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Subject: soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 5/10)

This article was archived around: 23 Jun 2001 04:01:05 -0400

All FAQs in Directory: bulgaria-faq
All FAQs posted in: soc.culture.bulgaria
Source: Usenet Version


Last-Modified: July 17, 2000 Posting-Frequency: Monthly Version: 4.11 URL: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~radev/cgi-bin/bgfaq.cgi Archive-Name: bulgaria-faq/part5
=============================================================================== CHAPTER 10: ELECTRONIC CONNECTIVITY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-1 Major World-Wide Web Sites about Bulgaria (by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995 1. The Bulgarian Home Page (at Rockefeller University) http://pisa.rockefeller.edu:8080/Bulgaria The first home page about Bulgaria. Maintained by Penyo Penev. Contains pointers to a variety of other sites. Also contains the USTOI on-line newspaper. 2. All About Bulgaria (at Columbia University) http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~radev/bulgaria Includes a hypertext version of the FAQ, an archive of soc.culture.bulgaria and a hierarchical directory of all pointers on the Web related to Bulgaria. Maintained by Dragomir R. Radev. 3. Bulgaria-related Electronic Resources (at Arizona State University) http://enws121.eas.asu.edu/places/Bulgaria/ Pretty well designed and maintained site with miscellaneous pointers. Contains a map-based interface to Internet servers in Bulgaria. The site contains also a news archive. Maintained by Plamen Bliznakov. 4. Bulgarian page (at bulgaria.com) http://www.bulgaria.com A startup page with a few pointers. Maintained by Jivko Kolchev. 5. Pointers on Bulgaria (at yahoo.com) http://www.yahoo.com/Regional_Information/Countries/Bulgaria A short and incomplete listing of pointers related to Bulgaria. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-2 Bulgarian Chat Servers (by Jivko Kolchev), last updated: 03-Jan-1997 (This entry is in Bulgarian) Ne znam kolko ot vas si spomnia magdanoza, no v posledno vreme toi savsem pozasqhna i e na pqt da bqde chastichno pensioniran. Za kompensacia obache se poiaviava nov server chat.bulgaria.com, koito e po-lesen za poddqrjane i s poveche vqzmojnosti bi triabvalo da e dostoen zamestnik na magdanoza. Za tezi koito ne znaiat kakvo e magdanoz, mogat da razberat polzvaiki slednia URL: http://magdanoz.bulgaria.com Eto kak mojete da se svarjete s novia server i da uchastvate v konferencii: Ako pritejavate Java enabled browser ili niamate nishto protiv da instalirate Plug-in za Netscape http://chat.bulgaria.com:4080 Ako predpochitate da polzvate telnet : telnet chat.bulgaria.com 4080 Ako predpochiate da polzvate IRC: irc do chat.bulgaria.com port 8067 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-3 How to join the #bulgaria channel on IRC (by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995 There is a possibility to talk to other Bulgarians in the channel #bulgaria on irc. If you don't know what irc is, read below: 1. It is possible that you have the irc software already installed on your system. Then type "irc" from your prompt and go to step 5. 2. If you don't have irc installed, there are two alternatives for you: a) install your own irc client software (it takes some memory though) - read step 3. b) telnet to some publicly accessible irc server - read step 4. 3. Two possibilities: ftp or automatic. a) ftp should work for many different computers (IBM-PC, Macintosh, VAX, IBM 3270, Unix, etc.). You have to do anonymous ftp to csa.bu.edu and look for the directory irc. Copy the README file in the directory clients/... where ... is the type of computer you have (e.g. VAX). Then follow the instructions in that README file. b) automatic (works only if you have a UNIX system). Type the following: telnet sci.dixie.edu 1 | sh (be careful to type all characters on the previous line including the "| sh" This should install an irc client in your directory. Note that it will be configured in a way to directly connect you to the undernet (you don't need to know what that is - simply proceed with this algorithm). if either a) or b) worked, then go to step 5. 4. To telnet to some publicly accessible irc server, read this: Scott Yanoff's "Special Internet Connections" (aka internet-services list) lists the following telnetable IRC clients: -IRC telnet server telnet wbrt.wb.psu.edu or 146.186.78.131 telnet irc.demon.co.uk or 158.152.1.74 +telnet sci.dixie.edu 6668 or telnet 144.38.16.2 6668 offers: Internet Relay Chat via telnet. (Login: irc) 5. Now you shold already be on some irc/undernet server. If you are on the undernet (i.e. you followed step 3b) you must type the following: /server irc.netsys.com At this point, you should be on a genuine irc server. go to step 6. 6. type the following: /join #bulgaria and if there is someone else you will be able to talk. For more info about how to use irc, read the FAQ list on irc in the news.answers newsgroup. Have fun! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-4 Internet providers in Bulgaria (by mitko@cit.bg), last updated: 09-Aug-1995 CIT Ltd. - postmaster@cit.bg EUnet Bulgaria / Digital Systems - info@Bulgaria.EU.net ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-5 How to play 'tabla' (backgammon) against human players on the Internet (by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995 Telnet to 205.149.189.55 4321 or fibs.com 4321 and then follow the instructions Note: If you are on a VAX, you might have to type: telnet/port=4321 205.149.189.55 instead of the command above =============================================================================== CHAPTER 11: BULGARIAN LANGUAGE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-1 How to pronounce Bulgarian (by Dragomir R. Radev) Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet. There are 30 letters. I will show them using a graphical description of the capital letter (in a 7X7 bitmap). 01 01 [a] O O O O O OOOOOOO O O O O O O 02 02 [b] OOOOOOO O O OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO 03 03 [v] OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO 04 04 [g] OOOOOOO O O O O O O 05 05 [d] OOO O O O O O O O O OOOOOOO O O 06 06 [e] OOOOOOO O O OOOOO O O OOOOOOO 07 07 [3] (as in 'vision') O O O O O O OOO O OOO O O O O O O 08 08 [z] (as in 'zeal') OOOOO O O O OOO O O O OOOOO 09 09 [i] O O O OO O O O O O O O O O OO O O O 10 10 [y] OOO O O O OO O O O OO O O O 11 11 [k] O O O O O O OOOO O O O O O O 12 12 [l-] superimposed hyphen on [l]: O (IPA symbol for a sound O O closer to [w] than to [l]) O O O O O O O O O O 13 13 [m] O O OO OO O O O O O O O O O O O O O 14 14 [n] O O O O O O OOOOOOO O O O O O O 15 15 [o] OOOOO O O O O O O O O O O OOOOO 16 16 [p] OOOOOOO O O O O O O O O O O O O 17 17 [r] OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO O O O 18 18 [s] OOOOO O O O O O O O OOOOO 19 19 [t] OOOOOOO O O O O O O 20 20 [u] O O O O O O OOOOOO O O O OOOOO 21 21 [f] O OOOOO O O O O O O O O O OOOOO O 22 22 [h] O O O O O O O O O O O O O 23 23 [ts] O O O O O O O O O O OOOOOOO O V 24 24 [ts] (this corresponds to the O O English 'ch' as in 'chat' O O O O OOOOOOO O O O V 25 25 [s] English 'sh' as in 'show' O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O OOOOOOO V 26 26 [st] English 'sht' as in O O O 'fresh tea' O O O O O O O O O O O O OOOOOO O 27 27 [^] lower-mid back unrounded OO vowel: you can get an idea O from the English 'cut' O OOOOO O O O O OOOOO 28 28 [y] O O O OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO 29 29 [yu] O OOO O O O O O O OOO O O O O O O O O OOO 30 30 [ya] OOOOOO O O O O OOOOOO O O O O O O ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-2 How to count in Bulgarian (by Dragomir R. Radev) 1 - edno (ed-NOH) 2 - dve (DVAY) 3 - tri (TREE) 4 - chetiri (CHAY-tee-ree) 5 - pet (PET) 6 - shest (SHEST) 7 - sedem (SAY-dem) 8 - osem (AW-sem) 9 - devet (DAY-vet) 10 - deset (DAY-set) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-3 Modern Bulgarian Language courses (by Kitty Kagay, Ken Grau, Prashant Dave, and Dragomir R. Radev) In response to Dennis Godfrey's 20th January message regarding the U.S. State Department's Foreign Service Institute's language course. It may be of interest that there is another complete set of Bulgarian course materials available through Slavica Press of Ohio. This course also assumes no previous knowledge of Bulgarian or any other Slavic language. The course has supplementary materials which are designed specifically for self-study. The core-text, titled: A Course in Modern Bulgarian (by Milka Hubernova, Ana Dzhumadanova & Milka Marinova, Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishing, 1983; Library of Congress number: PG 835 K48x 1983) comes in two parts of about 300 pages each. The two parts consists of 62 lessons with about 60 pages of additional readings. There is enough material in the two volumes for a 2-3 year university course sequence. Best of all, each volume ends with a 40 page Bulgarian-English glossary consisting of vocabulary from both volumes. This glossary is a student's dream supplying accents, plurals, verb conjugations and aspect, and various irregulars. This feature alone is worth the price of the book. Note that the two volumes are available separately. The six-volume supplemental workbooks for self-study for so-called "Individualized Instruction". The materials are divided into workbooks titled: Elementary Bulgarian 1, Elementary Bulgarian 2, Intermediate Bulgarian 1, Intermediate Bulgarian 2, Advanced Bulgarian 1, and Advanced Bulgarian 2. Intermediate Bulgarian 2 is by Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble and Catherine Rudin and the other five volumes are by Charles E. Gribble and Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble. In addition, each volume has a Teacher's Manual containing tests, transcriptions of material on the tapes, etc. There is also a set of tapes. The workbooks, Teacher's Manual, and tapes are available from: Center for Slavic and Eastern European Studies Ohio State University Dulles Hall 230 West 17th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 Telephone: 614-292-8770 The first three workbooks cover the material in part one of the Hubenova text and the last three workbooks part two of the Hubenova text. These materials add more exercises, give additional grammatical explanations, add cultural notes, provide additional reading materials, etc. In addition, these offer two major features: supplementary note to the core text explaining points which the Bulgarian authors have overlooked because of their native speakers' "blind spot" and an answer key to the exercises. The workbooks are available singly with each covering several (10?) lessons. Finally, a set of audio cassette tapes is available for volume one of the core text (lessons 1-26). These tapes include a reading of the text from each chapter, some drills and exercises, plus a few additional readings of some short texts. The textbook and workbooks are all softbound and inexpensive. I don't know the price of the tapes as a set since the tapes I used were obtained by my university. I have read through parts of the State Department's text but it is the Hubenova text that our class worked through systematically. Comparing the two, I think each has significant shortcomings as well as strengths. My opinion is that there is no definitive text for the study of Bulgarian (as of now). Incidentally, I found the State Department's text in my local library which may be an option for those who like to browse before buying (Bulgarian Basic Courses, United State Foreign Service Institute. Dewey call number: 491 U58) For those interested in the Hubenova text, the company is Slavica Publishers. From the publishers written statement in an 1987 book of theirs: "Slavica publishes a wide variety of textbooks and scholarly books on the languages, peoples, literatures, cultures, history, etc. of the USSR and Eastern Europe. For a complete catalog of books and journals from Slavica, with prices and ordering information, write to: Slavica Publishers, Inc. P O Box 14388 Columbus, Ohio 43214 - 0388 Phone: 614 - 268 - 4002 Here is a short bibliography (from "Bulgarian" by Charles A. Moser, the George Washington University). TEXTBOOKS 1. Charles A. Moser. Bulgarian (The George Washington University: Washington, DC 1991) 2. Albert Bates Lord. Beginning Bulgarian (The Hague: Mouton, 1962) 3. Milka Hubenova, Ana Dzhumadanova. A Course in Modern Bulgarian 1,2. Slavica Publishers: Columbus, Ohio, 1983) Part 1, viii + 303 p. 1983 ( ISBN:0-89357-104-0), $ 16.95 Part 2, ix + 303 p., 1983 (ISBN: 0-89357-105-9), $ 16.95. 4. Charles Gribble and Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble. Elementary Bulgarian 1,2. Bulgarian Individualized Instruction (Ohio State University: Columbus, Ohio, 1984) 5. Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble and Charles Gribble. Advanced Bulgarian 1,2. Bulgarian Individualized Instruction (Ohio State University: Columbus, Ohio, 1987) 6. James Augerot & Nikolay Popov. Bqlgarski ezik: A University Course in the Bulgarian Language (Seattle, 1987) GRAMMARS 1. Leon Beaulieux. Grammaire de la langue bulgare (Institut d'etudes slaves: Paris, 1950) 2. Ernest Scatton. A Reference Grammar of Modern Bulgarian (Slavica Publishers: Columbus, Ohio, 1984) SPECIFIC TOPICS 1. Ernest Scatton. Bulgarian Phonology (Slavica Publishers: Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, 1975) 2. Charles Gribble. Reading Bulgarian Through Russian (Slavica Publishers: Columbus, Ohio, 1987) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-4 More Bulgarian Textbooks (by Kjetil Ra Hauge), last updated: 26-Jan-1995 Michael Holman and Mira Kovatcheva (1993): Teach Yourself Bulgarian (coursebook and cassette), Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0 340 56177 7, GBP 16.99 George D. Papantchev (1994): Colloquial Bulgarian (coursebook and two cassettes), Routledge, ISBN 0 415 07965 9 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-5 More Bulgarian Textbooks (by Kjetil Ra Hauge), last updated: 02-96-1938 Papantchev, George D.: Colloquial Bulgarian. A Complete Language Course [with 2 60-min cassettes]. Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York NY 10001, ISBN 0-415-07965-9. Holman, Michael and Mira KovachevA: Teach Yourself Bulgarian. A Complete Course for Beginners. [With one 85-minute cassette] Hodder & Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-56176-9. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-6 Teach Yourself Bulgarian (Tape) (by Graham Crowder) There is a book/cassette combination in the Teach Yourself series entitled Teach Yourself Bulgarian A complete course for beginners by Michael Holman and Mira Kovatcheva. Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton. This came out just a year or two back. There is an older title "A Course in Modern Bulgarian parts 1/2" published by Slavica Publishers, Inc (Columbus, Ohio). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-7 Bulgarian and English dictionaries (by Kamen Penev), last updated: 21-Nov-1994 Record #8 of 130 BRS Number: 000945202 Author: Tchomakov, Ivan. Title: Bulgarian-English, English-Bulgarian dictionary / Ivan Tchomakov. Impr/Ed: New York : Hippocrene Books, c1992. Edition: Hippocrene Books ed. Phys Desc: 323 p. ; 18 cm. Subjects: Bulgarian language -- Dictionaries -- English. English language -- Dictionaries -- Bulgarian. Series Title: Hippocrene practical dictionary Language: eng ISBN: 0870521454 (pbk.) Record #57 of 130 BRS Number: 000599608 Author: Khubenova, Milka Gucheva. Title: A course in modern Bulgarian / Milka Hubenova, Ana Dzhumadanova, Milka Marinova. Impr/Ed: Columbus, Ohio : Slavica Publishers, 1983. Phys Desc: 2 v. : ill., music ; 23 cm. Subjects: Bulgarian language -- Grammar. Other Author: Dzhumadanova, Ana Stefanova. Marinova, Milka Petrova. Notes: Reprint. Originally published: Bulgarski ezik. Sofia : Narodna Prosveta, 1964-1968. With corrections. English or Bulgarian. Language: eng ISBN: 0893571040 (v. 1) 0893571059 (v. 2) Record #77 of 130 BRS Number: 000419906 Author: Lord, Albert Bates. Title: Beginning Bulgarian. Impr/Ed: 's-Gravenhage, Mouton, 1962. Phys Desc: 165 p. 23 cm. Subjects: Bulgarian language -- Grammar. Language: eng LCCN: 65035287 GRSN: 00424693 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-8 Kakvo e "Dvoyno E"? (by Iliya Talev), last updated: 27-Jul-1995 (This entry is in Bulgarian) V sluchaya s dvoymoto E i shirokoto Q ("nosovkata") sqshtestvuvat dve strani na vqprosa: ezikovedcheska i politicheska. Vqtre v ezikovedcheskite sporove, pokray chisto lingvistichnite sqobajeniya, chesto se injektirat social-politicheski stanovishta, koeto pqk razdelya ezikovedite na "progresivni" i "reakcionni". Pochti nevqzmojno e da se nameri pqlen i obektiven pregled na pravopisnite "borbi", koito nesqmneno sa svqrzani s borbite po oformyaneto na bqlgarskiya knijoven ezik prez minaloto stoletie. Kakto znaete, pobediha "rusofilite". Tyahnata pobeda moje da se obyasni, obshto vzeto, sqs slednite faktori: 1. Ogromnoto vliyanie na Ruskata pravoslavna cqrkva v duhovnoto ptobujdane na bqlgarite ot vrorata polovina na XVIII do kraya na XIX vek. Osnova na bqlgarskiya cqrkoven ezik stava kqsnata ruska redakciya na Cqrkovno-slavyanski. Pokray ruskoto proiznoshenie na cqrkovniya ezik, v Bqlgariya pristigat drugi ruski inovacii ot leksikalno-semantichen harakter (kato administrativnata cqrkovna terminologiya naprimer) posredstvom trebnici, slujebnici, Chti-Minei, jitiya na pravoslavni svetci i t.n. Prez tozi period Ruskata cqrkva investira golemi sredstva na Balkanite s razprostranyavane na cqrkovna literatura, obuchenie na sveshtenici i chastichno, s pomoshti pri stroeneto na hramove. Zabelejitelno v sluchaya e, che neynite investicii v Sqrbiya pqrvonachalno sa po-golemi, otkolkoto v Bqlgariya, no srqbskoto vqzrajdane, pod vliyanie na hqrvatite, trqgna na pqt za ograjdane ot rusko vliyanie. ( V tozi kontekst, sqsho taka e interesno, che Rumqnskata cqrkva, koyato izpolzva po tova vreme Sredno-bqlgarska redakciya na Cqrkovno-slavyanskiya ezik, silno ogranichava ruskoto vliyanie v cqrkovniya ezik. Misiyata na Rusiya na Balkanite, pokray chisto hristiyansko misionerstvo, se diktkuva i ot dqrjavno-cqrkovnata doktrina za "Tretiya Rim" (t.e., sled padaneto na Carigrad - "Vtoriya Rim", Moskovskata patriarhiya poema funkciite na sedalishte i tqlkovatel na pravata vyara). 2. Sqznanieto na mnogo bqlgarski vqzrojdenci, che bez pomosht otvqn, Bqlgariya ne shte moje da se osvobodi. Tyahnata nadejda lelji vqrhu Rusiya; te rabotyat deyno za doblijavane na noviya bqlgarski kqm ruskiya. 3. Uchastieto vqv vqzrojdenskite procesi na mnozina energichni bqlgari, nyakoi ot tyah s pari, koito sa zvqrzani emocionalno ili finansovo s Rusiya. Povecheto ot tyah idvat ot podbalkanskite gradcheta, trevnensko i gabrovsko. Spomnete si za Vasil Aprilov: toy se sqglasyava da pomaga finansovo na bqlgarskata kultura pri edno uslovie: che ezikqt. makar gramaticheski da e osnovan na trevnenskoto narechie, shte vklyuchi cherti na gabrovskite govori kato "me, te, se" vmesto "mq, tq, sq" ("vidyah te", ne "vidyah tq"), ili generaliziraniya imenitelen/vinitelen padej za jenski rod ("glava" a ne "glavq") i t.n. Po tazi tochka sa zabelejitelni dve yavleniya: pqrvoto e, che nashite sqnarodnici ot Makedoniya se otnasyat hladno kqm rannata rusifikaciya na ezika. Tova e po-skoro grqcko, otkolkoto srqbsko kulturno vliyanie. Te sa na mnenie, che bqlgarskite, a ne ruskite cqrkovni knigi tryabva da se izpolzvat kato iztochnik na slovotvorchestvo, i che folklorqt tryabva da bqde moshten iztochnik pri oformyaneto na ezika. Spomnete si za bratyata Miladinovci i tyahnoto delo. Vtoroto yavlenie mojem uslovno da narechem "Dyado Petko Rachov Slaveykov". Grupa bqlgari v Carigrad rabotyat nad prevoda na protestantskata bibliya. Te tqrsyat iztochnik za oformyaneto na ezika v narodnata novobqlgarska literatura, glavno "damaskinite", i derivacionnite sposobi na razlichni bqlgarski dialekti. Kolko jalko, che tozi imenno - spored mene - pravilen podhod ne stana dominirasht. Poslednata golyama pobeda v rusifikatorite na bqlgarskiya ezik idva prez nyakolkoto godini na ruskata administraciya na osvobodena Bqlgariya. Chrez uchilishtnata i dqrjavno-administrativnata sistema te uspyavat za mnogo kratqk srok da rusificirat leksicheski i semantichno, do neuznavaemost, knijovniya bqlgarski ezik. V tazi oblast naprimer nishto ne e pisano za vliyanieto na mitnicheskata slujba v leksikalnoto oformyane na ezika (samo u Aleko: "dayte mi mene Solunskata mitnica...!"). Eto primer: pristiga ot Avstro-Ungariya pratka s "pironi", no mitnicharyat, po instrukciya otgore, pishe "gvozdei". Mnogo ot rusizmite, vlezli po onova vreme v bqlgarski, sa izcheznali, ili izchezvat, v ruski: "rasilen" ("baycho") ot "raz-syl'nyi", t.e. chovek, koyto se razprashta po drebni zadachi, kurier; "lepya" (ottam, na bqlgarska osnova - dumata "lepilo") i t.n. Tazi dqlga, no mnogo shematichna ekskurziya za osnovata na sqvremenniya nash knijoven ezik, beshe nujna, za da razberem i prichinite za ustanovyavaneto na stariya pravopis sqs E-dvoynoto, shirokoto Q, i ER-golyam i ER-malqk v kraya na dumite. Pravopisqt, ustanoven ot ruskata shkola v Bqlgariya sledva mnogo, mnogo tyasno oficialniya ruski pravopis ot onova vreme. Izklyucheniyata sa malko, bukvata "yota" (spomnete si "Ivancho Yotata"); ima sqshto izklyucheniya v tretiraneto na predstavkite i sufiksite. Sreshtu principite, na koito e osnovan stariyat ruski pravipis, NE vqzrazyavat i pochti nikoi nashi vqzrojdenci ot makedonskite zemi. Tezi principi sa ujasno udobni za obedinyavaneto na VSICHKI bqlgarski dialekti v knijovniya ni ezik. Prosti primeri: za E-dvoyno, "bel-beli", "byal-beli", "byal-byali". Ili oshte poveshe za "shirokoto Q" i ER-ovete v kraya na dumite: "pQt'-" (apostrofqt oznachava "ER-malqk") se proiznasya v dialektite kato "pqt", "pat", "pot" i daje "put", a malkiyat ER v kraya na dumata pokazva palatalizaviyata v "pQt'-qt" i staroto dvoystveno chislo vqv formata "kolko pQt-i". No bqlgarskata uchebna sistema izpitva zatrudnieniya, oshte ot samoto nachalo, s tozi pravopis. Negovoto ovladyavane iziskva po-shiroka lingvistichna kultura (ili poznaniya na nyakolko dialekta, ili na Cqrkovno-slavyanski, ili na ruski). Moje bi glavnata prichina za tova e NE-nastoyavaneto za uednakven pravogovor na knijovniya bqlgarski, t.e., pishi "bEl", a proiznasyay ili "byal", ili "bel". Za lipsata na pqrvonachalni normi na izgovaryane po onova vreme, kogato oshte nyama radio i TV, ima seriozni osnovaniya - zapadnite i yujnite bqlgarski dialekti. I zatova oshte ot nachaloto na bqlgaristikata zapochvat sporovete mejdu "progresivnite", glavno ot Severo-iztochna Bqlgariya, i "reakcionerite", glavno ot Zapadna Bqlgariya, trakiyskite i makedonskite zemi. "Progresivnite" tvqrdyat, che bqlgarskiyat pravopis, ako se napravi "fonetichen" kato srqbskiya, shtyal da stane dostqpen do vsichki (neshto kato Rab-Fak). "Reakcionerite", koito sa rugani kato "elitisti", "konservatori", "otkqsnati ot naroda", "stroeshti kuli ot slonova kost" i t.n. nablyagat na chetiri momenta: 1) obedinyavashtite cherti na pravopisa za vsichki bez izklyuchenie bqlgarski dialekti; 2) priemstvenostta i posledovatelnostta v bqlgarskata nacionalna kultura prez vekovete; 3) problemite s tqy narechenite "fonetichni principi" - kqde spirame s "fonetichniya, naroden" pravopis - "hlyab", "lyab", hleb", "leb" "hlyap", "lep" i t.n?: i 4-to - no mnogo vajno: poznavatelnite cherti na pravopisa (kogato edna duma ne meni graficheskiya si oblik v razlichni gramaticheski formi, tya se vqzpriema po-bqrzo i s po-malko usiliya ot uma na chetyashtiya, ili s drugi dumi - tekstove s etimologichno-morfologicheski pravopisi se chetat i vqzpriemat po-bqrzo i lesno ot tekstove s fonetichni pravopisi. Zemedelcite na Stamboliyski napraviha pqrviya kratkotraen, i to mnogo nespoluchliv opit, da reformirat pravopisa. Osven narodnyashkite im tvqrdeniya, te yavno imaha predvid doblijavane na bqlgarskoto pismo do srqbskoto s ogled na edna eventualna Yugoslavska federaciya. Komunisticheskata reforma imashe chisto ideologicheski harakter i beshe absolyutno nepodgotvena v lingvistichno otnoshenie. Tya predi vsichko beshe motivirana kato podrajanie na bolshevishkata pravopisna reforma (nali pomnite dumite v Internacionala, shte razrushim tozi svyat napqlno). Posledstvieto ottuk tryabvashe da bqde grafichesko priblijavane na ruski i bqlgarski. Tova, koeto veche se spomena sa pisheshtite mashini, ne e shega - bqlgarskite komunisti gotveha da izolirat Bqlgariya napqlno ot Zapada, i sledovatelno tehnicheskata baza tryabvashe da se gradi na sqvetskata promishlenost - pisheshti mashini i pechatarski inventar. Imashe oshte edna cel - da se prekqsne kulturnata vrqzka na novite pokoleniya sqs starite bqlgarski knigi. Psihologicheski, kniga sqs "star" pravopis tryabva da sqzdava u "homo sovieticus" emocionalna bariera pri vqzpriemaneto na teksta: "tova e neshto chujdo", "stranno", "ustaryalo", s drugi dumi, ne si zaslujava vnimanieto i usiliyata da vnikna v tezi "stari" idei. Ne na posledno myasto (makar i ne kato postavena cel), beshe efektqt na smyanata na pravopisa - nashite polu-gramotni drugari mojeha da opravdavat grubite si pravopisni greshki i lipsata na elementarna ezikova kultura s noviya pravopis, koyto "ne bili uchili v uchilishte". Sega, tolkova godini sled komunisticheskata pravopisna reforma, bqlgarite obshto vzeto ne znayat oficialniya pravopis na stranata. Ot opit moga da kaja, che povechete bqlgaristi, koito nyamat specialnata podgotovka na korektori, pravyat grubi pravopisni greshki. Osven tova tozi "oprosten" pravopis dovede do vseobsht kulturen nihilizqm - kolko bqlgari postoyanno se konsultirat s rechnici, bilo to pravopisni ili tqlkovni? A principite, izkovani nabqrzo sled Deveti septemvri, na koito se gradi segashniyat pravopis, sa tolkova protivorechivi, che ne bez osnovanie daje bqlgaristite ne znayat pravopisa. Ima li izhod ot tova polojenie? Az ne vyarvam, che restavraciya na stariya pravopis e prakticheski vqzmojna, makar che lichno bih ya podkrepil sqs vsichki sili. Vqzstanovyavane na do-komunisticheskiya pravopis, s nyakoi neznachitelni izmeneniya i utochneniya po liniyata na predlaganite promeni ot pokoyniya Stefan Mladenov, shte napravyat bqlgarskiya pravopis otnovo instrument v okulturyavane na naciyata. A psihologicheski, toy shte kazva na bqdnite pokoleniya, che vrqzkata s do-komunisticheskata kultura e vqzsatovena, dokato povecheto ot tova, koeto e pisano na "komunisticheski, naroden" pravopis, e staro, nevyarno i chujdo (da izpolzvame tyahnoto orqjie). Edin drug faktor e, che dneshnoto pokolenie bqlgarski ezikovedi sa zaangajirani s tozi pravopis, i mnogo malko ot tyah chistosqrdechno shte se sastqpvat za restavraciya na stariya. Az mislya, ce po-skoro, pravopisqt shte se doutochnyava i doizkusuryava, kakto e praveno prez poslednite pet desetiletiya. Tova, koeto obache ne e praveno, a tryabva da se pravi, e nablyagane v obrazovatelnata sistema na seriozno izuchavane na pravopisa. V Bqlgariya prez tezi desetiletiya e praveno mnogo malko za rafinirane na ezikovata kultura na decata. A pravopisqt, poneje nikoga ne moje da e sqvqrshen, tryabva da stane chrez mnogo usiliya chast ot kulturata na choveka. Kolkoto po-dobre chovek znae pravopisa, tolkova po-bqrzo i lesno chete (a ne si mqrda ustnite, dokato chete, kato babite i dyadovcite po selata). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-9 Words in English that originate from Bulgarian (by Julian Dontchev), last updated: 26-Mar-1996 1. bugger - comes from the word Bulgarian, a name given to a sect of heretics who came from Bulgaria in the 11th c., afterwards to other `heretics' (to whom abominable practices were ascribed), also to usurers. 2. bourge - OF. boulgre a `Bulgarian', a heretic: late L. Bulgarus an inhabitant of Bulgaria. 3. Bulgar 4. Gamza 5. lev 6. stotinka 7. okrug 8. Pomak 9. rakia 10. sharka ! (used only for pox of plums) There are other words of course that are not just Bulgarian, for example moussaka, tsar, vampire... but the ones listed above are used only in Bulgarian. From: Oxford University Press, The Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) On Compact Disc ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-10 How to translate "million", and "billion" in Bulgarian? (by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 17-Mar-1997 (This entry is in Bulgarian) Na bqlgarski dumata "bilion" oznachava "miliard". Sqshto taka, na bqlgarski dumata za "hilyada miliarda" e "trilion", po sqshtiya nachin kakto e i v amerikanskiya angliyski. (Na britanski angliyski ponyakoga se izpolzuva "miliard" za "hilyada miliona", dokato "bilion" oznachava "hilyada miliarda" ili "edin milion miliona", a pqk "trilion" oznachava "edin milion biliona".) V matematicheski format, eto kak izglejda gornoto: bqlgarski amerikanski britanski 10^6 1,000,000 milion million million 10^9 1,000,000,000 miliard billion one thousand million 10^12 1,000,000,000,000 trilion trillion billion 10^15 1,000,000,000,000,000 kvadrilion quadrillion one thousand billion 10^18 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 kvintilion quintillion trillion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-11 Chess terms in Bulgarian (by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 09-Jan-1997 pawn - PESHKA (the word is derived from "PESHAK" = "infantry soldier") bishop - OFITSER ("officer") knight - KON ("horse") queen - DAMA ("lady") or TSARITSA ("queen") king - TSAR ("tsar/king") rook - TOP ("cannon") mate - MAT stalemate - PAT draw - REMI -- Drago -- Drago