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Subject: rec.boats.paddle sea kayaking FAQ

This article was archived around: 21 May 2006 04:23:22 GMT

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Archive-name: boats-faq/sea-kayaking Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 12/04/00
Sea Kayaking Frequently Asked Questions: Copyright 2000, Todd Leigh. Copyright applies to compilation and sections where another author is not noted. Authors where noted retain their copyrights. Rights granted to copy as desired for non-profit activities. All other rights reserved. Usually, questions, comments, criticisms, and other good advices are happily accepted. None of the information in this FAQ will make you a good kayaker. None of it is guaranteed to be correct, and much of it is subject to opinion. Take it for what you paid for it. Todd Leigh - FAQ compiler toddleigh@hotmail.com Thanks to: Chris Bell - suggestions Sam Crowley - history and hypothermia Ralph Diaz - folding kayaks George Dyson - history critique Jackie Fenton - good suggestions and hypertext formatting Alex Ferguson - history and good suggestions on everything else Edward Hasbrouck - airline baggage restrictions Preston Holmes - hypertext formatting and web posting Bob Myers - suggestions, faq submission criteria, invaluable aid Kirk Olsen - suggestions Nick Schade - kayak building and kits Greg Stamer - history critique and suggestions Note the inclusion of a controversial topics section. Please don't send me email to argue about these. Constructive criticism will be accepted though. If you want to add references, please include publisher information. If anyone can fill in the publisher information that's missing currently, please send email. If you know of a club, outfitter, or manufacturer that should be listed, send a blurb in the format shown, and I'll add it. Same with places to paddle. This FAQ is not currently available on FTP. If anyone out there can host it on an FTP site, please let me know. Thanks to California Kayak Friends for many years of hosting. On the Web, the URL is: http://siolibrary.ucsd.edu/preston/kayak/sfaq/credits.html or http://www.gasp-seakayak.org/faq/credits.html ******************************************************************************** Section 1: Buying a Boat What is the best boat? Every boat is different and there is no best boat for all paddling conditions. Any boat is a trade off, features that work well in one set of conditions can compromise performance/handling in another set of conditions. You have to know what type of paddling conditions you want to paddle in before selecting a boat. Multi-day expeditions dictate a different boat than morning explorations of an estuary or surf-zone excitement or teaching others to kayak. One fundamental trade-off in boat design is tracking vs. turning. Generally a boat that tracks well (goes straight) does not turn as well as a boat that does not track well. There are varying degrees of these two characteristics in all boats, and some boats that track well can be made to turn better if you are willing and able to lean them when you turn, but if you're going to be turning a lot, buy a boat that turns, if you are going straight all day, buy a boat that tracks. Another characteristic to consider is the initial stability of the boat. Initial (or primary) stability is the ease with which a boat starts to tip. Low initial stability will make the boat feel 'tender' or 'tippy'. A boat that is tender to sit in is going to be much more difficult to fish or take pictures out of, so if that's what you want to do, consider a boat with more initial stability. A boat with very high initial stability will be more difficult to handle in big waves, because it will tend to try to sit flat relative to the water rather than the horizon. The consequences of this tendency are left as an exercise for the reader. Another thing to consider is the final stability of the boat. Final (or secondary) stability is the ease with which the boat tips all the way over. High final stability is desirable for any boat, but it may take some time to develop the balance and skill to take advantage of it. Paddlers are all different. A boat will perform/handle differently for a tall person than for a short person, and for a heavy person than a light person. The fit of the cockpit will vary from boat to boat. A person's requirements for a boat may change as the person's skill level changes. Often, a person with advanced skills will be interested in different boat features than a person with beginner/intermediate skills. ******** Should I start in a 'beginner' boat, or should I buy an 'expert' boat and hope I can 'grow' into it? Often people want to purchase a boat they can 'grow into'. This implies a distinction between boats that are comfortable for beginners and boats that are comfortable for experts. The biggest perceived difference in 'beginner' boats vs. 'expert' boats is in initial stability. 'Expert' boats generally have lower initial stability than 'beginner' boats, and 'beginner' boats often increase initial stability at the expense of final stability. Advanced paddlers generally want a boat with high final stability because it is needed in more difficult sea conditions. Advanced paddlers (and beginners) also want a fast boat, and in many boats initial stability is traded off for speed. If, as a beginner, you are willing to put up with some uneasy sensations early in your paddling career, you may wish to purchase an 'expert' boat and 'grow into' it, assuming the 'expert' boat has some other characteristics that you find desirable. Keep in mind that low initial stability, the hallmark of 'expert' boats, is not a desirable characteristic in and of itself. Find a boat that you like, and think you will continue to like as you become a better kayaker, and purchase that boat. If it happens to be a boat that is outside of your comfort level now, ask yourself honestly if it will ever be in your comfort level, and either purchase it now and put up with the difficulties, or rent/borrow boats until you are comfortable in your dream boat, then buy it. Don't buy a boat just because someone tells you it is an 'expert' boat. Find out what you like in a boat and use your own judgement in your purchase. Do not confuse how many years a person has been paddling with advanced skills. A person's skills will only increase if they work at increasing them. ******** Should I get plastic, fiberglass, wood, fabric or something more exotic? Plastic is heavier, more resistant to damage, harder to repair. Fiberglass is lighter, easier to repair, results in finer lines, but is more expensive. Fiberglass is generally more rigid than plastic, which can result in a faster boat. Wood is labor intensive but relatively easy to build (a little less labor intensive if built from a kit), light, easy to repair, needs maintenance. There are also a few companies that manufacture wood/epoxy-construction kayaks, but they tend to be more expensive. Fabric is labor intensive to build though a little less so than wood, fragile, and needs maintenance. Folding boats are a form of fabric boat that collapses for transport/storage. They are generally more expensive to buy than any other kind of boat, but there are other considerations that may make them a better overall value. See section 5, folding kayaks, for more information. Inflatable boats tend to be much less expensive than any other sort of boat. Rigid boats may perform better than folding or inflatable boats. Folding and inflatable boats have the advantage of easier portability and storage. If you plan to travel with your boat, a folding or inflatable boat will be easier to get on airliners. If your home is tight on storage space, a folding/inflatable boat will be easier to store than a rigid boat. More exotic materials (like kevlar, carbon fiber) tend to be lighter and costlier. ******** How should the boat fit? You can pad any boat, but it should fit you fairly well to begin with. Your contact points with the boat are your feet, your knees (on the underside of the deck), your hips (on the sides of the seat), and your butt (on the seat). Some boats fit big people better, some are better for small folks. The size of your feet is a consideration too. In general, a sea kayak needs to be comfortable because you are going to be in it all day, perhaps without a break. Some people prefer a looser fit in a sea kayak than in a whitewater boat, allowing space to stretch and move about. Another thing to consider is cockpit size. A larger cockpit can make it easier for a person to enter and exit a boat. A smaller cockpit is preferred by some because it is considered more watertight. ******** How should the boat be rigged? Deck lines that run along the edges of the deck from the bow to the stern are important safety equipment. Bungies that cross the deck in front of and behind the cockpit are handy for stowing gear where it is easy to reach. Some paddlers prefer to have built-in compasses and pumps in their boats. Tow systems may be necessary for aiding other paddlers. Different boats come with different kinds of deck rigging. Anything it doesn't have that you want you will have to add. Are you willing to go to that trouble? ******** How big of a boat do I need? The volume of the boat you need is dependent on how much stuff you are going to carry in it, and on how big you are (see 'fit' above). Overnight trips do not need as large a boat as week-long outings. You can, of course, pack light and get more stuff in a smaller boat (heck, Paul Caffyn has done some monstrously long trips in a Nordkapp, not the largest volume boat that's available out there), but for some people part of the joy of sea kayaking is in the amount of (luxurious) stuff they can bring. If that's you, you need a bigger boat. A bigger boat will also be easier to paddle in bigger seas than a smaller boat. Also, the way the volume of the boat is distributed is important in dictating how the boat handles, as more bow (and stern) volume helps to prevent the bow or stern of the boat from diving into the trough of waves in surf. ******** Should I get a single or double? Single kayaks provide greater maneuverablity than doubles. Doubles can be faster than singles. Doubles may be able to carry more gear, but keep in mind that they need to carry more than twice as much gear for this to be true. A double will require the use of a rudder to steer. A double on a trip can provide an ill/injured person with a safer place to sit than in a single being towed. Some doubles are more stable than a single but will be more difficult to rescue and pump dry. ******** What kind of hatches should I get? There are lots of different hatch designs out there. Considerations when looking at hatches are watertightness, resistance to breakage, and size. If you want to bring the kitchen sink, you'd better not just have a 9 inch round hatch. Consider also that heavy seas and surf can break or blow off hatch covers, so consider how they are attached to avoid losing them, and don't depend on them for floatation of the boat. If the compartments aren't full of gear, use float bags. ******** Will I have enough cargo space? Cargo space is related to size of the boat, but also to position of the bulkheads (if there are any). The cockpit can also be used for cargo, but keep in mind that it may not stay dry, it may impede your exit if that becomes necessary, and it may fall out if you do exit. Keep in mind also that a leaky hatch or bulkhead may compromise the watertight cargo compartments, and pack accordingly. Some sort of floatation is required for safe paddling. A "proper" sea boat should either have bulkheads that you can rely on for integrity and water-tightness, or the space forward and aft of the cockpit should be filled with secured floatation. Keep in mind that float bags take up stowage space and that stores by themselves don't fill the "holes". A sea sock is a valuable added safety measure in a boat without bow and stern bulkheads. Almost all plastic boats have bulkheads that leak. The leaks can be repaired temporarily, but they will eventually start leaking again. Leaking bulkheads can compromise the safety provided by the added bouyancy of the watertight compartments. Expect to spend some time patching the leaks with a plastic boat. ******** Do I need a rudder? This is one of sea kayaking's religious debates. You might need a rudder to go straight, or the boat might need a rudder to go straight, or you might just want a rudder so you don't have to worry about steering. Look for a design that is durable, easily stowed, and which has a footbrace design you can live with. Like rigging, this is something you can modify if you are willing to do the work. An alternative to a rudder is a skeg, either permanent or retractable, which is basically a fixed rudder. It will not help steer, but it will help go straight. Both rudders and skegs are subject to breakage/jamming. In many rudder systems, a failure may result in losing support from your foot braces. A properly designed rudder should be able to stand up to a lot of abuse including resting the kayak on end on it. A rudder should not be necessary for you to control your kayak, and you should learn proper kayaking technique without the rudder becoming a crutch. Two boat characteristics that a rudder or skeg can help with are the boat's tendency to weathercock, and the boat's tendency to broach. Weathercocking occurs when there is a wind in the front quarter or beam of the boat. Because of their aerodynamics/hydrodynamics, many boats will tend to try to turn into a wind when they are moving forward because the bow of the boat is held in place by the bow wave generated by the boat's forward movement, while the stern is free to pivot. A boat that weathercocks is safer than one in which the bow is blown downwind as it is very difficult to turn a boat with this characteristic into the wind. Broaching is the boat's tendency to turn sideways to a wave coming from the stern or rear quarter of the boat. This happens because the water in waves is moving more slowly in the trough of the wave than at the crest, making the stern of the boat try to 'catch up' to the bow. ******** How much of a consideration is the weight of the boat? If you need to haul the boat on and off the top of the car, carry it any distance, or portage, this is an important characteristic. Lighter boats also tend to feel livelier in the water and are faster, although this is not as much of a consideration when you've got 300 pounds of boater and gear in the boat. In general, plastic is heavier than fiberglass is heavier than exotic materials like kevlar, carbon fiber, etc., but there are exceptions. ******** How important is the durability of the boat's construction? If you want to drag your boat over rocks or drop it off a pier, this is an important consideration, but even if you don't abuse your boat, it wears in normal usage as well, so consider durability in your selection. In general, plastic stands up to abuse better than fiberglass, but is harder to repair. Keep in mind that in fiberglass construction, heavier is not necessarily stronger. ******** How much should I spend on a boat? (USA prices) Buy a boat you can afford, but if you find a boat you really like which is too expensive, it may be worthwhile to save your pennies until you can afford it. If you have a fixed price range you are interested in, it may be a good idea to only try boats in that price range, so you are satisfied with what you get. Plastic boats run $700-$1500, Fiberglass $1300-$2800, other materials tend to cost more. Sometimes you can find boats sold used for less, especially if a shop or outfitter is selling old boats from their rental fleet. ******** What should I look for when I'm trying a boat out? The best way to choose a boat, and the only way to determine its paddling characteristics, is to try it, and you should take opportunities to try as many boats as you can to decide what you like. Many shops have demo days, and symposia are good opportunities to try boats. Try to find an opportunity to paddle in the conditions you are planning on using the boat in. Also, consider how the boat handles when it is loaded as well as unloaded. Things to think about when you are trying the boat are: Does it feel comfortable just sitting in it? Lean the boat onto it's side. Does it stop leaning or keep going and tip over? Is there a point where the resistance to leaning increases? Paddle the boat into the wind, across the wind, with the wind behind you. How easy is it to keep on course? Does it turn into the wind (weathercocking) or out of the wind excessively? How fast is it? How easy is the boat to turn? These things test some of the fundamental characteristics of boat handling: Speed - a function of length, width, and hull shape. Tracking - ability of the boat to go straight. Maneuverability - ability of the boat to turn easily. Initial or primary stability - effort it takes to lean the boat off of an upright position. Final or secondary stability - effort it takes to tip the boat over. Typical trade-offs: Tracking vs. Maneuverability Initial vs. Final Stability Speed vs. Stability ******************************************************************************** Section 2: Learning to Sea Kayak How do I learn to kayak? There are lots of options: 1. Buy a boat, take it out and paddle, teach yourself from harsh experience. Books and some videos are available. See the list at the end of the FAQ. Seidman's _The Essential Sea Kayaker_ and Foster's _Sea Kayaking_ are particularly good for beginners. This can be a dangerous way to go. 2. Go on a guided trip. Most outfitters provide guides, equipment, and instruction. 3. Take a class. Many shops that sell sea kayaks have an instructional program. The American Canoe Association and other national paddlesport organizations also offer sea kayak instruction. 4. Join a local club and paddle with some experienced paddlers. Many clubs offer some level of kayak instruction. ******** Am I ready to go kayaking on my own? Turing test for sea kayaking, or, are you ready to do a coastal kayaking trip on your own? These questions are not intended to tell anyone that they can or can't go out kayaking on their own. They are simply a quick survey of the knowledge/skills that are helpful in coastal kayaking. You have to decide for yourself what you are capable of. Equipment Do you own your own boat(s)? What kind? What size/kind of hatches does it have? Does it have watertight bulkheads? What sort of deck rigging has your boat got? Does it have a rudder? Can you fix your boat if it breaks? Do you have a spare paddle? Do you have a paddle float? A pump? Loading and Camping Have you ever paddled a loaded boat? Have your ever loaded a boat? What sort of camping equipment do you own? How comfortable are you camping in bad weather conditions? Cold Water Have you ever dealt with cold water conditions? What kind of paddling clothes do you have to deal with cold water? What are the effects of cold shock? Do you know how to prevent it? What are the symptoms of hypothermia? What about hyperthermia? Travelling in Seas Do you know how far you can travel in a day with a loaded boat? How about in a headwind? How about with following seas? Do you know your limits with respect to wind/weather/sea conditions you are comfortable paddling in, or have you only paddled calm seas? Would you know when it is not safe to paddle? Have you ever paddled in surf? Do you know how wind/weather/topography/tides affect sea conditions? Signalling Do you own a weather radio? How about a marine VHF 2-way radio? Do you know different ways to signal for help if you need it? What types of signalling equipment do you own? Rescues Do you know how to reenter your boat with or without assistance should you tip over and have to exit? What sea conditions are you capable of doing this in? Have you ever tipped over and exited your boat? Do you have a roll? How are your braces? Navigation Can you navigate in a kayak if you can't see your destination? Do you own a compass? Hand held or deck mount? Do you know how to use a nautical chart and protractor? Do you know how to correct for magnetic declination? How do you decide when not to go? Tides and Tidal Currents What do you know about tides and tidal currents? How do they affect sea conditions? Injury Do you know what to do if someone gets hurt? Are you prepared to tow? Experience Have you ever taken a coastal kayaking class? Have you ever gone on an extended kayaking trip? ******************************************************************************** Section 3: Equipment The essentials - boat paddle sprayskirt PFD : personal flotation device (life jacket) safety gear - spare paddle bilge pump paddle float weather radio emergency shelter and rations first aid kit tow system helmet for surf conditions signalling - flares : handheld and aerial smoke canister flag mirror whistle flashlight marine VHF radio strobe EPIRB navigation - compass : hand-held and deck-mounted charts chart cover course protractor tide charts and tables wristwatch clothing - paddling jacket wetsuit drysuit polyester, nylon, or wool insulating garments if it's cold or the water is cold cotton garments for cooling/sun protection if it's hot and the water is warm headwear : balaclava, beanie, or neoprene hood, sun hat, rain hat, etc. handwear : gloves or pogies footwear : booties, neoprene socks, aquasocks, sandals, rubber boots, etc. camping - sleeping bags sleeping pads tents or bivy sacks stoves pots and pans dry bags for gear stowage etc. ******************************************************************************** Section 4: Sea Kayak Construction Author: Nick Schade How do I build a kayak? Strip-built (SB) and Stitch & Glue (S&G) are two methods of home-building a kayak. There are also several methods of constructing "traditional" skin covered kayaks, some other techniques for plywood, and you can also use a mold. One method of building skin and frame boats is described here. Other methods may be added to the FAQ at a later date. Strip Built Vs. Stitch & Glue: The two building processes SB and S&G are quite different. In SB you bend narrow strips around a form. With S&G there is no form. You take shaped plywood panels, stitch them edge-to-edge, then glue them together. What this means is that with SB you can make smooth rounded shapes. With S&G you end up with angles running lengthwise for a "hard-chined" shape. Both shapes are good. Some people prefer a hard-chined boat. Neither method produces a "better" boat. Strip Built gives more design freedom (you can make it hard-chined if desired.), and looks nicer (plywood looks alright but strips of cedar, redwood and pine are beautiful). SB can make a lighter weight boat but S&G can also be light. S&G is easier. There is less setup involved and somewhat easier finish work. The Process: The following are outlines for each process: STRIP-BUILT ======================================================= The basic process for a strip built kayak is this: 1. Draw out the forms full size, 2. Paste the drawings to cheap plywood, 3. Cut out the forms using the saber-saw or band-saw, 4. Cut a hole in the middle of the forms, 5. String the forms on a straight two-by-four, 6. Lay 3/4" x 1/4" strips on the forms and staple in place, 7. Add strips, gluing edge to edge, and stapling, 8. When stripped all the way around, pull the staples, 9. Plane smooth, 10. Sand smoother, 11. Fiber-glass the outside, 12. Remove the shell from the forms in two halves (deck and hull), 13. Plane and sand the inside, 14. Fiber-glass the inside, 15. Glue the deck and hull back together, 16. Sand, 17. Varnish, go to 16 and repeat until bored, 18. Paddle. This process shouldn't take more than three months. The weight of these boats with a good protective layer of glass is 45 lbs or less. Materials cost about $300 US total. STITCH AND GLUE ======================================================= The basic process for Stitch & Glue is: 1. "Scarf" together several pieces of plywood (Make one big sheet out of several 4x8 sheets) 2. Draw the parts full-sized on the plywood. 3. Cutout the parts. 4. Drill small holes along the edges of the parts ever 3" to 5". 5. With wire "stitch" the panels for the hull together through the drilled holes. 6. Glue the interior seams with a "fillet" of thickened resin covered with 'glass tape. 7. repeat 5 & 6 for the deck. 8. Bond together the deck and hull in a similar manner. 9. Cut the wires and pull them out or sand them down. 10. "Radius" the corners. 11. Glass the outside. (optional but recommend on the bottom) 12. Sand and Paint. 13. Paddle. This process takes about 1 to 1 1/2 months worth of weekends and evenings. Weight with glass on the bottom is about 40 lbs. Material cost about $200 US. SKIN AND FRAME ======================================================= The basic process for Skin and Frame is: 1. Cut two gunwhale pieces, symmetrical about the grain, from a 16ft. plank. 2. Cut and plane an identical angle in both ends of the two pieces so that when they are placed in a 'boat' shape, they meet flat. 3. Tie the ends together and establish your shear-line shape by putting spacers between the two pieces. Peg the ends of the gunwhales together. 4. Cut about 12-15 deck supports to hold the shape of gunwhales. One serves as a footbrace, one is right behind the cockpit as a back support, and the two in front of the cockpit should be arched to provide knee room and easy entry. Peg or mortice-tenon these supports in and lash them to the gunwhales. 5. Cut slots in the bottom of the gunwhales for ribs. 6. Cut stem and stern pieces from a plank. These should meet the gunwhales smoothly and provide an attachment point for the keel. Lash them to the gunwhales. 7. Steam, cut, and bend ribs. The ribs will establish the bottom shape of the hull. Peg the ribs into the gunwhales if desired. 8. Cut chine stringers and a keel piece to fit, peg to the ribs if desired, peg and lash to the stem and stern pieces. 9. Skin the boat with your choice of material. 10. Cut and bend a cockpit coaming, sew it to the skin. 11. Paint the skin to waterproof it if necessary. 12. Paddle. This is obviously a much-simplified list of steps. It takes about 100 hours to build a boat this way, about 3 months of weekends. Weight is less than 40 pounds. Material cost is about $200 US. ******** Where can I get a kit to build a kayak? Strip Built: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Guillemot Kayaks Nick Schade 10 Ash Swamp Rd, Apt I Glastonbury, CT 06033 Phone: (860)659-8847 Internet: info@Guillemot-Kayaks.com http://www.guillemot-kayaks.com/ - Unique performance kayaks. 7 designs and growing - Sea kayak plans and kits, - Spooned & feathered paddle plan - send $2 for more info -------------------------- the Newfound Woodworks RFD #2 Box 850 Bristol, NH 03222 Phone: (603)744-6872 Internet: sales@newfound.com http://www.newfound.com/ - Kayak and Canoe kits - Cove and bead strips - Epoxy and glass -------------------------- Bruce Winterbon RR 1 Deep River,Ont. Canada K0J 1P0 Phone: (613)584-3930 Internet: bk850@FreeNet.Carleton.CA - plans for double-paddle canoe - boat design program for PC - polyester resin, glass cloth, footrests,... -------------------------- Henry (Mac) McCarthy 1705 Andera Place Sarasota, Fl 34235 Phone:(813) 953-7660 - Wee Lassie -------------------------- Outer Island Kayak c/o Jason Designs 230 East Main St. Branford, CT 06405 Phone:(203) 481-6815 - 1 West Greenland style design -------------------------- DR Designs 821 Dock St. #3-6 Tacoma, Washington 98402 - four models, patterns and instructions -------------------------- Minnesota Canoe Association P.O. Box 13567 Dinkytown Station Minneapolis, MN 55414 - instructions & plans - canoes & kayaks -------------------------- Laughing Loon Rob Macks 833N Colrain Rd. Greenfield, MA 01301 Phone: (413)773-5375 Internet: laughing_loon@shaysnet.com http://www.shaysnet.com/~robm/ - Kayaks and Canoes -------------------------- Loon Kayaks HCR 32 Box 253 Semasco Estates, ME 04565 Phone: (207)389-1565 - Several models -------------------------- Redwing Designs John Winters Box 283 Burk's Falls, Ont P0A 1C0 Canada Internet: jwinters@ONLINK.NET http://www.onlink.net/~jwinters/index.htm - Kayaks and Canoes -------------------------- Stitch and Glue: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Chesapeake Light Craft, Inc. 1805 George Avenue Annapolis, MD 21401 Phone: (410)267-0137 Internet: kayaks@clcinc.com http://www.clcboats.com - About 10 Models - kits, plans, and finished boats - Ocoume Plywood - epoxy, fiberglass, hardware, seats, rudders - other stuff for kayak builders -------------------------- Glen-L Marine 9152 Rosecrans Ave. PO Box 1804WA Bellflower, CA 90706 Phone: (562)630-6258 FAX: (562)630-6280 Internet: info@glen-l.com http://www.glen-l.com - A 17' Touring Sea Kayak-one person(stitch-n-glue) - 19'9" Sea Kayak Two-two person (s&g also) - 13' or 15' Flat bottom kayak (standard sawn frame construction) - 12' or 14' Canoe/Kayak "Can-Yak" (standard sawn frame construction) - 9' Kid's kayak "Kid-Yak" (s&g) -------------------------- Rob Bryan Kennebec Designs P.O. Box 475 Woolwich, ME 04579 - Seguin -------------------------- Spring Harbor Kayak Company 5156 Spring Court Madison, WI 53705 - Ganymede (single) - Gemini (double) -------------------------- Pygmy Sea Kayaks P.O. Box 1529 227 Jackson St. Port Townsend, WA 98368 Phone: (360)385-6143 Fax: (360)379-0227 Internet: pygmy@mail.olympus.net http://www.pygmyboats.com/index.htm - Multichine kits -------------------------- John D Teitsheid Star Rt 2, Box 175 Crescent City, FL 32112 - Double paddle canoe -------------------------- Hudson Canoe 14 Hillside Avenue Croton, NY 10520 Phone: (914)271-5387 - Angmassalik -------------------------- Jim Michalak 118 E. Randle Lebonon, IL 62254 - Toto double paddle canoe - info $1 -------------------------- San Javier Kayak 2425B Channing Way #220 Berkeley, CA 94704 Internet: sjkayak@ccnet.com - West Greenland Sea Kayak Frame and Skin: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Boucher Kayak Company 1907 Ludington Avenue Wauwatosa, WI 53226 Phone: (414)476-3787 - plans, kits, video. Greenland style -------------------------- Dyson, Baidarka & Company 435 W. Holly St. Bellingham, WA 98225 Phone: (206)734-9226 FAX: (206)671-9736 - Aleut style plans, materials including heatshrinkable nylon - (14, 15, and 26 ounces/sq yard, uncoated, approx 6ft width) -------------------------- Baidarka Historical Society Box 5454 Bellingham WA 98227 - Distributes those 5 or 6 of David Zimmerly's plans that document Aleut boats. - Distributes some rather obscure books. -------------------------- R. Bruce Lemon P.O. Box 54A Jacksonville, NY 14854 Phone: (607)387-8000 - Aleut style, plans, kits, video -------------------------- Stimson Marine, Inc. RR1, Box 524, River Rd. Boothbay, Maine 04537 Phone: (207)633-7252 FAX: (207)633-6058 - Heat shrink daycron skin -------------------------- Hand Crafted Kayaks P.O. Box 580 Eastsound, WA 98245 Phone: (206)376-3677 - Traditional Eskimo wood kayaks -------------------------- Kayak Way P.O. Box 451 Eastsound, WA 98245 Phone: (206)376-4754 Internet: http://www.pacificrim.net/~kyak/front.html - Design, prototyping, building -------------------------- The Indian River Canoe and Kayak Company, Inc. 1861 So. Patrick Drive Suite 200 Indian Harbor Beach, FL 32937 Phone: (800)237-8400 - Inuit based Other: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Spartina Kayak Co. 105-A Jordon Rd. S. Dartmouth, MA 02748 Phone: (508)998-5121 - Fiberglass hull, strip deck kit -------------------------- Lake Watercraft David A. Lake RR 3 Box 845 Wiscasset, ME 04578 Phone: (207)443-6677 - "Chewonki" Sea Kayak, plywood -------------------------- Baldwin Boat Company RFD 2 Box 268 Hoxie Hill Rd. Orrington, ME 04474 - Kits and completed kayaks in FRP and Kevlar -------------------------- Mackinac Boatworks 9600 Seventeen Mile Rd. Marshall, MI 49068 Phone: (616)781-6974 - Scooter -------------------------- Island Canoe 3556-C West Blakely Bainbridge Island, WA 98100-2205 - canoe, kayak, historic decked canoe - info $1 -------------------------- WoodenBoat Store PO Box 78, Brooklin, Maine 04616 Phone: (800)273-7447 -------------------------- The Wooden Boat Shop 1007 NE Boat St Seattle, WA 98105 Phone: (206)634-3600 Toll Free: (800)933-3600 FAX: (206)632-9101 Internet: wbs@halcyon.com http://www.halcyon.com/wbs/wbs1.htm - Stitch and Glue kits and plans - plans for 7 fast, ultralight kayaks - all materials, supplies, and tools - marine mahogany - expert advice from builders and paddlers -------------------------- Clarkcraft 16-42 Aqualane Tonawanda, NY 14150 -------------------------- Boat Plans International Ltd. Box 18000-WB Boulder, CO 80308 Phone: (800)782-7218 -------------------------- Sea Bright Kayak Sea Bright, NJ 07760 Phone: (908)530-8146 - Plastic and PVC pipe 16' kit -------------------------- Nomad Kayaks 4818 Rive Sud L*vis, Qc, CANADA, G6W 5N6 Phone: (418)838-0338 Internet: nomad@zone.ca http://www.qbc.clic.net/~nomad/ - Composite Kayak kits - Single or Twin -------------------------- Superior Kayaks Mark Rogers 108 Menasha Whitelaw, WI 54247 Phone: (414)732-3784 - Several plywood designs - Classes on Greenland and Aleutian style boat construction. ******************************************************************************** Section 5: Folding Kayaks Authors: Ralph Diaz, Edward Hasbrouck (for travel limit questions) "It is impossible to exaggerate the usefulness of a folding kayak. Even the hackneyed phrase 'flying carpet' is appropriate to this ingeniously conceived craft . . . There is an immense amount to be learned about this deceptively simple boat. I suspect the reason for the folding kayak's complexity is inherent in the boat's design. All other craft have conventional similarities--a little plastic motorboat has many features in common with the QE II, but these have nothing in common with a folding kayak. Consider the shape and construction of the folding kayak, or any skin boat, and you have to reach a conclusion that its nearest equivalent is an animal's body, not a fish but a mammal, a vertebrate. It has an interior skeleton, ribs, joints, a spine; it has a head and a tail, it has a hide, it flexes. To this animal shape the paddler brings a brain, and energy, and guts." - from the Foreword by Paul Theroux to Ralph Diaz's _The Complete Folding Kayaker_ published in 1994. *************************** Is a folding kayak a sea kayak? Yes, in every sense of the term, i.e. it's a kayak that is at home on open water. Since they first started a small-boating revolution in the early part of this century, folding kayaks have been paddled safely and successfully on every body of water from the Arctic to Antarctica. While they were first conceived as a convenient, knock-down craft to take in the overhead luggage compartments of trains heading to Alpine lakes and streams, intrepid types turned their prows to the sea almost from the very beginning. For example, the English Channel was crossed in one of the first ones in 1909. Since then, they have proven time and time again that they are the quintessential open water boat, particularly for extreme conditions and expedition use. They have crossed 3,000 miles of the open Atlantic, first in 1928 and then later in 1956; neither voyage with any support craft hovering nearby. In the 1920s, adventurers paddled folding kayaks in journeys following the coastlines from Europe to India and beyond. These seaworthy kayaks were used in long-distance open-water races during the 1920 and 1930s. For example, in 1933 Fridel Meyer paddled her folding kayak to win a contest involving more than 1,000 miles of exposed waters off the British coastline. Paddlers today suffer from a "born yesterday" syndrome. They tend to think that sea kayaking only began in the late 1950s with the advent of the first workshop-built British hardshells and the factory production boom that followed in the mid-1970s, but between the World Wars, hundreds of thousands of folding kayaks were being built and paddled everywhere by ordinary people. While the sport is currently growing by the proverbial leaps and bounds, it still pales by comparison to the impact and ubiquitous presence folding kayaks had during that earlier period. ******** Should you consider a folding kayak only if you require its foldability feature? No. That suggestion is seen in general sea kayaking manuals, most of which, in essence, say that foldables are dogs to paddle and that you should only get one as a last resort because you have no place to store a hardshell or you plan to do a lot of air travel. Such conventional wisdom aside, foldability is far from the only thing going for these versatile boats. First, they are inherently seaworthy by design. They owe this strength to their underlying skin-over-frame construction. This form of construction closely resembles that of kayaks of Northern native peoples, and it is what made them such seaworthy craft. Like their ancestors, modern skin boats and folding kayaks flex with the action of the sea rather than fighting its forces as a hardshell does. The flex comes from the way that the internal frame blends the boat to the contours of the surrounding water, giving you a feel for sea's action much as early roadsters gave a driver "road feel". The soft sides of a skin or folding kayak also play a role in seaworthiness. They dampen the impact of waves and wakes, so you are tossed around less. Stability is another advantage. Most foldables made since the early 1950s have air tubes running along their sides called air sponsons. These tubes, encased in the soft sides of folding kayaks, provide unbelievable stability both in initial and final phases. The soft sides themselves also play a part in stability. No matter how taut the skin, water pressure forms small indents in the hull between long pieces of the frame along the entire length of the boat. These concave pockets tend to grip or take a bite in the water to slow and control any sideways tipping process caused by beam waves or wake or by your moving around in your boat. The built-in seaworthiness and stability of folding kayaks tend to make them safe boats on open water, especially for the majority of sea kayakers who have not developed expert skills or been able to keep these constantly honed. The superb open-water handling function of a foldable results from design; it is not so dependent on operator skills as, say, a narrow Greenland style hardshell. Your learning curve in a foldable is less sharp, allowing you to reach skill levels that enable you to handle rougher conditions more quickly. ******** How do folding kayaks compare in efficiency, performance, and speed with hardshell boats? "Common wisdom", again, says that folding kayaks are typically less of a "performance boat" than hardshell kayaks. This is only partially true and requires some examination. Folding kayaks are not all inherently slow; their models run a range of speeds just as hardshell models do. Real life experience and races in which a mix of hardshells and foldables participate tend to indicate that foldables are as fast or faster than about 80% of hardshell kayaks. If you are in a folding kayak on a club trip or paid tour, you will not find that every hardshell will be ahead of you. Only some might. Much depends on conditions. In absolutely flat, calm water, foldables, which tend to be wider, are a bit less efficient to paddle, i.e. you may have to put more effort into your stroke to accelerate and maintain the same constant speed as a narrower hardshell boat. As conditions get rougher, though, the inherent stability and seaworthiness of their design makes them the more efficient craft. You can concentrate on your forward paddling for a high speed-made-good; in a hardshell you would likely need to shorten your stroke or skim your paddle in a semi-brace to stabilize your boat, which would rob you of some forward speed efficiency. If performance means that a kayak easily allows you to Eskimo roll, use a sculling brace, and the like, then most folding kayaks do lack "performance." You'll generally find it harder to do such tricks in a foldable, except for in of the narrower ones, but since such skills are not as necessary to keep a folding kayak upright as they are in a hardshell under extreme conditions, "performance" is almost a moot point for open-water paddling, unless it's an objective in itself. ******** Are folding kayaks delicate or damage-prone? Not necessarily. You should treat the hull of a folding kayak in much the same way as you would treat a fiberglass kayak, i.e. you avoid dragging it on gravel beaches and the like. The frames can take a lot of punishment. Parts don't readily break because both wooden and aluminum frames have enough flex in them to absorb shock and avoid cracking. If conditions are severe enough to crack a frame member of a foldable, they are also likely to crack or cause fissures in a fiberglass hull, or put some serious dents in a plastic one. Folding kayaks are tough enough to be used by the military of some 20 nations. These boats handle the punishment that special forces tend to dish out while keeping crews alive to complete their missions. Simply put, if the boats weren't up to the rigors of special operations, the military would not entrust their highly trained personnel to them, period. Folding kayaks tend to be long-lived. It is not unusual to see 25 year old hulls still going strong. Frames have proven to last 50 years or more with only a modicum of care. ******** Do they cost more than hardshells? Initially many folding kayaks carry a higher price tag than similar hardshells. Most are considerably costlier than plastic models, but the price differentials are not so great when compared to top-of-the-line fiberglass hardshells, especially ones made of kevlar and other special materials. When considering cost, your decision also should be related to other factors such as useful life, depreciation, and the like. Folding kayaks tend to last longer than hardshells. Hulls on foldables are good for 25 years and more, whereas plastic boats are good for perhaps a dozen years, and fiberglass will last about 15 to 20 years. You can replace a hull on a foldable to give it a second life; you can't on a hardshell. Depreciation on foldables is absurdly low. You can see this in the prices of used ones versus used hardshells, which reflect the relative useful life of the boats. It is not unusual to see a 10-year-old used foldable sell for more than the price the original owner paid for it. Hardshells, on the other hand, sell for only a fraction of their original price after 5 to 10 years. ******** What are the best materials for the frame and skin in a folding kayak? There are no "best" materials. In frames you have a choice between foldables with all wooden frames and foldables with aluminum long pieces combined with cross pieces made of a range of materials including aluminum, polyethylene, polycarbonate, and fiberglass filled nylon. All of the materials have their pluses and minuses. Avoid listening to any of the common wisdoms about the materials. Wooden frames don't necessarily need more maintenance than aluminum, as you may have heard, and aluminum isn't a problem to fix in the field, again something that is often said. Buy a foldable with a wooden frame because you like the boat or you have a passion for wood and its feel. The same is true for one with an aluminum frame, i.e. follow your heart and/or the seat of your pants. ******** Is assembly of folding kayaks difficult? How long does it take? Much depends on the model. Some can be assembled in about 10 to 15 minutes once you get the hang of it. Others can take a half hour or more. For the record, the fastest assembly of a folding kayak, a double Klepper, is a little over 4 minutes starting from the parts being in their bags. It should be noted that you don't have to assemble and disassemble a folding kayak around each outing. They can be left assembled for years if you have a place to store them that way. They can be cartopped like any hardshell. Storage and cartopping will do no harm to the boats. ******** Can I take a kayak on an airplane? With respect to airline travel with folding kayaks, it's important to realize that for international air travel there are two completely different systems for calculating the amount of allowable free baggage: the piece system and the weight system. The "piece" rule applies to flights to, from, and within North America (the USA and Canada); on other flights included in through fares to or from North America; and in certina other countries. Under the piece rule, each passenger is allowed two pieces of free checked baggage. Size and weight limits are set by individual airlines, but the weight limit is usually 70 pounds (32 kg) per piece. On flights covered by the piece rule, excess baggage is generally charged per piece, with the same weight limit (usually 70 pounds) per piece, and with a typical charge of US $100-150 for a transoceanic flight. The "weight" rule, the international default, applies to all other flights in the rest of the world (except where overridden by specific local or airline rules to the contrary). Under the weight rule, each coach/economy/3rd class passenger is allowed a maximum of 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of free baggage, including all checked and carry on baggage, regardless of the total number of pieces. Business class passengers are allowed 30 kg each, and first class passengers 40 kg each. On flights covered by the weight rule, the default charge for excess baggage is one percent of the full unrestricted first-class fare per kilogram of excess baggage (even for coach passengers). Under both the piece and weight rules, passengers traveling together are explicitly permitted to pool their baggage, as long as each piece is within the relevant limits per piece, and as long as the total number of pieces or weight is within the total permitted for that many passengers. Many airlines have their own specific rules for certain kinds of excess or oversized baggage, including in particular "sporting equipment". Where such rules exist, they are almost always more favorable than the default rules applicable to other excess, oversized, or overweight baggage. Sometimes there is a relatively small charge for the nuisance value of handling oversize or overweight sporting equipment, sometimes not. (These rules also affect bicycles, surfboards, golf bags, skis, etc.) Boats other than folding kayaks are sometimes too large for airlines to accept as checked bagggage at any price, but the limits and charges vary from airline to airline. (It's possible to ship larger items as unaccompanied air cargo than as checked baggage, but the charges tend to be substantially higher than for similar amounts of accompanied baggage.) Folding kayak bags are small enough to be acceptable, but may surcharged if they exceed the limits for free size and/or weight. There are exceptions to every rule, especially for "very frequent flyers" with premium memberships in frequent flyer programs. It never hurts to ask, but you have to plan for the possibility that the rules could be strictly enforced. ******** What does this mean for air travelers with folding kayaks? Under the piece rule, someone traveling alone with a single kayak or two people traveling together with a double kayak (and pooling their total free allotment of four 70-pound bags) might just be able to come within the free baggage limits, particularly if the airline allows one or more of the bags to be oversize and/or overweight under a special rule for sporting equipment. Under the weight limit, even the most spartan kayaker or pair is almost certain to be over the free baggage limit unless the airline makes some special exception for their sort of gear. It's thus crucial to figure out in advance whether any flights you might take outside North America will all be included in a through fare to or from North America. If they are ticketed separately, or at a separate fare, they will be subject to the weight rule. Per-kilogram excess baggage charges on a 70-pound kayak bag for even a short flight ticketed separately within Europe or another part of the world could be surprisingly high. ******** Where do I get more information on foldables? Publications ----------------------------------------------------------------- The Complete Folding Kayaker, by Ralph Diaz, McGraw-Hill (Ragged Mountain Press) 1994. Folding Kayaker newsletter PO Box 0754 New York, NY 10024 Phone: (212)724-5069 Internet: rdiaz@ix.netcom.com author of this portion of the FAQ; he will respond to all e-mail, phone calls and snail mail. Manufacturers ----------------------------------------------------------------- Feathercraft 1244 Cartwright St. Granville Island Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3R8 Phone: (604)681-8437 Internet: http://www.feathercraft.com Canadian company that makes a double (K-2) and several sizes of singles including a Greenland styled model being introduced in Spring 1995. Most popular kayak is the K-Light, which weighs as little as 29 lb. -------------------------- Folbot PO Box 70877 Charleston, SC 29415 Phone: (800)744-3483 Internet: folbot1@aol.com http://www.folbot.com US company makes a double and a single plus some accessories such as boat carts, sails, etc. The models are the least expensive of the major manufacturers. -------------------------- Folbot Canada Inc. Phone: (902)894-7842 in Canada: (800)263-5099 FAX: 902-894-7842 Internet: folbot@cycor.ca http://www.icondata.com/stores/folbot -------------------------- Kayak Lab P. O. Box 3162 Wayland Square Providence, Rhode Island 02906 Priced between Folbot and Feathercraft. One single and one double model available. -------------------------- Klepper 100 Cadillac Drive #117 Sacramento, CA 95825 Phone: (916)921-9411 Toll free: (800)323-3525 Internet: http://www.klepper.com North American headquarters for German company that makes a range of foldables. Oldest kayak manufacturer in the world and a principal supplier to the military as well as outfitters. Boats are pricey. -------------------------- Nautiraid USA Distributed by: Seda Products PO Box 997 Chula Vista, Ca 91912 Phone: (619)336-2444 North American distributor for a French company that makes a range of folding kayaks. Excellent quality at a price between Folbot and Klepper. -------------------------- Pouch USA 6155 Mt. Aukum Road Somerset, CA 95684 Phone: (916)626-8647 German foldables from the former East Germany. Just above Folbot in price. Wood frames and vinyl type hulls. A single and a double available. -------------------------- Seavivor 576 South Arlington Avenue Des Plaines, Illinois 60016 Phone: (847)297-5953 Internet: http://www.seavivor.com Expensive boats, high performance. These boats have no air sponsons and can be rolled and sculled like a hardshell. Singles and doubles available. Dealers ----------------------------------------------------------------- Baidarka Boats PO Box 6001 Sitka, Ak 99835 Phone: 907-747-8996 Internet: http://execpc.com/~bboats Dealer in folding kayaks for 21 years, offering Klepper, Nautiraid and Feathercraft. Good source of parts & advice as well as kayaks. -------------------------- New York Kayak Company P.O. Box 2011 New York, NY 10011 Internet: http://www.nykayak.com Offers kayak sales and demos as well as private and group lessons. Sells Nautiraid and Feathercraft. ******************************************************************************** Section 6: Hypothermia Author: Sam Crowley An excellent source of information on hypothermia is: http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/hypocold.html What is hypothermia? Hypothermia is the lowering of the body's core temperature. There are two types of hypothermia, acute and chronic. Acute hypothermia is the rapid lowering of the body's core temp. Chronic hypothermia is the slow lowering of the body's core temp. If the temperature drop occurs in less than 4 hours it is acute, otherwise it is chronic. Acute hypothermia is also called immersion hypothermia and typically occurs when a person is in cold water. It is important to note the difference between the two since treatment will be different. Hypothermia is considered severe when the body's core temperature drops below 90 degrees F and mild from normal body temperature to 90 degrees F. A difference between acute and chronic hypothermia is the severity of something called afterdrop. This is the continued dropping of the body's core temperature after the person has been brought to a warm place. Afterdrop complicates treating severe hypothermia. Hypothermia is the biggest killer of sea kayakers. Many of its victims are unprepared for the cold water exposure that induces it. Water conducts heat away at 20-25 times the rate that air removes heat. This is one reason why an exposure to cold water at a certain temperature is more traumatic than exposure to air at the same temperature. Sometimes a person will not know they are hypothermic since people typically do not notice it in themselves. It is important for people in a group to keep an eye on their companions for signs of hypothermia (this includes group leaders and guides). Sometimes a person will appear physically and mentally okay and will refuse treatment because they claim they are okay. Exposure to cold does not automatically induce hypothermia, it typically will take time to develop unless there is exposure to very cold water or there is no protection (wetsuit/drysuit) against the cold. ******** How can one tell if somebody is hypothermic? It can be difficult to tell if someone is hypothermic without actually measuring their core temperature. Measuring a persons core temperature in the field requires a rectal thermometer and is typically not practical. Therefore symptoms must be relied on. Hypothermia affects people in different ways and no one symptom is reliable to indicate if a person is hypothermic. The following lists the body core temperature and its typical signs and symptoms. Not all hypothermia victims exhibit all of these symptoms, it varies from person to person. Note symptoms will change as the person's core temperature changes. core temp. signs and symptoms 99 to 97F (37 to 36C) Normal temperature range, Shivering may begin 97 to 95F (36 to 35C) Cold sensation, goose bumps, unable to perform complex tasks with hands, shivering can be mild to severe, skin numb 95 to 93F (35 to 34C) Shivering intense, muscle incoordination becomes apparent, movements slow and labored, stumbling pace, mild confusion, may appear alert, unable to walk 30 ft. line properly 93 to 90F (34 to 32C) Violent shivering persists, difficulty speaking, sluggish thinking, amnesia starts to appear and may be retrograde, gross muscle movements sluggish, unable to use hands, stumbles frequently, difficulty speaking, signs of depression 90 to 86F (32 to 30C) Shivering stops in chronic hypothermia, exposed skin blue or puffy, muscle coordination very poor with inability to walk, confusion, incoherent, irrational behavior, BUT MAY BE ABLE TO MAINTAIN POSTURE AND THE APPEARANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTACT. 86 to 82F (30 to 27.7C) Muscles severely rigid, semiconscious, stupor, loss of psychological contact, pulse and respiration slow, pupils can dilate 82 to 78F (27 to 25.5C) Unconsciousness, heart beat and respiration erratic, pulse and heart beat may be inapparent, muscle tendon reflexes cease 78 to 75F (25 to 24C) Pulmonary edema, failure of cardiac and respiratory centers, probable death, DEATH MAY OCCUR BEFORE THIS LEVEL 64F (17.7C) Lowest recorded temperature of chronic hypothermia survivor This table is from a book by Wm. Forgey called _Hypothermia-Death by Exposure_. ******** Am I hypothermic if I am shivering and/or my hands/feet are cold? Mild shivering and cold hands/feet does not indicate you are severely hypothermic. These signs do mean you are losing more heat than you are producing and your body is adjusting its temperature. Shivering is one way your body produces heat to warm itself. Cold hands and feet indicate your body is fighting the cold by reducing the flow of blood to the extremities. Reduced blood flow to the extremities helps to reduce heat loss and helps maintain the body's core temperature. Do take these signs as a warning. Uncontrolled shivering does mean you are hypothermic. A lack of shivering does not mean you are not hypothermic since a symptom of severe hypothermia (core temperature less than 90 degrees F) is the lack of shivering. ******** How is hypothermia treated? Mild hypothermia where the body core temperature is greater than 90F can be treated by warming the person up. This can be exercise, replacing of wet clothing with dry clothing, getting to a warm place, getting the victim out of the wind, etc. One way of treating hypothermia in the field is to strip the clothes off of the victim and place them into a sleeping bag with one or two other stripped people. This provides the victim with a source of heat that will gradually warm them up. If wet clothing cannot be replaced, cover them with a layer of non-breathing material such as a rain suit and then cover them with a dry layer of insulation. Covering them with a rain suit will prevent further cooling by evaporation and keep the dry layer of insulation from getting wet. Even though materials such as polypropelene, capilene, polyester fleece, wool, etc. do insulate when wet, they are not as efficient when compared to dry clothing. There is heat loss due to evaporation and conduction when these clothes are wet. Stay away from cotton clothing, cotton kills in cold environments because it does not insulate when wet. Severe hypothermia is where the body's core temperature is below 90F. A person with severe hypothermia needs to get to a hospital as soon as possible. They should be considered a stretcher case and handled very carefully. Rough handling can induce an irregular heartbeat that can kill them. If they cannot be taken right away, then treat them like you would somebody with mild hypothermia. The one thing that will not help them is exercise because at this stage they have depleted their energy reserves so much that they cannot even shiver. Exercise may even kill them by inducing an irregular heartbeart. A hypothermia victim should not be considered dead unless they are warm and dead. Even though a hypothermia victim may appear lifeless, get them to an emergency room as quickly as possible. Their pulse and breathing maybe so shallow that they cannot be detected. ******** What is the best defense against hypothermia? Be prepared. Wear clothing that is appropriate for immersion in the water and not the air temperature. Eat properly to keep your energy levels up, get enough rest and drink enough water to maintain proper hydration. Fatigue and dehydration help to induce hypothermia when exposed to cold. Most kayakers that get hypothermia did not expect to end up in the water. Be prepared for cold water immersion when paddling on cold water. Stay off the water if you are unsure the conditions may exceed your abilities. This includes your ability to do a self rescue or assist in the rescue of another paddler. Be aware of the weather forecast and what the weather is currently doing. A weather forecast is not always 100% accurate. Remember that extremely cold water can cause your hands to become useless in a relatively short time (less than 20 minutes) even while properly dressed. This will complicate operating a pump, pulling on a spray skirt, firing off flares, radioing for help, etc. This may result in your inability to signal for help, do a self rescue or assist in your rescue or the rescue of others. ******** What is vertigo? Vertigo is not hypothermia but it is related to cold water exposure. Vertigo is the sudden loss of balance and orientation to one's surroundings. Vertigo is caused when one ear drum is at a different temperature than the other and since your inner ear affects your balance, different inner ear temperatures affect your balance. A vertigo study was done where they would induce vertigo by injecting cold water into a persons ear. The head position they found that induced vertigo the most is the position of your head when you are starting your roll. Vertigo can be prevented by ear plugs and it can be cured by allowing your inner ears regain equal temperatures which occurs after a few minutes. Vertigo does not occur in all immersions into cold water. Vertigo can cause your roll to fail no matter how good it is. Have a backup rescue method to your roll. If your roll fails, are you prepared to wet exit and be exposed to cold water? ******** What is cold shock? Cold shock is not hypothermia but it is caused by sudden immersion in cold water. It is an involuntary gasp reflex followed by hyperventilation. These affect the ability to breath normally and can cause the breathing in of water that can result in drowning. Typically, there is one gasp reflex. The hyperventilation can last 10 to 15 minutes. It does not occur in all cold water immersions. Cold shock can complicate a rescue. The gasp reflex can interfere with ones roll due to the involuntary breathing in of water. The hyperventilation will prevent a person from holding their breath for very long complicating the ability to do a reentry and roll. The hyperventilation can also cause panic in some people due to the inability to breath properly and/or the breathing in of water in rough seas. ******** Is this information meant to scare me away from cold water? No, but it is meant to help educate people on the dangers of cold water. This will hopefully result in the people who do paddle in cold water to realize the risk they are taking and to take the proper precautions. ******************************************************************************** Section 7: History Author: Sam Crowley(historical), Alex Ferguson(modern) "Many people nowadays are vastly impressed with the greatness of our age, with all the inventions and the progress of which we daily hear, and which appear indisputably to exalt the highly-gifted white race far over all others. These people would learn much by paying close attention to the development of the Eskimos, and to the tools and inventions by aid of which they obtain the necessaries of life among natural surroundings which place such pitifully small means at their disposal." - Fridtjof Nansen from _Eskimo Life_ published in 1894 *************************** What does kayak mean? Hunters boat. The boats primary purpose was to hunt animals on inland lakes, rivers and the sea. In many places where the native kayakers lived they had to turn to the water for food because the land was not fertile enough to support their population. It was also used for transportation across open water and rivers. Most but not all kayaks are considered seaworthy. It was made of seal skins and wood. The wood was driftwood that was collected off of beaches. Many of the areas where kayaks were paddled are void of the land based raw materials used in making birchbark canoes or dugout canoes. Archaeologists have found evidence indicating kayaks to be at least 4000 years old. The word kayak appears in literature spelled different ways: kyak, kyack, kaiak, qajaq. ******** What does baidarka mean? It refers to the double and triple kayaks developed by the Alaskan Aleut. It was used for hunting and transporting those unable to paddle. Some groups considered it a waste to have the second paddler be a capable paddler. The triples are considered to have appeared after the Europeans appeared. The Russians are thought to have forced the Aleut to make a third hole so they could travel along with them and not have to paddle. The triples were also used to transport missionaries. ******** What is an umiak? An umiak is an open decked boat made with seal skins and wood. It was paddled with single bladed paddles and typically had more than one paddler. It ranged in size from 17 feet to 60 feet. The umiak was typically seaworthy. Some groups lived nomadically to follow animal migrations. In these groups, the umiak was used primarily for transporting household goods, children, elderly and those unable to paddle a kayak. The women of the village would paddle the umiak since the men were paddling their kayaks. In other groups it was used for hunting walrus and whale. It was paddled by men and sometimes women during these hunts. It is thought the kayak originally started out as a decked over umiak and evolved into its traditional form. It is also called a baydar. Sometimes the umiak was used to hunt together with the kayaks. ******** Did all native kayaking groups use the two bladed paddle? No. Some groups used the two bladed paddle exclusively and some groups used the one bladed paddle exclusively. It many times depended on the boats design. Some groups that used two bladed paddles also kept one or two one bladed paddles with them to use for stealthier paddling when hunting or for use as a spare. There were groups that used the single bladed paddle to roll. ******** Did all native kayakers know how to roll? No. The Greenland Inuits and the Alaskan Aleuts were well known for their rolls but not all native kayakers knew how to roll or needed a roll. The Greenlanders were the masters of the roll. Their narrow boats, the conditions they paddled in and unexpected complications during hunting required them to develop numerous different rolls. In addition to the typical rolling with a paddle, numerous "trick" rolls were known such as rolling with the paddle held by one hand, using a harpoon shaft or using just an open or closed hand. The reasons for this is during a hunt the harpoon line could tangle and upset the boat or an injured animal sometimes attacked the hunter. In either case if the hunter is holding something he does not want to drop (like a knife) or the paddle is temporarily stowed, he had to use these rolls. The Greenlanders also used the bow rescue described below. Some native kayakers used several different methods instead of a roll. One is the bow rescue where a paddling partners bow is used to pull one self up. This technique relied heavily on somebody being close by. In another technique the paddler pulled themselves into the boat and breathed the air inside the boat until somebody showed up and a bow rescue could be performed. This technique required a boat one could crawl into and someone showing up before the oxygen inside the boat was used up. Certain groups added ballast to their boats to make them stable, the weight varied from 50-100 pounds. ******** How were kayaks made? Driftwood would be collected from beaches. The wood would be formed using the tools they had. Tools would have been chipped or ground out of stone, such as obsidian, chert, quartz, or slate; carved from antler, ivory, wood, or bone; or cold-hammered out of meteoric iron or native copper. Wood used was typically fir, pine, spruce and willow. The addition of iron-based tools did decrease the amount of time spent building a kayak since iron does not dull as quickly as traditional materials. Historians are not in agreement if iron improved the quality of the kayak or not. Peterson, in _Skinboats of Greenland_, presents some information that it did. Seal skins would then be sewn onto a complete frame. Typical skin used was from the bearded seal but some groups did use the sea lion, caribou and walrus skins. The hair was removed from the skins. The skins were treated with oil for waterproofness. Oil typically had to be applied every 4-8 days depending on the skin used. Care was taken that when a boat was in daily use, that it was removed from the water and allowed to dry once a day. Sinew was used to lash the frame and sew the skins. The seam on the skins was waterproof because the stitches did not completely pass through the skin. ******** What is the difference between a modern kayak and a traditional kayak? There are obvious differences in the materials used. In addition a modern rigid kayak typically has several added safety features such as bulkheads and hatches. Skegs and rudders appeared on some traditional kayaks but the design was thought to be influenced by western cultures. Most of the features used in modern hull designs can be found in traditional kayak hull designs. The modern skin boat is very similar to a traditional kayak although the modern day skin used is typically waterproofed canvas. It is important to realize the significant change in the boats use from traditional use to modern use. No longer is the boat used for hunting but instead for recreation. This represents a fundamental change that has affected the boat design and its equipment. ******** Where did the native kayakers live? In the arctic of North America from the Aleutian Islands to the East coast of Greenland. This included southern Siberia, the Bering Strait and Northern Canada. Some groups were nomadic and were constantly searching for better hunting grounds. Other groups were not nomadic and lived year round in the same location. Some locations had only 90 days a year for open water and other locations had open water year round. ******** Were all the boat designs the same? No, the designs were specialized for the local conditions and needs of the hunters. Some areas had exposed coasts and other areas were relatively protected. Some groups had to transport their kayaks over a long distance to the water and other groups were right next to the water. Transporting the dead animals back to the village was a problem solved in different ways by hunters in different areas. One historian breaks seagoing kayak designs into five basic forms with minor changes for local conditions. The different designs are found in Greenland, Baffin Island, the Bering Strait south to the Aleutians, southeastern Siberia and the Aleutian islands. ******** What did they wear? They used jackets made from skins which were typically waterproof. The wrists and face openings were drawn tight for waterproofness. The waist fit tightly around the cockpit coaming. These formed watertight seals so water did not enter while performing a roll or punching through waves. The jacket used by the Greenlanders helped provide buoyancy when sculling. On warm days they used the equivalent of a spray skirt instead of the jacket. They used mittens made of skin to keep their hands warm. Some groups wore hats with a large brim for protection from the sun and salt spray. ******** What animals were hunted? Caribou on the inland waters and virtually any sea mammal at sea. The sea mammals included the seal, sea otter, walrus and whale. Fish such as halibut and assorted birds were also hunted. All the groups did not hunt all of these animals. Some groups avoided hunting certain animals for practical and/or spiritual reasons. ******** How did they get the animals back to the village? It depended on the type of kayak used. Some groups would carry the animal on top of their deck. This method required a boat with a large volume so it could handle a 150+ pound animal (typically seal) on top of it. Another method was to land and butcher the animal on shore and stuff the butchered meat into the boat. This method relied on there being enough volume inside the boat for the meat. A gaff hook was used to retrieve the meat since they did not have any hatches. Another method was to tow the animal. Since a freshly killed animal would sink, air would be blown into the animal and a wooden stopper used as a plug or an air bladder would be tied to the animal. They would be tied along side the boat. Floats were used so the dead animal could be cast loose and later recovered in case another animal was spotted or the sea conditions became too rough. In the case of birds or fish, they were often carried under deck lines and fish were sometimes towed after being killed. ******** What hunting tools were used? A harpoon was used together with a rope and an air bladder. The harpoon tip is attached to the air bladder with the rope. The harpoon tip was detachable from the harpoon shaft to allow the animal to thrash about and not break the shaft. The rope was typically made of seal skin. The rope would be coiled on the front deck and allowed to play out once an animal was harpooned. A javelin was also used and is similar to the harpoon. The difference is the tip and air bladder stay attached to the shaft with rope. The harpoon used a larger air bladder than a javelin which allowed larger marine animals to be hunted. The harpoons air bladders also were used for adding floatation to the kayak in case of puncture or water leakage. They were sometimes used in rescues. A lance was used to kill an animal that was close by. A knife was carried to kill a wounded animal or to prepare it to be taken in to land. Bird darts were spears with three or four forward slanted spikes. The spikes allowed a bird to be brought down if the spear tip did not penetrate the bird and instead slid along its body. A throwing stick (sometimes referred to as a throwing board or an atlatl) was used to boost the range of a spear or harpoon. A white blind was used by some hunters to camouflage their upper bodies so they could sneak up on resting seals. All these could be carried on the deck and ready for immediate use. The deck lines were skin with toggles and bone used to fasten items. Bows and arrows typically were not used. The reasons for this is the difficulty of handling one in a kayak and water would cause the bow string to stretch rendering the bow useless. ******** Was kayak hunting dangerous? Very dangerous. Some times a wounded animal wound attack the kayak. Walrus and whales were especially dangerous when injured. Some times a walrus would attack a kayak even if the kayak was not hunting it. Sometimes the harpoon line would tangle and upset the kayak. It is important to remember these people had no thermal protection against the cold waters when they wet exited since there was no equivalent to the wetsuit or drysuit (although in Greenland there was an equivalent to the modern drysuit but that was only used by Umiak crews hunting whales). The water temperature they paddled in could be as low as 27 degrees F since saltwater has a lower freezing point than freshwater. Glaciers helped to lower the water temperature by calving icebergs into the water. To wet exit the boat was considered suicide by many groups. Also, there was no equivalent to the modern PFD. In South Greenland in 1888 there were 162 deaths. 90 were males and 24 of the males died while kayaking. In 1889, there were 272 deaths. 152 were male and 24 died while kayaking. The population consisted of 5614 of which there were 2591 males. ******** What happened to the kayaking cultures? As with most native cultures, outside cultural influences changed the native culture and the peoples need for kayaking. Manufactured goods slowly replaced the traditional materials. Lumber instead of driftwood for the boat frames, iron for the spear tips, the gun replaced the hunting tools, and eventually the power boat replaced the kayak. In some cases the depletion of the local animals due to overhunting caused a decline in kayaking. Today traditional kayaking is kept alive by schools run in Greenland and the Aleutian Islands. Much of the traditional kayaking technology and skills have been lost. Some boat designs survive only in drawings made by early explorers that did not have any dimensions. Many kayaks stored in museums were improperly stored and have been unintentionally destroyed. All this makes comparison of the modern kayak and its equipment against the traditional kayak and its equipment difficult or impossible. ******** What is the history of the development of the modern kayaks? The modern sea kayaks can trace their ancestry via two paths. The first type are those kayaks that are close copies of the Southwest Greenland kayaks. In the summer of 1959, Ken Taylor made a private one-man expedition to Western Greenland and brought a kayak back to Scotland. This particular kayak excited special interest because it was a more moderate example of the West Greenland type. This kayak has been copied a number of times, most noted being the kayak built by Geoff Blackford in 1971. Blackford redesigned the boat to fit his own particular dimensions, retaining the upturned stern, and ending up with a plywood model 17 ft (5.2 m) long with a 21 in. (533 mm) beam. In all other respects the craft was identical to Ken Taylor's boat. Blackford's craft was used as the plug for a fiberglass mould and eventually found its way to Frank Goodman of Valley Products who went into commercial production under the name 'Anas Acuta'. A noted British mountaineer and exponent of outdoor education, Colin Mortlock, proposed an expedition along the Arctic fiords of Norway to Nordkapp, the northern-most cape of Europe. Mortlock and his team paddled the Anas Acuta kayaks around the Isle of Skye but believed that a new sort of boat would be needed, one that could take huge quantities of supplies without losing too much manoeuvreability and seaworthiness. Eventually Frank Goodman came up with a kayak design, having a basis in the West Greenland kayaks, but incorporating elements of standard boat design, with a round bilge capable of the extra payload required, and the 'Nordkapp' was born. Many modern boats can trace their design lineage from this root. The second line of descent for modern kayaks is that of the 'Rob Roy' kayaks. The McGregor "canoe" was built in 1865 to resemble what John McGregor thought he had seen when looking at sketches of Eskimo kayaks. In shape and size it is fairly similar to a Coaster. The Kleppers were also of a similar style. Many of the kayaks designed in the Pacific Northwest of North America have their roots in this basic shape. If the designs of the Greenland and Alaskan kayaks are studied, it is obvious that there are a wide range of designs. Each has evolved as suitable for the region that it comes from. From this one can see why some designs are popular in one region and not in another, the Nordkapp style in Britain and New Zealand and the beamier, flatter boats in northwestern North America. Even in a country as small as New Zealand there can be regional preferences, a highly rockered boat in the north and flatter, lower windage boats in the South Island, for example. Wood and wood/fabric were common up until 1950's when fiberglass was introduced. This was followed by plastic in 1984, the Chinook being the first of the rotomolded boats. ******************************************************************************** Section 8: Controversial Topics First a disclaimer: Your FAQ editor is completely un-opinionated. Do not argue with him about these topics. Fill each other's email boxes, use the newsgroup, these are INTENDED TO PROMOTE DISCUSSION. However, if you have other topics that you feel belong in this section, let me know. Rudders Some will argue that a good boat does not need a rudder, that they are subject to breakage and you should not learn to use them as a crutch. Often these are the same people who put skegs on their boats because they are difficult to make go straight in certain sea conditions. Others will argue that a rudder is a tool that improves the safety and convenience of a boat, and not having one is pig-headed and blind to the utility of the device. They do admit, though, that the rudder had better be well constructed and durable. ******** Rolling A roll is an excellent self-rescue tool, and a good first line of defence to an accidental tip. It does not absolve you from needing to learn other means of self-rescue, because in sea kayaking whatever tipped you over (big waves, high winds, fatigue) is still there when you try to roll, and if it was bad enough to tip you over in the first place, it may make your roll fail as well. ******** British boat mystique The Brit boats (exemplified by Frank Goodman's Nordkapp and Derek Hutchinson's Baidarka Explorer) have a certain mystique among sea kayakers. They are designs proven in rough seas and long expeditions, and they have a number of features like built in bilge pumps, waterproof hatches and bulkheads, and recessed deck line fittings that were safety innovations when they were first introduced. They are tippy, have small hatches and small cockpits, no rudders (see #1 above), and a cadre of devoted paddlers who seem to the unwashed masses to look down on other, lesser boats (gross generalization alert!) Be cautious of being talked into a boat you may not like by an enthusiast who will assure you that this is an 'expert' boat that you will have to 'grow into'. Some are also quite old designs that may not perform as well as some newer boats. There is a definite character to British-designed boats, born from the personalities that designed and built them, and the seas they were meant to be used on. Choose wisely and well. ******************************************************************************** Section 9: References Many of these references can be purchased online from: The Adventurous Traveller Bookstore http://www.AdventurousTraveler.com Books ----- Equipment, Techniques, and Instruction -------------------------------------- British Canoe Union Instructor's manual Burch, David. Fundamentals of Kayak Navigation. Seattle: Pacific Search Press, 1987. Diaz, Ralph. The Complete Folding Kayaker. McGraw-Hill (Ragged Mountain Press) 1994. Dowd, John. Sea Kayaking-A Manual for Long-Distance Touring. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988. Foster, Nigel. Sea Kayaking, 1991 Ferndale Books Duke's Path High Street Arundel, West Sussex, BN18 9AJ UNITED KINGDOM ISBN 0-906754-60-7 Foster, Nigel. Canoeing: A Beginner's Guide to the Kayak Harrison, David. Sea Kayaking Basics. Hearst Marine Books, 1993. Hutchinson, Derek. Derek C. Hutchinson's Guide to Sea Kayaking. Seattle: Pacific Search Press, 1985. Hutchinson, Derek. Sea Canoeing. 3rd ed. London: A. & C. Black (Publishers) Ltd., 1984. Hutchinson, Derek. Eskimo Rolling. Camden, ME: Ragged Mountain Press, 1992. Jeffs, Howard. Practical Guide to Sea Kayaking. Petersen, H. C. Instruction in Kayak Building. Roskilde, Denmark: Greenland Provincial Museum and Viking Ship Museum, 1982. Price, Brian _Fundamentals Of Coastal Kayaking Manual for Instructors_ American Canoe Association National Coastal Kayaking Commitee, 1989 Ramwell, J.J. Sea Touring. Huntingdon, Cambs.: John J. Ramwell, 1976. Sanders, Williams. Kayak Touring. Stackpole Books, 1984. Seidman, D. The Essential Sea Kayaker. Camden, ME: Ragged Mountain Press, 1992. Washburne, Randel. Coastal Kayaking Manual. Adventure --------- Brower, Kenneth. The Starship and the Canoe. Harper & Row, 1978. Caffyn, Paul. Cresting the Restless Waves-North Island Kayak Odyssey. Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Canoeing Association and Paul Caffyn, 1987. Caffyn, Paul. Dark Side of the Wave-Stewart Island Kayak Odyssey. Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Canoeing Association, 1987. Caffyn, Paul. Dreamtime Voyage. RD 1, Runanga, Westland, NZ: Kayak Dundee Press, 1994. Caffyn, Paul. Obscured by Waves-South Island Canoe Odyssey. Dunedin, NZ: John Mcindoe, 1979. Goddard, John M. Kayaks Down the Nile. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1979. Lindemann, Hannes. Alone At Sea. Pollner Verlag, 1993. Lloyd-Jones, R. Argonauts of the Western Isles, Sea Kayaking off Scotland's West Coast. Nordby, Will. Seekers of the Horizon: Sea Kayaking Voyages From Around the World. Globe Pequot Press, 1989. Phillips, C.E. Lucas. Cockleshell Heroes. Weyman & Sons, 1957. Rice, Larry. Gathering Paradise: Alaska Wilderness Journeys. Fulcrum Publishing, 1990. Rogers, Joel. The Hidden Coast. Alaska Northwest Books, 1991. Taylor, B. Commitment and Open Crossing. Theroux, Paul. The Happy Isles of Oceania: Paddling the Pacific. Putnam, 1992. Wilson, B. Blazing Paddles. History ------- Adney, Edward, & Howard Chapelle. The Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America. Washington D.C.; Smithsonian Institution, 1964. Altenhofer, Ursula and Christian. Der Handernkahn. Pollner Verlag, 1989. Arima, Eugene Y. Inuit Kayaks in Canada: A Review of Historical Records and Construction. Ottawa National Museums of Canada, 1987. Brand, John. The Little Kayak Book-Museum Kayaks: Five Surveys with some details of equipment; History of each as far as it is known. Colchester, Essex: John Brand, 1984. Chapman, Spencer. Northern Lights. London: Chatto and Windus, 1932. Chapman, Spencer. Watkins' Last Expedition. London: Chatto and Windus, 1934. Dyson, George. Baidarka. Edmonds, WA: Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, 1986. Kissner, Jack. Foldboat Holidays. Creative Holiday Guides, 1945. MacGregor, John. A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe. Dixon-Price Publishing 618 West Spacerama, Ste. 1 Murray, UT 84123 Phone: 801-268-3401 Fax: 801-264-0298 http://www.dixonprice.com dixonpr@dixonprice.com Nansen, Fridtjof. Eskimo Life. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1893. Nansen, Fridtjof. Farthest North, Two vols. London: Georege Newnes, Ltd., 1898. Nansen, Fridtjof. The First Crossing of Greenland. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. Peterson, H. C. Skinboats of Greenland. Roskilde, Denmark: Greenland Provincial Museum and Viking Ship Museum, 1986. Zimmerly, David W. Hooper Bay Kayak Construction. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1979. Zimmerly, David W. QAJAQ-Kayaks of Siberia and Alaska. Juneau, AK: Division of State Museums, 1986. Guidebooks ---------- Ince, John and Kottner, Hedi. Sea Kayaking Canada's West Coast. Raxas Books, 1982. Jettmar, Karen. The Alaska River Guide. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993. Venn, Tamsin. Sea Kayaking Along the New England Coast. Appalachian Mountain Club, 1991. Washburne, Randel. Kayak Trips in Puget Sound and the San Juan Islands. The Mountaineers, 1986. Washburne, Randel. The Coastal Kayaker: Kayak Camping on the Alaska and B.C. Coast. Globe Pequot Press, 1983. Other ----- Anderson, Bob. Stretching. Bolinas, CA: Shelter Publications, 1991. Bascom, Willard. Waves and Beaches. Doubleday, 1980. Daniel, Linda. Kayak Cookery-A Handbook of Provisions and Recipes. Seattle: Pacific Search Press, 1986. Forgey, Wm. Wilderness Medicine. ICS Books, Inc., Merrilville, IN: 1987. Forgey, Wm. Hypothermia-Death by Exposure. ICS Books, Inc., Merrilville, IN: 1985. Ilg, Steve. The Outdoor Athlete. Evergreen, CO: Cordillera Press, 1989. Roberts, Harry. Movin' Out. Stone Wall Press, 1979. Trefil, James. A Scientist at the Seashore. Collier Books, 1984. Tricker, R.A.R. Bores, Breakers, Waves and Wakes. London: Mills & Boon, 1964. Wilkerson, James, ed. Hypothermia, Frostbite and Other Cold Injuries, Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1986. Wilkerson, James. Medicine for Mountaineering, 4th ed. Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1992. Williams, Margaret. The Boater's Weather Guide. Cornell Maritime Press, 1990. Magazines --------- ANorAK 34 East Queens Way Hampton, VA 23669 Atlantic Coastal Kayaker Box 520 Ipswich MA 01938 Phone/Fax: (508)356-2057 Internet: ack@shore.net http://www.qed.com/ack Canoe and Kayak P.O. Box 3146 Kirkland, WA 98083 Phone: (800)678-5432 Internet: randy@canoekayak.com http://www.canoekayak.com Folding Kayaker newsletter PO Box 0754 New York, NY 10024 Phone: (212)724-5069 Internet: rdiaz@ix.netcom.com author of the folding kayak portion of the FAQ; he will respond to all e-mail, phone calls and snail mail Paddler Magazine 4061 Oceanside Blvd., Suite M Oceanside, CA 92056 Phone: (619)630-2293 Internet: buchanane@aca-paddler.org http://www.aca-paddler.org/paddler.htm Sea Kayaker PO Box 17170 Seattle, WA 98107-0870 Phone: (206)789-9536 Fax: (206)781-1141 Internet: seakayak@eskimo.com http://www.eskimo.com/~seakayak Videos ------ Greenlanders at Kodiak (John Heath) 38min Demonstration of Greenland roll techniques Qajaq Klubben (John Heath), 80min Video from a kayak club in Greenland, showing Greenland paddling and roll techniques. Energetic and fascinating, but narrated in Greenlandic! John Heath's videos can be obtained from him at: John Heath 5403 County Road 4 Damon, TX 77430 Phone:(409)742-3880 Palos Brudefaerd (sp), Bob Boucher Build Your Own Sea Kayak! (Bob Boucher) On building a West Greenland style skin and frame kayak Over and Out! - sea kayak rescues What next? - sea kayak rescues Performance Sea Kayaking. The basics and beyond. Kent Ford Performance Video and Instruction, Inc. 550 Riverbend St. Durango, CO, 81301 USA Phone: (888)259-5805 24 hours toll free in US Fax: (970)259-4148 Internet: http://www.performancevideo.com Sea Kayaking: Getting Started Larry Holman Phone: (415)927-3786 Fax: (415)924-1354 Internet: kayak@nbn.com http://www.seakayakvideo.com ******************************************************************************** Section 10: Associations, Clubs, Manufacturers, Outfitters, Shops For an extensive listing of canoe and kayak websites, see: http://www.infohub.com/TRAVEL/ADVENTURE/RECREATION/kayaking.html ******** Associations ------------ American Canoe Association The United States governing body of paddlesport, the ACA offers event sanctioning, instructor certification, and liability insurance. Mailing Address: 7432 Alban Station Blvd. Suite B-226 Springfield, VA 22150 Phone: (703)451-0141 Fax: (703)451-2245 Email: acadirect@aol.com WWW URL: www.aca-paddler.org ******** N.A.W.T.C.- - North American Water Trails Conference There is some exciting news for paddlers in seeking places to paddle. An outgrowth of the first international conference held in the Fall of 93 on the Hudson River, the concept of a continent wide system of water trails is rapidly moving forward to the reality stage. The NAWTC is a coalition of private, non-profit, and public benefit organizations and agencies, who share a common desire; to build a truly contiguous North American Water Trail system for the boating public and promoting Ecotourism (a balance of resource protection, recreational access and user responsibility). NAWTC is truly national in scope as can be seen by its volunteer officers: President: David Getchell,Sr. - Maine Island Trail Association, Vice-President: Franz Gimmler - Chesapeake Water Trail, Secretary: Sandie Nelson - Washington State Water Trails, Treasurer: Craig Poole - Hudson River Waterway Association. Some of these areas already have detailed printed guides to paddling on their trails such as The Maine Island Trail and the Hudson Waterway's Paddlers Guide, both of which detail launching spots, camping possibilities and advice on local conditions and safety concerns. To request more information or be added to the NAWTC E-mail list send your request to: cpoole@earth.cnct.com Official address is: North American Water Trails Conference, NAWTC c/o David Getchell, Sr. RR 1, Box 3355 Appleton, Me. 04862 ******** Trade Association of Sea Kayaking An association of outfitters, manufacturers, schools, and shops which promotes sea kayaking interests and sponsers symposia. Mailing Address: 12455 North Wauwatosa Road Mequon, WI 53097 Phone: (414)242-5228 Fax: (414)242-4428 Email: nwh@earth.execpc.com WWW URL: http://www.viewit.com/wtr/TASK.html ******** Clubs ----- California Kayak Friends Dues: $20 per household Features: About 500 members, monthly newsletter, day and camping trips, library, videos, other goodies. Contacts: Our Fearless Leader: Len Goodman (818)885-6182 down2thec@aol.com Mailing Address: California Kayak Friends 14252 Culver Drive #A199 Irvine, CA 92714 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.intelenet.com/clubs/ckf Mailing list: ckf-request@lists.intelenet.net ******** Chicago Area Sea Kayaking Association (CASKA) Dues: $15 per household Features: Over 150 members, bimonthly newsletter. Contacts: Chicagoland Canoe Base, (773)777-1489 ******** Florida Sea Kayaking Association Dues: $15 individual, $20 family. Features: Bimonthly newsletter, day and camping trips. Chapters in many parts of the state. Kayaking clinics (kayaking 101, rescues, rolling, surfing, bracing, Greenland techniques, and others). Contacts: Membership: Bruce Meier (904)733-5750 meierba@navair.navy.mil Mailing Address: 3068 Merlin Dr. N, Jacksonville, FL 32257 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.jacksonville.net/~dldecker/fska.htm Email to: kayakers@hotmail.com ******** Great Lakes Sea Kayak Club Dues: $8 individual Features: Newsletter May, August, and Gales of November rendezvous BCU instruction Great Lakes Sea Kayak Symposium Contacts: Internet: http://www.premiumtechnology.com/mk/great.htm ******** Jersey Shore Sea Kayak Association Dues: $10 per year Features: 150 members, 8 newsletters a year. Contacts: Email to: Rita Dodd - rdodd4055@aol.com WWW URL: http://www.goldcar.com/kayak/ ******** North West Sea Kayakers Features: An informal association of sea kayakers in Great Britain. Contacts: WWW URL: http://www.nwsk.freeserve.co.uk ******** Prairie Coast Paddlers Dues: $15 individual, $15 family. Features: Trips to many places in the Great Lakes. Contacts: Membership: Dan Leigh (847)392-8190 ckykrleigh@aol.com Mailing Address: Prairie Coast Paddlers, c/o Dan Leigh 3205 St. James St. Rolling Meadows, IL 60008 Internet: WWW URL: http://rmkhome.northstarnet.org/Paddlers ******** San Francisco Bay Area Sea Kayaking Kayakers (BASK) Dues: $25 Features: Monthly meetings, newsletter, trips, clinics. Contacts: Internet: Email to: bask@bask.org WWW URL: http://www.bask.org ******** Manufacturers ----------- Current Designs Current Designs 10124 McDonald Park Rd. Sidney, BC Canada V8L 3X9 Phone: (604)655-1822 Internet: http://www.cdkayak.com ******** Dagger Dagger Canoe Company P.O. Box 1500 Harriman, TN 27748 Phone: (423)882-0404 Internet: http://www.dagger.com ******** Easy Rider Easy Rider Canoe & Kayak Co. 15666 W. Valley Hwy. P.O. Box 88108 Seattle, WA 98138 Phone: (425)228-3633 Internet: http://www.easyriderkayaks.com ******** Eddyline Eddyline 1344 Ashten Road Burlington, WA 98233 Phone: (360)757-2300 Internet: http://www.eddyline.com ******** Georgian Bay Kayak Ltd. 231 Gordon Drive Penetanguishene, Ontario Canada, L9M 1Y2 Phone: (705)549-3722 Internet: http://www.bconnex.net/~timkayak/ An interesting point of view on kayak safety and information on attachable sponsons, which this company sells. ******** Hydra Rotocast 3645 NW 67th St. Miami, FL 33147 Phone: (888)55-HYDRA Internet: http://www.rotocast.com/hydra ******** Mariner Kayaks 2134 Westlake Ave. North Seattle, WA 98109 Phone: (206)284-8404 Internet: http://www.marinerkayaks.com ******** Necky Kayaks 1100 Riverside Road Abbotsford, BC V2S 7P1 Phone: (604)850-1206 Internet: http://www.necky.com ******** Northwest Kayaks Northwest Kayaks Inc. 15145 NE 90th Street Redmond, WA 98052 Phone: (206)869-1107 Internet: http://www.nwkayaks.com ******** Old Town Old Town Canoe Co. 58 Middle Street Old Town, ME 04468 Phone: (207)827-5514 Internet: http://www.otccanoe.com ******** Perception Perception, Inc. 111 Kayaker Way P.O. Box 8002 Easley, SC 29641 Phone: (864)855-5995 Internet: http://www.kayaker.com ******** Prijon Wildwasser Sport USA, Inc. P.O. Box 4617 Boulder, CO 80306 Phone: (303)444-2336 Internet: http://www.wildnet.com ******** Seda P.O. Box 997 Chula Vista, CA 91912 Phone: (800)322-SEDA Internet: http://www.SedaKayak.com ******** Outfitters ---------- Adventure Challenge Features: Instructional school offering: Beginner Courses, One Day Trips, Half Day Trips, Rolling Clinics, Private Lessons, and Tours. ACA Certified Instructors. Contacts: Adventure Challenge, Richmond VA phone: (804) 276-7600 fax: (804) 276-9750 WWW URL: http://adventurechallenge.com Email to: advchal@erols.com ******** Camano Island Inn Features: We are a small, waterfront hotel on the west shore of Camano Island, about a hour drive north of Seattle, or south of the Canadian border. We offer sea kayaks for rent in order to explore local waters or whale watch, and also allow paddlers to paddle to our beach, store their kayaks, enjoy a night in a luxurious bed, and then enjoy a big breakfast before continuing on their journey. Contacts: Phone: (888)718-0783 Mailing Address: Camano Island Inn Jon and Kari Soth 1054 S. West Camano Drive Camano Island, WA 98292 Internet: WWW URL: http://camanoislandinn.com Email to: reservations@camanoislandinn.com ******** Folding Kayak Adventures Features: We rent folding sea kayaks to experienced kayakers originating their trips anywhere in the USA. Contacts: Phone: (206) 522-8249 Email to: kayakadv@eskimo.com ******** Great Canadian Ecoventures Features: Our little company offers a rather unique service in the Canadian Northwest Territories - the provision of canoe rentals & logistical support in extreme remote areas for independent experienced canoeists. We will also have kayaks available in select areas by 1998 Contacts: Phone: (800)667-9453 Fax: (250)752-0969 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.bcsupernet.com/users/gce/noescort.htm Email to: gce@qb.island.net ******** Monterey Bay Kayaks Features: Natural History Tours of both Monterey Bay and Elkhorn Slough; Rentals of open and closed deck kayaks; Classes including: Open Deck Classes, Basic Skills (in closed deck boats), Navigation, Eskimo Rolling, Surf Skills, Stroke Clinic, and Advanced Rescue. Our instructors are ACA certified and private lessons are available. Contacts: Mailing Address: Monterey Bay Kayaks 693 Del Monte Avenue Monterey, CA 93940 Phone: (408)373-KELP (5357) (800)649-5357 Fax: (408)373-0119 Internet: WWW URL: http://montereykayaks.com, Email to: jcs@montereykayaks.com ******** Naturally Superior Adventures Features: We operate an outfitting/guiding company located on Lake Superior between Pukaskwa national and Lake Superior Provincial Parks. Contacts: Mailing Address: Naturally Superior Adventures RR #1, Lake Superior, Wawa, Ontario, P0S 1K0 Canada Phone/Fax: (705)856-2939 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.naturallysuperior.com Email to: rock@naturallysuperior.com ******** The Northwest Passage Features: Basic to Intermediate paddling instruction certification on the Great Lakes and in Chicagoland. Free introductory sea kayak clinic, wilderness first aid certification courses, and multi-day trips to the Greek Islands, Canadian Arctic, Belize, Apostle Islands, and Door County, Wisconsin. Contacts: Phone: 1-800-RECREATE (732-7328) FAX: (847)256-4476 Mailing Address: The Nortwest Passage 1130 Greenleaf Ave. Wilmette, IL 60091 Internet: Email to: nwp@ix.netcom.com ******** Paint Island Canoe & Kayak Features: Offering recreational canoes and kayaks, boat kits, gear and accessories, training and guided trips through local waterways in Bordentown, NJ. Contacts: Phone: (609)324-9200 Mailing Address: 350 Farnsworth Avenue Bordentown, NJ 08505 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.paintisland.com/ ******** Paddle Masters Features: We are located in St. Paul, MN. Our focus is on ACA and BCU instruction, however we do some 1/2 day tours and week long expedition training trips. Contacts: Mailing Address: Paddle Masters 953 Ashland Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55104 Phone: (651)227-5747 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.paddlemasters.com Email to: info@paddlemasters.com ******** Sea Kayak Italia - Elba Island Features: Offering 11-day sea kayaking adventures on Elba Island, Tuscany, Italy. The Elba Sea Kayak Center offers these trips in the Mediterranean in the spring and fall. Each trip is limited to 8 people. Contacts: Internet: WWW URL: http://www.seakayakitaly.com, Email to: bkossy@igc.apc.org ******** Wild Earth Adventures - Dunedin, New Zealand Features: Sea kayak tours at the Otago Penninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Contacts: Phone: +64-3-473-6535 Mobile Phone: 025-721-931 Fax: +64-3-473-6539 Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6269 Dunedin, New Zealand Internet: WWW URL: http://www.nzwildearth.com, Email to: andy@nzwildearth.com ******** Shops ---------- Great River Outfitters Features: We import and distribute high quality British boats and gear. Our retail store in Michigan carries a very extensive inventory of sea and whitewater kayaks and accessories. We carry the widest selection of specialized sea kayaking products in the U.S. Mail orders welcome. We offer BCU sanctioned sea kayak courses in our capacity as a Nordkapp Trust Sea Kayak Center. Contacts: Mailing Address: Great River Outfitters, Inc. 4180 Elizabeth Lake Rd. Waterford, MI 48328 Phone: (248)683-4770 Fax: (248)644-4960 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.erols.com/rapids/GRO Email to: GROkayak@ix.netcom.com ******** The Northwest Outdoor Center Features: Kayaks, paddling gear, classes, rentals, and tours. Over 100 kayaks available to rent & demo right from their docks on Lake Union. Contacts: Mailing Address: 2100 Westlake Ave. North Seattle, WA 98109 Phone: (206)281-9694 Toll Free in the US: (800)683-0637 Fax: (206)282-0690 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.nwoc.com/default.htm Email to: kayaknwoc@nwoc.com ******** Ocean River Sports Features: Kayaks, paddling gear, classes, rentals, and tours. Contacts: Mailing Address: 1437 Store St. Victoria, BC Canada V8W 3J6 Phone: (250)381-4233 Toll Free: (800)909-4233 Fax: (250)361-3536 Internet: WWW URL: http://www.oceanriver.com Email to: info@oceanriver.com ******** Pacific Water Sports Contacts: 16055 Pacific Hwy. South Seattle, WA 98188 Phone: (206)246-9385 ******** The Small Boat Shop Features: A large selection of canoes, kayaks, rowing shells, dinghies, whitewater kayaks, and sea kayaks. ACA Certified kayaking courses in indoor pool. On site demos. Beginner tours at certain times. Contacts: The SmallBoat Shop 144 Water St., Norwalk CT 06854 Phone: (203) 854-5223 ******************************************************************************** Section 11: Places to Paddle The Everglades Getting there: From Atlanta, I-75 south to Naples, FL. US 41 from Naples to the Everglades City junction. Follow signs into town and on to the ranger station. Features: Open waters of the Gulf of Mexico, and mangrove and cypress swamps, the 'river of grass'. Warm weather and wildlife. Bugs and alligators. Fishing. Best time to visit: Winter, the closer to the solstice, the better. Summer is very buggy. More information: Gulf Coast Ranger Station, Everglades City, FL 33929, (813) 695-3311 In the Great Lakes: Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior (Houghton, MI) Apostle Islands National Lake Shore, Lake Superior (Bayfield, WI) Pictured Rocks National Lake Shore, Lake Superior (Munising, MI) Door County and the Grand Traverse Island group, Lake Michigan (N. of Green Bay, WI or E. of Escanaba, MI) Porcupine Mountains State Park, Lake Superior (N. of Ironwood, MI) Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and the Manitou Islands, Lake Michigan (Traverse City, MI) the Beaver Island Group, Lake Michigan (Charlevoix, MI) Wilderness State Park, Lake Michigan (Mackinac, MI) The St.Mary River between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan (Sault Ste. Marie, MI) Georgian Bay, Lake Huron Lake Superior North Shore, Pukasawa and the Black Bay Islands. The Bass Island group in Lake Erie.