand?
New Zealand is in the south-west \_
Pacific and has two large islands, \}
one smaller island, and numerous \9
much smaller islands. It is usual North )`-'7
to refer to the main islands as 'the Island ( c`
North Island' and 'the South Island'. ) /
For a larger map of the main islands South J /
see section B6. For a map showing Island / 6
the dependencies, see an atlas... / /
Ascii maps are copyright, Stewart Island @ ~
please do not repost.
New Zealand = Aotearoa, Niu Tireni (uncommon, adulteration of 'New
Zealand'), Land of the Long White Cloud, 'Godzone'
North Island = Aotearoa (original name(?) referring to the NI only?),
Te Ika-a-Maui[-Tikitiki-A-Taranga] (The Fish of Maui),
Nga Ahi o Maui (verification and definition anyone?)
South Island = Te Waka-a-Maui (The Canoe of Maui), Te Wa[h]ipounamu
(Greenstone waters or Place of Greenstone)
Stewart Island = Rakiura (The Land of Glowing Skies) or
Te punga o te waka a Maui (The anchor of Maui's canoe)
"Kiwiland" is slang for "New Zealand" and not very common. "Down Under"
tends to mean Australia but may also include NZ. Australia is occasionally
known as 'the West Island'.
For the main three: Latitude: 34 S to 47 S
Longitude: 167 E to 178 E
AREAS sq kms sq mi
North Island 114,453 44,191
South Island 150,718 58,193
Stewart Island 1,746 674
The Rest ?
TOTAL 268,700 103,745
COASTLINE: 15,134 km
LAND BOUNDARIES: 0 km
Continental shelf; edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone; 200 nm
Territorial sea; 12 nm
For more info, take a look at:
And Steve Israel (email@example.com) invites people to look at
his remote sensing page:
Antarctica (Ross Dependency): between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees
west longitude together with the islands lying between those degrees and
south of latitude 60 segrees south. The land is estimated to be between
400,000 and 450,000 sq km, with a further 330,000 sq km of permanent ice
shelf. The main NZ station is Scott Base at approx 78 degrees south.
The next two are part of NZ territory, and apart from the Chatham Islands,
they are uninhabited except by research personnel.
Antipodes Islands: a small group of outlying islands off the east coast of
the South Island, latitude 49 degrees 41' South and longitude 178 degrees
43' east. Total area about 62 sq km.
Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Kermadec Islands, Snares
Islands. The sub-Antarctic islands are integral parts of NZ. Actually,
with the exception of the Kermadecs (to the NE of NZ) all those island
groups are in the sub-antarctic, as are the Antipodes Islands. The Anres
and Bounty Islands are marginal for being classed as sub-Antarctic.
The Chatham Islands are well east of New Zealand (850kms) and have their
own 'Time Zone' in as much as their clocks are always 45 mins ahead of the
rest of NZ and I guess they keep in step with changes to and from NZDT.
Lyndon Watson wrote:
"The Cook Islands were originally under sole British administration and
later under sole New Zealand administration. There was no condominium.
The Cook Islands have been independent since the 1970s.
"The Cook Islands are an independent state. At *their* request (not
surprising in view of their small population and resources) they are
represented in most overseas countries by New Zealand diplomats and New
Zealand undertakes their military defence. They can change that at any
time simply by notifying New Zealand, one government to another.
"Not only could Cook Islanders vote in New Zealand elections before they
became independent, but the can still do so even now under special dual
nationality arrangements which *they* requested on independence. New
Zealanders, of course, cannot vote in Cook Islands elections.
"New Zealand has never colonised Niue or Tokelau. Rather the Niueans and
Tokelauans have colonised New Zealand. In the case of Tokelau, especially,
the population of Tokelauan descendants in New Zealand is now far larger
than the atolls could possibly support.
"Niue is internally self-governing but not fully independent. Their
problem, like that of other tiny Pacific nations, is a lack of population
and resources. They are so totally dependent on New Zealand subsidies that
no one has been able to devise a viable scheme for full independence.
Tokelau has the same problem in even greater form. Like Kiribati, they
even stand to lose their home islands (atolls) altogether if the sea level
keeps on rising they way that it has been lately. Most of the people who
identify as Tokelauans are resident in New Zealand. Tokelau is talking
about some form of autonomy or independence right now.
"New Zealand has no strategic interest in these islands and has never
settled them; they are a financial burden to us which we undertake because
they are our friends and neighbours and have important links with our own
population. In our own narrow self-interest, we should either give them
full independence and cast them adrift, or simply incorporate them
seamlessly into New Zealand, but the decision is theirs, not ours."
B1.1.4 Time Zones
New Zealand is 12 hours ahead of Greenwich mean time making it one of the
first places in the world to see the new day. Summer time (or Daylight
Saving Time we call it here) is an advance of one hour at 2am in the
morning on the first Sunday in October and back to NZST at 3am in the
morning on the third Sunday morning of March.
NZST (GMT+12) or NZDT (GMT+13) October - March
A couple of pages showing current NZ time
Subject: B1.2 The Landscape
NZ is a long narrow country lying roughly North/South with mountain ranges
running much of its length. It is predominately mountainous with some
large coastal plains and is a little larger than Britain, slightly smaller
than Italy, and almost exactly the size of Colorado.
The only 'geographical feature' New Zealand doesn't have is live coral
reef. We have all the rest: rainforest, desert, fiords, flooded valleys,
gorges, plains, mountains, glaciers, volcanoes, geothermics, swamps, lakes,
braided rivers, peneplains, badlands, and our very own continental plate
junction... As a result of the latter, earthquakes are common, though
usually not severe (patience... :-)
For more information, go to sci.geo.geology, and download the earthquake
maps for this week. The little black line snaking through New Zealand is
the plate boundary. A good URL for this is:
which lists the strong earthquakes worldwide during the last few days.
You can get almost instant info about larger quakes from the US Geological
for a simple record of any quake. [not at all sure how this works. help?]
B1.2.2 Miscellaneous Figures
Mt Cook: highest point in NZ. A landslide in December 1991 lowered the
3764m summit by about 10 metres. NZ has 28 peaks over 3000 metres. The
lowest (Mount Aspiring) is the only one outside Mount Cook National Park.
Also within the park is the Tasman Glacier, which is about 20 kms long.
The North Island's main mountains are all volcanoes: Ruapehu (2797m/9175'),
Ngauruhoe (2291m), and Tongariro (1968m) in the centre, and Taranaki
(2518m) to the west.
Lake Taupo; 40.2 km long, 27.4 km wide, 606 sq km, depth 159m
Lake Waikaremoana; 19.3 long, 9.7 km wide, 54 sq km, depth 256m
The artificial lakes in the North Island deeper than both are Lake Ohakuri
(287m) and Lake Whakamarino (274m).
Lake Wakitipu 77.2 by 4.8 km, 293 sq km is 310m deep. It's noo but a puddle
compared to Lake Hauroko (443m deep). Both are glacial in origin.
B1.2.3 Flora And Fauna
It is still hotly debated whether or not New Zealand was *completely*
submerged between 60 - 30 mya. There are now two competing views as to
NZ's biogeographic history:
(1) the traditional view, that our biology - especially the vegetation -
is a living example of a 'Gondwanan' fragment that has a lineage directly
traceable back to when NZ split off from Gondwana (maybe as early as 90 mya
or as late as 75 mya, depending on who you believe).
(2) a more recent view, that actually almost none of our current plants
and animals can be traced in a continuous lineage back to Gondwana, and
instead have all arrived via long-distance dispersal from Australia and SE
Asia, maybe even as recently as 20 - 10 mya. There is some compelling
fossil evidence for this view. For those interested in this, an excellent
though clearly biased account of this second view is given by Mike Pole in
a recent review (The Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 21 pp 625, 1994).
In any case during its time of isolation, birds have continued to arrive
and develop in NZ without large predators, making them vulnerable to recent
arrivals. The predators that have really been widely destructive were the
mustelids, cats and European rat species. The most important impact of
pre-Europeans was the widespread burning used in moa-hunting especially in
the drier areas of the South Island.
We have the worlds largest (and probably only flightless) parrot (kakapo),
the only truly alpine parrot (kea), the oldest reptile (tuatara), the
biggest earthworms, the heaviest insect (also the largest weta), the
smallest bats, some of the oldest trees, and many of the rarest birds,
insects, and plants in the world....
NZ is home to the world famous Tuatara, a lizard-like reptile which dates
back to the dinosaurs and perhaps before (260 mill years?). The only
member of its order (Rhynchocephalia) it is now restricted to protected
offshore islands which you have to have special permission to visit.
Specimens are kept at some zoos.
The only native land mammals are two rare species of bat.
NZ's many endemic birds include the flightless kiwi, takahe, kakapo and
weka. Far too many species of bird have become extinct since humans
arrived on NZ included the various species of Dinornis (moa) the largest
of which stood up to 2.5 metres high. While the rare takahe (Notornis
australis) can be seen in semi-wild conditions at Te Anau, the Kakapo is
too endangered to be on display anywhere (see quote below).
For those who are interested, the following NZ CD is available:
New Zealand birds: Information on more than 300 bird species, plus over 500
photos, video clips of NZ attractions and birds, and 20 windows bmps.
PO Box 324
There is also some unique insect life such as the Giant Weta and glow
worms. Other than two spiders, there is a lack of any deadly poisonous
things (snakes, spiders, etc.) which is why NZ Agricultural Regulations are
The great kauri trees in the few remaining kauri forests in Northland are
very old with some believed to be up to 2000 years old.
Much of the South Island is still forested, particularly the West Coast.
firstname.lastname@example.org (cakes) has provided the following article (advice on legality
Reprinted without permission.
RACE AGAINST TIME TO SAVE ANCIENT PARROTS
WELLINGTON, New Zealand.
After a peaceful existence spanning millions of years, the survival odds
seem stacked against New Zealand's native parrot, a fat, flightless bird
called the kakapo.
With only 50 kakapo left in New Zealand, Britain's World Conservation
Monitoring Center (WCMC) recently placed the bird on its list of the
world's 20 most-endangered species predicted to become extinct during 1996.
"That bird has so much stacked against it," said Kevin Smith, president
of the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand.
Only one kakapo chick has survived into adulthood since 1990, although
three more are almost there.
"At the moment the clock is just ticking. Unless there are some chicks
fledged in the next five years the kakapo's prospects are very bleak,"
Fully grown kakapo weigh up to eight pounds, heavier than most other
parrots, and are bright green in color. Scientists say the bird existed
without significant threat for millions of years.
Their decline began 1,000 years ago when humans arrived in New Zealand,
bringing predatory mammals such as cats, dogs, rats and stoats. Flightless
native birds, including the kiwi, moa and kakapo, had not developed
defenses against predation.
"Some were literally eaten alive. The kakapo's only defense was to sit
very still, and predators basically had meals on wheels," said Janet Owen,
Department of Conservation (DOC) Director of Protected Species.
She said kakapo populations were plundered as a food source by Maori and
European settlers alike, and their natural habitat was largely destroyed by
the clearance of rich forests.
Hope seemed lost in the late 1960s when it was found all kakapo known to
exist were male. Then the discovery of a single feather on Stewart Island,
at the foot of the South Island, led to a hitherto unknown population of
about 200 birds, including females.
But cats discovered this kakapo haven at the same time. "By the time we
could do anything about the cats, the population had plummeted to around 50
or 60 birds," said Paul Jansen, head of DOC's Kakapo Recovery Program.
The kakapo were moved in the 1980s to the relative safety of Codfish,
Little Barrier and Maud islands, dotted around New Zealand's coastline.
The nests need video monitoring as they come under constant attack from
rats, and Maud Island is occasionally invaded by stoats swimming over from
The male kakapo abandons the female after mating, forcing her to leave
the nest dangerously unattended while she feeds.
What is more, kakapo are reluctant breeders mating only once every four
or five years. They also have a history of laying infertile eggs.
Despite the hurdles facing the kakapo, the WCMC's prediction of imminent
extinction is overly dire, DOC says. While the kakapo is critically
endangered, it is a national treasure which can be dragged back from the
brink of oblivion.
"Results will take a while because they're long-lived birds. We think
they live around 60-80 years, so they won't be wiped out this year," DOC
Director-General Murray Hosking said.
Over the next 10 years the recovery program aims to establish a younger
breeding population, although numbers will probably remain similar as older
"Conceivably we will be giving help to the kakapo for at least the next
five decades, if not longer," Jansen said.
Smith is sharply critical of the amount of funding the government
provides for endangered species research. DOC has a $660,000 budget for
kakapo research in 1996.
"We've become too insulated in New Zealand we don't realize just how
special our native plants and animals are. There's a niggardly,
pathetically small amount of money going into conservation, and we reap
what we sow," he said.
Smith said predation was causing the decline of New Zealand's bird
populations in general, and forest habitats were gradually being destroyed
by possums, deer and goats.
"New Zealand's wealth has been generated out of the 75 percent of the
country we've cleared. Unfortunately we're not using any of that wealth to
save those species that are trying to survive in the little remnants we
left them," Smith said.
"The dawn chorus in our forests, which used to be a real feature of New
Zealand, is in many places becoming more of a solo." Reuters
I found this article on a bird-related web site - I can't recall which
one as I've scanned many over the last few weeks. Recently I saw a
television program on the Discovery channel, which highlighted the plight
of the kakapo in much the same manner as this story.
The NZ climate is temperate with no real extremes; the north tends to be
warm temperate. Being an island nation, the yearly range of temperatures
is quite small, around 10 degrees Celsius variation between winter and
summer. NZ enjoys long hours of sunshine throughout the year making it an
ideal year round destination. In winter the South Island mountain and
central North Island do have heavy snowfalls providing great skiing.
Summer: December - February
Winter: June - August
sunshine Temperature (C) rainfall rain
hours mean max min daily av. (mm) days
Kaitaia 2113 15.6 29 0 1429 138
Auckland 1904 15.7 28 3 23 14 1289 140
Tauranga 2217 14.3 29 -2 1363 118
Hamilton 1981 13.5 29 -5 1236 131
Rotorua 1872 12.7 30 -4 23 12 1509 123
Gisborne 2173 14.1 33 -2 1079 113
New Plymouth 2157 13.4 26 -1 1514 142
Napier 2187 14.3 32 -2 830 92
Palmerston North 1764 13.2 28 -3 991 127
Wellington 2008 12.7 27 1 20 11 1305 124
Nelson 2372 12.2 28 -4 22 12 1005 96
Blenheim 2449 12.9 32 -4 671 84
Hokitika 1889 11.6 25 -2 2809 168
Christchurch 1992 11.9 34 -5 22 10 668 85
Timaru 1828 11.4 32 -4 586 81
Milford Sound 1828 10.5 25 -3 6213 183
Queenstown 1865 10.4 30 -5 21 8 832 93
Dunedin 1645 11.1 29 -2 19 10 802 119
Gore 1665 9.7 31 -5 894 137
Invercargill 1595 9.7 28 -5 1040 157
(some of the table above was pirated and I seriously doubt it's accuracy...
Anyone care to confirm it?)
From: email@example.com.EDU.AU (Blair Trewin)
Climate Group, Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre
Date: 12 Sep 1997 01:16:03 GMT
It looks OK although the info is open to misinterpretation.
From the numbers, I would expect that the 'maximum' and 'minimum'
temperatures quoted are the highest and lowest temperatures which
would be expected in a normal year. They aren't the record high and
low (Christchurch, for example, has had 42), nor are they the
mean daily maximum and minimum temps for any month.
The highest temperature on record in NZ is 42.4 C at Rangiora in
February 1973, and the lowest -21.6 C at Ophir in July 1995 (although
lower temperatures would have certainly occurred on the higher
summits of the Southern Alps where there are no instruments). I
could be a couple of tenths out on either of these (I'm going from
memory). The Rangiora mark, which broke the previous NZ record
by more than 4 degrees, is arguably one of the most exceptional
extreme temperature events ever recorded anywhere in the world.
Christchurch reached 41.8 on the same day, and there was also
a North Island record at Gisborne (38.3, IIRC). I don't expect
these records to be broken in a hurry.
Is it wet in New Zealand? Charles Eggen gives us:
"The greatest amount I have heard of was at the hut on Whitcombe river at
Frew creek which is just south of the Hokitika river in Westland. That was
1967 and amounted to 10670 mm or about 420 inches.
From 14/3/67 to 13/3/68 the 10670 mm that fell is the highest in NZ for a
12 month period. Over an exact calendar year the highest is 10210 mm (same
place) within NZ and 22990 mm for the World (Cherrapunji, India in 1861)."
The highest rainfall in NZ for a 24 hour period was 582 mm on 7/9/1969 at
Rapid Creek, Hokitika although this record may have been broken on 22
January 1994; a similar locality and ~647mm of rain.
From: firstname.lastname@example.org.EDU.AU (Blair Trewin)
Date: 12 Sep 1997 01:16:03 GMT
>: Is it wet in New Zealand? Charles Eggen gives us:
>: <rest of comments from Charles snipped>
I seem to recall reading somewhere about an experimental site in this
region having a mean annual rainfall up around 11000-12000mm, although
this may have been an estimate based on a few months' data. Given that
there are few gauges in the area where I would expect the highest
precipitation, around 800-1200 metres elevation, it would not surprise
me if there are pockets of 10000+ mm mean annual rainfall (which
implies a highest total in the vicinity of 15000) in uninstrumented
In marked contrast, central Otago is very dry in places - Alexandra
has about 350mm per year, and I'd expect that there would be local
pockets below 300. Air of maritime origins loses much of its
moisture as it rises over mountains (the prevailing airstreams in
NZ are from the west, which explains why the western slopes of
the Southern Alps and Fiordland are so wet) and the lee slopes
are in 'rainshadow': central Otago is largely sheltered from
>: The highest rainfall in NZ for a 24 hour period was 582 mm on 7/9/1969 at
>: Rapid Creek, Hokitika although this record may have been broken on 22
>: January 1994; a similar locality and ~647mm of rain.
It was. I was attempting to visit the West Coast on this day -
meteorologically interesting but touristically miserable. I'm still
waiting to see the glaciers :-(
Ross Levis kindly offered:
All the weather links you should ever need are located on my ISP page at:
which links to VUW and shows some other Antarctic pictures.
Frank van der Hulst and Tony Wilkes provided (combined and mildly amended):
NZ Metservice forecasts, including TV-style maps showing forecasts:
Satellite weather pictures from VUW:
[ see also ...meteorology/maps.html and ...pictures/ir1/latest.jpg ]
These are in mono. For similar maps in colour:
Weather of the whole region, including NZ. Up to 3-day forecasts,
including satellite pictures and maps showing isobars & sea surface winds
over the Tasman & NZ:
[ not sure if the second one is correct ]
Latest (3-hourly) weather satellite images:
The NZ sites seem to be somewhat intermittent, and often their latest
images are 3 or 4 days old. The Aussie site is probably the most useful.
Airways Corp also has a Web site http://www.airways.co.nz/index.html which
contains articles from their latest magazine.
Snspot details and solar activity, of interest to radio hams, at:
Hugh Grierson suggests to point your browser at
and follow the links "Australian weather information ..." -> "Weather
but the latter requires a Java capable reader.
Subject: B2 THE PEOPLE
Subject: B2.1 A Short History
900 AD (+/-) Maori arrived from Pacific.
1740's Europeans started to bumble around the area.
1800's Exploiters arrived (whalers, sealers, traders).
1830's Settlers started arriving.
1840's The 'Maori' Land Wars
There were actually four separate wars (though some tribes fought in more
NgaPuhi, Northland (1840s)
Kingites, Waikato (1860s)
Te Kooti etc (1860s)
John Hopkins offers the following 'gratuitous comments ;-)' (sic):
"The term "Maori Wars" has not been used for some considerable time, as it
suggests that Maori were responsible for the wars - another example of "the
winner" rewriting history to suit their own purposes. Recognised
descriptions now are "the New Zealand Wars", or the "Land Wars" - the
latter is preferable in some ways because it reveals what the wars were
about. In particular, the invasion of the Waikato by English led troops as
a pretext to force Maori to defend themselves and then confiscate their
land for being "in rebellion" against the English Crown. A good reference
is the Waitangi Tribunal report on the Tainui claim."
1893? Universal Suffrage.
The 1945-50 Baby Boom
There was a baby boom in 1945-50 after the survivors returned from the
Second World War. The reasons should be obvious. (I think that it has
been mentioned here that New Zealand lost a larger fraction of its
population in the Second World War than any other Allied country except
the USSR, nearly all of them young men). There was a lesser peak 20 to
30 years later as the products of the first boom had their own children.
1985 Internet gets going... :-)
May 1994 The soc.culture.new-zealand faq gets posted!
Subject: B2.2 Maoritanga
Maoritanga is Maori culture; a way of life and view of the world. It is a
growing and changing part of life in NZ. The ancestors and all living
things are descended from the gods, who are often embodied in specific
mountains, rivers and lakes, which is why kinship and links with the land
are so important. Maui was one of the earliest descendants and was
responsible for slowing the sun to make the days longer, taming fire, and
fishing the North Island (Te Ika a Maui) from the sea from his brothers'
canoe (the South Island - Te Waka a Maui). Most Maori can trace descent
from the chiefs of Hawaiki who sailed to Aotearoa in voyaging canoes from
about 1200 years ago. The marae (particular area of land and buildings,
containing the Whare or meeting house) is the focus of traditional Maori
The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840, after Maori had petitioned Queen
Victoria about the damage being done to their land and culture by
uncontrolled land speculators and resource exploiters. Another influence
was the wish of the British to prevent the French or Americans from gaining
a hold on the new colony (Hone Heke flew the Stars and Stripes on his war
canoe). The first article ceded to the Queen of England the right to make
laws in exchange for the retention of full control of their lands, forests,
fishing and prized posessions. The second article promised the Maori full
rights to their lands, forests and treasured possessions (and fisheries in
the English version). The third article gave the Maori all the rights and
privileges of British subjects.
Despite the egalitarian language, in practice the principles of the Treaty
were often ignored. Dissatisfaction over the control of land in the North
Island led to war in the 1860's with the result that much Maori land was
confiscated. It was 100 years before the Maori protest movement had enough
strength to come into the public eye, although certain key personalities
have been supporting a Maori renaissance since the early years of this
century. All environmental and planning legislation passed since 1986
contains provisions for the support of the principles of the Treaty of
Waitangi. Recent claims to the Waitangi Tribunal have resulted in some
land being returned to Maori control. In other cases the resource
implications are so complex and potentially vast that decisions on
reparation have been delayed for some years. This is the case, for
example, with the claim of Ngai Tahu, the largest and most powerful South
Island tribe. The claim has been accepted in principle, but settlement
appears to be some way away.
Maori is now an official language of NZ, although outside the Maori
community it is rare to hear it spoken except on ceremonial occasions.
Maori have established various programmes for the revival of their
language, particularly in pre-school and primary schools.
Most Maori are now town and city dwellers, and many have lost touch with
their original marae base. However there is a groundswell of regeneration
of interest in the marae, and some people are returning to their tribal
homes. In the cities, urban marae, sometimes catering for people of many
tribes, have been established.
Maori culture was transmitted orally, through the telling of stories, song
(waiata) and the reciting of whakapapa (genealogies). It was also
represented in stylised form in carvings and woven panels that adorned
whare (meeting houses). There is a revitalisation of these traditional
arts, especially as the marae movement gains more strength, and also
because new marae, for example on school and university campuses, are being
built. Maori traditional music was very effectively suppressed by the
nineteenth century missionaries. Traditional instruments are now rarely
seen but the Maori love of music survives in waiata, which today are a
blend of remembered traditional waiata plus adaptations from western music.
One of the most difficult things for any dominant culture to handle is the
acceptance of real partnership with another group, especially one that for
many years was regarded as inferior. The pretty or quaint sides of Maori
culture, long exploited by the tourist industry, are not the whole thing.
The real thing involves power and resource sharing, and this process of
reallocation will cause debate and some strife within New Zealand for years
"To give an indication of how complex the Maori situation is, here are the
names of some of the tribes. This section is evolving...
Maori Tribes (this is not exhaustive), listed in approximate North to South
geographic distribution (paraphrased from The Revised Dictionary of Modern
Maori by P.M. Ryan, 1989 Heinemann Education)
Ngai te Rangi
then to the South Island
I believe most tribes had sub-tribes, and there was much ebbing and flowing
as various groups conquered, or were in turn conquered and enslaved."
Lyndon Watson wrote:
"There are more in the Marlborough Sounds-Nelson region, e.g. Ngati Koata
who broke off from Ngati Toa in the last century and sided with local
tribes and who have just been in the news for getting Stephens Island back
and promptly giving it to the Crown as a nature reserve.
The question of tribal affiliation in the lower three-quarters of the South
Island is a vexed one because some descendants of the tribes who lived
there before the Ngati Mamoe and Ngai Tahu invasions from the North Island
(e.g. Te Waitaha of South Canterbury-North Otago who claim to be the
original 'Moa Hunters') claim to be members still of those tribes while
Ngai Tahu consider that they (and, indeed, the Ngati Mamoe) are now at the
most subtribes of Ngai Tahu. Tempers can get very heated round here over
And it should also be mentioned that some do not like 'iwi' being
translated as 'tribe', and 'hapu' as 'subtribe'."
For more info on Maori culture and history, try:
Links to Maori resources http://www.rmmb.co.nz/links/lmaori.html
Maori Organisations in NZ http://www.maori.org.nz/
Ross Himona's Maori Website http://www.maori.org/
Aotearoa Traditional Maori Performing Arts Festival
The art of Moko http://tattoos.com/moko.htm
For info on Maori history and lists several Maori writers:
The H.M. Ngata English - Maori dictionary online
KimiKupup hou lexical database http://www.nzcer.org.nz/kimikupu/
Tuition Demo http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~educator
Software Products http://navigator.co.nz/matapihi.html
And the Auckland City Art Gallery collection of Maori portraits by Charles
Adam Gifford (for whom I have no net address) invites people to visit:
Once Were Warriors homepage:
B2.2.1 The Moriori Question
Simon O'Rorke provides the following quotes and opinions:
In her book "The Prehistory of New Zealand" (Longman Paul, Auckland,
1987) Janet Davidson wrote:
"...[during the 1890s]... many spurious traditions about [Maori] origins
began to gain wide acceptance. Some of these still hinder the study of New
Zealand prehistory today. One theory was the so-called 'Maruiwi myth',
which suggested that the first inhabitants of new Zealand had been a
different and probably inferior race to the later Maori. The resumption of
intensive archeological work in the South Island during the 1920s and 1930s
was partly in response to this theory.
"[this] archeological work....demonstrated the Polynesian nature of
moa-hunter assemblages and disproved the idea that the moa-hunters were an
earlier and different race from the Maori. Yet the idea of the inferior
and defeated Maruiwi or Moriori still lives on in the minds of modern New
Zealanders, confused with the Moriori of the Chatham Islands who were in
fact an isolated group of Polynesians, although very closely related to the
New Zealand Maori."
The Maruiwi was a Maori tribe (iwi) whose name is known from oral tradition
but which did not survive to the time of the settlement of New Zealand by
Europeans. Contrary to the assertions of the 19th century European
mythologizers of Maori origins, they were not a pre-Maori people. They
were probably wiped out in inter-tribal warfare during the 14th century or
later, i.e. hundreds of years after Polynesians settled what is now New
Zealand in the 9th century.
The European mythologizers of Maori origins, in particular S. Percy Smith,
who in 1892 founded the Polynesian society, noticed the similarity between
the word "Maruiwi" and the word "Moriori", the name of the indigenous
people of the Chatham Islands, which are located in the Pacific Ocean about
400 km East of New Zealand. They jumped to the conclusion that the Moriori
were the descendants of (supposedly pre-Maori) Maruiwi survivors who had
fled to the Chathams to New Zealand when Polynesians (Maori) first settled
New Zealand. Until recently, New Zealand school children were taught this
story as historical fact.
Davidson has this to say about the Moriori:
"Despite widespread popular belief that the Moriori were a vanquished group
who fled to the Chathams from New Zealand, Moriori and Maori were unaware
of each others' existence before the rediscovery of the Chathams by
Europeans in the late 18th century. Sutton has recently strongly argued
that the Chathams were settled from New Zealand between A.D. 1000 and 1200
and became completely isolated after about A.D. 1400. No archeological
sites of this early period have yet been excavated in the Chathams,
however, and the possibility of settlement from elsewhere in East Polynesia
cannot be entirely excluded."
Why did the European myth of a people in New Zealand before the Maori
arise? And why has it persisted despite clear contrary evidence? In his
book on the struggles of the Maori since the European settlement of New
Zealand, "Ka Whatwhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End", (Penguin,
Auckland, 1990) Ranginui Walker put it very well:
"The myth of the Moriori is essentially ideological in the sense of being a
false consciousness as a solution in the mind to conflict generated by the
colonisers' expropriation of Maori land. According to the myth, the Maori,
as a superior and more warlike people, expropriated the land from the
Moriori. Therefore Pakeha [Maori term for European settlers and their
descendants] expropriation of the same land on the basis of their superior
civilisation was in accordance with the principle of the survival of the
fittest. For this reason the false myth of the Moriori has been one of New
Zealand's most enduring myths. Pakeha need the myth for the endorsement of
colonisation and Pakeha dominance."
I can back up Walker's argument from personal experience. I have
frequently heard (usually right-wing) European New Zealanders using the
Maoris' alleged extermination of the Moriori in New Zealand as
justification of European mistreatment of Maori. I would note however,
that these days the justification tends to be in terms of a rather guilty
"The Maori were just as bad as the Europeans" rather than the more
self-confident social-Darwinist survival-of-the-fittest justification that
was prevalent at the beginning of this century.
B2.2.2 Guide to Maori pronunciation
The five vowels; a, e, i, o and u, are pronounced in two ways:
a as u in but a as a in father
e as e in pen e as ai in pair
i as i in bit i as ee in feet
o as o in fort o as o in store
u as u in put u as oo in boot
Where two vowels are together: both are sounded but they are run together
The ten consonants in Maori: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, ng, wh.
The first eight are pronounced as in English. The last two are digraphs,
'ng' being pronounced as the ng in 'singer', and 'wh' as wh in 'whale', or
as a 'f'.
From The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori:
'r' is not rolled.
'p' is soft.
'wh' is usually pronounced 'f', sometimes as 'h', 'w', of 'wh'.
'ng' has a softish 'g' and is pronounced/spelled 'ng' or 'k' depending on
the area; usually 'k' in the South Island.
In the book "He Whakamarama - A new course in Maori" the following
describes 'ng' and 'wh':
"When we say 'na', the tip of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth
somewhere behind the top of the upper teeth. When we say 'nga', the tongue
stays down with the tip touching the back of the lower teeth.
"'Wh' differs from 'f' in this way. When we say 'f', the upper teeth
firmly touch the bottom lip, but with 'wh' there is little or no pressure
of the upper teeth on the bottom lip.
(The online dictionary listed in the links section just before the start
of section B2.2.1 may help with the preceding.)
Lachy Paterson wrote:
"Te Reo Maaori will exist only if it is taught (and learnt) as a spoken
language. This means that students should have a tutor of some sort who
can actually talk to them (analog not digital!). While this would be
difficult in another country, it should not be difficult in NZ.
However, if people wanted to teach themselves the rudiments of Maaori/Maori
grammar, then I would recommend
He Whakamarama A new Course in Maori
by John Foster (Heinemann)
Te Kakano (Stage 1 University text)
Te Pihinga (Stage 2)
by John C. Moorfield (Longman Paul).
Lyndon Watson adds:
"Yes, and to complicate matters there are some dialectical variations.
Some East Coast speakers tend to replace 'ng' with the simple 'n'. And
some South Island speakers replace it with 'k', but then it is spelled
accordingly so there is no problem for the outsider.
The 'wh' sound also seems to vary from place to place. I have heard
elderly speakers in Northland say something very like the (proper) English
'wh' sound - 'h' followed by 'w' - and again some Eastern speakers use a
plain 'w'. Pakehas tend to give up and fall back on a plain 'f'.
Judy Shorten adds:
"Say it in Maori" by Alan Armstrong is a really good little book with a
limited English-Maori and Maori-English dictionary as well as a wide
variety of phrases that cover many situations. There is also a page on
pronounciation. I would recommend this little book for anyone wanting to
have a very basic knowledge of the Maori language, but on the other hand
most tourists travelling around NZ on tours don't have the time or the
inclination to read even a little book about correct pronounciation and
therefore make some rather hilarious attempts at trying to pronounce even
the simplest names.
The Concise Maori Dictionary, A.H. & A.W. Reed
The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori, P. M. Ryan's, reprint 1989,
Heinemann, ISBN 0 86863 564 2
Say it in Maori, Alan Armstrong
B2.2.3 The Haka
Non-Kiwis are often baffled by the 'dance' performed by [predominately
sports] groups before matches or events. The following outline is a reply
from Mac Lynch to such a question.
"What you most likely saw was a haka - a preliminary to a fight between
Maori tribes, the painted faces represent the original tattoos. The haka
was a challenge to the opposing tribe who may have responded in a similar
way. The words are chanted loudly (shouted) in a menacing way accompanied
by arm actions and foot stamping.
The All Black rugby team and subsequently other touring sports teams have
adopted a haka that was originally used by Te Rauparaha (a particularly
notorious warlike chief of the Ngati Toa tribe) and is only one of many
hakas which exist throughout New Zealand. Te Rauparaha, originally from
Taranaki, raided various parts of NZ in the early 19th Century settling
eventually on Kapiti Island near Wellington. There is currently some
controversy about the appropriateness of the use of this haka in the South
Island where the Maoris suffered particularly under Te Rauparaha.
Here are the words and a translation of Te Rauparaha's haka. The Maori
pronunciation is basically one vowel per syllable, with the vowels having
the European rather than English sound (see section B2.2.2 for more on
Ka mate, ka mate It is death, it is death
Ka ora, ka ora It is life, it is life
Ka mate, ka mate It is death, it is death
Ka ora, ka ora It is life, it is life
Tenei te tangata puhuruhuru This is the hairy man
Nana i tiki mai whakawhiti te ra Who caused the sun to shine again for me
Upane, upane Up the ladder, up the ladder
Upane kaupane Up to the top
Whiti te ra The sun shines!
As for what it all means, about 140 years ago, Te Rauparaha was being
chased by his enemies. He hid in a kumara pit (the local sweet potato) and
waited in the dark for his pursuers to find him. He heard sounds above and
thought he was done for when the top of the pit was opened up and sunshine
flooded in. He was blinded and struggled to see those about to slay him,
when his sight cleared and he instead saw the hairy legs of the local chief
(reputed to have been exceptionally hirsute) who had hid him. Te Rauparaha
is said to have jumped from the pit and performed this haka on the spot, he
was so happy to have escaped. Undoubtedly, he also had in his mind to do a
little pursuing of his own - being that way inclined."
People may also wish to look at:
Subject: B2.3 Demography
Total population is about 3.5 million. Over 70% of the population are in
the North Island, largest centre is Auckland (over 1 million), capital is
1992 (July) 3,347,369
Population Growth 0.88 %
Population Density 32/sq mi
Population Doubling Time 79 years
Net migration rate: -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
B2.3.2 Major Cities
Population Lat Long
Wellington 360,000 41.17S 174.47E
Auckland 890,000 36.52S 174.46E
Christchurch 335,000 43.33S 172.40E
Hamilton 100,000 37.46S 175.18E
Dunedin 110,000 45.52S 170.30E
B2.3.3 Age Distribution
Age range Male % Female %
0-9 8.0 7.6
10-19 9.4 9.0
20-29 8.6 8.4
30-39 7.4 7.5
40-49 5.4 5.3
50-59 4.5 4.4
60-69 3.6 4.1
70+ 2.7 4.1
Total 49.6 50.4
Literacy Rate 99 %
Urbanization 83.5 %
Data from the "1991 Census of Population and Dwellings" publications.
for Population Resident in New Zealand
Single Ethnic Group
European (1) 2,658,738 79.5
NZ Maori 323,493 9.7
Samoan 68,565 2.0
Cook Island Maori 26,925 0.8
Tongan 18,264 0.5
Niuean 9,429 0.3
Tokelauan 2,802 0.1
Fijian 2,760 0.1
Other Pacific 1,413 --
Total, Single Pacific Group 130,158 3.9
Chinese 37,689 1.1
Indian 26,979 0.8
Other Single Ethnic Groups (2) 25,926 0.8
Total, Single Ethnic Groups 3,202,980 95.7
(1) May include combinations of European groups e.g. NZ European and/or
British and/or Dutch etc.
(2) All Groups not included above. May include combinations of Other
Groups, eg. Japanese and/or Korean and/or Middle Eastern Groups.
There is a very good (not *too* technical) book on Maori Demography for
further reference of those interested:
Pool, Ian. 1991. _Te Iwi Maori: A New Zealand Population Past, Present
and Projected_ Auckland University Press (dist. by Oxford Univ. Press
outside of New Zealand)
B2.3.5 Official Languages
English, Maori. Pacific Island and Asian languages may be heard in cities.
A Massey research project reveals that 28 percent of Kiwis pray, at
frequencies varying between several times a day, to weekly. About 21
percent of the population are regular churchgoers. The radio report on the
topic said that over 60 percent of NZers believe in a God.
1991 census: (%)
No religion 20.1
Object to state 7.6
In 1981 (and I presume earlier censuses) there was simply a blank where you
wrote your religion. In 1986 and 1991, there were half a dozen or so boxes
you could tick, including "No Religion" and "Other" (with a blank space to
fill in if you ticked "Other"). In 1981, Agnostic and Atheist accounted
for 0.8 and 0.7%, so clearly many people who would write "Atheist" when
confronted with a blank space would tick "No Religion" when such a box was
an option. (I did this myself in 1986.)
In 1986, "No Religion" got 16.7%, so this is growing fast, and is the
second largest group. (It was less than 1% in the 1950s.)
B188.8.131.52 Russian or Greek orthodox church in NZ
Is Russian or Greek orthodox church present in New Zealand?
(Question by Alex Tretyakov on 04 Jan 1998)
Patrick Dunford writes:
According to the 1996 census there were just under 7000 "Orthodox
Christians", an increase of about 2700 since the 1991 census.
There is and has been a Russian Orthodox church in Brougham St,
Christchurch for many years.
Charles Eggen writes:
Orthodox Christians represent less than 10,000 in New Zealand. Over
half of them are Greek Orthodox residing in the Wellington area. The
Church of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary has the only full-time
Orthodox priest in New Zealand. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of
Constantinople sent New Zealand's only Orthodox Bishop - Metropolitan
Dionysios Psiachas who resides in Welllington. There are small
parishes in Auckland, Christchurch, Petone, Palmerston North and
You can contact the Wellington church at:
Church of the Greek Orthodox Community of Wellington
PO Box 1311, Wellington, New Zealand
The Russian Orthodox church exists due to the services of Father
Ambrose, a Serbian priest. Christchurch has the only Russian Orthodox
Church in New Zealand although there are small congregations in
Wellington and Auckland. A website is under construction at:
Miche Campbell writes:
There are two Antiochian Orthodox Churches in New Zealand, one in
Ashley, near Rangiora (outside Christchurch) and one in Dunedin.
Lyndon Watson writes:
Moscow, Constantinople and Antioch all have churches in New Zealand.
There is a large Greek Orthodox community in Wellington.
The Anthiochian Orthodox Church in Ashley is actually an Anglican
church which allows the Orthodox priest to hold services there.
B184.108.40.206 URLs related to religion in NZ
Religious Organisations for Tamils of NZ
Canterbury links to Religion and Spirituality