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Subject: Hangul & Internet in Korea (main part 2/4)

This article was archived around: 16 Aug 1999 03:27:47 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: cultures/korea/hangul-internet
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.korean, alt.talk.korean, alt.internet.services, comp.misc
Source: Usenet Version


Archive-name: cultures/korea/hangul-internet/part2 Posting-Frequency: Monthly(3rd Saturday) to home groups and relevant *.answers and twice a month(1,3th Saturday) to home groups. URL: http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq
Hangul and Internet in Korea FAQ (part 2/4) =========================================== 7. What kind of word processors are available for Hangul? On MS-DOS machine, Arae-ah Hangul(HWP) by Hangul & Computer is the most popular in Korea. Up to v.1.51, it had separate programs for laser printer and dot-matrix printer. In v.2.0, they were merged into a single program. There are two different v.2.0,however, one for professional user(200,000 won or so) and the other for ordinary user (about 100,000 won?). The newest version of HWP is 3.0 for DOS and 3.0b for MS-Windows 3.1/95. Windows version includes separates "Hangul-module" so that it runs either under MS-Windows or under Hangul MS-Windows while most other Hangul W/Ps for Windows depend on Hangul MS-Windows 3.1/95 to implement Hangul I/O. Hangul & Computer has developmed X window version of HWP for a while, but in late 1997, its development was handed off to Mizi research which will continue to develop it with the license from Hangul & Computer. (according to the article posted to han.comp.os.linux by Seo, Young-jin at yjseo@mizi.co.kr) For purchase in the US, see Subject 23) and contact Hangul & Computer. Hangul version of MS-Word, Word Perfect, Hun-min-jong-um and other Hangul word processors are also available in Korea. All of these require Hangul MS-Windows to run. Hangul MS-Word to be run under Hangul MS-Windows can read in HWP 2.0,2.1 and 2.5 format documents. Refer to Microsoft Korean pages at http://www.microsoft.com/korea Korean version of famous DTP(desk top publishing) and graphics programs such as PageMaker,Quark Xpress,Photoshop and Illustrator for Mac and/or MS-Windows(dealt in by BBcom at http://www.bbcom.com in Korea) are available through Korean s/w vendors in the US(See Subject 23). Besides, Human Computer( http://www.human.co.kr) makes Mun-bang-Sa-woo, Korean DTP program, a few different kinds of Hangul font collections(True Type and Postscript) and FontMania (Hangul font rendering program). VADA and SAN are small editor/word processors in public domain. See subject 3). Under MS-DOS with s/w Hangul( DANSI or DKBI:See Subject 4) ) or h/w Hangul card, it's possible to use W/P made for English users. A public domain w/p for MS-Windows 3.1. Mo-dun-gul is available. See Subject 3). Kunsaram at now348501@nownuri.nowcom.co.kr released Iyagi 7.3, a terminal emulator with built-in Hangul for MS-Windows 3.1/95 includes a Hangul editor(or simple word processor). For more information, contact directly Kunsaram. With Hangul MS-Windows 3.1/95 or Hanme Hangul for Windows 2.5 + MS-Windows 3.1/95, (See Subject 4)) one may use Hangul in most W/Ps made for MS-Window 3.1/95. For viewing HWP or Hangul MS-Word without HWP or MS-Word, refer to Subject 30 On Mac, NISUS and Word Perfect work fine with Hangul Talk 7.1 and KLK(Korean Language Kit). Other popular w/p like MS-Word have trouble with Hangul Talk 7.1. Under KLK, Word Perfect,Nisus, ClarisWork and several other wordprocessors work fine. Unlike earlier version of MS-Word, a newever version of MS-Word is WS-savvy and known to work well with World Script II in general and KLK in particular. WorldWrite is less expensive than Nisus and seems to support KLK well(it's claimed to even support vertical writing). (Info. on WorldWrite is due to Michael ? at mromanowski@watson.princeton.edu). Moreover, there are several localized (for Korean) version of word processors. Nisus Korean version(specifically geared for Korean word processing) is sold by BBCom(bbcom@nuri.net). Unicorn editor mentioned in Subject 3 is also known to work well with KLK or Hangul Talk. See KLK data sheet mentioned in Subject 5 for more on compatibility of KLK and other softwares. Besides,Hangul & Computer announced that it would release Mac version of its famous HWP(Arae-Ah Hangul) in early 1997. One may find it useful to have HWP to Mac format converter available at ftp://ftp.one-o.com/pub/hanmac/hangulfontset.bin. Hantori and Electronic Hangul(EH) are said to work well with most programs for Mac including word processors. HanMac Word(HM Word) is a word processor developed in Korea and its demo version is available at Mac Hangul archive. A shareware version of HanMac word for those outside Korea is available for $35 shareware fee. It's said to be a full-fledged word processor with powerful features rarely found in word processor but included only with DTP software such as QuarkXpress. Hanmac software also offers a number of Hangul-related extensions to QuartXpress. For more infomation on Han Mac Word, contact HanMac at http://www.hanmac.com. See Subject 5) for more on Hangul environment on Mac. Mun-bang-sa-wu/UX1.1 is a word processor for SUN compatible workstations and it requires 6MB memory and 10MB disk space. A demo version without file related functionalities is available at CAIR archive and its mirrors Hangul & Computer(the vendor of Arae-Ah Hangul) was recently reported to have developed AraeAh Hangul for X Window. HWP 2.5 for X is now available from Hangul & Computer. HWP 3.0/X was released in Sep. 1995 and the most recent demo version(3.0.2 released in May,1996) for several flavor of Unix including Linux,SCO/Unix, and HP/UX are available at ftp://ftp.hnc.co.kr/pub/hwpx3.0_demo(203.246.178.22). In early 1998, Mizi research took over the development of HWP/X from Hangul & Computer. Mizi released HWP/X 4.0 demo versions for several flavors of Unix including Linux. For further details, refer to http://www.mizi.co.kr. FreeBSD users may try Linux version along with Linux compatibility library for FreeBSD. The following document explains how to use Linux version of HWP/X under FreeBSD : http://jazz.snu.ac.kr/~junker/work/freebsd/tips/hwpx-freebsd.txt. OpenHWP is an open source/free software project to build a HWP-compatible word processor. It was initiated by a group of people who determined to save HWP(the most famous word processor in Korea) from fallling a prey to the hands of Microsoft. Up-to-date information is available at http://www.openhwp.org/. You may consider joining the team. Chinese Power 3.0 by Jun Yei at jun.yei@linmor.com is a word processor for Unix/X window(with Motif 1.2) supporting Korean as well as Chinese and Japanese. It can handle a number of encodings including EUC-KR(Korean 8bit encoding), EUC-JP(Japanese), HZ,EUC-CN, and Big5(for Chinese) "Unicode-native-encoding",UTF7 and UTF8 (for Unicode). [Posted to Usenet newsgroup han.comp.hangul by Gilbert Yun at mingtian@hotmail.com. You can get it at ftp://ccic.ifcss.org/pub/software/x-win/editor/. You need to have Motif 1.2 libraries and header files to compile it. My attempt to compile it with lesstif(free Motif clone) under Linux succeeded, but the compiled binary doesn't work well.(It sort of worked, but not very much usable). According to W. Choi at choiw1@intac.com and information posted at http://www.hnc.co.kr/what/9611.html, HWP for OS/2 will be released, soon. Demo version of HWP for OS/2 is available in e:/mirror/hncpm at ftp://203.239.110.3 8. What are KS X 1001(KS C 5601) and other Hangul codes? In 1997, Korean standard body made a rather drastic change in the naming scheme of standards for information exchange and processing. What used to be refered to as KS C 56xx - KS C 59xx were renamed as KS X xxxx. The following summarizes the change. [Posted by Prof. Kim, Kyongsok at kskim@asadal.cc.pusan.ac.kr to han.comp.hangul] o KS C 5601 -> KS X 1001 o KS C 5657 -> KS X 1002 : additional characters for information exchange o KS C 5636 -> KS X 1003 : Korean version of ISO 646/US-ASCII o KS C 5620 -> KS X 1004 : ISO/IEC 2022 o KS C 5700 -> KS X 1005-1 : Unicode 2.0/ISO-10646 o KS C 5697 -> KS X 1023 : ISO 2375 o KS C 5861 -> KS X 2901 : Korean Unix environment The most widely used coded character set (CCS. For the sake of clarity, I adopt the terms defined in RFC 2130 and RFC 2278) for Korean(Hangul,Hanja and symbols) is KS X 1001(used to be KS C 5601)(Wansunghyung. For English translation of KS C 5601-1987, see http://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/ISO-IR/149.pdf). KS X 1003(used to be KS C 5636 :a Korean equivalent of US-ASCII/ISO 646) and KS X 1001 are two coded character sets for EUC-KR(Korean EUC. See KS X 2901 which used to be refered to as KS C 5861 and RFC 1557) encoding(Character set Encoding Scheme : CES) used on all three major platforms, Mac OS, Unix, and MS-DOS/MS-Windows. In mid 1980s when IBM compatible PCs were introduced in Korea, a few variants of Johab encoding(CES) were used and one of them is still used in some programs under MS-DOS(please, note that it is all but impossible(at least hard) to be used in Unix and Internet because it's not compliant to ISO 2022). Besides, there's one minor encoding, N-byte code(de-facto Unix standard code until mid 1980's). [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] Drawbacks of KS X 1001 include: only 2,350 Hangul syllables out of 11,172(19 x 21 x (27+1) ) syllables in modern Korean are included and its way of enumerating 2,350 syllables doesn't reflect the unique characteristic of Hangul(composing syllables out of 2 to 5 jamos). For these reasons, a number of people opposed adopting it as the national standard and insists that Johab encoding(by which I mean 'Sang-yong Johab encoding' as used in MS-DOS) which can encode all of 11172 syllables be used instead. Taking into account the fact that it's virtually impossible(or very hard) to use 'Sang-yong Johab encoding' in Internet and Unix, adoptation of ISO-2022 compliant KS C 5601 as CCS and the most natural encoding of it along with US-ASCII/KS X 1003(KS C 5636), EUC-KR was near-best compromise. Moreover, KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992 : updated version of KS C 5601-1987) does have an provision on how to represent 8822 syllables not included in a set of the precomposed syllables(2350) with 8byte sequence. In this light, it's NOT the standard BUT those who didn't implement the standard to the fullest who are to blame. KS X 1001 (KS C 5601-1992) lists in Annex 3 Johab encoding, but my understanding is it's only for the sake of reference. EUC-KR is an 8bit encoding(CES) of KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) coded character set and KS X 1003(KS C 5636:Korean version of US-ASCII)/US-ASCII coded character set based on AT&T Extended Unix Code scheme and is widely used in Unix,MS-DOS,MS-Windows, and Mac. MS-DOS/Windows and Mac use slightly different encodings with platform-specific extensions. MS added an ad-hoc extension in Korean MS-Windows 95/98 to represent additional 8822 Hangul syllables and came up with Unified Hangul Code or CP949(Windows-949). For Korean MacOS extension, see http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/mac/TextEncodingCMgr/TECRefBook-151.html#HEADING151-0. Other encodings of KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) and KS X 1003(KS C 5636) include ISO-2022-KR(7bit. Korean Mail Exchange Standard;See Subject 9 and RFC 1557), 7bit ISO-2022(Refer to CJK.inf), and ISO-2022-JP-2(which deals with not only KS C 5601 but also Chinese and Japanese character sets. See RFC 1554 and CJK.inf mentioned below) For most people, EUC-KR(encoding/CES) is interchangeable with KS C 5601(coded character set/CCS) and US-ASCII/KS C 5636 as they're in most cases (actually only exceptions are use of 7bit ISO-2022-KR encoding/CES in mail exchange Emacs/Mule which uses another encoding based on code switching technique specified in ISO-2022. X11 Compound Text encoding is similar to what's used by Emacs/Mule) encoded in 8bit EUC-KR although they MUST be distinguished from each other when working on internet and national standard. Making it more confusing to some people is use of EUC-KR and ISO-2022-KR as the value for charset parameter in MIME Content-Type header. However, this usage is justified because the definition of charset in MIME is almost identical to that of CES as defined in RFC 2130 as long as Korean and Chinese/Japanese encodings(CES) and coded character sets(CCS) are concerned. Accordingly, use of ks_c_5601-1987(the name of coded character set) as the value of MIME charset parameter as in some internet applications(most notably MS FrontPage 3.0 or later) should be avoided at all cost. I'm not an expert on this subject(distinction between character set and encoding) by any means and my explanation is bound to have misleading statements and even downright mistakes. I'd be very grateful for any correction and comment. A good reference for terminology involving code and character set is RFC 2130 available at Internic(ftp.internic.net/rfc) and other national information centers (e.g. ftp.krnic.net). In December, 1995, Korean standard body officially published a new Korean standard character set, KS C 5700(it's renamed as KS X 1005-1 in 1998) , which is based on ISO.IEC 10646-1 and Unicode 2.0. KS X 1005-1 and Unicode 2.0 or later are different from ISO 10646-1:1993 in that they contain all of pre-composed Hangul syllables in modern Korean(11,172) instead of subset of them(6,656) in ISO 10646-1:1993 and Unicode 1.1. Moreover, KS X 1005-1(KS C 5700) contains all of hangul phonetic alphabets(240 HANGUL JAMOs) in antique as well as modern Korean for 'Ch'ot-ga-kkut'(combinational Hangul) code, and 94 phonetic alphabets for compatibility with KS X 1001(KS C 5601). To convert EUC-KR encoded text to and from one of Unicode encodings (Unicode Transformation Format, UTF-8,UTF-7, and "Unicode-native" encoding, UCS-2/UTF-16.), one can use tcs, a utility made by Plan9 team at Bell laboratories and uniconv(included in yudit, Unicode editor. See Subject 3). I found uniconv superior to tcs in that it supports UTF-7 (not supported by tcs) as well as UTF-8 and UCS-2/UTF-16(Big endian, Little endian). On the other hand, tcs supports more national encodings than uniconv. tcs is available in ftp://plan9.bell-labs.com/plan9/unixsrc/. As of Nov.,1997, tcs doesn't support Unicode 2.0/KS X 1005-1. To make it compliant to Unicode 2.0(as far as Korean is concerned), you have to replace ksc.c in the original with mine available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/ksc.c before compiling it. You may also wish to replace ex08.ok(UTF8 encoded version of ex08.src) in the original tcs source with mine at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/ex08.ok to prevent regress (check up script included in tcs) from complaining. Unicode archive (at ftp://ftp.unicode.org) has a set of C routines and mapping tables one can use to build converter between various Unicode transformation format/encoding(UTF8,UTF7,UTF16,etc) and ISO-2022-based encoding such as EUC-KR. Mapping tables for CJK are in /Public/MAPPINGS/EASTASIA and C routines are in /Public/PROGRAMS. You need to note, however, that KSC5601.TXT in Unicode ftp archive and Unicode 2.0 CD-ROM is actually UHC/MS Code Page 949/Windows 949(see below) to Unicode 2.0 mapping table instead of KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) to Unicode mapping table as it claims to be. The correct mapping table for KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) and Unicode 2.0 is available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/KSX1001.TXT.gz. I also prepared the mapping table between JOHAB encoding and Unicode 2.0 at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/JOHAB.TXT.gz. Microsoft Korea came up with its own Hangul encoding, UHC(Unified Hangul Code: MS Code Page 949, Windows-949) stripping Hangul of its unique metit as 'phonetically-combined-writing' system and treating it just like Chinese letters, use it in Hangul Windows 95 and Windows NT (in case of Korean Windows NT 4.0, all internal processings are done in Unicode, but on the surface, it used UHC) despite repeated advices by Korean government to adopt ISO-10646. UHC is upward compatible with EUC-KR(Korean EUC) and assigns Hangul syllables not covered by KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) (11,172 - 2,350) to code points in CR range(in ISO-2022) and some empty slots not used by EUC-KR. Unlike EUC-KR, the second octet of two octet sequence to represent a Hangul syllable may be in GL range(0x21-0x7e), which makes it harder to tell characters drawn from KS X 1001(and Annex 3) from characters belonging to US-ASCII. For more details on Hangul code, refer to following documents: o Unicode and Hangul (at http://camis.kaist.ac.kr/~jwjung/seminar/hangul-i18n) by Jung, Joowon o Han Soft home page(the vendor of Hantorie a Hangul solution for Mac. o CJK Information page by Ken Lunde(lunde@mv.us.adobe.com) of Adobe. Among many documents listed there are cjk.inf at ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/doc/cjk.inf with very extensive (although heavily tilted toward Chinese and Japanese and not up-to-date about Korean software) information on issues arising from implementation of Korean,Chinese,and Japanese supports including and not limited to Hangul code and coding system of Chinese and Japanese and CJK character set server at http://www.ora.com/people/authors/lunde/cjk-char.html o Another very extensive document concerning Korean as well as Chinese and Japanese coding system is found at http://www.ifcss.org/ftp-pub/software/info/cjk-codes/. o Lee, Sanglo has collected a very extensive set of information about Hangul code including many of pages mentioned in this page and KS X 1001(KS C 5601) and KS X 1005-1(KS C 5700) table at http://trade.chonbuk.ac.kr/~leesl/code/. The identical information is available at http://suny.multi.co.kr/~leesl/code/. o Prof. Kim, Kyeong-seok of Pusan National Univ. has pages with extensive information on Hangul code at http://asadal.cs.pusan.ac.kr/hangeul/. o Roman Czyborra put up an excellent web page on Unicode and character sets/encodings with a number of fonts,sample documents, tables and many other useful links at http://czyborra.com/. o The most technically oriented may want to refer to following pages o KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987)(summary) as submitted to the ISO(in English) is available at http://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/ISO-IR/2-4.htm along with North Korean(KPS 9566-97),Japanese and Chinese standards. (Erik van der Poel of Netscape posted this info. to a newsgroup). Other graphic and control coded character sets can also be obtained at http://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/ISO-IR/. o A number of the original ISO standard documents including ISO-2022 are available (free of charge) in PDF and MS-Word format at http://www.ecma.ch. ISO-2022 is refered to as ECMA 35. This precious piece of information was passed along to me by Werner Lemberg at sx0005@sx2.hrz.uni-dortmund.de. o The international standardization subcommittee for coded character sets: http://www.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/ o The Guide to Open System Specification(European Union) : http://www.ewos.be/tg-cs/gtop.htm. o The technical committee for the multilingual and multicultural Europe : http://www.stri.is/TC304/default.html o Lee, Jaekil has made an excellent page regarding Hangul code(and true type fonts) especially geared for Windows NT/95 at http://www.seodu.co.kr/~juria/hangul/. It's a must for Windows 95/NT programmers(and users as well). o Inside Macintosh has a very brief but very clear explanation for EUC-KR and other encodings. Online version is at http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/mac/TextEncodingCMgr/TECRefBook-151.html#HEADING151-0. o Kosta Kostis' collection of information on Unicode and translator among many different character sets and encodings is found at ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/pub/doc/ISO/charsets/ Conversion table among several Hangul codes mentioned above are available at following locations o ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/map/hangul-codes.txt for 11,172 pre-combined Hangul syllables o ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/map/non-hangul-codes.txt for 5,874 non-hangul characters in KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) (4,888 hanja and 986 symbols) HCODE is a Hangul code conversion program written by June-Yub Lee at jylee@kitty.cims.nyu.edu. It can deal with ISO-2022-KR encoded code (de facto standard for hangul mail exchange), KS X 1001-Extension, Sambo(Trigem) Johab, and Hangul Romanization code as agreed upon by both Koreas. The newest version is hcode 2.1-mailpatch2(patches by me to fix some glitches in handling ISO-2022-KR and B/Q encoded header of Hangul Mail as specified in RFC 1557) available in /pub/hangul/code/hcode at CAIR archive and its mirrors. HCODEis fast,small,and most importantly it's flexible so that it's very easy to add new code such as one's own Romanization code and Unicode(as adopted in KS X 1005-1). MS-DOS binary of the newest version of hcode(2.1-mailpatch2) (hcode21m.exe compiled with old Turbo C 3.0) was uploaded to /incoming/hangul of CAIR archive and /incoming of HanaBBS archive. It'll be moved to /hangul/code/hcode at CAIR archive. A set of Hangul code converters(Johab,Wansung,two coding systems included in KS X 1005-1) is included in a word processor(MS-DOS) for ancient Korean developed at Pusan Nat'l Univ.. It's available at http://asadal.cs.pusan.ac.kr/ohwp. [Posted by Prof. Kim, Kyongsok to Hangul Usenet newsgroup, han.comp.hangul] GNU recode has been in the middle of rewritting to use Unicode (more exactly one of its encodings) as the central encoding to convert among multitude of coded character sets(CCS)/character set encoding schemes(CES). In addition, I wrote a simple-minded code converter between ISO-2022-KR and EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS X 1001+KS X 1003/US-ASCII), hmconv, which is available in /hangul/code/hmconv at CAIR archive.It doesn't have glitches of hcode mentioned above and works well as a filter for Hangul mail exchange. See Subject 9 for more on how to use it in Hangul mail exchange. Binaries for MS-DOS(compiled by me with Turbo C 3.0) and MS-Windows binary (compiled by Yi, Yeong-deug. No GUI, but requires MS-Windows to run) along with a brief document was uploaded to /incoming/hangul of CAIR archive and will be moved to /hangul/code/hmconv. According to Lee Q-Young at ggangsi@hanmesoft.co.kr, MS-Windows NT users can convert documents in EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS X 1001 + KS X 1003/US-ASCII) to KS X 1005-1 (Unicode: I'm not sure which encoding is used in NT, Unicode-with network byte order: ISO-10646 BMP?- or UTF8) by loading them into notepad and choosing "Save in Unicode" when saving them back in different names. CHAMEL is a code converter for IBM-PC, and it can convert files between Johab and KS codes. It's author is not reachable from Internet. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] Ken Lunde (lunde@adobe.com) informed me that North Korean recently published KPS 9566-97. It's similar to KS C 5601-1987(in that it's conformant to ISO-2022) and contains 2,679 Hangul syllables and 4653 Hanja(Chinese ideograms used in Korea). One funny thing about it is it put aside separate code points for 6 syllables which make up the names of their iron-fist dictators. 9. How can I exchange Hangul Mails? Before reading further, please take a note that what follows does not address how you view Hangul in your environment. It's assumed that you have no problem viewing and entering Hangul text in your environment although you have some difficulty deciphering some cryptic jargons (e.g. encoding, MIME, base64, charset, etc) required for standard-compliant exchange of Hangul messages. As for reading and writing Hangul in your platform, you need to refer to other parts of the FAQ. Of particular relevance to them are Subject 2(Hangul terminal emulators), Subject 3(Hangul editors), Subject 4(MS-DOS/Windows Hangul environment), Subject 5(Mac Hangul environment) and Subject 6(Unix Hangul environment). You may also wish to read Subject 36, 37 ,and 38 on viewing Hangul web pages. Internet mail exchange protocol, SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) as specified in STD 10 (RFC 821) is not '8bit clean' and a number of installed implementations of SMTP - Mail Transport Agents(MTA) like sendmail, smail,and mmdf - did not transparently pass 8bit characters such as used in EUC-KR(8bit encoding of Hangul standard coded character sets,KS X 1001(KS C 5601) and KS X 1003(KS C 5636)/US-ASCII) and ISO-8859-x(European char.) although increasing number of MTAs become 8bit transparent and some of them(e.g. sendmail 8.7 and later) faithfully implement ESMTP ( RFC 1869 and RFC 1652). Hence, need for some form of encoding conversion/transfer encoding(to use only lower 7bits) existed in the past and still exist in some cases. Listed below are a few transfer encoding/encoding conversion methods widely used. Please, note that a new Korean mail exchange standard(which has been already in wide use for a couple of years) will be announced sooner or later. One of the most notable changes will be ISO-2022-KR/7bit won't be used any more in outbound messages. Over a 8bit transparent transport channel, EUC-KR/8bit will be used exclusively and EUC-KR/Base64 (or EUC-KR/QP) over a 7bit transport channel. When the official announcement is made, I'll revise this part of the FAQ to reflect the new standard. EUC-KR/8bit 8bit encoding - compliant to EUC(Extended Unix Code) spec. by AT&T - of Korean standard coded character set for Hangul,Hanja,and special characters KS X 1001(KS C 5601)(which will be phased out and superceded by KS X 1005-1(KS C 5700) See Subject 8) and US-ASCII/KS X 1003(KS C 5636: Korean equivalent of US-ASCII with backslash replaced by Korean currency sign). As mentioned above, many MTAs nowadays are 8bit transparent so that they have little trouble transmitting messaage in 8bit encodings(MIME charsets) like EUC-KR. EUC-KR will be the default encoding to use in Korean mail exchange and 8bit will be the content-transfer-encoding for 8bit transparent path. For 7bit only path(more exactly all the paths not confirmed to be 8bit clean), either Base64 or Quoted-Printable should be used in accordance with RFC 1652. ISO-2022-KR/7bit used to be standard for Hangul mail exchange specified in RFC 1557. Still a number of mails from Korea and sent using Netscape 4.x are in ISO-2022-KR(header is B encoded with charset name EUC-KR following RFC 2047). See below for detail. Programs supporting ISO-2022-KR are o OLD Hangul Sendmail : MTA-level implementation of RFC 1557 by one of authors of RFC 1557, Choi,Woohyung. Automatically converts EUC-KR to and from ISO-2022-KR with B encoded header. Hangul sendmail 8.6.x has several bugs as well as serious security holes associated with sendmail 8.6. You should install NEW Hangul sendmail 8.8.8H2 by Roh, Jungsuck(sp?) or another NEW Hangul sendmail (8.8.8Ha) by Suh, Sang yong, instead. New Hangul Sendmail converts incoming 7bit iso-2022-kr back to 8bit euc-kr, but doesn't convert outgoing euc-kr to iso-2022-kr. The former is available at http://cair.kaist.ac.kr/~chester/sendmail.html and the latter at ftp://ftp.kigam.re.kr. To install either of them, you need to have the root previlege on a Unix host. However, I strongly recommend you not use Hangul sendmail, old or new as it violates several Internet mail standard(RFC 1652, RFC 2047). To be interoperable with MA(Mail Agent)s still following old standard(RFC 1557), you are infinitely much better off using procmail(with appropriate recipe) as the MDA (Mail Delivery Agent) for MTA(sendmail and others) given below and at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html. o Cubic Mail for Java : Choi, Hee-chang at hcchoi@idigm.co.kr released a truly excellent Hangul mail client(POP3/IMAP4 client) in pure Java. It can be run on any platform where Java application can be run as it's written in pure Java. With bulit-in Hangul input/output, it enables you to read and write Hangul mail in any language version of any OS as long as you can run Java application. You can get it at http://www.idigm.co.kr/cubic/ Please, note that it's not a freeware but a shareware, but I think it's a lot more than worth shareware fee. o Procmail with appropriate procmailrc (automatic decoding only) which can be installed by either ordinary users or by system admin. as a Mail Delivery Agent(MDA= local mailer) along with the original sendmail 8.8. See below and http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html for detail. It can be used whatever program(netscape,eudora,pine,elm,etc) you use to read your mail on whatever platform(Unix,Mac,MS-Windows). o KESMPRE( Sendmail Preprocessor for Hangul Mail Exchange): Sitting in place of sendmail 8.8, it converts outgoing Hangul messages in EUC-KR into ISO-2022-KR before handing them over to real sendmail. Made by Park, Jae-hyon in Physics Dept. of KAIST. When installed by the system administrator along with procmail+code converter to deal with incoming mail in ISO-2022-KR, it would make unnecessary patching every Mail User Agents(MUA) and POP3/IMAP4 clients users wish to use for Hangul mail handling. Further information is available at http://entropy.kaist.ac.kr/~jhpark/kesmpre/. o Hangul Mail 1.0.2 : Control panel for automatic encoding conversion in Hangul mail exchange on Mac by Jeong-hyun Kim at jhkim@salmosa.kaist.ac.kr : available at Mac Hangul Archive1 ( /pub/mac/internet-sw),CAIR archive and its mirrors and UCSD archive. o MS Internet Mail and MS Exchange : support ISO-2022-KR with some problems depending on what version you use.(See below). Note, however, that Korean MS Internet Mail only works with Korean(and Chinese and Japanese) version of MS Windows 95/NT. MS Internet Mail for Hangul MS Windows 3.1 was also released in December,1996. o Netscape 4.03 or later(early betas such as 4.0b2 have some problems, but those bugs have been fixed in the final release) supports automatic detection and conversion of messages in ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR . For outgoing messages, it always uses ISO-2022-KR in message body regardless of MIME/QP is turned on or off in mail setting. Next release of Netscape will use EUC-KR in place of ISO-2022-KR to be compliant new Korean mail exchange standard. o MS Outlook Express and Outlook97: inbound messages in ISO-2022-KR is properly displayed(with some patches for old version. See below) and outbound messages are sent out EUC-KR/8bit. Korean versions of these two programs might not work under non-East-Asian version of MS-Windows 95/NT. However, there's a report that it works in English and French version of MS-Windows NT/95 as long as displaying the body of the message is concerned. It still used to require external programs for Hangul input. With the release of Korean IME(Input Method Editor), this is not the case any more. You can compose Korean messages in any language version of MS Windows 95/NT by installing Korean IME available at MS IE web page at http://www.microsoft.com/ie/. Korean version also offers Unicode(UTF-7 and UTF-8) encoding,but one needs to be very careful NOT to choose either of these in Format(O)-Language(G) of the message composition window as most people can't handle UTF-7 or UTF-8, yet. o HanMail 96 : MUA for MS-Windows that comes bundled with HWP Pro 96 by Hangul & Computer. The first release is very buggy. o Hangul-patched mail programs(MUA) for Unix : mutt and elm(old one. may not be available any more). o encoding converters : hcode, hmconv for Unix and MS-DOS and Hangul Mail Converters for Mac. o decoder : hdcod for Unix, cvt8.exe for MS-Windows and Netscape-mail-folder decoder for MS-Windows. o Pine 3.94/3.95/3.96K + encoding converter : See below and refer to pine.html at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/pine.html for details. o Mule and GNU Emacs 20/XEmacs 20 : multilinguial extension of emacs(of which features have been incorporated into Emacs 20), supports both ISO-2022-KR and EUC-KR, so that mule(and emacs mail packages like Rmail,VM, and MH-E) users should have little problem with reading ISO-2022-KR-encoded Hangul mail. However, care should be taken not to encode Hangul apperaing in mail header in ISO-2022-KR. A recipe to avoid this problem is mentioned below. o KUMailer(Free POP3 client for MS-Windows 95) : Cho Soohyun at shcho@widecomm.korea.ac.kr released a flexible(in terms of user control over which transfer encoding and/or MIME charset to use) POP3 client. It's available at http://widecomm.korea.ac.kr/~shcho/mua.html. o AsianView for MS-Windows 3.1/95,Unionway for MS-Windows 3.1/95/NT,and NJWin for 3.1/95/NT (See Subject 4) automatically detect and display ISO-2022-KR. The original NJWin 1.20 has some problem with converting. You need to get and install bug-fixed DLL files( njdbcs.dll and njtext16.dll) available at ftp://yes.snu.ac.kr/download. Bug-fixed DLL file for AsianView is also available at the same place. [Contribution by Yi, Yeong Deug at queen@yes.snu.ac.kr]. You need to get the newest build of Unionway(the one available via download has a bug and doesn't decode ISO-2022-KR) by following the link to membership at http://www.unionway.com. o ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR conversion page at http://cosmos.changwon.ac.kr/cwnu/e_mail.html In addition,most Unix mail programs(e.g. Pine 3.92 or later, elm,mail,mailx,and Rmail and mh-e for emacs) along with encoding converters can be configured to convert Hangul as necessary for Hangul mail exchange automatically or semi-automatically as described below. By converting your outgoing Hangul mail to ISO-2022-KR, you will make life of your correspondents who use HiTel and Nownuri in Korea easier. In case Hangul MTA(Hangul sendmail) is installed on one's SMTP(mail) server(which is often the case in Korea), one has to turn OFF 'enable QP' in Eudora(it has a serious problem with Hangul mail, though) and choose 'Allow 8bit' in Netscape-Mail(up to 3.0) to make outgoing mail properly encoded in ISO-2022-KR. EUC-KR/Base64 more economical than QP for Hangul mail exchange. Supported by Pine, Elm(read-only in most versions with metamail. Some recent variants of Elm seem to support MIME attachment as well) and any MIME-aware MUAs under Unix and several MUA/POP/IMAP clients for Mac/MS-Windows such as Netscape mail. mmencode included in metamail package can be used for manual code conversion to/from Base64 and QP in Unix. In MS-Windows, wincode can be used the same way. uuencode Unix community and nowadays with explosive growth of the Net, Mac and MS-DOS/Windows as well, have used a pair of encoder/decoder, uuencode/uudecode to exchange binary data(requiring all 8bits) via e-mail and Usenet News. uuencode, however, will be phased out and replaced by Base64(one of MIME standard encoding). Chollian MagiCall users seem to have choice of sending their outgoing mail either in ISO-2022-KR or encoding in uuencode.You had beeter avoid using uuencode for any purpose including Hangul mail and binary file exchange because uuencode has several different implementations(thus incompatible with each other) and uuencoded messages get broken when passed over to hosts with charset different from US-ASCII(e.g. EBCDIC),which led to a new encoding scheme, Base64. EUC-KR/QP(Quoted Printable) the most suitable for ISO-8859-1(West European character sets with small fraction of 8bit characters), but can be used for Hangul mail(in EUC-KR) exchange as well. Supported by Pine,Elm (with metamail installed) and any MIME-aware MUAs(Mail User Agent) under Unix and a number of MUA/POP/IMAP clients including Netscape mail,Agent and Eudora on Mac/MS-Windows.Currently, for POP3 client users(on Mac/MS-Windows) outside Korea on whose mail/pop3 server Hangul sendmail cannot be installed, this, along with Base64, is the most convenient and certain option to send out Hangul mail although recipents in Korea without MIME-compatible MUAs may have difficulty decoding QP-encoded messages. To encode your outgoing messages in QP/Base64, turn on 'May use QP' in Eudora,check 'MIME'(instead of 'Allow 8bit') in Netscape 3.0 (Options|Mail&News|Composition menu) in MS Outlook express (see below for details on configuring MS Outlook Express) Please, note that Netscape 4.0, unlike Netscape 3.0, sends outgoing messages in ISO-2022-KR regardless of whether MIME is selected or not if Encoding is set to Korean. In case you think this document is too difficult to understand and you never use Unix to read and send mail, you may refer to Yi,Yeong Deug's Hangul Mail FAQ available at http://yes.snu.ac.kr/queen/hmailfaq.htm. Kang, Kyung-soo at kangksoo@chollian.net posted a series of articles to Usenet newsgroup han.answers,han.comp.mail and han.comp.hangul explaining how to configure MS outlook Express and Netscape for Hangul mail exchanges in very easy-to-understand manner.(It's a must for those using Internet under MS-Windows) You can view his articles on Dejanews Power search with the search term "~g han.answers and ~a Kyung-soo" or you may try Hitel Q&A section at http://www1.hitel.net/dong/o/osc.html. Lee, June Young at leejy@hyowon.cc.pusan.ac.kr also has put up on the web an excellent information on Hangul mail exchange with MS Outtlook Exprees. His page is found at http://skyhawk.i.ml.org/oesetup/oesetup-image.html. When using MS OE, you need to make sure that the language is set to Korean(rather than Unicode) in Format(O) - Language(G) menu of the message composition Window. Another very good site about Hangul mail with extensive information on sendmail and Hangul code has been put on the web by Lee, Sanglo at http://trade.chonbuk.ac.kr/~leesl/mail/. Hangul mail has been widely spread since 1992 when Choi, Woohyung suggested a ISO-2022 conformant encoding method, and made a pilot implementation for ELM(still available at major Hangul archive). Later, he modified sendmail(the most widely used MTA-Mail Transfer Agent- under Unix) for automatic encoding conversion between EUC-KR and ISO-1022-KR in message body and B(base64) encoding in message header. As mentioned above, however, sendmail 8.6.12h2(old Hangul sendmail) has several bugs and security holes(found in the original sendmail 8.6) and all the sites with this version of sendmail must upgrade to sendmail 8.8/8.9(the newest is 8.9.0 as of June, 1998)+ procmail or sendmail 8.8.8h1/ sendmail 8.8.8Ha (new Hangul sendmail). With Hangul Sendmail(old and new) or sendmil+procmail (procmail solution can be used together with MTA other than smail,qmail and mmdf as well) installed, any user level mail program(MUA:Mail User Agent ; e.g. pine,elm,mh,xmh,mailx,mail) can be used to transparently exchange Hangul mail. Users of POP3 clients for MS-Windows and Mac(MS Outlook Express, Netscape mail,Claris Emailer.etc) are relieved of inconvenience of encoding conversion with Hangul Sendmail on their POP3 server and SMTP(mail) server. (In this case, 'Quoted Printable' should be turned off - equivalently 'Allow 8bit' is to be turned on- in POP3 client. Charset should be set to EUC-KR or Korean whenever possible. This is crucial especially in Mac version of Netscape and Forte Agent for MS-Windows. In Netscape for Mac, setting charset to one other than Korean results in completely gobbled-message. See Subject 24 for Forte Agent). Eudora as is released by Qualcomm has a serious problem with Hangul mail exchange does NOT offer any means to set charset to EUC-KR. There's a perfect work-around for Mac version of Eudora. MS-Windows version of Eudora doesn't even have a room for such work-around although Yi Yeong Deug came up with a work-around that works for text/plain type messaeg(i.e. message without attachment). The same is true of Hangul Mail 1.0.2 for Mac with code-conversion for outgoing message turned on. Technical details on Hangul mail exchange is described in RFC-1557(ftp.internic.net/rfc) submitted to IETF by Choi, Woohyung and Prof. Chon, Kilnam(chon@cosmos.kaist.ac.kr) with CS dept. at KAIST and Park, HJ (hjpark@dino.media.co.kr) at Solvit Chosun Media. Information on old Hangul Sendmail are found at http://cosmos.kaist.ac.kr. Documents mentioned there include Hangul mail guide in /pub/hangul/mail at CAIR archive and mirrors and Hangul Sendmail.FAQ by Choi, Woohyung at http://cosmos.kaist.ac.kr/pub/whchoi/dist/untarred/FAQ.Hangul. Please, be aware that these documents got very much out-of-date with recent developments in Hangul mail exchange standard (on which virtually every party involved agreed that ISO-2022-KR/7bit not be used any more and EUC-KR be the default encoding for Hangul mail exchange) Unfortunately, Hangul Sendmail and Procmail as MDA are to be installed by root (system administrator), so that most people outside Korea (except for those with root previlege to install Hangul Sendmail) have to figure out how to do what Hangul Sendmail does, encoding conversion: convert a message in whatever Hangul code you use locally into ISO-2022-KR before sending out(the new Hangul sendmail doesn't do this any more. Neither does the original sendmail(+procmail), needless to say) and convert incoming mail (from Korea) in ISO-2022-KR to your local code(usually EUC-KR). In HCODE distribution, you may find a document for Hangul mailing with hcode v.2.1. It's for Berkeley mail ,but you should be able to do the same for other mail programs once you understand what it does for Berkeley mail. hcode 2.1 has a few glitches in code conversion for mail exchange ( -ki,-ik,-dk,-kd options. e.g. See Subject 8) The newest patched version, hcode2.1-mailpatch2 available in /pub/hangul/code/hcode of CAIR archive solves all of these incompatibilities, so that you have to get this one to avoid complaints from your correspondents in Korea. MS-DOS binary of hcode 2.1-mailpatch2 (hcode21m.exe compiled with old Turbo C 3.0) can be obtained in /hangul/code/hcode of CAIR archive. I wrote a simple code/encoding converter between EUC-KR and ISO-2022-KR, hmconv available in /hangul/code/hmconv of CAIR archive. The newest one (which now works with Pine 3.93 or later in Solaris 2.x where it used to have a problem) is packaged together with Hangul patch for Pine 3.96 in pine396k2.patch.tar.gz which also contain detailed instruction on how to use it to completely automate Hangul mail exchange and is now available in separate package hmconv1.0pl3.tar.gz at CAIR archive. MS-DOS binary of hmconv compiled by Yi, Yeogn Deug is available at his archive ftp://yes.snu.ac.kr/download. MS-DOS binary can be used for manual encoding conversion for Hangul messages. MS-DOS and MS-Windows(no GUI) binary of hmconv with a brief document are available in a package hmconv.zip in /hangul/incoming of CAIR archive ELM users should read README.elm(at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/README.elm) for configuration to automate Hangul mail exchange with hmconv and ELM. I found Pine 3.93 or later with displayfilter and sendingfilter very convenient for Hangul mail without Hangul sendmail and strongly recommend it, whose source and binaries for virtually all flavors of Unix' are available at ftp://ftp.cac.washington.edu/pine. As binaries are available, you don't need to compile it(you have to compile it if you wish to apply Hangul patch. See below) and you can install it in your home directory without root permission in most flavors of Unix. I patched Pine 3.95(the newest as of Aug. 12,1996) to remove a couple of incompatibilities with RFC 1557 and Hangul MTA. The newest patch against Pine 3.96(pine396k2.patch) is available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/pine396k2.patch. pine 395k.patch.tar.gz (available in /hangul/mail/Others of CAIR archive) contains an improved version of encoding converter, hmconv 1.0pl3 and detailed instructions to compile Pine 3.95k and to configure it for Hangul mail exchange. I tried it in Linux 2.0,Solaris 2.5, and Sun OS 4.1.x and it worked fine. Linux binary for Hangul patched Pine 3.96(the newest) is available at ftp://romance.kaist.ac.kr/pub/linux/hangul. Instructions for Pine configuration is also available here as pine.html (at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/pine.html. Pine395k.patch can be applied without any problem to Pine 3.96 announced by Univ. of Washington in March, 1997. Pine source ported to FreeBSD is available at ftp://ftp.freebsd.org//pub/FreeBSD/ports-current/mail. According to Jonghwan Park at morph@soback1.kornet.ne.kr, Pine 3.95 Hangul patch works fine with FreeBSD port as well. Some of you who want to post-process mail folders using tools like sed,awk,perl, and grep find it inconvenient to handle mail folders in ISO-2022-KR. I came up with an efficient way to convert mail folders in ISO-2022-KR(+ B encoded header) to EUC-KR. It requires procmail and its accompanying utilities(formail) along with hmconv and hcode. Detailed instruction is found http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html. In case procmail and formail are not available, you may use a simple(but much slower) perl script I made and hcode to convert mail folders in ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR. It converts not only message body but header information as well. The script is available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/mboxconv.pl. hmconv can be also used to convert mail folder in ISO-2022-KR(with multiple Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR) back to EUC-KR. Please, note that hmconv doesn't change header information and accordingly mail folders converted using it have header information inconsitent with encoding and/or charset used in message body. Similar automation is possible even with the simplest mail user agent, mail or mailx available in most, if not all, varionts of Unixen. Following recipe is given by Kim, Daeshik at dkim@cwc.com. Add following lines to .mailrc in your home directory set crt=1 set VISUAL=hmailedit set PAGER=mpager where hmailedit is a shell script listed below and mpager is another script with following lines. #!/bin/sh hmconv -u | less hdcod 0.3, a decoder for ISO-2022-KR,QP and Base64 with automatic detection of encoding type, by Park, Myeong-seok at pms@romance.kaist.ac.kr can be used similary. hdcod 0.3 is available at ftp://romance.kaist.ac.kr/pub/linux/han/hdcod. Automatic detection of encoding type is pretty handy in case you don't have MIME-aware mail program and don't want to be bothered with figuring out which encoding is used in mail you received although it's not hard at all. In Mule 2.3, including the following line in ~/.emacs would make your outgoing mesage in EUC-KR. (define-program-coding-system nil ".*mail.*" *euc-kr*) In Mule 19.33, ISO-2022-KR is automatically detected and displayed accodingly. You have to add, however, this line to avoid your outgoing mail encoded in 7bit ISO-2022,default coding system in Mule. coding-system-euc-korea needs to be replaced with euc-kr in Mule 19.34.31 and Emacs 20.x(See Subject 3) ;; This line is NOT necessary in Emacs 20.x if you ;; include (set-language-environment 'korean) in your ~/.emacs file ;; (See Subjet 3) (setq sendmail-coding-system 'coding-system-euc-korea) ;; Three lines below are optional MIME header ;; You don't need this if you use one of MIME tools for ;; Emacs/Mule(e.g Semi/TM) (setq mail-default-headers "MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=EUC-KR Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n") If you want to send outgoing message in 7bit ISO-2022-KR, you may add following lines, instead.(This is NOT recommended any more) Be aware that Mule puts Hangul in header as well as in body into ISO-2022-KR, which is a violation of RFC 1557 and makes your message unreadable by non-Mule users. Hence, you should not enter Hangul in header if you include lines below. One workaround is encode(in RFC 2047-style) message header with Hangul with 'hcode -kd' and 'shell-command-on-region' before sending it out. Un, Koaunghi figured out how to automate this. See below. (setq sendmail-coding-system 'coding-system-iso-2022-kr) ;; In Emacs 20, use the following lines with the leading semi-colones ;; removed, instead ;; (setq sendmail-coding-system 'iso-2022-kr) ;; (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook ;; (function (lambda () ;; (setq buffer-file-coding-system sendmail-coding-system)))) ;; This is OPTIONAL to make your message compliant to ;; RFC 1557 (setq mail-default-headers "MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-2022-KR Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit\n") . Similar setting should be possible for mh-e and other mailers for Mule. The author of HLaTeX, Un, Koaunghi came up with a much better way to make outgoing Hangul mail compliant to RFC 1557(now NOT necessary any more as EUC-KR is so widely used). It uses a modifield send-mail-function along with a couple of shell scripts,hmconv, and hcode2.1-mailpatch2. For details, refer to his posting to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.mail I made available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/emacs-mail.doc. You don't have to change rmail-movemail-program in case you install procmail to convert incoming hangul message back to EUC-KR. Some MUAs(Mail User Agent:user mail reading program) allow users to select PAGER to display message in mailbox. For instance, in elm, you may set, in 'option' menu or by editing .elm/elmrc in your home directory, 'pager' to hmconv -u | more or hmconv -u | less . In pine 3.91 and elm, you may press "|" (Pipe to a Unix command) while viewing incoming Hangul message encoded in ISO-2022-KR(thus illegible) and give following command to display it in EUC-KR. hmconv -u . pine 3.93 has an option for 'displayfilter' which is very useful for viewing Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR. Set 'displayfilter' to "" hmconv -u. In case elm on your system supports MIME and metamail at ftp://thumper.bellcore.com/pub/nsb is installed on your system, you may want to add following lines, instead of changing pager shown above, to .mailcap in your home directory. 'hmconv -u %s | more' can be replaced by 'mpager %s' if you put 'mpager'(shell script listed above) in your search path(e.g. ~/bin). 'less' can replace 'more', here. For environment variable setting to display Hangul text with 'less', see Subject 16 text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = iso-2022-kr text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = euc-kr text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = iso-8859-1 A much(infinitely) better way is write mail filter to convert back to EUC-KR and redirect to separate mail folder in your home directory incoming Hangul mail in ISO-2022-KR. A easy way to tell if message is in ISO-2022-KR is match the designator sequence of ISO-2022-KR( ESC$)C where ESC stands for ASCII 27) at the beginning of any line. I guess a popular mail filter, procmail has pretty robust file-locking scheme to reduce,if not eliminate, the danger of losing incoming mail. (Refer to http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html for step-by-step instruction to install procmail to convert incoming Hangul message automatically. Please, note that this is the most handy for those who use POP3 clients like Netscape-Mail,Eudora,non-Hangul version of MS-Internet Mail which cannot handle ISO-2022-KR and who can still access their mail box via Unix shell account). For instance, you can put into .forward in your home directory(Be aware that the example below doesn't work on all hosts and that the exact content of .forward depends on mail related configuration of your system. On hosts where procmail is a local mailer/MDA (mail delivery agent), .foward is not necessary at all. Read procmail.html aforementioned for more details) "|IFS=' ' && exec /full/path/procmail -f- || exit 75 #your-login-name" and in .procmailrc(note that this is the simplest recipe. For a much better recipe, refer to procmail.html mentioned above) LOGFILE=/your/home/directory/.procmaillog VERBOSE=no PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/your/home/directory/bin :0 fw |hcode -dk -m With this set-up properly, you don't have to worry about encoding conversion, as far as incoming Hangul message is concerned. In case MMDF is used instead of sendmail or smail as MTA on your host, you need ~/.maildeliver with following instead of ~/.forward. default - | A "/full/path/hcode -dk >> /full/path/system/mailbox" With procmail(which is much better), .maildelivery can be default - | A "/full/path/procmail -f-" Not having used MMDF, I'm not sure this really works. It might or might not work. It would be great if anyone using MMDF (The default MTA of SCO Unix is MMDF) try what I wrote above and give me some feedback(success or failure story and fix if necessary). If your site uses smail as the MTA instead of sendmail, you can still use procmail by invoking it from .forward or ~/.procmailrc if it's designated as the local mailer. You system admin should be able to answer this. You may wish to ask her/him to install procmail as the local mailer. Park, Chu-yeon at kokids@doit.ajou.ac.kr posted the following procedure to Usenet newsgroup han.comp.mail 1. Edit transports file (/etc/smail/transports in Debian Linux) as following # Using procmail as local mailer(MDA) local: driver=pipe, from, local, inet, return_path, unix_from_hack; user=root, cmd="/full/path/procmail -d $($user$)" 2. Edit the global procmailrc as outlined in http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html. 3. Restart smail qmail is another MTA which has gained a lot of popularity recently. If your site uses qmail as MTA and procmail is not a local mailer(ask your system admin about this), you can put the following line to .qmail in your home directory to use procmail to filter incoming mail. | preline /full/path/procmail Please, note that you need to compile procmail 3.11pre7 with MAILSPOOLHOME in src/authenticate.c set to .mail. (It's relative to each user's home directory). The problem was dealt with in a thread in qmail and procmail mailing list. You may read all the articles in the thread at http://www.ornl.gov/cts/archives/mailing-lists/qmail/1997/11/msg00385.html. Alternatively, superuser(system admin.) can configure procmail as the system wide local mailer by invoking qmail with the following command qmail-start '|preline /full/path/procmail' splogger qmail & insetead of qmail-start ./Mailbox splogger qmail & Still another alternative is get procmail 3.11pre7 patched to work better with the mail delivery model of qmail. It's available at http://www.qcc.sk.ca/~bguenter/distrib/procmail-maildir/. Besides, Hanterm can display Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR strictly following RFC 1557 and 'metamail' may be made use of for some (usually from ill-configured Hangul mail program)Hangul message by setting mailcap and mime.types appropriately. Park,Myeok-Seok at pms@romance.kaist.ac.kr patched a version of mutt(elm-like MUA with built-in MIME handling) for Hangul mail exchange conformant to RFC 1557 either with or WITHOUT Hangul MTA(Hangul sendmail). Those without root previliege on their hosts to install Hangul MTA may get it to be relieved of hassle of code conversion in Hangul mail exchange. Note that it may still need permission of system admin. to install 'mutt' depending on flavor of Unix. Hangul mutt is available at ftp://romance.kaist.ac.kr/pub/linux/han and in /pub/hangul/Others at CAIR archive. Mutt is an excellent mail program and can be used for Hangul mail exchange even without Hangul patch if you have your incoming mail automatically filtered by procmail as mentioned above. Those who are reluctant to switch to Pine from Elm may find it a very good replacement for Elm with a lot of goodies not available in Elm(far superior MIME support, PGP support, mouse support in xterm, etc). For more information, see Mutt home page at http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~me/mutt/. When configuring mutt, you have to give '--enable-locales-fix' option. The globabl configuration file(Muttrc) or personal configuration file(~/.muttrc) should contain the following lines[posted by Park, Chong-Dae at cdpark@jupiter.kaist.ac.kr. set allow_8bit set use_8bitmime set charset="EUC-KR" set ascii_chars For those who use POP client like Eudora and Netscape mail(up to 3.01) under MS-DOS/Windows or Mac OS, the most convenient way to handle incoming ISO-2022-KR encoded message, set up a mail filter like procmail on a Unix host where incoming mail is saved to convert automatically ISO-2022-KR back to EUC-KR. See procmail.html(at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jshin/faq/procmail.html for how to install procmail. In case one may not access Unix host with incoming mail box, Hangul code converters like iso2ks/ks2iso and hcode 2.10 available at CAIR and major Hangul archives have been ported to MS-DOS. Besides, Lee, Jun Hee at jhlee@ain.icube.co.kr made a decoder/converter for MS-Windows 95/3.1, cvt8pac.exe in /hangul/incoming (along with cvt8.doc available in /pub/hangul/code) at CAIR archive, which supports converting/decoding ISO-2022-KR,QP(Quoted Printable), and uuencode. Cha,Jae Choon at jccha@math.kaist.ac.kr made a mail-folder converter(ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR) for Netscape Inbox which is availbable at ftp://knot.kaist.ac.kr/pub/Netscape-hmail-conv. Still another and more convenient way is install either NJWin, Unionway or Asianview capable of automatically detecting and displaying ISO-2022-KR. See Subject 38 for more details on these programs. For Mac users, Kim,Jeong-hyun (jhkim@salmosa.kaist.ac.kr) made a control-panel called 'Hangul Mail' 1.0.2 which automatically converts incoming Hangul mail encoded in ISO-2022-KR back to EUC-KR on its way to a local Mac(on which POP clients like Netscape and Eudora run) from POP3 server where your mail box is. Moreover, it converts outgoing message in EUC-KR into ISO-2022-KR on its way to SMTP(mail) server. It superceded 0.5b2 which worked only for receiving(ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR convertion) mail. It's, however, still a beta so that you're encouraged to try it and report bugs to the author. Besides, it's found by Park, Seungwoo that it doesn't work with Netscape and Claris Emailer on Power Mac running OpenTransport intead of MacTCP although it works with Eudora Light 3.x on both Power Mac and Netscape,Claris Emailer, and Eudora on 680x0-based Mac. Kim, Jeong-hyun has been looking into it, but the problem is non-trivial and it may take him very long to come up with fix. (In the meantime, those PowreMac and Netscape usres need to switch to Eudora Light 3.x available free at http://www.eudora.com or use Procmail-based solution described above. Another alternative is do manual code conversion with Hangul Mail Converter mentioned below). With this nice tool, you're completely relieved of manual code conversion. Eudora and Claris Emailer users have to get Resource-patched versions for proper handling of outgoing Hangul mail with Hangul Mail 1.0.2. Hangul-patched Eudora Light and Hangul patch for Eudora Light and Pro and Claris Emailer are avaliable /pub/mac/internet-sw at Mac Hangul Archive 1 and UnderB archive. It can be used not only with KLK +English Mac OS and Hangul Talk but also with Hangul Korean Kit(Hantorie) and English Mac OS with display font set to TerminalHan-KS. Netscape users should make sure Document Encoding in Options menu is set to Korean to avoid MacLatin -> ISO-8859-1 charset conversion which leads to completely gobbled messages. You may still want to get Hangul Mail Converter for ISO 2022-KR(ks2iso/iso2ks), Hangul-Mail-Converters.hqx by the author. Both of them are available in /pub/mac/internet-sw at Mac Hangul Archive 1. 'Hangul_Mail_Converter.hqx' contains a nice document to help you better understand Hangul mail exchange. See also a nice web page by Jeong-hyun Kim at http://scorpion.kaist.ac.kr/my_HTML/email.html#hmail According to Daniel NK Lee of Microsoft at nklee@microsoft.com, Hangul Exchange under Hangul Windows 95(+Hangul Plus!) implements RFC 1557 at MUA level so that it can be used for Hangul mail exchange following RFC 1557 without localized MTA like 'Hangul sendmail'. Note, however, that Hangul MS-Exchnage has some glitches in implementation of RFC1557 and a little incompatibility with other implementation of RFC 1557(Hangul sendmail and code converters like hmconv,hcode). These bugs are known to be being worked on by Microsoft. Microsoft Internet Mail (Hangul version) also has a bug with ISO-2022-KR although it works better than Hangul Exchange. In MS Internet Mail, MIME encoding type should be set to 'NONE' and language(or character set) to Korean. It should be noted that Korean MS Internet Mail does NOT work with non-Korean version of MS Windows 95/NT even with Hanme Hangul or Unionway.(although it sort of work with Japanese version of MS Windows NT/95) as posted to han.comp.hangul by Yi, Young-deug, Soh, Jaeshin and Lee, Jae-ho. As noted earlier, many users outside Korea have trouble reading messages in ISO-2022-KR while they can read messages in 8bit EUC-KR or Base64/QP encoded EUC-KR, unfortunately MS-Internet Mail doesn't allow this by default. (On the other hand, MS Outlook Express and Outlook 97 send Hangul message in EUC-KR/8bit by default. You'd better upgrade as soon as possible.) Yi,Yeong Deung, however, came up with a clever work-around to send messages in EUC-KR(or Base64 encoded EUC-KR) which can be read by those without means to automatically convert ISO-2022-KR encoded message back to EUC-KR. Using your favorite plain-text editor, make following file and save it as 'EUC-KR.reg' and put the icon for the file in a convenient location(StartUp menu or desktop). REGEDIT4 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Mail and News\Mail] "Default Charset"="EUC-KR" If you wanna send Base64 encoded EUC-KR message, double click the icon before launching MS Internet Mail, choose MIME and Base64 as the encoding method. Like MS-Internet News, Korean MS-Internet Mail is overly sensitive to charset information in mail header, by which it determines which font to use to display messages. A lot of Hangul messages (especially those sent by ill-configured Netscape and Eudora) have incorrect MIME-header and wrong fonts(those for Western European charsets) are used by MS Internet Mail to display them and Hangul is illegible, in which case you can double-click on the message in question, open 'detailed-view' window where you have to choose 'Korean' for language in 'view' menu. (You can also use AsianView mentioned above on top of Hangul MS Windows to avoid this problem). Another complication arises when replying to those messages with incorrect header. In detailed-view window, use 'forward' instead of 'reply' and manually put the address of the recipient (and change 'Fwd:' in Subject to 'Re:'). Otherwise, Hangul will not be visible in composing window for reply. [Contribution by Lee,Jae-ho at kamisama@kt.rim.or.jp and Yi,Yeong-Deug at queen@yes.snu.ac.kr] Newer versions of mail clients from Microsoft such as those included in MS Internet Explorer 4.0(OutLook Epxress) and MS-Office Pro 7.0(MS Outlook 97) are reported not to have the problem of solely depending on the value of charset parameter of Content-Type header to determine what font to use in displaying Hangul news articles and to be able to handle incorrectly labeled (as ISO-8859-1 instead of correct EUC-KR) articles posted by Netscape users. To enable this feature in MS Outlook Express, iso-8859-1 needs to be configured to converted to Korean in Tools|Options|Read|International Setting. You also have to turn off EUC-KR to UTF-7 and UTF-8 conversion. (UTF-7/UTF-8 are not widely supported, yet and UTF-7/UTF-8 encoded messages are NOT readable by most other people) Outlook 97 users might have to download outlook97.zip available at ftp://yes.snu.ac.kr/download/" and put kor2022.trn, inetfe32.dll, and euckr.trn into Windows\System directory. [Posted to han.comp.hangul by Yi, Yeong-deug at queen@yes.snu.ac.kr] Subject 24 explains how to configure MS Outlook Express for Hangul Usenet news posting. The same procedure can be taken for Hangul mail except that you should NOT turn on 'Use 8bit characters in header' for Hangul mail. It's a grave violation of Internet mail standard to send raw 8bit characters without proper encoding. Some broken(non-MIME compliant) mail clients(Eudora, non-MIME version of Elm,Berkelely /bin/mail) and mail gateways (such mail-web gateway as HotMail and RocketMail) have difficulty with RFC 2047-style encoded mail headers.(see below where the flaw of Eudora is explained for the example of the header encoded following RFC 2047). Rather than breaking the standard, you may as well ask those correspondents of yours to get a more decent (MIME compliant) mail client. As mentioned above, Kang, Kyungsoo and Lee, Jun Young have truly great web pages about Hangul mail configurations for MS Outlook Express and Netscape Communicator. They're at o http://skyhawk.i.ml.org/oesetup/oesetup-image.htm o http://www1.hitel.net/dong/o/osc.html In Usenet newsgroup han.news.users, Lee JunYoung (leejuy@hyowon.pusan.ac.kr) explained how to configure MS Outlook Express for Hangul Usenet newsgroup posting. (as mentioned above, it's in Subject 24) Below is the summary of his posting a little modified for Hangul mail. Please, note that internet mail and usenet news have similar but not identical convention and/or standard. 1. On the Tools menu, select Options 2. Click on the Send tab 3. Under Mail sending format, choose plain text (never choose HTML unless you're sure your correspondents can read HTML formated messages) and click Apply or OK. 4. In the dialog box for plain text configuration, check MIME(for text posting, uuencode doesn't make much difference, but putting the proper MIME header is better) 5. Set text encoding to None. In case this doesn't work for some correspondents, try again with this set to Base64(MIME). You would leave this set to NONE and wouldn't have to tinker with this option if MS Outlook Express and all MAs(mail agents) in-between abided by Internet Mail Standard. Unfortunately, MS Outlook Express violates RFC 1652 as does some MTAs pretty widely deployed in Korea(Hangul sendmail 8.8) 6. Turn OFF 'Use 8bit characters in header' and press OK button. If your correspondent is one of the unfortunate to rely on such broken mail services as RocketMail and HotMail, you may wish to turn this ON. Additionally, you may want to get it to use English header when replying in Tools|Options|Read|International Settings. Netscpae 4.0x(aka Communicator) mail supports display of messages in ISO-2022-KR. Using it relieves many users with very little knowledge of Hangul code and encoding of trouble of manually converting Hangul message in ISO-2022-KR or setting up procmail to do automatic conversion. Korean should be selected in Options|Document Encoding for automatic conversion of messages in ISO-2022-KR back to EUC-KR. HTML composition should be turned OFF(in Edit|Preference|Mail&Groups|Messages) unless you want to send some hypertext documents. It's a waste of precious network resource and annoyiance to your correspondents without means to read HTML message to send plain text message in both html and plain text format as is the case when HTML composition is turned ON in Netscape 4.0 The final release version of Netscape 4.0x solved most of problems in 4.0b1 and b2 related with Hangul. There are some points to keep in mind using netsape 4.0 for Hangul mail and News. Hangul MS-windows users and English MS-windows users with Unionway must make sure that Encoding is set to Korean(autodetect) in View|Encoding. Many people make a mistake of setting this option to Western (Latin1) which is for Western European languages. This results in the following header inappropriate for Korean mail and news messages. Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1 The correct header for Korean news article and mail message(in EUC-KR) is Content-Type: text/plain; charset=EUC-KR and that for Korean mail message(in ISO-2022-KR) is Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-2022-KR Eudora made by Qualcomm which will collect 350 millon dollars of royalty from Korea for its CDMA technology over next 5 years does not support Korean mail in that it doesn't decode RFC 2047-compliant header encoding with EUC-KR(Korean MIME charset) as shwon below. MS-Windows version of Eudora users may be able to view RFC 2047 style headers by installing AsianView or Unionway(AsianSuite). Refer to Subject 4 and 38 for more information on these products. =?EUC-KR?B?SGFuWL/NIMfRsdsgxvnGrg==?= Only MIME charset recognized by Eudora is ISO-8859-1 for Western Euroepean languages. Accordingly, there's no way to put EUC-KR in the charset parameter of Content-Type header which is necessary to properly identify that messages are in Korean. Work-around has been made for Mac version by eudora users whose native languages are not covered by ISO-8859-1 (Swede,Greek,Russian as well as Korean and Chinese) and can be obtained at http://www.hf.uib.no/smi/files/eudtab.html. The information was kindly forwarded to me by Andreas Prilop at april@macb033.rrzn.uni-hannover.de. Yi, Yeong-Deug also came up with a work-around for the probleem of Eudora for MS-Windows which puts ISO-8859-1 in Content-Type header regardless of actual charset used. Header information can be adjusted for Korean mail exchange using sort of psuedo-SMTP server for Windows 95 and NT 4.0, maillita available at http://huizen.dds.nl/~maillita. For details on how to configure it for Korean mail exchange with Eudora and other mail programs which don't allow charset name other than ISO-8859-1 that is Western European charset, see Yi, Yeong-Deug's Hangul Mail FAQ page aforementioned at http://yes.snu.ac.kr/queen/hmailfaq.htm. MS-Exchange treats messges in 8bit EUC-KR(with Content-Type text/plain; charset=EUC-KR and Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit) as atteachment. It can be displayed by double-clicking and choosing Korean as the language. More convenient is copy a file below to system directory in the directory where Windows is installed(e.g. C:\windows\system) after uudecoding.[Contribution by Yi,Yeong Deung at queen@yes.snu.ac.kr.] begin 600 euckr.trn M5$Y%54,M2U(`````````````````````````````````````````````155# M+4M2*$)!4T4V-"D``````````````````````````````````! 0`0`!`@,$ M!08'" D*"PP-#@\0$1(3%!46%Q@9&AL<'1X?("$B(R0E)B M7V!A8F-D969G:&EJ:VQM;F]P<7)S='5V=WAY>GM\?7Y_@(&"@X2%AH>(B8J+ MC(V.CY"1DI.4E9:7F)F:FYR=GI^@H:*CI*6FIZBIJJNLK:ZOL+&RL[2UMK>X MN;J[O+V^O\#!PL/$Q<;'R,G*R\S-SL_0T=+3U-76U]C9VMOKK[.WN[_#Q\O/T]?;W^/GZ^_S]_O]N=! !``$"`P0%!@<("0H+# T. M#Q 1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL+2XO,#$R,S0U-C'EZ>WQ]?G\_/RP_/S\_/UX_/S\_/S\_/R+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O 0\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_]/4 ` end When sending messages to Korean online service, Unitel, one has to be very careful to avoid their messages encoded in Base64 or Quoted-Printable as Unitel can't handle Base64/QP encoded messages although it's specified in RFC 2045(to be a Internet Standard) and is supported by numerous other programs. Those abroad using POP3 clients like Netscape 3.0 and Eudora, and Forte Agent with their mail servers faithfully conformant to RFC 1652 CANNOT avoid this unless their mail programs allow them to send Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR/7bit. (Netscape 4.0, Pine 3.9x + hmconv, Korean version of MS-Internet Mail, HanMutt are a few examples of those programs). The best way to solve the problem is urge Unitel to support the standard and decode incoming Internet mail in Base64/QP to 8bit by installing the newest version of sendmail(sendmail 8.8.8 as of December, 1997). If you think all of these configurations are too much hassle, you may wish to get an account at web-based Hangul mail services in Korea and ask your friends to direct Hangul mail there. One of them is Kebi Web mail at http://mail.kebi.com Usenet Newsgroup han.comp.mail is a good place to post your questions regarding Hangul mail exchange. 10. Is there any Hangul Internet BBS? Yes, there are three of them widely known and two more mainly used within KAIST but also open to everyone. ARA(ara.kaist.ac.kr) the oldest one, it has stopped its service for long time because of hacker's attack and resumed it recently. Eventually, it will be replaced by VVS(Virtual Village System) like Freenet at Case Western Reserve Univ. according to the sysop of ARA BBS(cdpark@ara.kaist.ac.kr) http://CBUBBS.chungbuk.ac.kr It started as a BBS in Chong-ju for dial-up connection only. Now, it allows Internet connection as well. It has the most recent news on Hangul s/w for personal computers(MS-DOS and Mac).It's one of the first Internet BBS' accessible with WWW in Korea. KIDS.kotel.co.kr (Login as 'kids'): Run by Korea Telecom and dial-up access is possible. It offers various services of interest to Koreans abroad including Today Korea board for news in Korea. One can save some money by electronically corresponding with one's family in Seoul. Currently, it's difficult to get a new account,but one may get a account on ARA BBS that can be reached by 'routing' from KIDS with 'guest' account. Dial-up access in Seoul is also possible. (526-5533(9 lines) for 9.6/14.4/28.8kbps and 526-5539 for 2.4kbps) Under BBS (korea.slip.umd.edu The oldest Hangul BBS in America. Originally run at Caltech, now at U. of Maryland by Kim,Daeshik. You may meet a lot of Koreans and Korean Americans here. Hana BBS (www.hanabbs.com) Run at the same host as HanaBBS archive. Meeting place for a lot of Koreans abroad and in Korea. Among its distinct features are Hangul Romanization when accessed via telnet and gif-mapped rendering of Hangul when viewed via WWW for those without Hangul facility. Madang BBS One of first Web BBS' in Korea by Kwon, Do-gyun at Dacom. It's temporarily out of service as of Sep. 5th. In Korea, all three of them may be reached by dial-up connection. See Subject 24 and Subject 25 for more detail. There are now tens of Hangul Internet BBS' in Korea. Some of them are Uri-Maul, Hoo-nam's home, Lily. When telneting to these BBS', 8bit clean telnet/rlogin and 8bit clean terminal set up are to be used to enter Hangul. See Subject 16. 11. What is hlatex and how can I use it? A few different versions of Hangul LaTeX' are available. Hangul TeX development was originally taken up by Prof. Ko, Ki Hyoung with dept. of mathematics at KAIST in late 80's. Several students in mathematics and computer science dept. at KAIST took part in his effort. ..... See http://knot.kaist.ac.kr/htex for a history of Hangul (La)TeX developement at KAIST and Germany, which you might have to read with a grain of salt as suggested by its author. CTAN(Comprehensive TeX Archive Network) mentioned often below consists of three main sites in the UK(ftp.tex.ac.uk),Germany (ftp.dante.de) and US ( ftp://ctan.tug.org) and tens of sites all over the world mirroring main archives. A full mirror of CTAN is available at KREONET archive at ftp.kreonet.re.kr. Partial mirrors in Korea include Sunsite Korea at sunsite.kren.ne.kr and ftp.kornet.ne.kr. You'll get the list of participating sites elsewhere by finger -l ftp.tex.ac.uk. TUG(TeX User Group) web page at http://www.tug.org should be the best source of information on TeX/LateX. The first version widely spread outside Korean mathematics community is two-pass Hangul LaTeX by Choi, Woohyung, Baek, Yun-ju, and Lee, Sang-hoon. It consists of preprocessing module(htex) to convert Hangul in EUC-KR(See Subject 8 for EUC-KR) to LaTeX macro, a shell script(hlatex), and several style files. According to Choi, Woohyung, PK fonts are not part of hlatex distribution since they're derived from Hangul postscript fonts for Mac copyrighted by Elex which agreed to allow distribution of them at KAIST and outside Korea, but which prohibited their distribution to non-KAIST sites in Korea. Thus, you can use it at overseas sites but you should not redistribute it to Korean sites outside KAIST. However, there are freely redistributable METAFONT sources to the equivelent pk files at CAIR archive. It was automatically generated from GNU fontutils 0.4(with some patchs). All of these and new fonts are archived at CAIR archive and its mirrors (in /pub/hangul/tex) I installed HLaTeX and it was a nice program. One good thing about HLaTeX is that you need not download Hangul fonts to the laser printer to print out Hangul which is the case with Hangul Printing using hpscat to be mentioned below. It(including Hangul fonts) takes about 1MB, of which I'm not sure. HLaTeX is also used for Hangul to PS translation. See Subject 21) on Hangul printing. Un, Koaunghi(koaunghi.un@student.uni-tuebingen.de) and Baek, Yun-ju (yunju@casaturn.kaist.ac.kr) made a one-pass version(no need for preprocessor) based on LaTeX2e, HLaTeX0.92e. It consists of Hangul and Hanja fonts(pre-compiled pk files for 300 dpi and 600 dpi printers.), Hangul/Hanja font defintion files (Uhangul.fd, Uhanja.fd) and LaTeX2e packages (hfont.sty,hangul.sty,hfont.tex) to enable you to use Hangul and Hanja in your TeX documents. To use this version of Hangul LaTeX, you need to have a complete implementation of LaTeX2e (rathen than 2.09) and TeX 3.14x (such as NTeX and teTeX) installed on your computer. Another notable feature of this version is it can handle Hanja(Chinese letter) as well as Hangul. 0.92 is available at major Hangul archives. HLaTeX 0.92 is huge(no smaller than 20 Mega bytes compared with 1-2 MBs of two-pass Hangul LaTeX. Most of space is taken by Hanja fonts)when fully installed. You may save some space by installing only what you need(e.g. installing a set of fonts you really want to use - or not installing Hanja fonts - would save you a great deal of space, which is especially expedient if your disk quota is very small, something like a few Mega bytes and you cannot persuade your system administrator to install HLaTeX 0.92 for you). The latest version of HLaTeX is 0.98 and was uploaded to German CTAN archive at ftp.dante.de and is also available at German Korean archive(See Subject 1). The most notable changes in 0.98 is that all 11,172 Hangul syllables can be typeset. 0.97 fixed problems with checksum mismatches in some Hangul fonts. Other notable change in 0.97 include new hangul font selection method (compliant to NFSS) and a new option/command for separation of English and Hangul index(and glossary) when producing index with makeindex. 0.96 and later have many improvements over 0.95 including several new Hangul fonts, changes in font names compliant to ISO9660 file system, use of web2c-7.0 to allow up to 2000 fonts in a single TeX document, and automatic selection of 'Josa' depending on preceding syllable. While trying to preview some PS files made by HLaTeX and nh2ps with ghostscript 5.10, I stumbled upon a trouble which I initially though was caused by a newly introduced bug in ghostscript 5.10 because the same file had no problem with 4.03. After filing a bug report, I was told by the author of Aladin ghostscript, L. Peter Deutsch(ghost@aladin.com) that it's not ghostscript 5.10 but fonts that's to blame. That is, a couple of hangul fonts included in HLaTeX 0.97 are not compliant to Adobe Postscript Specificiation. The author of HLaTeX kindly fixed the bug and uploaded the fixed fonts to ftp://ftp.linguistik.uni-erlangen/pub/HLaTeX/updates. You need to get fixed fonts to avoid unexpected failures of postscript files generated by HLaTeX. Several articles posted to Usenet newsgroup, han.comp.text on this issue are available at http://jazz.snu.ac.kr/~junker/work/gs-ko/index.html. In January, 1996, HLaTeX 0.93 was released by Un, Koaunghi (koaunghi.un@student.uni-tuebingen.de). Font mapping in HLaTeX 0.93 is completely different from that used in HLaTeX 0.92 and it should be considered major change contrary to what small change in version number implies. Fonts used in 0.93 is mapped according to KS C 5601 code while in 0.92 Wansung-Johab mixed mapping was used. pk fonts for 300dpi(4 Hangul,2 Hanja and 1 symbol: compiled pk images are not available any more on CTAN. You have to generate pk images from meta font source available at CTAN) require about 150 MB of disk space(metafonts take 100MB of disk space, so that it's not of much help in saving disk space to install meta fonts instead of pk fonts especially taking into account that compilation of meta font to pk font is very time-consuming). 0.93 is not for those with little disk space to spare. Compiled pk image at 300dpi is now available in /incoming/hangul of CAIR archive thanks to tchang@sejong.kaist.ac.kr. In February, HLaTeX 0.94 was uploaded to CTAN archive, which can be used with old 'Johab-Wansung mixed encoding' Hangul fonts as used in HLaTeX 0.92(and new hLaTeXp and old two-pass hlatex) as well as with KS C 5601-mapped 'Wansung' fonts. As of Feb. 22nd, Un,Koaunghi kindly made available old 'Johab-Wansung mixed encoding' fonts(for those with small disk space) and PS and metafont sources for all Wansung fonts included in HLaTeX0.93 or later. Thus, one may download only PS fonts and vf/tfm/afm files instead of making pk images from meta font source. Before deciding to use PS fonts, please note that some dvi drivers(e.g. xdvi in Unix/X window) may need some change/recompilation to deal with dvi files containing PS fonts. In April, HLaTeX 0.95 was released, which contains a lot of improvement over previous versions in Hangul handling (e.g. You can now use Hangul label with bibtex). It's now available at German CTAN site(ftp.dante.de) and in /tex-archive/language/korean at CTAN archive sites all over the world. It's also available at home of HLaTeX(also German mirror of CAIR archive) at Univ. of Erlangen and CAIR archive. Those who have difficulty with installing HLaTeX on top of teTeX, the most popular TeX/LaTeX distribution for Unix(actually, it's not hard at all) may try sort of preconfigured package at ftp://jazz.snu.ac.kr/pub/unix/util/teTeX-0.4/distrib/teTeX-lib-0.4han.tar.gz. For information on using HLaTeX with TeX implementation under MacOS(OZtex,Texture),MS-DOS(emtex), and MS-Windows(MikTex), refer to Subject 13. Cha,Jae Choon(jccha@math.kaist.ac.kr) announced a new Hangul (La)TeX, hLaTeXp, developed in math department at KAIST, where Hangul (La)TeX project originated in late 80's. It came with 31 sets of Hangul fonts,2 sets of Hanja fonts, 1 set of symbols defined in KS C 5601 and (localized) TeX compiler modified for better Hangul handling(Hangul text not broken in error message and log file,more natural line-breaking suitable for Hangul, appropriate 'Jo-sa' substitution after references of chapter and section names, use of Hangul with bibtex and makeindex and so forth). Hangul TeX compiler, called hTeXp and hangul fonts and style files are available at ftp://knot.kaist.ac.kr and /pub/hangul/tex/htex at CAIR archive. Currently, hTeXp is available only in binary for Sun(I don't know whether it's for Sun OS 4.x or 5.x),Linux(a.out and ELF),HP/UX, and Windows NT/95/3.1. You can use hLaTeXp in TeX/LaTeX without hTeXp (localized TeX compiler), in which case some Hangul related improvements(e.g. Hangul text shown intact in (La)TeX error message and log file) of hTeXp are not avaiable, but other than that, you would have no problem using Hangul in (La)TeX only with the rest of hLaTeXp package - Hangul fonts, font definition and style files - on top of any complete implementation of LaTeX2e on any platform. Crucial in installing hTeXp/hLaTeXp is redumping TeX format files with TeX compiler you intend to use whether it's hTeXp(localized TeX compiler) or TeX compiler you've been using. In the former case(hTeXp), you have to redump all TeX format files(plain,latex, hLaTeXp, etc) with hTeXp while in the latter(using installed non-localized TeX compiler), you only have to dump format files included in hLaTeXp. Detailed instruction on installing and using hTeXp/hLaTeXp is available at http://knot.kaist.ac.kr/htex By using hTeXn plug-in(dvi viewer plug-in) for Netscape by Cha, Jae-choon,one may utilize Hangul true type fonts included in Hangul MS-Windows and a true type variant of CM fonts, CT font to produce better looking documents with hTeXp/hLaTeXp and offer high quality documents(with hyperlink) on the web. For more details, see http://knot.kaist.ac.kr/dviplugin/ According to Park, Chong-Dae(at cdpark@jupiter.kaist.ac.kr), another version of Hangul LaTeX will be released next January. It's named yahtex for Yet Another Hangul TeX. It's said to be 30% faster than HLaTeX0.92 and to include a program to convert Hangul fonts for MS-Windows into (pk) fonts for TeX. Moreover, it includes a set of fonts for all symbols defined in KS C 5601. Still another Hangul-capable TeX is CJK-TeX by Werner Lemberg at xlwy01@uxp1.hrz.uni-dortmund.de supporting Chinese and Japanese as well as Korean. It's avalialble at CTANarchive. 12. I'd like to install hlatex, but I don't have enough previlege. In case of old version of HLaTeX(preprocessing or two-pass version), you can set environment variables so that your tex compiler will be able to find the hlatex files in your library path. Add following to .cshrc/.tcshrc or .login in csh/tcsh, setenv PATH "your htex bin dir":$PATH setenv TEXFONTS "your htex pk dir":"your latex tfmdir":$TEXFONTS setenv TEXINPUTS "your htex input dir":$TEXINPUTS setenv TEXFORMATS "your htex format dir":$TEXFORMATS setenv XDVIFONTS "your htex/pk dir":$XDVIFONTS # for XDVI setenv TEXPKS $XDVIFONTS # for DVIPS In sh/ksh/ bash, add following to .profile PATH="your htex bin dir":$PATH TEXFONTS="your htex pk dir":"your latex tfmdir":$TEXFONTS TEXINPUTS="your htex input dir":$TEXINPUTS TEXFORMATS="your htex format dir":$TEXFORMATS TEXDVIFONT="your htex/pk dir":$XDVIFONTS # for XDVI TEXPKS=$XDVIFONTS # for DVIPS export PATH TEXFONTS TEXINPUTS TEXFORMATS TEXDVIFONT TEXPKS Contributions from Sang K. Cha(chask@CS.Stanford.EDU) Some TeX previewers or drivers does not allow user fonts which are not placed at system TeX font path. I use xdvi and dvips and they allow me to define my local font paths. hlatex script has some variables such as LATEX and HTEX. You should change that variables to fit your local environment. For HLaTeX 0.92e or later, see the document included in the distribution and consult your local TeX guru or your system administrator as different implementations of LaTeX2e(e.g. NTeX and teTeX) tend to have different directory structures from each other 13. Are there Hangul TeX packages running on Macintosh or IBM-PC? There is a version of Hangul LaTeX(two-pass version) for PC running with emTeX. It's available at CAIR archive and other hangul archives as hlatex1.zip and hlatex2.zip in /pub/hangul/tex Please read readme.1st to find more information. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] HLaTeX 0.92e and later and hLaTeXp, new Hangul TeX package from math dept. of KAIST should work with any complete implementation of LaTeX2e for MS-DOS(e.g emTeX) or MS-Windows(e.g. miktex for Windows 95/NT and ), in principle. All you have to install Hangul LaTeX over one of these implementations is figure out where to put Hangul style files,font definition files and Hangul fonts (tfm,pk,metafont source,ps,and vf files: not all of them) following directory structure(refer to TDS documents in tds directory of any CTAN archives for details) of a LaTeX implementation. In case of hTeXp, you have to do format dump.Refer to hTeXp/hLaTeXp documents for details. Karnes Kim put up web pages with very detailed instruction on using HLaTeX 0.9x with MikTeX for MS-Windows at http://my.netian.com/~kli/karnes/library/tex/texinst.html. You may also find it very useful to refer to Cho, Jin-Hwan's TeX Archive at http://free.kaist.ac.kr/ChoF/ Besides, Hangul & Computer released a commercial version of Hangul LaTeX for MS-Windows (LaTeX plus MS-Windows GUI interface) developed in mathematics department at KAIST. According to C. Shin at cshin@almaak.usc.edu, LG Software made available in public domain another Hangul LaTeX for MS-Windows archived in /hangul/tex/misc/LGwlatex at CAIR archive. It used to be also available at ftp://zelea.usc.edu and ftp://ftp.lgsw.re.kr. This appeares to requires Hangul MS-Windows, but I'm not certain. As mentioned before, HLaTeX(old two pass/pre-processor version) consists of Hangul fonts and EUC-KR to TeX macro(understood by native TeX and LaTeX) translator. Thus, just installing Hangul fonts in HLaTeX distribution and compiling code translator source(htex.c) with one of popular C compilers on Mac(such as Think C, Semantac C) results in everything you need. Make Hangul tex files(in EUC-KR) and convert it to a file(with Hangul replaced by tex macro) with the translator, which , in turn , can be fed into (La)TeX for Mac like OzTeX to generate dvi file. It worked out well according to Choi,Dongseok at choi@gsbsrc.uchicago.edu New HLaTeX 0.92e or later work with newer Mac (La)TeX implemention of LaTeX 2e. In principle, it should work assuming you have a fully functional implementation of LaTeX2e such as OzTeX, CMacTeX, and Texture(sp?) on your Mac and put HLaTeX0.92e(or later) files in appropriate folders for particular implementation of LaTeX2e(no compilation of preprocessor in C is necessary in HLaTeX2e unlike old two pass version). I've tested HLaTeX 0.92e with OzTeX and it worked fine. One thing you have to do is increase default size of memory allocated in OzTeX in configuration file for OzTeX because HLaTeX appears to require more memory than allocated in default configuration for OzTeX. New Hangul TeX package(hLaTeXp) by math. dept. at KAIST should also work on top of any complete LaTeX2e implementaion for Mac. Note that hTeXp(TeX compiler geared for Hangul in hLaTeXp package) currently available for Sun OS,Linux,HP/UX, and Windows NT/95/3.1 is NOT required in using hLaTeXp package. For using hLaTeXp wiht OzTeX, refer to ftp://knot.kaist.ac.kr/pub/htex/4oztex/00README, which should be also of help in installing HLaTeX2e on top of OzTeX and other (La)TeX distributions under Mac OS and other OS. pk images for HLaTeX 0.94e are not available at CTAN any more and you need metafont program(compiler) for your platform(Mac/DOS/Windows) to generate pk images from metafont source. Usually, metafont compiler is included in TeX implementation. Mac users might need a utility to convert fonts in pfb to pfa format depending on implementation of TeX in order to use PS fonts for HLaTeX 0.94e. As of Sep. 1996, pk images of Hangul fonts for HLaTeX 0.9xe at 300dpi are available at ftp://ftp.kaist.ac.kr/hangul/incoming so that you don't have to bother with generating PK images for yourself. 14. Are there mailing lists for Hangul stuffs? Here is the list of Hangul mailing lists in Korea. [Contribution by Dr. Suh,Sang-yong at sysuh@kigam.re.kr] list-name request-name host-name remarks ------------ ------------ ---------------- ------- crayers Majordomo kigam.re.kr geology Majordomo krnic.net hana-tech Majordomo kornet.ne.kr Moderated hangul Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr hp-help Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr linux-help Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr mac Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr netinfo Majordomo krnic.net serv-list Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr yebadong yebadong-request cclab.kaist.ac.kr human controlled www-forum Majordomo cair.kaist.ac.kr newsgroup list-address gateway ---------------- ------------------------------- ----------------- han.comp.hangul hangul@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.comp.www.misc www-forum@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.net.announce netinfo@krnic.net usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.net.hana hana-tech@kornet.ne.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.net.services serv-list@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.rec.artrock yebadong@cclab.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.sci.earth geology@krnic.net usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.comp.sys.cray crayers@kigam.re.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.comp.sys.hp hp-help@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.comp.os.linux linux-help@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr han.comp.sys.mac mac@cair.kaist.ac.kr usenet.kreonet.re.kr You can subscribe to one of them by sending mail to 'request-name@ host-name' with message body 'subscribe list-name' and empty subject line. For instance, in Unix, to subscribe to "hangul" mailing list, do following. $ echo subscribe hangul | mail majordomo@cair.kaist.ac.kr Similarly, a message sent to 'request-name@host-name' with empty subject and 'unsubscribe list-name' as the body will get you off the list. Instead of joining mailing lists(in case mailing lists are linked to newsgroups as are the case for some lists), you may prefer to read the same set of articles on Usenet newsgroup. For Hangul Usenet newsgroups, see Subject 24. Articles posted to some of mailing list/newsgroups(mac,www-kr,netinfo) are archived by KRNIC and available at KRNIC gopher (gopher://rs.krnic.net:70/11/ftp/mailing-lists). Other newsgroups/ mailing lists , I guess, are archived at their hosting sites listed above. 15. I've got a software "foo" from an archive, but it doesn't work. First, check if you retrieved it with binary mode enabled. If not, you must have probably got a corrupted file. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung 16. I've downloaded a Hangul terminal emulator and installed it, but I can't enter Hangul characters. Please check if you have a 8-bit clean tty with 'stty' command (See manual page of 'stty' for what options mean). On BSD compatible systems "stty -istrip cs8" will make tty 8bit clean and on SunOS4.X, try executing "stty pass8". On System V Unix(Solaris 2.x, Irix 5.x), you may have to execute 'stty -istrip -parenb cs8'. To make it executed everytime you log in, add what follows to .cshrc/.tcshrc or .login in your home directory for csh/ tcsh if ( $?prompt) then stty -istrip -parenb cs8 # put here other commands for interactive shell endif setenv LC_CTYPE iso_8859_1 # or LATIN_1 in place of iso_8859_1 setenv LESSCHARDEF "8bcccbcc18b95.33b95.b" #to display Hangul text with less setenv NOREBIND # in tcsh only Bourn shell and its variants(descendants) like ksh and bash users have to add to .profile or .bashrc(bash only) in their home directory case $- in *i*) stty -istrip -parenb cs8 # put here other commands for interactive shell esac LC_CTYPE=iso_8859_1 LESSCHARDEF="8bcccbcc18b95.33b95.b" # display Hangul text with less export LC_CTYPE LESSCHARDEF Note that the line with 'stty' may have to be changed accordingly depending on flavor of Unix as mentioned above. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung (whchoi@cosmos.kaist.ac.kr) and Kim, Daeshik(dkim@cwc.com)]. The value for LC_CTYPE may be different under different flavor of Unixen. For instance, in HP/UX, en_US.iso88591(the default value may work if you're not in the US or UK since most European languages require 8bit characters and the default should be set as such) is to be used instead of iso_8859_1 or LATIN1. In case(not so likely outside Korea) Korean locale is available to you, the environment variable LANG can be set to Korean (or KOREAN,ko, etc) or the environment varialble LC_CTYPE to ko_KR.euc-kr(the exact name varies from Unix to Unix. Check with 'locale' command or consult your system admin). Even with this set up, you may not able to enter Hangul when connection to Hangul Internet BBS or on-line service in Korea. That's because your telnet/rlogin is not 8bit clean. Try rlogin or telnet with '-8' option('rlogin -8'). Not all variants of telnet/rlogin support this option. Some telnet honors 'set bin' in ~/.telnetrc so that you may add to ~/.telnetrc lines below. If not, you may escape back to 'telnet>' prompt at which you can give 'set bin' to make it 8bit clean. somewhere.net # address of host you want to connect 8bit-clean set bin By compiling tcsh with '8bit' and 'kanji' option(kanji option may not be necessary depending on which variant of Unixen you use and whether it supports Korea locale), you may even use Hangul at command line and in file name tcsh. The safest bet for those abroad using Unix with locale/NLS support but without Korean locale appears to be compiling tcsh with '8bit' and 'kanji' option enabled and 'nls' option disabled. (Be careful not to turn 'nokanji' option on. Keep it OFF for Hangul input. It's OFF by default if kanji option is used at compile-time, so don't bother to play with it.) Echoing the shell variable version(echo $version) shows you compile-time options used for your tcsh binary. Below is the result on my Linux box. % echo $version tcsh 6.06.00 (Cornell) 1995-05-13 (i386-unknown-linux) options 8b,dl,al,kan Hangul can be used at command lines in bash compiled for Hangul available at ftp://juno.kaist.ac.kr. This binary is for Linux only. Bash users may add following lines to .inputrc in home directory. These options for ordinary bash(not patched for Hangul) enable you to enter Hangul at command line and use in file name. set meta-flag On set convert-meta Off set output-meta On set editing-mode vi set show-all-if-ambiguous on 17. I have an ethernet card on my PC, and installed a software Hangul for MS-DOS. I still can't write and see Hangul characters when connecting to remote host with telnet-client(e.g. NCSA Telnet). You missed a point, check out your telnet client if it can support "8bit transparent" environment. That's to say, your telnet client should support 8-bit clean connection. If it doesn't, you'll have to change your software to MS-Kermit 3.1 or later(supporting TCP/IP as well as serial connection) or Hangul patched NCSA telnet by Baek,Yunju at yunju@camars.kaist.ac.kr .[Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] Another version of Hangul patched NCSA Telnet, htel2306 was made by Cheon-Yong Park(cypark@viva.kari.re.kr) at KARI(Korea Aeronautics and Space Res. Inst.?). Both are available at Hana BBSArchive and elsewhere. Note that 'Hangul patched' does not mean having ability to display Hangul on the screen but passing Hangul code through. Therefore, you have to have Hangul facility on your PC, whether hardware Hangul card or s/w hangul like DANSI. Many telnet clients for MS-Windows(Ewan,SimpleTerm,Netterm among others) are 8bit clean, but some of them don't. With these telnet clients, you are not able to read(and write) even if you're in Hangul-capable-Windows environments(See Subject 4)). You have to tinker with font setting (usually terminal font doesn't work for hangul,but Courier works well) to display Hangul properly. You may try WinTerm, Hangul telnet client/terminal emulator mentioned in Subject 2) To enter Hangul after connecting to a Unix host, you have to set terminal 8bit clean. See Subject 16 for terminal(stty) setting in Unix. -------------------------- jshin@minerva.cis.yale.edu