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Subject: soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 7/10)

This article was archived around: 23 Jun 2001 04:01:18 -0400

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=============================================================================== CHAPTER 15: POLITICS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-1 Parliamentary election results, 1994 (by Bulgarian Embassy in the USA), last updated: 23-Dec-1994 ELECTION RESULTS Here are some elections statistics: total number of voters - 6,640,000. Of these around 75%, or about 4,980 thous. people, have exercised their right to vote. Today the results from elections were as follows: BSP 43.55%, or more than 2,160,000 people UDF 24.11%, or about 1,200,000 voters BBB* 4.75%, or more than 236,500 people NU** 6.52%, or more than 324,500 people MRF 5.46%, or about 272,000 people DAR 3.79%, or it will most probably get no seats [* - Bulgarian Business Bloc, leader: George Ganchev; ** - National Union, of Savov-Mozer] Thus the BSP, after the redistribution of the votes for those who have not passed the 4% threshhold, is expected to get about 124-125 seats in parliament,the UDF is bound to get about 68-69 seats, the BBB - 13 seats, the NU - 18, and the MRF - 15. These are the results announced by a CEC member on the basis of about 70% of all election protocols. So, there might be small and insignificant changes. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-2 Bulgarian Cabinet (by CIA World Factbook, 1995), last updated: 30-Oct-1995 BULGARIA, REPUBLIC OF President ........ Zhelev, Zhelyu Mitev Vice President ........ Prime Minister ........ Videnov, Zhan 1st Dep. Prime Min. ........ Konakchiev, Doncho Dep. Prime Min. ........ Gechev, Rumen Dep. Prime Min. ........ Tsochev, Kiril Dep. Prime Min. ........ Shivarov, Svetoslav Min. of Agriculture ........ Chichibaba, Vasil Min. of Culture ........ Georgiev, Georgi Kostov Min. of Defense ........ Pavlov, Dimitur Min. of Education, Science & Technology ........ Dimitrov, Ilcho Min. of Environment ........ Georgiev, Georgi Dimitrov Min. of Finance ........ Kostov, Dimitur Min. of Foreign Affairs ........ Pirinski, Georgi Min. of Industry ........ Vuchev, Kliment Min. of Interior ........ Nachev, Lyubomir Min. of Justice ........ Chervenyakov, Mladen Min. of Labor & Social Welfare ........ Koralski, Mincho Min. of Public Health ........ Vitkova, Mimi Dr. Min. of Territorial Development & Construction ........ Konakchiev, Doncho Min. of Trade & Economic Cooperation ........ Tsochev, Kiril Min. of Transportation ........ Stamenov, Stamen Chmn., Bulgarian National Bank ........ Vulchev, Todor Ambassador to the US ........ Botusharova, Snezhana ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-3 Brzezinski on Bulgaria (by John Bell), last updated: 17-Mar-1997 The attention paid to the recent speech of Zbigniew K. Brzezinski at the Atlantic Club in Sofia shows that this political scientist, former presidential advisor, and long-time anti-Communist has many admirers in scb. They would, perhaps, be interested to read the following passage about Bulgaria from his study of Eastern Europe, entitled -The Soviet Bloc: Unity and Conflict-. It clearly shows Prof. Brzezinski's attitude toward the "constitutional order" in Bulgaria before 1944 In Bulgaria, the Communist Party had the advantage of having enjoyed some measure of popularity in the past and was not handicapped, as in the cases of Poland, Rumania, and Hungary, by nationalist anti-Russian feelings. In 1919, the Bulgarian Communist Party succeeded in electing over one fifth of the deputies to the parliament and was, until outlawed, the country's second largest party. Subsequently, operating under the label of Independent Workers' Party, the Communists managed to elect 31 of the 274 deputies in the 1931 elections. During the war they were instrumental in setting up the Fatherland Front, an organization of anti-Fascist parties dedicated to the overthrow of King Boris' dictatorship. When the Soviet Union suddenly declared war on Bulgaria ************ in September 1944, on the eve of a Bulgarian decision to join the Allies, the Fatherland Front seized power. In the coalition government the Communist Party obtained control of the important Ministry of the Interior and played a major role in the "purge" of public officials which was immediately launched. -The Soviet Bloc- p. 15. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-4 What are the results of the 1997 parliamentary elections (by koutlev@ix.netcom.com), last updated: 23-Apr-1997 partiq Dejstw.gl. (i %) Deputati (i %) ODS 2,223,714 52.26% 137 57.1% D.Lewica 939,308 22.07% 58 24.2% ONS 323,429 7.60% 19 7.9% E.Lewica 234,058 5.50% 14 5.8% BBB 209,796 4.93% 12 5.0% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-5 What are the results of the 1997 parliamentary elections (votes cast in the USA) (by Bulgarian Embassy, Washington DC), last updated: 20-Apr-1997 Bulgarian General Elections - April 19, 1997 Voting in the Parliamentary elections in Bulgaria on the territory of the USA closed on 7 p.m. Pacific time. In all, 23 polling stations were set up in the US and 2256 Bulgarian citizens exercised their right to vote. This is an increase in the participation in the US compared to the previous elections. The United Democratic Forces were supported by 90.78 % of the Bulgarian voters in the US. The results from votes cast in the US are as follows: .................. Total UtDF DL......ANS.....EL......BBB.....Other ------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOTAL:............ 2256.....2048.....44.....12.....44......37.....71 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.WASHINGTON DC....... 194.....167......7........2......4......9.....5 2.NEW YORK, NY........ 248.....188.....17........2.....21......3.....17 3.NEW YORK, NY.........193.....189......0........0......0......1.....3 4.PHOENIX, AZ...........22......19......0........0......2......1.....0 5.DETROIT, MI......... 100......92......4........0......0......0.....4 6.VANCOUVER, WA.........40......39......0........0......0......0.....1 7.BELLEVUE, WA......... 53......51......0........1......0......1.....0 8.SAN FRANCISCO, CA... 156.....152......1........1......0......1.....1 9.CHICAGO, IL......... 408.....379......9........0......3......8.....9 10.ST.PETERSBURG, FL...108.....101......1........1......0......0.....5 11.BOSTON, MA......... 146.....139......0........1......3......0.....3 12.PHILADELPHIA, PA.....44......37......0........0......2......1.....4 13.BUFFALO, NY......... 35......33......0........0......0......1.....1 14.FT...LAUDERDALE, FL..41......39......0........0......0......2.....1 15.PITTSBURGH, PA...... 46......39......3........1......0......1.....2 16.SACRAMENTO, CA...... 30......29......0........0......0......1.....0 17.LOS ANGELES, CA......203... 193......1........2......1......2.....4 18.SAINT..LOUIS, MO......32.....28......0........0......0......3.....1 19.CLEVELAND, OH.........53.....52......0........0......0......1.....0 20.NEW ORLEANS, LA...... 23.....19......0........0......2......1.....1 21.CINCINATI, OH.........37.....31......1........1......1......0.....3 22.SANTA BARBARA, CA.....22.....17......0........0......0......0.....5 23.CARBONDALE, IL........22.....16......0........0......4......1.....1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Columns: Total:...... Total votes in the Voting Section UfDF:...... Number of votes for the: United Democratic Forces - ...... Union of Democratic Forces,.....Democratic Party, Bulgarian ...... Agrarian National Union, Bulgarian Social - Democratic Party DL:...... Number of votes for the: Democratic Left - ...... Bulgarian Socialist Party, Political Club Ecoglasnost ANS:...... Number of votes for the: Alliance for National ...... Salvation - BANU Nikola Petkov, Movement for Rights and ...... Freedoms, Green Party, Party of the Democratic Center, New Choice,...... ...... Federation Kingdom Bulgaria EL:...... Number of votes for the: European Left BBB:...... Number of votes for the: Bulgarian Business Block Others:.....Number of votes cast for other parties or coalitions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-6 Who are the Bulgarian PMs and Presidents since 1989 (by Ivan Marinov, Tatiana Christy), last updated: 01-Jan-1994 Prime Ministers: Georgi Atanasov - BKP Andrej Lukanov - BKP/BSP Dimityr Popov - nezavisim Filip Dimitrov - SDS 11/5/91-10/28/92 Ljuben Berov - nezavisim 12/30/92-10/17/94 Reneta Indzhova - nezavisim 10/17/94-01/26/95 Zhan Videnov - BSP 01/26/95- doskoro Stefan Sofijanski - SDS Presidents: Petyr Mladenov - BKP/BSP Zhelju Zhelev - SDS Petyr Stojanov - SDS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15-7 What is King Simeon's e-mail address? (by Stoyan Kenderov), last updated: 01-Apr-1997 His Majesty's e-mail is: simbul@mad.servicom.es =============================================================================== CHAPTER 16: HISTORY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-1 Short History of Bulgaria (by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991 The first Bulgarian Kingdom was founded by Khan Asparouh in 681. It was situated in what is now north-east Bulgaria, and was inhabited by Slavs from the Byzantium Empire, and Bulgarians who came from an ancient Bulgarian state situated on the Volga river. The creation of the Slavonic alphabet by brothers Cyril and Methodius in 863 and the establishment of Christianity (East Orthodox) as a state religion in 864 contributed to the development of the Bulgarian nationality and created conditions for the flourishing of Bulgarian literature and culture. From 1018 till 1185 Bulgaria remained in the Byzantium Empire. In 1185 the Second Bulgarian Kingdom was declared after the end of Byzantium rule and oppression. In 1393 after a long war and fierce resistance the country fell under Turkish rule. After an unsuccessful revolution in 1876, Bulgaria received freedom thanks to the Russian-Turkish Liberation War (1877-1878). The state was separated into three parts after the Berlin Conference in 1878. In 1989, the country performed an unprecedented peaceful transition from autocratic communist rule to a democratic system. A new Parliament was elected in June, 1990 after the first free elections in 50 years. This Parliament made a New Constitution said to be one of the most democratic constitutions in Europe and the first among the former socialist countries. The main tasks facing the New Parliament (elected in the second free elections, October 1991) are creating laws that will ensure a transition to a free market economy. The geographical position of Bulgaria, on the crossroads between Europe and Asia and North and South, is reflected in the rich and ancient history of Bulgarian culture, architecture, cuisine, customs and clothes. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-2 Bulgarian History (by John Bell) Ancient Thracian, Greek, and Roman civilizations have each left their mark on the Bulgarian lands, but the story of the modern Bulgarian people began with the Slavic migrations into the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th and 7th centuries. The name "Bulgaria" comes from the Bulgars, a Turkic people who migrated from the steppe north of the Black Sea, conquered the Slavic tribes and founded the First Bulgarian Kingdom in 681. The Bulgars were absorbed in the larger Slavic population, a process that was facilitated by the adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Boris I in the 9th century. Under Boris's son, Tsar Simeon I, the kingdom reached the height of its power, and its capital, Preslav, was said to rival Constantinople in the vigor of its commercial and intellectual life. Bulgaria declined under Simeon's successors, and in 1014 the Byzantine emperor Basil II won a battle over the Bulgarian army after which he ordered 14,000 prisoners to be blinded. For this Basil II took the title "Bulgaroktonus," or Bulgar slayer, and Bulgaria was ruled by Byzantium until 1185. In that year the brothers Ivan and Peter Asen launched a successful revolt that led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom with its capital at Turnovo. Under Tsar Ivan Asen II (r. 1218-41) Bulgaria again dominated most of the Balkans, but by the end of the century the state was weakened by peasant revolt and attacks from Mongols, Serbs, and finally succumbed to the invasion of the Ottoman Turks. During the nearly 500 years of the "Ottoman Yoke," Bulgaria's national customs and values were preserved in the monasteries and in mountain villages isolated from Turkish influence. In the 18th century Paissy, a Bulgarian monk of the Khilendar Monastery on Mt Athos, used medieval texts to prepare a history of his people, calling on them to remember their past and former greatness. Paissy's history is regarded as the beginning of the National Revival that was marked by the rapid expansion of Bulgarian schools and by the achievement of an independent Bulgarian Orthodox Exarchate in 1870. Six years later Bulgarian revolutionaries launched the April Uprising, whose brutal suppression created outrage in Europe and helped to provoke the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The war ended with the Treaty of San Stefano that created a large Bulgarian state, whose borders were based on those of the Exarchate. The Western Powers, however, feared that Bulgaria would be a satellite of Russia and insisted on a revision of the treaty. At the Congress of Berlin in 1879 only the part of the country between the Balkan range and the Danube was allowed to become an autonomous principality. The lands south of the Balkan Range were given the name "Eastern Rumelia" under a Christian governor appointed by the Porte. And Macedonia was returned entirely to Ottoman administration. A convention held in Turnovo adopted a constitution for the new state and chose Alexander Battenberg as its first prince. In 1885, when the Bulgarians of Eastern Rumelia declared their union with the north, Serbia attacked. Prince Alexander led the Bulgarian forces to victory, but abdicated because he had lost the good will of Russia. Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was elected to the throne in 1887. In 1908, Ferdinand took the title of Tsar, and his desire to regain all the lands of the San Stefano Treaty led to the formation of an alliance with Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. In the First Balkan War (1912) the allies forced Turkey to relinquish its remaining Balkan territories. However, they fell out among themselves and fought the Second Balkan War (1913), which Bulgaria lost. Bulgaria was also on the losing side in World War I, and had to give up territory to Serbia and Greece. Ferdinand was forced to abdicate, and the throne passed to his son Boris III. The government was then in the hands of Alexander Stamboliski, leader of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, who launched a dramatic series of reforms before he was overthrown and murdered in 1923. Gradually, Tsar Boris III with the support of the army established his personal control over the country. During World War II, Boris was a reluctant ally of Germany. Bulgaria declared "symbolic war" on Great Britain and the United States, but did not send its forces into combat and declined to deport its Jewish population to the death camps in Poland. In September 1944 the Soviet Union suddenly declared war on Bulgaria and quickly occupied it. In conjunction with the Soviet invasion, a Communist-led coalition, called the Fatherland Front, seized power in Sofia. Under Georgi Dimitrov the Communists consolidated their power, and by the end of 1947 completely eliminated their opponents. During the Communist era, Bulgaria acquired the reputation of being the most loyal ally of the Soviet Union, imitating Soviet collectivization and industrialization policies. The removal from office of longtime leader Todor Zhivkov on 10 November 1989 began the current era of political and economic transition. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-3 Bulgarian Czars (by Konstantin Zahariev), last updated: 13-Feb-1996 (This entry is in Bulgarian) Po-dolu sledva pqlen (predpolagam) spisqk na izvestnite na istoriyata bqlgarski hanove, knyaze i care. Pomesten e kato prilojenie kqm piesata "Procesqt protiv bogomilite" na Stefan Canev. Prepechatvam go s malki izmeneniya. I. Pqrvo Bqlgarsko Carstvo (337 godini). 681 - 700 Asparuh (19) - han ( naposledqk dobiva populyarnost teoriyata, che Asparuh ne e sqzdal _nova_ dqrjava prez 681, a prosto e _prisqedinil_ teritoriite na yug ot Dunav kqm predishnite si vladeniya. Taka ili inache, 681 e godinata na oficialnoto priznavane na han Asparuh za vladetel na tezi teritorii ot vizantiyskiya imperator ) 700 - 721 Tervel (21) 721 - 738 Kormersiy (17) 738 - 753 Sevar (15) 753 - 756 Kormisosh (3) 756 - 762 Vineh (6) 762 - 765 Telec (3) 765 - 766 Sabin (1) 766 Umor (40 dena) 766 - 767 Toktu (1) 767 - 768 Pagan (1) 768 - 777 Telerig (9) 777 - 802 Kardam (25) 802 - 814 Krum (12) 814 - 831 Omurtag (17) 831 - 836 Malamir (5) 836 - 852 Presian (16) 852 - 889 Boris-Mihail (37) - han, ot 863 - knyaz 889 - 893 Rasate-Vladimir (4) - knyaz 893 - 927 Simeon (34) - knyaz, ot 913 - car 927 - 970 Petqr (43) - car 970 - 971 Boris II (1) 971 - 977 bez car 977 - 991 Roman (14) 991 - 1014 Samuil (23) 1014 - 1015 Gavrail-Radomir (1) 1015 - 1018 Ivan-Vladislav (3) do 1185 vizantiysko robstvo (167) ( 1040 - 1041 Petqr II - Delyan (1) 1072 Petqr III /Konstantin Bodin/ ) II. Vtoro Bqlgarsko Carstvo (210 godini). 1185 - 1190 Petqr IV (5) 1190 - 1196 Ivan Asen (6) - formalno Petqr IV sqshto caruva. 1196 - 1197 pak Petqr IV (1) 1197 - 1207 Kaloyan (10) 1207 - 1218 Boril (11) 1218 - 1241 Ivan Asen II (23) 1241 - 1246 Koloman Asen (5) 1246 - 1256 Mihail II Asen (10) 1256 Koloman II Asen 1256 - 1257 Mico Asen (1) 1257 - 1277 Konstantin Asen Tih (20) 1277 - 1279 Ivaylo (2) 1279 - 1280 Ivan Asen III (1) 1280 - 1292 Georgi Terter (12) 1292 - 1298 Smilec (6) 1299 Chaka (1) 1300 - 1321 Teodor Svetoslav /Terter/ (21) 1321 - 1322 Georgi Terter II (1) 1323 - 1330 Mihail III Shishman (7) 1330 - 1331 Ivan Stefan (1) 1331 - 1371 Ivan Aleksandqr (40) 1371 - 1395 Ivan Shishman (24) 1356 - 1396 Ivan Stracimir (40) do 1878 tursko robstvo (482) III. Treto Bqlgarsko Carstvo (de facto 67 godini de jure do dnes ). 1879 - 1886 Aleksandqr Batenberg (7) - knyaz 1887 Valdemar Datski - knyaz, otkazal se 1887 - 1918 Ferdinand (31) - knyaz, ot 1907 - car 1918 - 1943 Boris III (25) - car de facto de jure -------- ------- 1943 - 1946 car Simeon II (3) 1943 - dnes car Simeon II (52+) 1944 sqvetska okupaciya ot 1946 "narodna republika" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bibliografiya: 1. Yordan Andreev. "Bqlgarskite hanove i care VII -XIV vek". Istoriko-hronologichen spravochnik. Izdatelstvo "Petqr Beron", 1994. 2. Ekip ot avtori. "Who's who v srednovekovna Bqlgaria". 1995. 3. Stefan Canev. Prilojenie kqm "Procesqt protiv bogomilite" - piesa. 1968-69. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-4 Evropa i Balkanite do Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.) (by Plamen Stanoev) (This entry is in Bulgarian) =================================================================== ===> Statiyata , koyato sledva e napisana sqs sqdeistvieto i <=== ===> pomoshta na g-n Lyuben Boyanov i g-n Petqr Yovchev. <=== =================================================================== Evropa i Balkanite do Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.) ==================================================== "Ako predi osvobojdenieto se yaveshe nyakoi da dokazva s kakvito i da bilo sredstva , che prigotovlyavanata ot Rusiya voina s Turciya za nasheto osvobojdenie e voina , ne za osvobojdenieto na "bednyh slavyan", a za razshirenieto na ruskata Imperiya i za zavladyavaneto na Bqlgariya i Balkanite ot Rusiya, - nyamashe da se nameri nito edin bqlgarin , koito da go povyarva i kogoto da ne narechaha vrag na slavyanstvoto , vrag na bqlgarskiya narod, na negovoto osvobojdenie...." - - taka zapochva predgovora na "Okupacionen fond za sqzdavane na Pusko-Dunavska oblast" (izdadena Sofia 1892, Ruse 1993 g.) , napisan ot D. Petkov. Kniga , sqdqrjashta kolkoto i interesni , tolkova i neveroyatni (spored dosegashnite ni predstavi) i dori potresavashti fakti za rolyata na "osvoboditelkata" Rusiya pri izgrajdaneto na novata bqlgarska dqrjava. No neka pqrvo se vqrnem malko po-nazad v istoriyata , v kraya na XVII , nachaloto na XIX bek. Ili dori oshte po-nazad - v XVI v. Bqlgarskata dqrjava oshte ne sqshtestvuva. Car Ivan Grozni za prqv pqt oglasyava "osvoboditelnata misiya" na Rusiya , kato zayavyava nedvusmisleno , che celta mu e da zavladee Carigrad.Sqshtata nasochenost na ruskata politika poddqrjat i Petqr-I i Ekaterina Velika. V 1880 godina tya dori obyavyava t.nar. "Grqcki proekt", koito celi izgonvaneto na turcite ot Evropa i obrazuvane na edinna grqcka imperiya, nachelo s vnuka na imperatricata - Konstantin. Ot tozi period e interesna Rusko-Turksata voina, koqto zavurshva s podpisvaneto na dogovora v Kyuchuk-Kainardja, spored koito Rusiq stava popechitel na pravoslavieto v Osmanskata Imperiq. Spored toigavashnite geopoliticheski shvashtaniya pqtyat za vqzhoda na Imperiyata kato velika sila neizbejno minava prez Bosfora i Dardanelite (t.n. "Protoci")- izhodnite vrati kqm svetovnite prostori. A znaem , che po tova vreme morskiya transpotr e bil dominirasht. Ottuk proizticha sledovatelno sistemnata agresivna orientaciya na Rusiya spryamo chernomorskite protoci i placdarma za tyah - Balkanskiya poluostrov. Naporistata ruska ekspanziya speshtu Osmanskata imperiya neminuemo porajda silno protivodeistvie ot strana na Belikobritaniya , Franciya i Avstriya (po-kqsno Avstro-Ungaria) , makar samo Avstriya da ima neposredstven i aktiven interes kqm Balkanite. No ruskata politika zastrashava balansa na Velikite sili, poradi koeto te ostro se protivopostavyat na ruskoto pronikvane v tozi region. Mejdu Rusiya i zapadnite dqrjavi se ochertava edno neprestanno sqpernichestvo po tozi vqpros, izvesten pod imeto Iztochen vqpros. Tezi protivorechiya direktno reflektirat vqrhu balkanskite osvoboditelni dvijeniya. Ot tova koi politicheski faktori i tendencii dominirat v Iztochniya vqpros , zavisi fakticheski dali revolyuciyata na Balkanite shte e v podem ili zastoi. Prez pqrvata polovina na XIX v. , sled razgroma na Napoleonova Franciya Rusiya dominira v Iztochniya vqpros. Togava , po zarqka na carya Aziatskiya departament pri ruskoto vqnshno ministerstvo v Peterburg izrabotva cyalostna strategiya za ruskata politika na Balkanite , kato se opredelyat neinite osnovni prioriteti i akcenti. Za nas e lyubopitna gradaciyata na prioritetite: 1.) Sqrbiya i Cherna gora , 2.) Gqrciya i 3.) Bqlgaria. Glavnite ruski sqpernici sa angajirani s tehni si vqtreshni problemi i nyamat vqzmojnost da i' se protivopostavyat. Tova razvqrzva rqcete na ruskiya car , koito samo chaka udoben povod za udar sreshtu Turciya. Takqv odhodyash povod se okazva grqckoto vqstanie prez 1821 g. Rusiya vednaga zastava na strana na Gqrcite i taka se stiga do rusko-turska voina ot 1828-1829 g. , zavqrshila s uspeh za Rusiya. Sqglasno Odrinskiya miren dogovor ot 1829 g. Gqrciya i Sqrbiya poluchavat statut na avtonomni knyajestva. Za nas obache e po-interesna chasta ot dogovora , otnasyashta se do bqlgarskite teritorii. Za tyah se spomenava v Chlen 2: ".... N.I.Velichestvo toje povrqshta ...., Bqlgaria i oblastta Dobrudja ot Dunava do moreto sqs Silistra , Hqrsovo , Machin , Isakcha , Tulcha , Babadag , Bazardjik , Varna , Provadia i vsichki drugi gradove , palanki i sela , koito tya vklyuchva; cyaloto protejenie na Balkana ot Emine-Burun do Kotel i cyalata oblast ot Balkana do moreto sqs Sliven , Yambol , Aitos , Karnobat , Mesemvria , Ahelo , Burgas , Sozopol , Kqrk-Klise , Odrin , Lyule Burgas , nai-posle vsichki gradove , palanki i sela i izobshto vsichki mesta , koito ruskite voiski sa okupirali v Rumeliya." I taka , Rusiya vrqshta na Turciya bqlgarskite zemi , _okupirani_ veche ot ruski voiski. Tova edva li se vrqzva s obyavenata ot Rusiya osvoboditelna misiya , no oshte vednqj dokazva istinskite prichini za agresivnosta na Rusiya na balkanskiya poluostrov. I mejdu tezi prichini ne figurira osvobojdenieto va Bqlgariya kato osnovopolagashta cel. Interesite na ruskiya imperator sa edinstveno kqm prolivite i edin pprochit na drugite chlenove na dogovora pokazva , che rusiya postiga celite si - neinite korabi mogat svobodno da preminavat prez Carigradskiya kanal i Dardanelskite tesnini. Sled kraya na tazi voina, okolo 100 000 bulgari emigrirat, v sledstvie na koeto, iztochno-bulgarskite zemi se obezbulgaryavat !!! Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.) - Carigradskata konferenciya (1876 g.) ==================================================================== Prez 1853 g. carskoto pravitelstvo predpriema porednata voenna kampaniya protiv Turciya. Rusiya predvaritelno se e opitala se podgotvi Velikite sili za eventualno razdelyane na Turciya. Yavno zabludena v uspeha na tezi svoi predvaritelni deistviya tya reshava, che Velikite sili nyama da i' poprechat na edin pohod kum Carigrad. Protiv Rusiya se obyavyavat Franciya , Velikobritaniya i Avstriya. Za Franciya i Angliya voinata ot 1853 e poveche za prestij, otkolkoto za zapazvane na Turciya. Britanskiyat vqnshen ministur e zagrijen nai-veche za tova Angliya da izglejda silna v tozi moment, a ne da pomaga na Turciya ili da zapazva celostta i'. Taka zapopchva i tri godini prodqljava edna ot nai-ojestochenite voini vqv vrqzka s Iztochniya vqpros , izvestna pod imeto Krimska voina i zavqrshila s porajenie na Rusiya. Na posledvalata Parijka mirna konfrenciya prez 1856 g. na Rusiya sa nalojeni tejki usloviya , mejdu koito zabrana ednostranno da pokrovitelstvuva balkanskite strani i da se mesi v tehnite vqtreshni raboti bez obshtoto sqglasie na silite-garanti ; da otstqpi Besarabia na Moldovskoto knyajestvo ; zabranyava na ruski voenni korabi da preminavat prez prolivite i dr. Po kqsno pak shte se vqrnem na vqprosa svqrzan s Besarabiya za da vidim edna arogantna sdelka za smetka na Bqlgariya pri podpisvaneto na San Stefanskiya dogovor. Za sega , obache , ruskata agresivna politika e obektivno blagopriyaten vqnshnopoliticheski faktor za balkanskite osvoboditelni dvijeniya. Veche spomenahme za osvobojdenieto na Gqrciya i Sqrbiya. Tehniya opit , kakto i mnogobroinite drugi po-golemi ili po-malki vqstaniya dokazvat , che reshavashta rolya za postigane na uspeh ima vqnshnata podkrepa. Neka spomenem kato dokazatelstvo Pqrvoto srqbsko vqstanie , zapochnalo prez 1804 god. s ruska blagosloviya i obeshtaniya za podkrepa. Podkrepata se okazva sqs zapochvane na nova voina sreshtu Turciya prez 1806 godina. Blagodarenie na nego srqbskoto vqstanie , nachelo s Kara Georgi postiga uspeh , koito se okazva vremenen. Nashestvieto na Napoleon prez 1812 god. pozvolyava na sultana da smaje mestnoto dvijenie. Uspeh to postiga sled pobedata na Napoleon , otnovo s aktivnata pomosht na Rusiya. Pochti po analogichen nachin izvoyuvat svoyata nezavisimost i Vlashko i Moldova. Moje bi bihme imali osnovaniya da ochakvame , che po podoben scenarii : vqstanie -> ruska pomosht -> nezavisimost , bi se razvilo i bqlgarskoto nacionalno - osvoboditelno dvijenie ako ne be porajenieto na Rusiya v Krimskata voina i proiztichashtite ot tova posledici za neinata vqnshna politika. I taka , prez 1876 god. s nadejda za vqnshna pomosht i bez osobeni izgledi za uspeh v Bqlgariya izbuhva Aprilskoto vqstanie. Samoto vqstanie ne dobiva razmerite , ochakvani ot negovite organizatori i biva bqrzo i bezmilostno smazano ot turscite. Proyavenata ot tyah obache osobena jestokost pri potushavaneto , opisana v statiite na Makgahan , kakto i proyaveni podobni zverstva pri potushavane na vqstanieto v Bosna-Hercegovina prez 1875 g. namirat majdunaroden otzvuk. Za zashtita na porobenite narodi se obyavyavat izvestni intelektualci , kato Yugo , Gladston i dr. Krizata 1875 - 78 g. ====================== Prez Yuli 1875 izbuhva vuztanie v Herzegovina, a sled tova - v Bosnia. Tova otvarq kriza na Balkanite, koqto e zreela ot zavurshvaneto na Krimskata voina. V 1875 interesite na Velikite sili sa bili v konflikt. Rusnacite sa bili unijeni sled Krim - bez flota, bez pravo da minavat Prolivite. Avstriq zavisi ot koraboplavaneto po Dunav, kakto i ot neobhodimostta i ot koridor kum Bqlo more. Angliq se nujdae ot neutralen bufer (kato Otomanskata Imperiq) za da ima "sigurni" Iztochnoto sredizemnomorie i Blizkiq Iztok - OSOBENO sled otvarqneto na Sueckiq kanal prez 1869. Franciq e bila seriozno finansovo svurzana s Turciq (Angliq e bila susto, no malko po-malko investicii ot Franciq). Samo Germaniq e nqmala interes na Balkanite i Bismark se e ujasqval da bude vuvlechen v kakuvto i da e konflikt, ot koito toi ne bi imal kakvato i da e polza. Poradi tova, Bismark e jelael takova reshenie, koeto ste udovoletvorqva vsichki Veliki sili i koeto ste dovede do stabilnost na Balkanite. Krizata 1875-1878 e predizvikana ot vuztaniqta na balkanskite narodi. Rusiq ne e mogla da ne izpolzva tova v svoq polza i da ne napravi nisto, Avstiq puk ne e mogla da ostavi slavqnskite narodi da uspeqt pod patronaja na Rusiq, koqto e bila razvqvala znameto na panslavizma po tova vreme. Angliq se e strahuvala ot reshenie na politicheski problemi spored nacionalno-etnicehski principi, zastoto tova bi bilo udobno da se izpolzva za iskane na avtonomiq ot Irlandiq. Situaciqta v Turciq se vloshava - prez 1876 izbuhva Aprilskoto vuztanie, sled tova sultana biva prinuden da abdikira, Cherna gora i Surbiq obqvqvat voina na Turciq. Togava (Yuli 1876) Avstriq i Rusiq podpisvat dogovora v Raihstad, spored koito dvete strani se obvurzvat da NE SE NAMESVAT na tozi etap. V Raihstad se pravqt hipotezi za teritorialni razdeleniq pri razlichna sudba na Turciq, kato oste togava Rusiq se dogovarq da ne dopuska suzdavaneto na golqma slavqnska durjava na Balkanite. Prez esenta na 1876 Alexander II promenq poziciqta si po Iztochniq vupros. Za tova prichinite sa nqkolko. Na purvo mqsto Surbiq i Cherna gora sa razgromeni ot Turciq, koeto predpolaga krah na ideqta za desintegrirane na OE ot vutre. Jestokostite na klanetata v Bulgariq sa veche publikuvani v Angliq i Alexander schita, che pri tova polojenie, Angliq nqma da moje da se priteche na pomost na Turciq. Vliqnite na suvetnicite na Alexander II, koito podurjat pan-slavqnskite idei susto e golqmo v tozi moment i prez noemvri 1876 Alecxander II obqvqva promqna na kursa na Rusiq kum Balkanite. Pravi se opit da se specheli Bismark, koito da zadurja Avstriq da bude neutralna, no Bismark makar i da nqma nisto protiv ruskite planove otkazva da zastane srestu Avstriq. Zaedno s tova, Bismark se strahuva, che pri eventulana ruska pobeda ste se narushi seriozno balansa na Velikite sili, koeto puk e nai-izgodnoto za nego. Togava Rusiq opitva da specheli Franciq. Ala Franciq, osven interesite si v Turciq se opasqva ot konflikt s Angliq, a Franciq se e nujdaela ot podrujkata na drugi Veliki sili v eventualen konflikt s Germaniq. Vsichko tova postavq Alexander II v edna poziciq, koqto bi povtorila fiaskoto ot Krimskata voina - voina ne samo srestu Turciq, no i srestu ostanalite Veliki sili. Taka ostavat samo 2 varianta na Rusiq - opit za nqkakvo suglasie mejdu Velikite sili i sdelka s Avstriq. Opitvaiki purviq variant se svikva konferenciqta v Carigrad v kraq na 1876. Sled provalut na konferenciqta Alexandur pristupva kum vtoriq variant i podpisva sporazumenie s Avstriq v Budapesta. Taka sled kato Rusiq e bila naqsno kakvi sa i shansovete za uspeh vuv voinata i do kolko ste budat "osvobodeni" Balkanite (t.e. PREDVARITELNO e bilo qsno, che tova ste e NEVUZMOJNO) Rusiq preminava kum voenni deistviq. P.S. Gornata statiya e napisana ot g-n Luben Boyanov , no ya postvam az s negovo razreshenie tqi kato pochah da postvam po temata... Carigradskata konferenciya (1876 - 77 g.) ========================================= Taka prez dekemvri na 1876 god. se svikva mejdunarodna konferenciya v Carigrad. Na neya uchastvuvat pqlnomoshtnici na Rusiya , Angliya , Franciya , Avstro-Ungaria , Germaniya i Italiya. Turski predstaviteli nyama. Angliya ne se sqglasyava s napravenoto ot Rusiya predlojenie za edna golyama avtonomna oblast. Za neya e yasno , che sled aktivnata rolya na Rusiya v nacionalno-osvoboditelnite borbi na Balkanskiya poluostrov , tya e sposobstvuvala v golyama stepen za oformyaneto za bqlgarskiya nacionalen duh i tova , pribaveno kqm fakta , che tya predlaga takava Bqlgariya neminuemo shte zasili blagodarnostta na bqlgarite i ruskoto vliyanie v tozi rayon. V rezultat na napraveni otstqpki i kompromisi,obache, markiz R.Solzbqri i graf N.Ignatiev stigat do sqglasie po vsichki osnovni principni vqprosi oshte na predvaritelnite pregovori. Kqm tyah se prisqedinyavat i ostanalite uchasnici v konferenciyata. Spored izraboteniya proekt za reformi v evropeiska Turciya , Bqlgaria poluchava administrativna avtonomiya v granici , obhvashtashti oblastite Miziya , Trakiya , Makedoniya i Dobrudja. Tezi granici sqvpadat v obshti linii s teritorialniya obhvat na Bqlgarskata ekzarhiya sqglasno sultanskiya ferman ot 1870 g i sa _po-golemi_ ot opredelenite sled tova v San Stefanskiya dogovor!!! Po nastoyavane na angliiskiya i avstro-ungarskiya predstavitel obache bqlgarskata avtonomna oblast e razdelena na 2 chasti - Iztochna s centqr Tqrnovo i Zapadna s centqr Sofia. Interesno za nas e da se otbeleji , che ne samo v Angliiskoto , no i v Ruskoto predlojenie ne se spomenava za "svoboda" , "nezavisimost" na Bqlgarskata dqrjava. -- Tulcha | o \ | \ \ _) \ | / | / / /o~ ~ | /~~~~\ _ --- Silistra | | o Vidin /o | \ \_____ __/Ruse | |oKula ---------~~~~~~~ | \ o Oryahovo -- / : Varna/ /~~~~~ o Vraca : Tqrnovo o| ( o Nish : o | \ : | \ Sofia : Sliven / / o : o | / o Vranya : ~\ / : Plovdiv | /o Tetovo : o \ | o Skopie : Haskovo \ | : o Svilengrad Lozengrad / | : /~~~~~~~~~~ \ o o / \ o Strumica / \__/--\_____/ | o Bitolya /~~~~~\____/ \o Ohrid | / / | o Kostur (_______/ *** Granici na Bqlgaria spored resheniyata na *** *** Carigradskata konferenciya 1876/1877 *** Istoricheskoto znachenie na tova sporazumenie e vqv fakta , che za prqv pqt podoben avtoriteten mejdunaroden forum oficialno priznava bqlgarskiya narod kato otdelna i samostoyatelna etnicheska obshtnost s yasno ochertani treritorialni granici. Sled postignatoto edinodushie po osnovnite vqprosi na 25 dekemvri sqshtata godina oficialno se otkriva Carigradskata konferenciya , koyato tryabva da obsqdi i reshi vsichki neshta , svqrzani s ucheredyavaneto na dvete bqlgarski avtonomni oblasti. Chrez svoya vtori delegat na konferenciyata obache , poslannika v Carigrad H. Eliat , angliiskata diplomaciya dezavuira sobstveniya si oficialen predstavitel i postignatite ot nego predvaritelni sporazumeniya. Osnovnata prichina za provala na tazi konferenciya, kakto i za svikvaneto na Berlinskiya kongres po-kqsno e , che Angliq i Avstriq iskat da predotvratyat razshiryavaneto na Ruskite imperialisticheski interesi na Balkanite. Ot dokumentite sled 1878 g. stava yasno, che Rusiya se e opitala bezkompromisno da ni prevqrne v guberniya, kakto Finlandiya. V sluchaya imperskite ambicii na Rusiya, pone v teritorialno otnoshenie sqvpadat s nacionalnite interesi na bqlgarskiya narod i zatova idva spekulaciyata,che Avstriya i Angliya sa anti-bqlgarski, a Rusiya - pro-bqlgarska - nesto,koeto nyama nisto obsto s istinata (neka tuk otbelejim otnovo , che Angliya i Avstro-Ungariya sa sqglasni s etnicheskite granici na Bqlgariya , stiga te da sa utvqrdeni ot vsichki Veliki sili , a ne sa produkt samo na Rusiya). V tozi aspekt, Angliya (a i drugite Veliki sili) vijda zapazvaneto na teritorialnata cyalost na Otomanskata Imperiya kato edinstvenoto vqzmojno za tova vreme praktichesko reshenie srestu ruskite ambicii. Zaedno s tova, Angliya ne e vyarvala, che Rusiya shte obyavi voina na Turciya, i taka ste se zapazi statukvoto. Druga prichina za prekqsvane na konferenciyata e obyavenata ot turskoto pravitelstvo "konstituciya" , koyato osiguryavala "pravata na vsichki narodnosti i religii v stranata". Estestveno - samo na dumi , a i skoro sled priklyuchvane na konferenciyata tya , zaedno sqs sqzdatelite i e eliminirana ot politicheskiya jivot na stranata. Rusko - Turskata voina ot 1877 - 78 g. i San Stafanskiya miren dogovor - pqrvo razpokqsvane na bqlgarskata etnicheska cyalost ================================================================ Pri taka sqzdalata se obstanovka Rusiya opredeleno pochva podgotovka za voina s Turciya. Vsqshtnost diplomaticheskata podgotovka zapochva oshte prez lyatoto na 1876 godina na t.n. Raihshtadska sreshta mejdu ruskiya imperator Aleksandqr-II i avstroungarskiya imperator Franc Yosif. Stavalo duma pri razpredelenie na Osmanskata imperiya da _ne se dopuska sqzdavane na golyama slavyanska dqrjava_ , a da se obrazuvat dve samostoyatelni knyajestva (ili dve avtonomni oblasti) severno i yujno ot Balkana. Pregovorite majdu avstriiskoto i ruskoto pravitelstva prodqljavat taino i prez noemvri sqshtata godina kato Rusiya se stremi da parira eventualnoto neposredstveno vmeshatelstvo na Avstro-Ungaria na Balkanite. Na 15.I.1877 god. v Budapest e podpisana t.n. "Taina konvenciya" , garantirashta neutraliteta na Avstro-Ungariya v predstoyashtata Rusko-Turska voina. Na 18.III. konvenciyata bila dopqlnena s tekstove , koito imat vajno znachenie za bqdeshteto na Bqlgariya. Avstro-Ungariya osiguryavala za sebe si Bosna i Hercegovina , a Rusiya - Besarabiya. Potvqrdeno bilo vzaimnoto sqglasie na Balkanite da ne se dopusne sqzdavaneto na golyama slavyanska dqrjava , a da se sqzdadat avtonomni oblasti. Tazi klauza , zadovolyavashta vzaimnite interesi na Avstro-Ungaria i Rusiya shte igrae osnovna rolya sled kraya na voinata i shte naloji svikvaneto na sqdbonosniya za bqdeshteto na Bqlgariya i Balkanite Berlinski kongres. Taka s tainite podpisi na dvete pravitelstva shansovete na bqdeshteto na edna Bqlgariya v neinata etnicheska cyalost bili svedeni do minimum oshte predi zapochvaneto na voennite deistviya. V kraya na mart 1877 g. s edin protokol , podpisan v London , uchastnicite v Carigradskata konferenciya predlagat otnovo Turciya da se sqglasi s predlojeniyata im. carigrad othvqrlya i tozi pqt protokola. Tova veche e povod za Rusiya. Vsichki prigotovleniya za edna voenna operaciya sa pochti priklyuchili. V Kishinev e sformirana i nyakolkohilyadna (v razgqnat stroi - 12000 dushi) dobrovolcheska voiska , narechena "Bqlgarsko opqlchenie". Na 12.IV. 1877 g. imperator Aleksandqr-II prochita v Kishinev manifesta za obyavyavane na voinata. Sklyuchen e dogvor s Rumqniya za preminavane na ruskite voiski prez neina teritoriya i uchastie na rumqnski chasti vqv voinata. Osven tova s cel da se osiguri neutraliteta na Angliya sqs zapochvane na voinata Rusiya otpravya predlojenie v zamyana na neutralitet i' da sqzdade avtonomna dqrjava (toest Bqlgariya) samo na sever ot Stara Planina. Angliya ne se sqglasyava poradi otkaza na Rusiya da dade garancii , che nyama da vleze v Carigrad. Po-kqsno Rusiya oteglya tova svoe predlojenie. Na hoda na voinata tuk nyama da se spirame. Vseki ot nas e chel ili pone chuval v chasovete po istoriya za obsadata na Pleven , Shipchenskata epopeya i proyaveniya geroizqm na bqlgari i rusi. Primirieto m-u dvete dqrjavi bilo sklyucheno na 31.I. 1878 g. ( * star stil) v Odrin , a na 19.II. sqshtata godina (*) voinata priklyuchila s podpisvane na miren ogovor v San Stefano. Sqglasno tozi dogovor , narechen oficialno prelimaren (predvaritelen) , se sqzdava avtonomno tributarno knyajestvo Bqlgariya sqs svoe pravitelstvo i voiska. Granicite na Bqlgarskoto knyajestvo obhvashtali cyala Severna Bqlgariya s Yujna Dobrudja , cyala Trakiya bez Gyumurdjina i Odrinsko , no s obshiren izlaz na byalo more i cyala Makedoniya bez Solun i Halkidicheskiya poluostrov. Teritorii , priblizitelno sqshtite , kakto sa opredeleni ot Carigradskata konferenciya , no !... No ot Bqgariya za prqv pqt se otkqsvat teritorii za da se dadat na sqsedni nam dqrjavi. V chlen 19 ot dogovora se vijda , che za izkonnata bqlgarska zemya se predvijda obiknovenna pokupko-prodajba. Eto kakvo glasi: "....Opredelya se razmera na voennoto obeshtetenie na edna suma ot 1410 miliona rubli , koyato Turciya izplashta: a) s Dobrudja , koyato Rusiya priema ne za sebe si , a da ya zameni s Rumqnska Bessarabiya , aneksirana kqm Rumqniya v 1856 g. po Parijkiya dogovor b) s Armeniya. Tiya dve provincii se ocenyavat na 1100 miliona rubli , ostatqka ot 310 miliona rubli shte se izplati po-kqsno" Po tozi povod cyalata rumqnska obshtestvenost se protivopostavya na takava "razmyana". Nai-izvestni obshtestvenici i politici na Rumqniya pishat s trevoga : " V severna Dobrudja na jiveyat rumqnci i v nai-skoro vreme tya shte se prevqrna v "nov balkanski vqpros". Predstoi sqzdavane na knyajestvo Bqlgariya , to vednaga shte poiska Severna Dobrudja , kqdeto principqt na obshtestvenite granici , kakto i principqt na nacionalnostite shte bqdat v polza na neinite iskaniya" . Rumqnskiyat ministqr-predsedatel Bratiyanu zayavyava: " I duma da ne stava da priemam Severna Dobrudja. Tam ne jiveyat rumqnci. Nashata etnicheska granica e Dunava". Rusiya obache (s edna ugovorka v dogovorniya tekst "za srok ot 100 godini) , vklyuchva v graniccite si Yujna Besarabiya i nalaga na Rumqniya Severna Dobrudja. I tova ne vsichko. Sqglasno dogovora , na Sqrbiya se davat Nishka oblast i Lyaskovac ne samo kato "nagrada" za nishtojnoto srqbsko "uchastie" v kraya na voinata , no i za smetka na Stara Sqrbiya ili Rashka , koyato ostava vqn ot teritoriite na Srqbskoto kralstvo. Da-a-a , nyakoi mai kazvashe "bezkoristna pomosht" , "bratya slavyani"... kak li pqk ne! Shirokite granici , koito Rusiya nalaga v tozi dogovor vqpreki angliiskata i avstro-ungarskata opoziciya , davat povod za oshte edna spekulaciya za osvoboditelnata misiya na Dyado Ivan. Izhojdaiki ot teritoriite , opredeleni ot dogovora se tvqrdeshe , che Rusiya vsqshtnost se bori za sqzdavaneto na edna golyama Bqlgariya , v ramkite na neinite etnicheski granici estestveno , a Velikite sili sa protiv i samo te sa prichina za posledvaloto razpokqsvane na Bqlgariya. A se zabravyat podpisanite oshte predi zapochvane na voinata ot Rusiya sporazumeniya , spored koito sqzdavane na golyana slavyanska dqrjava na Balkanite e nedopustimo! S tozi dogovor Rusiya prosto si podgotvya pochvata za po-natatqshnite si planova otnosno Bqlgariya - prevrqshtaneto i' v Rusko-Dunavska guberniya. Berlinskiya kongres ===================== Pochti neposredstveno sled podpisvane na San Stefanskiya dogovor evropeiskata diplomaciya vlyazla nezabavno v deistvie. Povdignat bil vqprosa za tainoto Budapeshtensko sporazumenie ot yanuari-mart 1877 g. , podpisano ot Avstro-Ungariya i Rusiya. Pregovorite , koito ruskoto pravitelstvo pochnalo po tozi vqpros s Avstro-Ungariya pochivali na otnositelno blagopriyatnite predlojeniya na Viena. Avstroungarskiyat vqnshen ministqr Andrashi priemal Bqlgariya da ostane nedelim knyajestvo s izlaz na Byalo more , no zapadnata granica da se prostira do r. Vardar. Ot Peterbur obache baveli otgovora. Bqlgariya v tezi si granici ne vlizala v tehnite planove. A edno eventualno podpisvane na tova sporazumenie shtyalo da postavi evropeiskite sili pred svqrshen fakt. Germaniya e zaemala neutralna poziciya po vqprosa , a Italiya i Franciya sa izyavyavali samo izvestno nedovolstvo ot izlaza na Bqlgariya na Sredizemnomorskiya basein. Pri takiva usloviya , ostanala sama , Angliya edva li bi se protivipostavila na evropeiskiya koncert. No imenno straha na Rusiya ot eventualnata nezavisima politika na edno golyamo (i silno) bqlgarsko knyajestvo sposobstvuvat za posledvaloto razpokqsvane na Bqlgariya. V nachaloto na mai ruskiyat poslannik v London , Shuvalov , otpravya zapitvane do angliiskoto pravitelstvo za negovata poziciya po sklyucheniya San Stefanski dogovor (bez da e osigureno sqotvetnoto sqglasuvane s Viena po vqprosa). Angliiskiyat otgovor glasyal: Sanstefanska Bqlgariya da se razdeli po biloto na Stara planina na Severna i Yujna. Severnata da bqde avtonomna s knyajesko pravitelstvo , a Yujnata samo administrativno avtonomna i pryako podchinena na Visokata porta ; Bqlgariya da nyama izlaz na Byalo more. Okolo sredata na mai Shuvalov poluchil ukazanie da zapochne pregovori s anglichanite v London. Novata poziciya na angliiskoto pravitelstvo obache bila Bqlgariya ne samo da se razdeli na dve chasti , no i za izmestvane na granicata kakto na knyajestvoto , taka i na yujnata avtonomna oblast dalech na iztok - pochti tam , kqdeto spored prietite ot Carigradskata konferenciya resheniya se prostirala zapadnata granica na Iztochnata avtonomna oblast - po reka Iskqr i po sqshtata otvesna liniya otvqd Balkana. Na 30 mai (*) Shuvalov i angliiskiya vqnshen ministqr Solzbqri podpisvat priblizitelno v tozi vid taino anglo-rusko sporazumenie za razpokqsvane na etnicheskata bqlgarska narodnost. Po obshto sqglasie mejdu Velikite sili prieto bilo kongresqt po prerazglejdane na San Stefanskiya miren dogovor da se provede v Berlin. Zasedaniyata mu sa otkriti na 13 yuni (*) i prodqljili do 13 yuli (*) 1878 god. Na tyah _ne e dopusnato nikakvo_ bqlgarsko narodnostno , dqrjavno ili diplomatichesko predstavitelstvo. Nyakolko dni predi zapochvane na kongresa Angliya sklyuchva taino sporazumenie s Avstro-Ungariya za edinodeistvie v zasedaniyata na kongresa. Tova davalo vqzmojnost angliiskiya predstavitel da postavya ultimativno svoite iskaniya i da zaplashva s napuskane na zasedaniyata. Pri nalichieto na predvaritelno podpisano taino rusko-angliisko sporazumenie , sporovete po bqlgarskiya vqpros se vodeli glavno za tova dali zapadnata granica na novoto knyajestvo da bqde po reka Iskqr ili da vklyuchi i Sofiiska oblast. Tuk tryabva da spomenem i oshte edin falshificiran fakt ot proruskite istorici u nas. Kasae se za rolyata na germanskiya kancler Bismark. V opisaniyata na komunisticheskite istoriografi toi e predstavan kato "zql genii" za sqdbata na Bqlgariya i sqznatelno se premqlchavat posochenite po-gore stqpki na ruskata diplomaciya , doprinesli v nai-golyama stepen za zloshtasnoto razvitie na neshtata za bqlgarskiya narod. A ako raztvorim protokolite ot onova vreme , shte se ubedim , che vsqshtnost mejdu vsichko ostanalo Bismark e edin ot nai-revnostnita zashtitnici na prisqedinyavane na Sofiiska i Varnenska oblast kqm Knyajestvo Bqlgariya. Priel v kraya na zasedaniyata si tova stanovishte kongresqt priklyuchil na 13 yuli (*) i obyavil svoite resheniya. Bqlgarskite zemi i bqlgarskoto naselenie bili razpokqsani na 5 chasti: vasalnoto knyajestvo Bqlgariya (Miziya, Yujna Dobrudja i Sofiiska oblast), avtonomna oblast Iztochna Rumeliya (severna Trakiya) , Makedoniya i Odrinska trakiya (vrqshtali se v teritoriyata na Turciya), Severna Dobrudja (davala se kato kompensaciya na Rumqniya v zamyana na otstqpenata ot neya na Rusiya Besarabiya) i Nishka oblast i Pomoravieto (dadeni na Sqrbiya kato kompensaciya na Rashka i zaradi nyakolkodnevnoto i' uchastie vqv voinata). Osven tova Rusiya si osiguryavala znachitelna chast ot Armeniya. Angliya poluchava ostrov Kipqr , a Avstro-Ungariya - Dalmaciya o okupirva Bosna i Hercegovina za srok ot 30 godini. Taka , zapazil etnicheskoto si edinstvo prez cyaloto petvekovno tursko robstvo , preminal prez vqzrajdaneto , prolival krqvta si v mnogobroini vqstaniya , sqprichasten stqpka po stqpka s boevete na ruskite voiski prez voinata ot Svishtov do Odrin , bqlgarskiyat narod se okazva prez lyatoto na 1878 g. samo chastichno osvoboden , no napqlno razkqsan. Opitite na Rusiya za prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya v Rusko-Zadunavska oblast - I chast (1878 - 86 g.) ====================================================== I taka , sled podpisvane na Berlinskiya dogovor , Bqlgariya pochva da funkcionira kato samostoyatelna dqrjava. I tuk e interesno da spomenem nakratko za rolyata na Rusiya v bqlgarskiya politicheski jivot. A tazi rolya e dosta ednoznachna i rqkovodena ot edna osnovopolagashta cel - prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya v Rusko-Dunavska oblast pod pryakoto upravlenie na Ruskiya Imperator. Kakto shte vidim v posledstvie oshte ot pqrvite dni na osvobojdenieto ni igrite na ruskite diplomati sa nasocheni v posoka kak da postavyat Knyajestvoto v takova polojenie , che ili samiyat knyaz Aleksandqr , ili sam bqlgarskiyat narod da poiska prisqedinenieto si kqm ruskata imperiya. Oshte s pristiganeto na knyaz Aleksandqr v Bqlgariya ruskite diplomati pochvat da se oglejdat za sqyuznici v tehnite planove. Konservtorite biha bili dobri instrumenti v tehnite rqce , no te nyamali neobhodimata narodna populyarnost , bideiki v golyamata si chast sbor ot bivshi turski chorbadjii. V liberalite Rusiya ne bi mgla da ima doverie , zashtoto te bili hora dqlgi godini rabotili za bqlgarskata kauza i edva li biha sklonili da podpishat gotvenata prisqda nad Bqlgariya. I za da sqzdadat neobhodimata na ruskite diplomati obstanovka za postigane na tyahnata cel te se zaemat da izmenyat togavashnata konstitucionna forma na upravlenie s chisto monarhicheska. V pismo ot direktora na Aziatskiya departament Melnikov do ruschushkiya konsul se predava razgovora na Melnikov s general ot ruskiya generalen shtab Zsohywt: "...Na vashiyat vqpros kakvo ni vliza v rabotata vqtreshniya red v Bqlgariya cmyatam za svoi priyaten dqlg da otgovorya na Vashe Prevqzhoditelstvo , che imenno vqtreshnite poryadki v Bqlgariya ni interesuvat poveche ot vsichko. Nashata zadacha e vqzpitatelna , nashata zagrijenost za Bqlgariya vqzpitava mladoto pokolenie v monarhicheska posoka , v uvajenie kqm pravoslavnata vyara i cqrkva. Nie ne mojem da dopusnem , shtoto bqdeshtoto pokolenie da bqde vqzpitavano podobno Karavelov i Cankov , koito otrichat vsichko svyato za pravoslavnite lyude. Ne ni tryabva da se obrqshtame kqm arhivnite spravki , pred nas e jiviyat primer na Rumqniya.... ...Rumqncite , vqzpolzuvaiki se ot postignaloto cyala Rusiya neshtastie... (ubiistvoto na ruskiya imperator - bel. moya) ...imenno na 14 minaliya mart se provqzglasiha za nezavisimo kralstvo nachelo s Karl Hohencolern. Eto vi dragi ploda na nasheto nehaino otnoshenie kqm Rumqniya.... ...I taka , imaiki pred ochite si takqv jiv primer kato Rumqniya , nie ne tryabva da pravim tezi sqshtite greshki v Bqlgariya... ...Vie govorite , che ne sme voyuvali zaradi nyakakqv si princ Batenberg? Az sqm sqglasen s tova , no oshte po-malko sme voyuvali zaradi nyakakvi si Petko , Dragan i Stepan. Pod sekret shte vi kaja , che ne e bilo i zaradi nyakakvi si bratushki. Nashata zadacha beshe da prochistim pqtya do izvesten punkt , v izvesten smisql nie postignahme tova , no v Berlin ni pregradiha tozi pqt , sledovatelno sme dlqjni da go postignem s drugi sredstva , koito sa izbrani sega ot nas. Dostiganeto na tezi celi shte e vqzmojno samo togava , kogato shte imame rabota samo s edno lice , a ne s ulichnata tqlpa , koyato bqlgarite narichat Narodno sqbranie. Kakvo mojem da iskame ot princ Batenberg , kakva usluga moje da ni okaje toi , kogato toi ne e samo tolkova ogranichen v svoyata vlast i vsichko zavisi ne ot nego , a ot negovite ministri i ot narodnite predstaviteli? Daite na knyaza prava i togava iskaite izpqlnenie na zadqljeniyata! Daite mu pqlnomoshtiya za samostoyatelno upravlenie na stranata i togava iskaite izpqlnenie na postavenite usloviya." Ot drugo pismo ot na diplomaticheskiya agent v Sofia do konsulite v Bqlgariya , posledvalo prez mai '81 godina se vijda , che neobhodimite za prevrata sumi sa otpusnati ot taka narecheniya "Okupacionen fond za ustroistvoto na Rusko-Zadunavska oblast". Tova e sekreten fond za "poddrqjka na yujnite slavyani" i se obrazuva sled oprazvaneto na Upravlenieto na Imperatorskiya komisar v Bqlgariya , ot ostatqcite ot prihodno-razhodnite sumi na ypravlenieto , otpusnati ot voennoto ministerstvo na Rusiya v razmer na 2 540 000 franka za izplashtane na jitelite na Rahovski okrqg za prodovolstvuvane na Rumqnskite voiski. Vsqshtnost jitelite na Rahovski ogrqg taka i ne poluchili parite si , blagodarenie na ruskata byurokraciya. Po-kqsno , prez 1881 god. po vishochaishe narejdane sekretniya fond e preimenuvan "okupacionen fond". Kqm posledniya sa prichisleni oshte 10 618 250 rubli i 43 kopeiki. Tazi pqk suma e spomenata v "Dqrjaven vestnik" ot 10 yanuari 1884 god. kqdeto e publikuvan teksta na podpisanata ot Rusiya i Knyajestvo Bqlgariya konvenciya. V neya se kazva" " Knyajeskoto Bqlgarsko Pravitelstvo pripoznava da dqlji na Ruskoto Imperatorsko Pravitelstvo za razhodite po okupaciyata ot imperatorskite ruski voiski , sqglasno opredeleniyata na Berlinskiya dogovor sumata 10 miliona , 618 hulyadi 250 knijni rubli i 43 kopeiki". Tazi suma , izchislena po togavashen kurs na rublata spryamo zlatoto se ravnyava na 32 tona zlato. Ne dqlgo sled prevrata obache , ruskata diplomaciya zapochnala da izpitva seriozni sqmneniya v Batenberg. Povod za tova dali i dobrite otzivi na Zapadnite diplomati za knyaz Batenberg , opasenieto " dali knyaza ne se e zagarantiral predvaritelno ot podrqjkata na drugite dqrjavi za prevrata i dali v tozi sluchai rusite ne sa slepi orqdiya na Angliya , Avstriya i Germaniya". Nebqrzaneto na knyaza da se otreche ot prestola , zastavya ruskata diplomaciya da pochne po-otkrita borba s nego. Naznachenieto na Sobolev celyalo sblijavane s liberalite , a prateniya cherezvichaen imperatorski komisar v sofia Yonin imal dadeni slednite instrukcii: 1.) Da deistvuva za vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata 2.) Da zastavi knyaza da se otreche ot prestola. Pqrvata tochka ot tezi instrukcii celyala da se spechelyat sipmatiite na naroda , koito v po-golyamata si chast e protiv "pqlnomoshtiyata" i vednqj tova postignato shte e po-lesno postiganeto na vtorata cel - prinujdavane na knyaza da se otreche ot prestola. S pristiganeto si Yonin obyavyava s cirkulyar , che kqm 30 avgust , tezoimenniya den na Ruskiya car shte poiska ot knyaza s manifest da se otreche ot pqlnomoshtiyata i ako toi ne skloni - shte go prinudi da napusne stranata i da ya ostavi pod upravlenieto na general Sobolev kato regent. Tezi opiti prinujdavat knyaza da tqrsi protivodeistvie. Edinstveniya izhod , koito toi vijdal bilo sblijavane s liberalite i vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata po negova iniciativa. Bilo prateno izvestie na Cankov da doide v Sofia i bilo ugovoreno svikvaneto na III Obiknovenno Narodno Sqbranie. Na 6 Septemvri 1883 godina Sqbranieto edinodushno izkazva jelanie za vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata. Sqshtiya den knyazqt s manifest obyavyava vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata i otrichane ot pqlnomoshtiyata. Kabinetqt na Sobolev si podava ostavka i e naznachen nov kabonet pod predsedatelstvoto na Cankov sqs smeseno uchastie - liberali i konservatori. Porajenieto na Sobolev i Yonin bilo znak za pochvane na yavna "voina" , v koyato za shtastie ruskata diplomaciya bila obiknovenno gubeshta. Sqedinenieto na Bqlgariya s uchastieto na knyaz Alesandqr Batenberg e za tyah nai-tejkiya udar. Ruskite vlasti sa imali svoe vijdane za Sqedinenieto - to sqshto shtyalo da bqde izpolzuvano kato orqjie protiv knyaza. Ot dokumenti stava yasno , che planovete na Rusiya sa da se izgoni Batenberg i neposredstveno sled tova da se obyavi Sqedineieto za da ne se dade vqzmojnost na bqlgarskiya narod i politici da izrazyat vqzmushtenieto si. No reshenieto na knyaza da se zaangajira sqs Sqedinenieto vqpreki zabranata na ruskiya car ostavya ruskata diplomaciya bez orqjie. Bilo resheno da se demonstrira kolkoto se moje po-nagledno nagoduvanieto na ruskiya car i negovoto neodobrenie spramo sqedinenieto. Za tazi cel sa dadeni instrukcii na vsichki konsuli da svikat ruskite oficeri ot garnizonite i da im se iska mnenie kak maksimalno da se "uslojni i zatrudni oshte poveche polojenieto na bqlgarskata voiska , za da ne bqde godna za edna voina?" Namereno bilo i reshenie - "vednaga da se povikat ruskite oficeri ot Bqlgariya i vsichkite parahodcheta ot Dunava". V Peterburg odobryavat tova reshenie i zapovyadvat na Voenniya ministqr Katakuzen i na vsichki oficeri da napusnat Bqlgariya. Osven tiya deistviya na oficerite ruskata diplomaciya upotrebyava i drugi sredstva pred evropeiskite kabineti za da osueti Sqedinenieto. Na svikanata Carigradska mejdunarodna konferenciya ruskite diplomati predlagat _turski voiski da okupirat Yujna Bqlgariya_ . V Plovdiv ruskiyat konsul na sqbranie na grajdanite v Gimnaziyata zayavyava , che Rumeliici tryabva da se otkajat ot Sqedinenieto , zashtoto "krasnie feski idut uje" , a Rusiya nyama da gi zashtiti. Neuspeha na tazi tyahna politika gi prinujdava da nasqrchat i bez tuy nedovolniya ot bqlgarskoto sqedinenie srabski kral Milan za voina s Bqlgariya. Vqzpolzuvan ot sluchaya , che ruskite oficeri sa napusnali bqlgarskata armiya i sled kato bil uvedomen ot ruskiya agent v Belgrad , che Carya bi poglednal mnogo blagosklonno na eventualno obyavyavane na voina Milan go pravi. Na 6 i 7 noemvri , kogato stavat nai-reshitelnite bitki pri Slivnica , upravlyavashtiya ruskoto konsulstvo Bogdanov zasedava v Mitropoliyata s dyado Kliment , Cankov , Slaveikov i drugi , kak da se posreshnat sqrbite i koga da se obyavi knyaza svalen ot prestola ot imeto na ruskiya car. Za golyamo sqjalenie na ruskite diplomati obache , srqbskite nashestvenici bivat razbiti. Opitite na Rusiya za prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya v Rusko-Zadunavska oblast - II chast ( 1886 - ) ================================================ Tova gi prinujdava da nameryat novi pqtishta a postigane na celite. Ruskite oficeri sa napusnali Bqlgariya , tryabva da se nameryat novi hora izmejdu samite bqlgari , koito da deistvuvat za svalyane na knyaza. Ot dokumentite se vijda , che ruskoto pravitelstvo otpuska ogromni sumi za da vodi agitaciya protiv knyaza. Obrazuvani bili izpqlnitelni komiteti , a na chelo na tiya komiteti v Sofia sa opredeleni ot samoto agentstvo:Cankov , Balabanov i Burmov. Vqprosqt za izgonvaneto na knyaza se obsqjdal dosta otkrito. Na 9 avgust 1886 godina knyaz Batenberg e svalen ot prestola. Oshte na drugiya den - 10 avgust - po iskane na Gruev , knyaz Dolgorukov e naznachen za carski pratenik i namestnik. V sqshtoto vreme Stambolov se obyavyava protiv prevrata i se proglasyava za diktator ot imeto na izgoneniya knyaz. V Plovdiv Mutkurov deistvuva solidarno sqs Stambolov. Prevratqt ne uspyava. Sofiiskoto pravitelstvo se vijda izolirano i prestava da deistvuva. Knyaza se vrqshta v Sofia , no sled kato otpravya zapitvane do ruskiya car i poluchava obezokurajitelen otgovor - abdikira. Ostaveno e regentstvo sqstoyashto se ot Stambolov , Mutkurov i Karavelov. Posledniya , vqpreki uchastieto si v zagovora protiv knyaza , e vklyuchen za da ne se dava povod za razceplenie. Ruskoto pravitelstvo ne ostava osobeno doovolno ot noviya red. Vse pak , sega planoivete na Carya imat poveche shansove za osqshtestvyavane. Za diplomaticheski agent v stranata e izpraten Kaulbars. Toi reshitelno se obyavyava protiv predvidenite izbori za Veliko Narodno Sqbranie , koeto da izbere nov knyaz. Zashtoto vqpreki , che regentstvoto e gotovo da napravi otstqpki i da izbere onzi kandidat , kogoto Rusiya predloji , na zapitvaniyata na Pqrviya Regent Stambolov , Kaulbars otgovaryal: "Rusiya oshte nyama kandidat". A Rusiya ne e imala kandidat , zashtoto tya ne e dopuskala da ima izbor na knyaz. Instrukciite na Kaulbars sa ednoznachni v tova otnoshenie: 1.) Da otstrani ot vlast "nezakonnite" bqlgarski regenti i upraviteli 2.) Da se obrazuva novo pravitelstvo ot lica , deistvitelno predanni na Rusiya ( tova se spomenava i v sekretno sqobshtenie na nachalnika na Aziatskiya departament do imperskiya poslannik v Bukuresht ot 20.XII.1887 g. N.3159 - "..tamoshnoto ministerstvo da se sqstavi ne ot lica, prinadlejashti na razlichni politicheski partii v Bqlgariya , a ot tezi , koito predvaritelno shte izyavyat svoyata gotovnost da izpqlnyat iskaniyata na imperatorskoto pravitelstvo i za koito gen.-mayor baron Kaulbars svoevremenno dovede do znanieto na shtats-sekretarya Girs") 3.) Da se osvobodyat vsichki arestuvani oficeri po izpqjdaneto na Batenberg i da im se vqzvqrnat predishnite dlqjnosti 4.) Da se snema voennoto polojenie i da se otsrochat za neopredeleno vreme izborite za Veliko N.S. 5.) Da se vqstanovi poryadqka i spokoistvieto , novoto ministerstvo shte hodataistvuva pred Imperatorskoto pravitelstvo za popqlvane na bqlgarskata voiska s ruski konni i pehotni polkove i artileriya. 6.) Da se uvolnyat v ostavka oniya ot bqlgarskite oficeri , koito sa bili privqrjenici na Batenberg. 7.) Sled kato se izpqlnyat gornite instrukcii da se svika Veliko N.S. , na koeto da se predloji volyata na Carya za da se sloji na Negovo Velichestvo titlata "Velikii knyaz na Bqlgariya". Imperatorskiya namestnik shte bqde naznachen mejdu bqlgarite. 8.) Konstituciyata , svobodata i nezavisimostta na Knyajestvoto shte bqdat vechno zapazeni. 9.) Da se uveri naselenieto , che nito knyaz Batenberg , nito nekoi ot negovite bratya , pod nikakvi usloviya na mogat da se vqrnat v Bqlgariya i da stqpyat na prestola. No vqpreki opita za prikritie na tezi celi , regentstvoto veroyatno e razbralo celta na Kaulbrasovata misiya i otblqsva katekorichno vsichki negovi iskaniya. Velikoto narodno sqbranie izbira Valdemar Datski za knyaz na Bqlgariya. Toi ne priema. Togava Sqbranieto izbira delegaciya , koyato natovarva da otide v Evropa i da tqrsi podhodyasht kandidat za knyaz. Tozi hod na bqlgarskite upravnici predizvikva reakciyata na Carya - toi izteglya ot Bqlgariya vsichki konsuli i prekqsva otnosheniyata si s neya. Taka zavqrshva misiyata na Kaulbars. Do tuk sa i oficialnite otnosheniya s Rusiya. Ot tuk natatqk borbata se prenasya na nelegalna pochva. Rusiya zayavyava oficialno , che ne priznava nishto zakonno v Bqlgariya i che vsichko , koeto bqlgarite vqrshat v ochite na Carya i negovata diplomaciya shte se schita za uzurpaterstvo , nasilie i bqzzakonie. Ruskoto pravitelstvo dava na ruskiya diplomat v Bukuresht Hitrovo neogranicheno pravo da izrazhodva otpusnatite nemu sredstva za predizvikvane na bunt. Bunta izbuhma v Silistra i Ruse , no biva bqrzo potushen. Prez mesec yuni na 1886 godina regenstvoto svikva pak Velikoto Narodno Sqbranie i predlaga kanditaturata na knyaz Ferdinant. Izbirat go edinodushno i skoro toi polaga kletva v Tqrnovo i poema upravlenieto. Ruskoto pravitelstvo reagira po nachin , pokazan v shifrovana telegrama na nachalnika na Aziaskiya departament do imperatorskiya poslannik v Bukuresht ot 10.avgust.1887 god. V neya chetem: "... Imeratorskoto pravitelstvo okonchatelno e reshilo: da priznae princ Koburgotski kato uzurpator , namirasht se izvqn vsyakakvi zakoni , na osnovanie na tova i deistviyata nasocheni lichno protiv Koburgotski za otstranyavaneto mu ot Bqlgariya , ne mogat da se schitat osqditelni i nakazuemi. Predavaiki za gorespomenatoto okonchatelno reshenie na imperatorskoto pravitelstvo , nai-pokorno vi molya , pochitaemi gospodine , da blagovolite da okajete sqdeistvie na lica blagonadejni , izyavyavashti gotovnost da vzemat deino uchastie v otstranyavaneto na princ Koburgotski ot Bqlgariya." Podhodyashtite hora se yavyavat v liceto na mayor Panica i kapitan Nabokov. Pregovorite s Panica zapochvat oshte prez oktomvri 1887 god. Ochevidno usloviyata , postaveni ot Panica ne sa udovoletvorili Rusiya , a sa izkazani i sqmneniya otnosno negovata blagonadejost ; ruskite diplomati predpochitat Nabokov. Pak v pismo na nachalnika na Aziatskiya departament do Hitrovo v Bukuresht se kazva slednoto: " Kato predpochita ekspediciyata na Nabokov pred vsekakvi sqglasheniya s bqlgarski oficeri , Imperatorskoto ministerstvo prashta v Carigrad pqrviya sekretar pri poverenata bam Imperatorska Misiya , za da sklyuchi okonchatelnite usloviya s kapitan Nabokov , kakto i redqt po koito shte se upravlyavat zavzetite ot nego mestnosti v Bqlgariya , do pristiganeto na podkrepleniya ot Odesa" !!! Sled provala na ekspediciyata na Nabokov sa podnoveni pregovorite s Panica. Ot telegramite se vijda , che deloto na Panica (zavqrshilo s proval) e bilo delo vqrsheno s doznanieto , s parite i predpisanieto na ruskata diplomaciya. Na podrobnosti nyama da se spirame , no ot vsichko spomenato gore stava yasno , che nashite "osvoboditeli" sa se grijili seriozno da ni osvobodyat sqvsem ot Bqlgariya. Tuk shte slojim tochka v po-natatqshnoto razglejdane na sqbitiyata. Na kraya samo shte spomenem mnenieto na edin balgarin otnosno osvoboditelnata misiya na Rusiya. Eto nyakolko negovi citati: "... Voinite na Rusiya s turciya bdqhvaha nadejda i u bqlgarite za osvobojdenie s pomoshta na Rusiya , sqzdavaha simpatii u tyah kqm neya. Naistina voinite na Rusiya na Balkanskiya poluostrov , za vodeneto na koito poslednata iztqkvashe ne samo jelanieto si da osvobodi uj hristiyanite , a vsqshtnost gi vodeshe samo sqs zavoevatelni celi , vodeha kqm zabavyane na obshtonacionalnoto dvijenie... ...Po takqv nachin v selskata masa i drebnata borjuaziya u nas se sqzdade predstavlenie za Rysiya kato za nai-silnata , nai-bogatata strana , a za ruskite care kato za "osvoboditeli" i "pokroviteli" na Bqlgariya , bez koito tya ne moje da sqshtestvuva , bez koito ne moje nishto da napravi , pqk i ne bivada pravi , za da ne gi rqzsqrdi i da ne si dignat ot neya svoeto "pokrovitelstvo"..." Bivshite komsomolski aktivisti , ako sa si vqrsheli sqvestno "zadqljeniyata" veroyatno veche sa poznali tova proizvedenie i negoviya avtor. Za vsichki ostanali shte go kajem - gornite citati sa ot "Prinos kqm istoriyata na socializma v Bqlgariya" , publikuvana prez 1906 g. i s avtor Dimitqr Blagoev. Kak se menyat vremenata , a s tyah i misleneto , nali? Krai. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-5 When was Bulgaria declared independent (by Luben Boyanov) Na 22 Septemvri 1908 godina, v Turnovskata cherkva "Sveti 40 muchenici" v turzhetvena obstanovka e obyavena nezavisimosta na Bulgariya. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-6 What did Leland Buxton write about Bulgarians (by Luben Boyanov) From "The Black Sheep of the Balkans", by Leland Buxton, 1920. pp 94-96. Chapter IV - 'Vae Victis' "The Bulgarians, though believed to be of Turanian origin, have been so completely Slavised that they may now be regarded as a branch of the Southern Slavs, with whom they must eventually throw in their lot. So efficient have they shown themselves to be, during the last fifty years, in almost every field except those of propaganda and diplomacy, that many people besides themselves have thought them entitled to become the leading power in the Balkans. This was always an idle dream. Even if they had obtained possession of Macedonia it could never have become a permanent reality, for they are less numerous than the Serbs, the Romanians, or the Greek. But a Southern Slav Federation, including an autonomous Bulgaria and an autonomous Macedonia with ports on the Aegean, would be an effective barrier against any Central European Imperialism on the north and against Hellenic Imperialism on the south, thus insuring Slav predominance in the Balkans. It is unwise to express any other opinion, favourable or otherwise, of the Bulgarians, for any one who does so is suspected of being a dupe either of the Bulgarians themselves or of their enemies. To some people the Bulgar is so objectionable and inhuman that they become almost frenzied in their attempts to describe him; to others he appears to combine the virtues of Don Quixote, St. Anthony, and the Admirable Crichton. Impartial writers, however, usually describe him as industrious, practical, tenacious, patient, courageous, honest and truthful; but silent, unexpansive, grasping, and obstinate. He compels admiration rather than affection, but Englishmen generally find him, in spite of his impenetrable reserve, less irritating than some of his neighbours. He does not, however, possess the attractive manners of the Serb or the Albanian. To the French temperament he is antipathetic, and it was unfortunate for Bulgaria that the country has been mainly in French occupation instead of British or Italian. Middle class Bulgars, most of whom are sons of peasants, are often painfully self-conscious and too much aware of their lack of polish, and their unfortunate desire to keep up appearances sometimes creates an impression of snobbishness." ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-7 Who was Ferdinand I Coburg-Gotha? (by Luben Boyanov), last updated: 18-Jun-1995 Ferdinand I (Maximilian-Karl-Leopold-Maria) of Coburg-Gotha, Tsar (King) of the Bulgarians was born in Vienna on February 26, 1861. He was the third son and the youngest child of five of prince Augustus Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Princess Clementine of Orleans, daughter of Louis Philippe, the "Citizen King" of the French. Aged 26 and a retired lieutenant of the Austrian Army, he was elected Prince of Bulgaria by the Great National Assembly in Turnovo on July 7th, 1887, after the abdication of Prince Alexander Battenberg. Upon his arrival in Sofia, he worked with the great Prime Minister of the day, Stefan Stambolov and his government; secretly supported by Austria and England, he managed to counter the opposition of Russia, which had been trying to prevent the Great Powers from recognizing him. His marriage to a Catholic, Mary Louise, daughter of Robert, Duke of Parma, in 1893, increased Russia's hostility. However, after the death of Tsar Alexander III and the murder of Stefan Stambolov in 1895, relations with St. Petersburg improved. Prince Ferdinand won the support of the new Russian Tsar, Nicholas I, by baptizing Boris, heir to the Bulgarian throne, in the Eastern Orthodox faith in 1896. Following the baptism, Ferdinand was officially recognized by Russia, and the other Powers. The Pope, Leo XIII, vehemently disapproving, promptly excommunicated the Prince. Some years later, Pope Pius X reinstalled him to the faith. Having stabilized Bulgaria's position, Ferdinand and his government pursued active domestic and foreign policies. During the late summer of 1908, taking advantage of the difficulties besetting the Ottoman Empire, he declared Bulgaria's independence and proclaimed himself Tsar of the Bulgarians on October 6th. During the following year, this too was recognized by the Powers. Prompted by the mood of his nation to liberate and unite Bulgarians still living under Ottoman rule, he exploited Turkey's problems (war with Italy since 1911), and entered into a secret treaty with Serbia in March 1912, followed by similar accords with Montenegro and Greece. He assumed supreme command of the Bulgarian army when the First Balkan War started. The spectacular successes of the victorious Bulgarian army kindled great ambitions in him and he supported his government to seek the full unification of the Bulgarian people. The second Balkan War started on June 16th, 1913 and ended with the crushing defeat of Bulgaria and the Treaty of Bucharest. The betrayal of Bulgaria by her ex-allies Serbia, Montenegro and Greece influenced Tsar Ferdinand to accept his government's policy decision to side with the Central Powers during World War I, which Bulgaria entered in 1915. The war ended in defeat for Bulgaria and Ferdinand abdicated on October 3rd, 1918 in favour of his son Boris III. He left the country on the same day and settled in Germany where he died on September 10th, 1948. King Ferdinand was known as a skillful diplomat and strong and gifted Head of State. His reign left a significant and lasting impact on the political, cultural and social life of Bulgaria. The progress of the fledgling Bulgarian State to a level where it was regarded as the strongest and most advanced Balkan country, was due in no small measure, to its first Tsar of modern times and his innovative spirit, which guided it into the Twentieth Century. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-8 Medals given during the 3rd Bulgarian kingdom (by Martin Mintchev) There are several traditional military orders associated with the Third Bulgarian Kingdom. The most popular one is probably "Za Hrabrost" ("For Bravery"), which is a cross of special design that comes with or without swords. The cross is in dark metallic red color, with a green engrave at the center (as far as I remember), the swords and the crown between the hanger and the cross are silverplated. At the center of the cross (from the front side) there is a crowned lion, from the back side the cyrillic letter F can be seen (for Ferdinand). The other is "St. Alexander", which is a white cross, in the center is the date 19 February 1878 (March 3 new style, the Liberation Day) from one side and the words "St. Alexander". It has different degrees, and (as far as I remember) comes also with or without swords. A third one is "Za Voenna Zasluga", "For Military Contribution". It is also a cross but with three edges at the end of each arm. I don't remember very well its other features. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-9 The Carnegie Report (by Luben Boyanov) The Carnegie Report about the causes and the behaviour of some European countries during the First and Second Balkan Wars was published again. "The other Balkan Wars: 1914 Carnegie Endowment Report..." contact The Brookings Institution Dept. 029 Washington, D.C. 20042-0029 or call: (toll-free) 1-800-275-1447 (for a credit card service) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-10 The Economy of Bulgaria (1878-1939), summary (by Ivaylo Izvorski), last updated: 19-Mar-1996 Before starting with the economic issues, we make two short diversion which will be useful down the line. 1. Territory After the Berlin treaty (1878) the combined territory of the Principality of Bulgaria (Knjazhestvo Bylgaria) and Eastern Roumelia (Iztochna Rumelia) was 97,985.1 sq. km. Table 1 lists the (numerical) changes in the total territory of Bulgaria between the years 1878 and 1939. The table, thus, does not include events such as the Krajova agreement with Roumania in 1940 from which the territory of the Kingdom was increased by 7,695.8 sq. km. Table 1. Territory of Bulgaria (1878-1939) in sq. km (last column is total area) Berlin Congress (1878) Principality of Bulgaria 62,776.8 Eastern Roumelia 35,208.3 97,985.1 Carigrad Treaty (1886) Ceded to Turkey 1,639.6 96,345.5 Bukurest treaty (1914) Ceded to Roumania 7,695.8 Obtained from Turkey 23,187.2 111,836.9 Agreement with Turkey (1915) Obtained from Turkey 2,587.6 114,424.5 Treaty of Neuille (1919) Ceded to Yugoslavia 2,566.3 Ceded to Greece 8,712.0 103,146.2 2. Population The population of the principality in 1881 was 2,852,600, in 1906 a little over 4 million, and in 1939 6,272,900. It is to be noted that the population increase due to the increase in territory was minimal - the total external increase in population from the 1913-1919 period was a mere 4,810 people. Much more significant was the population increase with the Krajova aggreement (1940) of almost 300,000 people but this is outside the current survey. It is interesting to compare the change in population over 1878-1939 with the change over 1944-1994. This is left as a homework exercise for the reader. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-11 Bulgaria and World War II (by Luben Boyanov) Basically, the person who was taking the major decisions but not all !!! during the years around 1940 was King Boris III. Both points are important as there are some controvercies and also some propaganda. While it is true, that almost all general decisions were masterminded by Boris III, it is also true that the cabinet and the Prime Minister had some freedom to act and did not consult the King on so many of their actions. The entire story should be started back in the years 1932-35 when it turned out that it is only Germany who is buying the agricultural production of Bulgaria and in return was providing some high quality industrial goods on low prices, from Bulgaria. In several years time (Boris tried to convince Britain and France to allow more BG trade with them, to get more of their products on the BG market on competitive prices, but neither country gave a damn on that matter), Bulgaria was conducting something like 65% (o even more) of its export and import with Germany. The country became almost totaly dependent on Germany. The overall situation was not bad for Bulgaria, as gave a good market for BGs production and in return, the German tools/machines were very well regarded for their quality and reliability in Bulgaria. When WWII started, Bulgaria declared to stay neutral. Relations with all major powers were good. It happened that there was a chance to recover the purely Bulgarian land of Southern Dobruja, which was lost to Romania after the Second Balkan war and then again - after WWI. Russia, England, Germany were pressing Rumania but at the end it was under German pressure that Romania returned the land. So - apart from the huge economic dependance, a feeling of help and concern was received from the German action. Still Boris was determined to keep BG out of the war. There are numerous documents showing that Boris didn't like and even despised Hitler and he was also rather scared what will next decide to do the decorator from Austria. After some time, with the opening of the war in Greece, Hitler got determined to get his troops there (I think Gregory explained this well and why was so). . The German troops have moved in Romania (if I'm not wrong about the time) and at some time Bulgaria given 2 choices - to get on the side of the Germans, or to be crossed as enemy by the Vermaht. There was absolute no support from England or France (as far as I remember, Boris tried to get some help from there) and the internal situation (no anti-German feelings, huge economic dependency) was not helping at all. It was clear, that if Boris has refused to join the Germans, a pro-German pupet regime would have been installed in days, after the German army enters Bulgaria (BG had no army after WWI !!! but even if they had, I doubt what could BG army on its own, without British or French, or US help stand against the Germans) and full colaboration of that pupet regime would have started. Boris chose the other option. He put a lot of conditions to the joining of the Axis - like no BG soldiers for Germany, no interference of Germany in BG gov, etc, etc, then he appointed a Germanophille (or maybe it was earlier he appointed him) Prime Minister - Filov and he binded towards the pressure from Hitler. The memoirs of his Chief of Staff show how much upset he was for that decision. Still he was in some control of the situation, and for the next years, he managed to influence few major events, despite the oposite pressure from Germany and his own government - namely to help saving the Bulgarian Jews being sent to camps in Poland, to give soldiers to the German army, and to declare war on the USSR. Bulgaria was a unique country, where German and Russian missions (diplomatic) were together during the war. Of course, the King was not able to avoid many of the stupid things his pro-German PM did, but he couldn't do anything else, in order to play the game of cat and mouse with Hitler. And the game was to avoid doing anything Hitler wanted, and still to pretend being a true ally to him. Boris was extremely angry that Filov's gov declared war to Britain and the US but he was unable to avoid this. In 1943, after a stormy meeting with Hitler, when Boris refused again to give troops and to deport the Jews (under various explanations), Boris died from mysterious death. There are speculations whetgher he was poisoned and by whom, but from what Iv'e read, it seems that he just couldn't stand that pressure any more and had a heart attack. It is also documented, that earlier in 1943, Boris was preparing a pro-British/American government but if/how/when he would have broken with Hitler and joined the other camp is a mere speculation and mystery, which will be never solved as the death of the King ruined all plans he had or might have had. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-12 The Macedonian Question (by John Bell) The "Macedonian Question" is actually a complex of questions, both historical and current. Geographically, the term "Macedonia" has designated different parts of the Balkans, a fact that often contributes to contemporary confusion and controversy. Since the Balkan Wars, which established today's political boundaries, the region of Macedonia is generally understood to include the territory of the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, the northern Greek province of the same name, and the Pirin region of Bulgaria, whose provincial capital is Blagoevgrad. The ethnic and linguistic identity of the Macedonians has a long and controversial history. Until the late nineteenth century, to nearly all investigators the term "Macedonia" designated a geographic area only; its population was considered primarily Bulgarian along with an admixture of Greeks, Serbs, and other nationalities. Many figures prominent in Bulgaria's national awakening and in its later cultural, political, and economic life were born in Macedonia and gave no evidence during their lives of considering themselves anything but Bulgarian. Macedonians were also active in the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870, and the population voted overwhelmingly to join it. When Macedonia was restored to Ottoman control by the Treaty of Berlin, Macedonian notables protested their separation from their "co-nationals." After the Balkan and First World Wars, however, Bulgaria received only the Pirin region, while the bulk of Macedonia was divided between Greece and Serbia. "Ethnic cleansing" and population transfers largely removed Slavophones from Greek Macedonia and Greek speakers from the rest of the territory. This, combined with Serbian efforts to denationalize the population led to a vast number of refugees resettling in Bulgaria, so that today approximately a quarter of the Bulgarian population traces its roots to Macedonia. During the period between the two world wars, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) conducted a campaign of terrorism against Serbian authorities, often abetted by the Bulgarian government or by sympathetic Bulgarian citizens. At the end of World War II, Tito's regime adopted the position that Macedonians were a distinct nationality and recognized the former "South Serbia" as the Macedonian Republic, one of the five republics of the Yugoslav federation, and sought to transfer to it the Pirin region from Bulgaria. Because Stalin favored this plan, the Bulgarian Communists carried out a census in 1946 that forced nearly seventy per cent of the Pirin region's inhabitants to declare themselves to be "Macedonian." Although Stalin's break with Tito ended the plan of detaching the Pirin region from Bulgaria, when Khrushchev sought a rapprochement with Yugoslavia in 1956, Bulgaria again was pressured to find a Macedonian nationality in the Pirin. This pressure disappeared by the early 1960s, and in the 1965 census only .5 per cent of the population of Pirin identified itself as "Macedonian." In the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, authorities worked to foster a sense of Macedonian national feeling, creating a literary language, emphasizing orthographical, lexical, and syntactical differences with Bulgarian, to be taught in the schools and developing an official history that projected a separate Macedonian national identity into the past. Following the break-up of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria welcomed the creation of an independent Macedonia, and in January 1991 was the first country to extend it full diplomatic recognition, despite the objections of neighboring Greece. Bulgarians have been reluctant, however, to acknowledge the existence of a Macedonian nationality or that the Macedonian language is anything other than a dialect of Bulgarian, points that the Macedonian government has insisted on emphasizing. Some inhabitants of the Pirin region have asserted that they belong to a separate Macedonian nationality and have created the "United Macedonian Organization - Ilinden" to promote national consciousness. When the group was first formed in 1990, Bulgarian authorities subjected its member to harassment and blocked its attempt to publish a newspaper. Bulgarian courts refused to register UMO-Ilinden on the grounds that its activities were "directed against the sovereignty and territorial unity of the country" and were thus unconstitutional. State Prosecutor Ivan Tatarchev, himself born in the Pirin, was especially vigorous in using police powers to attempt to suppress the organization, bringing down the condemnation of international human rights organizations. Researchers at the American University in Blagoevgrad, find a strong regional identity, but little sense of belonging to a separate nationality. In the Pirin Mountains /photo/ Linguists differ on the criteria used to distinguish a dialect from a separate language. It is sometimes stated that "a language is a dialect with an army and navy." When Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov recently visited Bulgaria, he insisted on bringing an interpreter to his meeting with Bulgarian President Zhelev; for his part, Zhelev insisted that he understood everything without need for assistance. The signing of a protocol on this meeting also had to be abandoned when the Macedonian side insisted on a statement that it was written in "the Macedonian language." President Zhelev has called for a solution to the Macedonian Question through the establishment of open borders between the two states, and Bulgarian assistance has been vital during the Greek economic blockade. In a recent speech, Zhelev said that Bulgaria could not wish harm to Macedonia any more than a mother could wish harm to her children. This was, perhaps, less reassuring to the Macedonians than Zhelev intended. For its part, the Macedonian Republic has not been sympathetic toward its citizens who wish to express a Bulgarian ethnicity. The recently completed census found only 1,547 Bulgarians in the country, and those for the most part immigrants from Bulgaria outside the Pirin District. =============================================================================== CHAPTER 17: FAMOUS BULGARIANS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17-1 Who is John Atanasoff (by Luben Boyanov) Subject: The inventor of the modern digital computer - of Bulgarian origin The name John Atanasoff is not very well known but this is the man who has created the modern digital computer. 50 years have passed since John Atanasoff has created the first digital computer. President Bush has awarded the 1990 National prize for Technical achievement, - the highest American Technical award (I've used non-English text to translate the name of the prize so the correct name of the award may be a different one) to Prof. John Atanasoff. For long time it has been considered that the first electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) and one can find that name in almost any Computer Science books as the first example of the first generation digital computer systems. ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of John Mauchly and J. P. Eckert. Work on ENIAC began in 1943 and it was completed in 1946. However, in the early seventies it was proven that the ideas behind ENIAC were taken from the ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) computer. John Atanasoff was born in Hamilton, New York in 1903. He was educated at the University of Florida, Iowa State College, and the University of Wisconsin (PhD, physics, 1930). With the help of Clifford Berry, Atanasoff built a working model of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942. The ABC computer was a special-purpose machine for solving simultaneous linear equations. It was a serial, binary, electro-mechanical machine, and employed various new techniques that Atanasoff invented, including novel uses of logical circuitry and regenerative memory. Only recently has Atanasoff achieved recognition as one of the "fathers" of the digital computer. During his last visit in Bulgaria to the birth-place of his father - an emigrant orphan from the April Uprising against the Turks, John Atanasoff said: "Like a Bulgarian I am also a restless and creative person and the Slav root in my blood has helped me a great deal in life". John Atanasoff - junior, president of "Cybernetics Products, Inc" has also visited Bulgaria recently. He considers as good the chances of cooperation between his company and the newly emerging Bulgarian private businesses. It's not bad to remember that the inventor of the first modern digital computer is of Bulgarian origin. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17-2 Who is John Atanasoff (by John Bell), last updated: 19-Jun-1995 John V. Atanasoff, 91, who invented the first electronic computer in 1939 and later saw others take credit for his discovery, died of a stroke June 15 at his home in Monrovia, Md. Dr. Atanasoff, whose pioneenng work ultimately was aclmowledged during lengthy patent litigation in the 1970s, never made money off bis invention, which was the first computer to separate data processing from memory. It heads the famiky tree of today's personal computers and mainframes. Two other scientists, J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, drew on Dr. Atanasoff's research. In the mid-1940s, they were the first to patent a digital computing device, which they called the ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and computer). They said they had worked out the concept over ice cream and coffee in a Philadelphia restaurant. For many years, they were acclaimed as the fathers of modern computing. But a court battle 20 years ago between two corporate giants, Honeywell and Sperry Rand, directed the spotlight to Dr. Atanasoff. He said the idea in fact, had come to him over bourbon and water in a roadhouse in Illinois in 1937. He was out on a drive >from Iowa State University, in Ames, where he taught mathematics and physics, and had stopped to think about the computing devices he had been working on since 1935. He needed a machine that could do the complex mathematicat work he and his graduate students had been trying on desk calculators. He and two others at Iowa State already had build an analog catculator called a laplaciometer, which analyzed the geometry of surfaces. It was that evening in the tavern, he said, that the possibility of regenerative memory and the concept of logic circuits came to him. The machine he envisioned was different from anything conceived before. It would be electronically operated and would use base-two (binary) numbers instead of the traditional base-10 numbers. It would have condensers fro memory and a regenerative process to preclude loss of memory from electrical failures. It would use direct logical action for computing rather than the counting system used in analog processes. Within months, he and a talented graduate student, Clifford Berry, had developed a crude prototype of an electronic computer. Although it used a mechanical clock system, the computing was electronic. It had two rotating drums containing capacitors, which held the electrical charge for the memory. Data were entered using punch cards. For the first time, vacuum tubes were used in computing. The project, which cost $1,000, was detailed in a 35- page manuscript, and university lawyers sent a copy to a patent lawyer. The next year, Mauchly, a physicist at Ursinus College, near Philadelphia, whom Dr. Atanasoff had met at a conference, came to see Dr. Atanasoff's work. Mauchly stayed several days at the Atanasoff home, where he was briefed extensively about the computer project and saw it demonstrated. He left with papers describing its design. That same year, Dr. Atanasoff tried to interest Remington Rand in his invention, saying he believed it could lead to a "computing machine which will perform all the operations of the standard tabulators and many more at much higher speeds," but the company turned him down. Years later, it would eagerly seek his assistance. Dr. Atanasoff had hoped to file a patent for his computer, but he was called away to Washington at the start of World War II to do physics research for the Navy. And there were complications with Iowa State, which held rights to his work but had discontinued efforts to secure a patent. By the time the computer industry was off and running, Dr. Atanasoff was involved with other areas of defense research and out of touch with computer development. The Iowa State prototype had been dismantled while he was away working for the Navy. But he had kept his research papers. He later said he "wasn't possessed with the idea I had invented the first computing machine. If I had knovn the things I had in my machine, I would have kept going on it." The Atanasoff prototype finally was recognized as the father of modern computing when, in a patent infringement case Sperry Rand brought against Honeywell, a federal judge voided Sperry Rand's patent on the ENIAC, saying it had been derived from Dr. Atanasoff's invention. It was "akin to finding a new father of electricity to replace Thomas Edison," said a writer on the computer industry. The decision made news in the industry, but Dr. Atanasoff, th this time retired, continued to live in relative obscurity in Frederick County. Later, in 1988, two books about his work were published: "The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story," by Alice R. Burns and Arthur W. Burns, and "Atanasoff, Forgotten Father of the Computer," by Clark R. Mollenhoff. Other articles were published in the Annals of the History of Computing, Scientific American and Physics Today. In 1990, President George Bush acknowledged Dr. Atanasoff's pioneering work by awarding him the National Medal of Technology. John Vincent Atanasoff was born in Hamilton, N.Y. He was an electrical engineering graduate of the University of Florida and received a master's degree in mathematics from Iowa State University, where he taught for 15 years. He received a doctorate in physics from the Uni- versity of Wisconsin. Dr. Atanasoff left Iowa State in the early 1940s to become director of the underwater acoustics program at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, now the Naval Surface Weapons Center, where he worked largely with mines, mine countermeasures and depth charges. He participated in the atomic weapons tests at Bikini Atoll after World War II and became chief scientist for the Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va., in 1949. He re- turned to the ordnance laboratory after two years to be director of the Navy Fuze programs, and in 1952 he began his own company, Ord- nance Engineering Corp. That company was sold to Aerojet Engineering Corp. in 1956, and Dr. Atanasoff was named a vice president. After he retired in 1961, he was a consultant and continued to work in computer education for young people. He also developed a phonetic alphabet for computers. His honors included the Navy's Distinguished Civilian Service Award, five honorary doctorates, the Computer Pioneer Medal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Distinguished Achievement Citation of Iowa State University. He was a member of the Iowa Inventors Hall of Fame. Dr. Atanasoff, whose father was born in Bulgaria, also was awarded Bulgaria's highest science award and was a member of the Bulgarian Academy of Science. He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa, Pi Mu Epsilon and Tau Beta Pi honorary societies and the Cos- mos Club. Dr. Atanasoff's marriage to Lura Meeks Atanasoff ended in divorce. Survivors include his wife, Alice Crosby Atanasoff of Monrovia; three children from his first marriage, Elsie A. Whistler of Rockville, Joanne A. Gathers of Mission Viejo, Calif., and John V. Atanasoff II of Boulder, Colo.; four sisters; three brothers; 10 grandchildren; and seven great-grandchildren. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17-3 Elias Kaneti (by Konstantin G. Zahariev) Chetiri dni sled smyrtta mu germanski izdateli sqobshtiha za smqrtta i pogrebenieto na rodeniya v Bqlgaria svetovnoizvesten pisatel Elias Kaneti. Toy e pochinal v shveycarskiya grad Cyurih na 89-godishna vqzrast i e bil pogreban v sryada v mestnoto grobishte Flunteri do groba na genialniya irlandski pisatel Djeims Djoys, sqobshti izdatelstvo "Karl Hanser". Spored gradskiya sqvet v Cyurih Kaneti e pochinal vnezapno. Predpolaga se, che vqzpomenatelnata ceremoniya za konchinata mu shte se sqstoi na 25 Septemvri v mestniya gradski teatqr. Kaneti e Nobelov laureat za 1981 i vchera Lars Gilensten - sekretar na komiteta, koyto vrqchva nagradite, nareche pisatelya klyuchiva figura v centralnoevropeyskata kultura i literatura. "Toy beshe gigant kato Franc Kafka", zayavi Gilensten. Kaneti e priznat za edin ot nay-golemite pisateli, tvoryashti na nemski ezik, i prez 1972 poluchava nagradata "Georg Byuhner" - nay-visokoto otlichie v nemskata literatura. Sred nay-izvestnite mu proizvedeniya sa romanite "Zaslepenieto", "Spaseniyat ezik", "Istoriyata na edno detstvo", "Fakel v uhoto" i dr. Toy e roden prez 1905 v Ruse v semeystvo na ispanski evrei, prez 1911 semeystvoto mu se prehvqrlya v Manchestqr, a dve godini po-kqsno - vqv Viena. Progonen ot nacistkata okupaciya na Avstriya prez 1938 toy otiva v London, kqdeto poluchava britansko grajdanstvo, koeto zapazva do kraya na dnite si. -- Drago -- Drago