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Subject: Atari 8-Bit Computers: Frequently Asked Questions

This article was archived around: Tue, 15 Apr 2014 18:11:54 -0400 (EDT)

All FAQs in Directory: atari-8-bit
All FAQs posted in: comp.sys.atari.8bit
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Archive-name: atari-8-bit/faq Posting-Frequency: 60 days Last-modified: April 3, 2014
Welcome to the comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup! Atari 8-Bit Computers Frequently Asked Questions List ___________ _______________ | ///////// | _____________ | ||||||||||| | |___________| | | | ||_______|| | |______/////| |____[---]____| | / _________ \ | |LLLLLLLLLLL| |LLLLLLLLLLL || | LLLLLLLLLLL L | |LLLLLLLLLLL| |LLLLLLLLLLL || | LLLLLLLLLLL L | |__[_____]__| |__[_____]____| |___[_____]_____| 130XE 800XL 800 ___________ __---------__ | ///////// | | / _____ \ | |___________| _____________ | / |_____| \ | |______/////| |____[---]____| | ___________ | |LLLLLLLLLLL| |LLLLLLLLLLL || | ========== =| |LLLLLLLLLLL| |LLLLLLLLLLL || | ========== =| |__[_____]__| |__[_____]____| |___[_____]___| 65XE 600XL 400 ___________ _____________ | ///////// | ___________ | | |___________| |/// / | | | |______/////| |// / | /\___________ |=============| |LLLLLLLLLLL| |/O\ |\/ |LLLLLLLLLLL| | LLLLLLLLLLL | |LLLLLLLLLLL| |-----------| |LLLLLLLLLLL| | LLLLLLLLLLL | |__[_____]__| |____O_O_O_O| |__[_____]__| |___[_____]___| 800XE XEgs 1200XL Additions/suggestions/comments/corrections are needed! Please send to: Michael Current, michael@mcurrent.name Library Department, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Copyright (c) 1992-2014 by Michael D. Current, and others where noted. Feel free to reproduce this file, in whole or in part, so long as the content of that portion reproduced is not modified, and so long as credit is given to this FAQ list or its Maintainer, or the author of that section reproduced when given. This document is in a constant state of development and comes with no guarantees. If you see any problems, I need to hear from you! The latest version of this document is posted to the following Usenet newsgroups every 60 days: comp.sys.atari.8bit, comp.answers, news.answers Known web locations for the latest version of this document: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/faqs/atari-8-bit/faq http://faqs.cs.uu.nl/na-dir/atari-8-bit/faq.html http://ftp.eq.uc.pt/usenet/usenet-by-group/comp.answers/atari-8-bit/faq You may also request my latest working version at: michael@mcurrent.name UPDATES SINCE PREVIOUS POSTING: 2014.04.03 8.3 Multijoy links 2014.03.20 1.3 added link to 800 keyboard anaylsis by ACML 2014.03.12 3.1.4 when/whether to press STOP on the recorder 2014.03.12 3.1.4 ENTER "C:" ---> LIST "C:", thanks Laurent Delsarte 2014.01.14 6.12 Mosaic 64K Ram Select details 2014.01.11 11.1 Laughton, Gooch 2014.01.10 7.1.8. clarify Zaxxon versions (again!) 2014.01.10 11.1 Stevens Institute of Technology Atari 800 requirement 2014.01.10 11.1 Dale Yocum, Paul Laughton, Fred Thorlin, Bruce Irvine 2014.01.08 7.1.1 Os User's Manual versions, thanks in part: Laurent Delsarte 2014.01.08 1.12 Hardware Manual details, thanks in part: Laurent Delsarte 2014.01.08 4.5 Axiom printer details 2014.01.08 6.12 HardStuff 32K and 64K RAM Boards 2014.01.07 6.5 section now in chronological order 2014.01.07 6.12 Tara Computer Products Atari 32K RAM 2014.01.07 11.1 Atari was at the 'US' Festival 2014.01.07 3.2.5 and elsewhere: ATR8000 details and OS/A+ 4 and MYDOS 3.1 2014.01.07 6.12 Tara Computer Products 48K RAM for the Atari 400 2014.01.03 11.1 K-Razy Shoot-Out was first 3rd-party cartridge 2013.12.24 11.1 various updates related to heads of engineering, R&D 2013.12.15 renumber 6.5-6.14 -> 6.4-6.12, thanks Laurent Delsarte 2013.12.15 renumber 8.11-8.16 -> 8.10-8.15, thanks Laurent Delsarte 2013.12.15 various tweaks of refs to Koala and Illustrator versions 2013.12.08 1.1 OS Rev.10 -> XL/XE OS ------------------------------ Subject: 0.1) Table of contents 0.1) Table of contents Computers 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer? 1.2) What is the Atari 400? 1.3) What is the Atari 800? 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL? 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL? 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL? 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE? 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE? 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE? 1.10) What is the Atari XE game system? 1.11) What were the Atari 1400XL, 1450XLD, 65XEP, and 65XEM? 1.12) What are SALLY, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE? 1.13) Why do the ANTIC Modes start with "Mode 2", what about 0 or 1? 1.14) What is the internal hardware arrangement of the 8-bit Atari? 1.15) Who designed the Atari 8-bit computers? 1.16) What issues surround NTSC vs. PAL vs. SECAM computer versions? 1.17) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari? Televisions, Monitors, Speakers 2.1) What video display devices and speakers can I use with my Atari? 2.2) What were the Atari XC1411 and XM128 monitors? 2.3) What is artifacting? 2.4) What is HDTV display lag? Mass Storage: Compact Cassette Players/Recorders 3.1.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, & XC12 Program Recorders? 3.1.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari? 3.1.3) What speed upgrades are there for Atari program recorders? 3.1.4) How do I run a program from cassette, or save to cassette? Mass Storage: Floppy Disk Drives 3.2.1) What is the Atari 810 Disk Drive? 3.2.2) What is the Atari 1050 Disk Drive? 3.2.3) What is the Atari XF551 Disk Drive? 3.2.4) What were the Atari 815, XF521, and XF351 Disk Drives? 3.2.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari? 3.2.6) What is the Percom configuration block? 3.2.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks? Mass Storage: High Capacity Devices 3.3.1) What hard disk drives were designed for my Atari? 3.3.2) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's storage devices? 3.3.3) How can I use Secure Digital (SD) cards with my Atari? 3.3.4) How can I use a USB flash drive with my Atari? Printers 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers? 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers? 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers? 4.4) What were the Atari XTM201 and XTC201 Printers? 4.5) What other printers can I use with my Atari? 4.6) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's printer? Modems and other Networking Devices 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems? 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari? 5.3) How can I my Atari utilize my other computer's modem/network? 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari? 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network? Hardware Interfaces 6.1.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module? 6.1.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module? 6.1.3) What were the 1060 CP/M Module and 1090 XL Expansion System? 6.1.4) How can I use an ISA device with my my Atari? 6.1.5) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari? 6.1.6) How can I use a PATA (IDE) device with my Atari? 6.1.7) How can I use a USB device with my Atari? Hardware/Peripherals 6.2) What are the power requirements for my Atari components? 6.3) What accessories/kits did Atari make for their 8-bit computers? 6.4) What graphics tablets were produced for the Atari? 6.5) What light pens were produced for the Atari? 6.6) What light guns were produced for the Atari? 6.7) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the Atari? 6.8) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari? 6.9) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari? 6.10) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari? 6.11) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari? 6.12) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari? Core Software: OS, BASIC, DOS, GUIs, Modem Handlers 7.1.1) What is the Atari Operating System? 7.1.2) What other operating systems have been produced for the Atari? 7.1.3) What is the ATASCII character set? 7.1.4) How can my program detect keypresses directly? 7.1.5) How is the Input/Output subsystem of the Atari OS organized? 7.1.6) What is Attract mode? 7.1.7) What is the Atari cassette utilization/filesystem? 7.1.8) What programs run only on the 400 or 800, and why? 7.1.9) How can I run older programs using the Atari Translator? 7.2) What is Atari BASIC? 7.3.1) What is Atari DOS, and what versions did Atari release? 7.3.2) What are RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS? 7.3.3) What are MyPicoDOS and Micro-SpartaDOS? 7.3.4) What other 3rd-party DOS versions were released for the Atari? 7.3.5) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives? 7.3.6) What should I know about filenames and filename extensions? 7.4) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari? 7.5.1) What should I know about R: and T: modem device handlers? 7.5.2) What should I know about using fast modems with the Atari? Software 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari? 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800? 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players? 8.4) What programs use a light pen or a light gun? 8.5) What programs are designed for a true trackball controller? 8.6) What programs are designed to work with a mouse? 8.7) What programs use paddle controllers? 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode? 8.9) What programs use: Touch Tablet or KoalaPad/Animation Station? 8.10) What programs support more than 64KiB RAM? 8.11) What programs require more than 64KiB RAM? 8.12) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari? 8.13) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound? 8.14) What games support online action via modem? 8.15) What programs support Atari computer networking? Working with Atari files: Compression, File formats, Copying 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari? 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there? 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software? Interoperating With Newer Computers 10.1) What noncommercial telecommunications programs are there? 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari? 10.3) How can I read/write Atari diskettes with my other computer? 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari? 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable? 10.6) How can my other computer utilize my Atari disk drive? Timeline 11.1) What is the history of Atari's 8-bit computers platform? To do? - SIO bus - Atari Cartridge - Boot cartridge/disk/cassette formats - Cards for the 800 card slots - The Integrater with smallDOS Operating System by ADS replaces the Atari CX801 ROM board. See Antic v2n3 Jun83p15 - MEM/EX by Prairie Physics - Commercial telecommunications programs - Remove unwanted sections - pruning - re-standardize $ vs US$ - rough memory map, including Axlon, Mosaic, 130XE banking - programs supporting Axlon or Mosaic banked memory Mosaic list: RAMbrandt - How can I run CP/M on the Atari? - Mass Storage: Re-Writable Cartridges ------------------------------ Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer? Based in Silicon Valley in the USA, the company known as Atari produced a line of home computers from 1979 to 1992 often referred to collectively as the "Atari 8-bits," the "8-bit Ataris," the "400/800/XL/XE series," etc. The computers included the 400, 800, 1200XL, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE, and the XE game system. Notable home computers that were introduced before the Atari 400/800: 1977: Apple II, Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 (Model I), Commodore PET Notable home computers that were introduced after the Atari 400/800: 1979: Texas Instruments TI-99/4 1980: Commodore VIC-20, TRS-80 Color Computer, Osborne 1, Sinclair ZX80 1981: Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, IBM PC, Sinclair ZX81, Acorn BBC Micro 1982: Kaypro II, Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 1983: Coleco Adam, MSX 1984: Apple Macintosh, Amstrad CPC 1985: Atari ST, Commodore Amiga 1987: Acorn Archimedes In marketing their computers to the public, Atari always had to contend with their company history and reputation as a maker of video games. While the 8-bit Atari computers in their heyday were technically quite comparable if not superior in the worlds of home and business personal computing, they also live up to the name "Atari" with a huge library of video games which were often outstanding for their time. The 8-bit Atari computers do not use the same cartridges or floppy disks as any other Atari platforms, such as the 2600 Video Computer System (VCS), the 5200 SuperSystem, the 7800 ProSystem, or the ST/TT/Falcon computers. All of these but the 5200, however, do share (essentially) the same joystick/ controller hardware port. While the 5200 controller ports are different, the 5200 hardware platform is very closely related the 8-bit Atari computers, including use of the same custom chipset (SALLY/ANTIC/GTIA/POKEY). Differences include a fixed 16KiB of RAM, fixed 32KiB ROM cartridge size, a physically different cartridge port, and a much smaller 2KiB operating system. Here are some of the hardware performance specifications of the 8-bit Atari computers: 6502 MPU: MOS Technology MCS6502A or equivalent (most NTSC 400/800 machines) Atari SALLY (late NTSC 400/800, all PAL 400/800, and all XL/XE) CPU CLOCK RATE: 1.7897725MHz (NTSC machines) 1.7734470MHz (PAL/SECAM machines) FRAME REFRESH RATE: 59.94Hz (NTSC machines) 49.86Hz (PAL/SECAM machines) MACHINE CYCLES per FRAME: 29859 (NTSC machines) (1.7897725MHz / 59.94Hz) 35568 (PAL/SECAM machines) (1.7734470MHz / 49.86Hz) SCAN LINES per FRAME 262 (NTSC machines) 312 (PAL/SECAM machines) MACHINE CYCLES per SCAN LINE 114 (NTSC machines: 29859 cycles/frame / 262 lines/frame; PAL/SECAM machines: 35568 cycles/frame / 312 lines/frame) COLOR CLOCKS per MACHINE CYCLE 2 COLOR CLOCKS per SCAN LINE 228 (2 color clocks/machine cycle * 114 machine cycles/scan line) MAXIMUM SCAN LINE WIDTH = "WIDE PLAYFIELD" 176 color clocks MAXIMUM RESOLUTION = GRAPHICS PIXEL 0.5 color clock MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL FRAME RESOLUTION 352 pixels (176 color clocks / 0.5 color clock) MAXIMUM VERTICAL FRAME RESOLUTION 240 pixels (240 scan lines per frame) GRAPHICS MODES: ANTIC GTIA AtariOS Display Resolution Colors Mode # Mode # Mode # Type (full screen) (Color Registers) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (See a separate section in this FAQ list for a discussion of the "missing" ANTIC Modes 0 and 1.) 2 0 Char 40 x 24 3 * 3 - Char 40 x 19 3 * 4 12 ++ Char 40 x 24 5 5 13 ++ Char 40 x 12 5 6 1 Char 20 x 24 5 7 2 Char 20 x 12 5 8 3 Map 40 x 24 4 9 4 Map 80 x 48 2 A 5 Map 80 x 48 4 B 6 Map 160 x 96 2 C 14 ++ Map 160 x 192 2 D 7 Map 160 x 96 4 E 15 ++ Map 160 x 192 4 F 8 Map 320 x 192 3 * F 1 + 9 Map 80 x 192 16 or 8 ** F 2 + 10 Map 80 x 192 9 F 3 + 11 Map 80 x 192 16 *** + GTIA Modes require GTIA chip or FGTIA chip (not available with CTIA chip) ++ Supported by the XL/XE OS (not the 400/800 OS) * 2 of the 3 available color registers share the same color/hue in this mode ** GTIA: 16 luminances of one color/hue FGTIA: 8 luminances of one color/hue *** 16 colors/hues all sharing the same luminance GRAPHICS INDIRECTION (COLOR REGISTERS AND CHARACTER SETS): Nine Color Registers are provided: - Background (used in all graphics modes) - Playfield 0-3 (at least one used in all graphics modes except GTIA 1&3) - Player-Missile 0-3 (used in GTIA Mode 2; Players-Missiles discussed below) Each color register holds both a color/hue setting and a luminance/brightness setting. In most graphics modes, each of the available color registers may hold any one of 16 colors/hues combined with any one of 8 luminance/brightness settings, for a total palette of 128 possible colors. In GTIA Mode 1 only, with the GTIA chip only, the 16 available colors/hues can each be combined with 16 different luminance/brightness settings, for a total palette of 256 possible colors. Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an inverse video incarnation, are totally redefinable. PLAYER-MISSILE GRAPHICS: The Atari term for "sprites" where a sprite is a graphical video display object handled independendly from the memory bitmap of the video display. Four 8-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color Players, and four 2-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color Missiles are available. A mode to combine the 4 Missiles into a 5th 8-bit wide Player is also available, as is a mode to OR colors or blacken out colors when Players overlap (good for making three colors out of two Players!) Players and Missiles have adjustable priority and collision detection. DISPLAY LIST: Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the Display List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every screen refresh. DISPLAY LIST INTERRUPTS (DLIs): Other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal position, screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.) can be adjusted at any point down the screen via DLIs. SCROLLING: Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on any line on the screen. SOUND: Sound is monaural/monophonic (one channel output). Up to 4 separate simultaneous voices can be produced, configured as one of the following: - 4 voices, each with one of 256 unique frequencies/pitches - 2 voices, each with one of 65,536 unique frequencies/pitches - 1 voice with one of 65,536 pitches and 2 voices with one of 256 pitches Each voice may be produced with one of 8 available "noise" settings/ polynomial-counter combinations, commonly called "distortion" settings. (There are actually only 6 distinct combinations of 3 poly-counters offered, but one of the poly-counters has 2 available settings itself, resulting in 2 additional noise settings for the total of 8 available.) Each voice may be produced at one of 16 volumes. Direct control of the position of the speaker cone is also available, with 4-bit (16 position) resolution. Known as "volume only mode" on the Atari. A fifth "voice" is produced as a separate signal by the internal speaker on the Atari 400/800. This is typically used only for keyclick and buzzer. In XL/XE systems these sounds are output as part of the normal monaural audio output signal. VERTICAL BLANK INTERRUPTS (VBIs): A software routine may be designed to execute as a VBI. There are two varieties of VBI: Immediate and Deferred. An Immediate VBI completes execution within the vertical blank time, which is the time allotted for a CRT display to shut the electron beam off at the lower-right of the display and reposition it back on the top-left of the display to commence drawing of the next frame. A Deferred VBI routine completes execution between the initiation of one vertical blank and the next. Atari 8-bit computers were supplied with the proprietary Atari Operating System contained in Read Only Memory (ROM) as an integral feature of the computer. The Atari OS is described elsewhere in this FAQ List. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.2) What is the Atari 400? Introduced in January 1979 alongside the Atari 800 and shipped that fall, the Atari 400 was the reduced feature set version of the new Atari personal computer system. The 400 is the only 8-bit Atari with a membrane keyboard rather than a full- stroke keyboard, and is one of the few 8-bit Atari computers lacking a composite monitor port. Controller Jacks #1-3 on the 400 are the only ones on any 8-bit Atari that do not support a light pen / light gun. The 400 was originally released with just 8KiB RAM, but most were sold with 16KiB RAM. As of June 1983 Atari released the 48K RAM Expansion Kit for the 400, installed through Atari service centers or offered as a kit through the Atari Program Exchange (APX). Features unique to the 400/800 models relative to other Atari computers: - Television (TV) connecting cable, not designed to be removable, emerges directly from center of rear of computer case - Four controller (joystick) ports - Internal speaker for keyclicks and system buzzer - Memo Pad mode - +12 volt supply on pin 12 of the SIO port Boot options - Memo Pad: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the Atari 400: o "DOM" Domestic version for NTSC television - 1979-1981 systems shipped with: - 8KiB of RAM - Atari BASIC Programming Language cartridge CXL4002 - Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) book C014385 - Atari 400 Operator's Manual C014768 (CO14768) - 1981-1983 systems shipped with: - 16KiB of RAM - The Basic Computer Owner's Guide C017711 - Most units: 6502 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6502A or equivalent), C014377 Late units: 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC NTSC version, C012296 - Early units: CTIA, C012295 Most units: GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - No Monitor port - Switch (unlabeled) on back of computer selects TV output RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box supplied with computer - Early units have the Atari 400/800 OS Rev.A/NTSC version built-in on ROM, while most units have the Atari 400/800 OS Rev.B/NTSC version. o "PAL" and "UK" versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - 16KiB RAM - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC PAL version, C014887 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - No Monitor port - Switch (unlabeled) on back of computer has no effect - TV output: RF channel 4 ("PAL" version) or 36 ("UK" version) - Atari 400/800 OS Rev.A/PAL version built-in on ROM - The Atari 400 Computer Owner's Guide C060200 (CO60200) Rare variation of the 400: o At least some of the few Atari 400 units (PAL) sold by Atari in France have been reported to include a built-in SCART/Peritel cable. PICTURES??? http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=62346&st=25 Additional Manuals: - Atari 400-800 Home Computer Field Service Manual FD100001 - Atari 400/800 PAL-UK field service manual FD100002 Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 19 watts: Atari CA014748 or equivalent. Atari marketing used the trademark, The Basic Computer, as an alternative name for the 400 from 1981-1982. The 400 was made in the USA (early production) and Hong Kong (later production). Production of the 400 ended in May 1983. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.3) What is the Atari 800? Introduced in January 1979 alongside the Atari 400 and shipped that fall, the Atari 800 was the full feature set version of the new Atari personal computer system. The 800 is the only 8-bit Atari with a Right Cartridge slot, in addition to the Left Cartridge slot as present on all 8-bit Ataris. The 800 was originally released with just 8KiB RAM, many were sold with 16KiB, and later on 48KiB was standard. The 800 is the only 8-bit Atari with a four-slot modular design, where the first slot holds the CX801 (NTSC) or CX801-P (PAL) 10KiB ROM module (containing the Atari Operating System), and the other three slots hold combinations of Atari CX852 8KiB or CX853 16KiB RAM modules (or compatible). Slots must be filled from front to back. Features unique to the 400/800 models relative to other Atari computers: - Television (TV) connecting cable, not designed to be removable, emerges directly from center of rear of computer case - Four controller (joystick) ports - Internal speaker for keyclicks and system buzzer - Memo Pad mode - +12 volt supply on pin 12 of the SIO port Boot options - Memo Pad: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the Atari 800: o "DOM" Domestic version for NTSC television - 1979-1980 systems shipped with: - 8KiB of RAM as one CX852 RAM Module - 410 Program Recorder - Educational System Master Cartridge CXL4001 - Atari BASIC Programming Language cartridge CXL4002 - Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) book C014385 - Atari 800 Operator's Manual C014769 (CO14769) - 1980-1982 systems shipped with: - 16KiB of RAM as one CX853 RAM Module - Atari BASIC Programming Language cartridge CXL4002 - Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) book C014385 - BASIC Reference Manual C015307 - The Atari 800 Home Computer Owner's Guide C060057 (CO60057) REV.1 (17 pages) - 1982-1983 systems shipped with: - 48KiB of RAM as 3 CX853 RAM Modules (slot compartment screwed shut) - The Atari 800 Home Computer Owner's Guide C060057 (CO60057) REV.A (13 pages) - Most units: 6502 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6502A or equivalent), C014377 Late units: 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC NTSC version, C012296 - Early units: CTIA, C012295 Most units: GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Channel switch on side of computer selects TV output RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box supplied with computer - Early units have the Atari 400/800 OS Rev.A/NTSC version on internal CX801 Operating System Module, while most units have the Atari 400/800 OS Rev.B/NTSC version. o "PAL" and "UK" versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - 16KiB RAM (earlier units) or 48KiB RAM (later units) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC PAL version, C014887 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Channel switch on side of computer has no effect - TV output: RF channel 4 ("PAL" version) or 36 ("UK" version) - Atari 400/800 OS Rev.A/PAL version on internal CX801-P Operating System Module - The Atari 800 Home Computer Owner's Guide C060497 (CO60497) 4 different types of 800 keyboards were nicely documented by ACML here: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=105170 Additional Manuals: - Atari 400-800 Home Computer Field Service Manual FD100001 - Atari 400/800 PAL-UK field service manual FD100002 Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 19 watts: Atari CA014748 or equivalent. Rare variation of the 800: o At least some of the few Atari 800 units (PAL) sold by Atari in France have been reported to include an 8-bit DIN monitor port. PICTURES, ANYONE??? http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=62346&st=25 The 800 was made in the USA. Production of the 800 ended in May 1983. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL? Introduced in December 1982 and shipped in March 1983, the Atari 1200XL was intended to be the first in a new generation of computers to replace the Atari 400/800. Innovations relative to the 400/800 include a full 64KiB of RAM and a significantly revised and expanded 14KiB Operating System. The 1200XL is the only 8-bit Atari computer to feature two LED indicator lights (L1, L2). Normally they are both <OFF>. L1 <ON> means the keyboard is disabled. L2 <ON> means the new International Character Set is selected. Keyboard enhancements introduced with the 1200XL include the new [HELP] key as well as four programmable functions keys ([F1], [F2], [F3], [F4]). Clicks and system beeps output through the built-in speaker on the 400/800 are heard from the television or monitor speaker on the 1200XL. The toggle action of the [Caps/Lowr] key was altered compared to the 400/800. The key auto-repeat rate is user-alterable. The Reset key is directly wired to the SALLY 6502 reset line. 1200XL Function key effects, redefinable: [F1] Cursor up [SHIFT]+[F1] Cursor to upper-left corner (home) [F2] Cursor down [SHIFT]+[F2] Cursor to lower-left corner [F3] Cursor left [SHIFT]+[F3] Cursor to start of physical line [F4] Cursor right [SHIFT]+[F4] Cursor to end of physical line 1200XL Function key effects, non-redefinable: [CONTROL]+[F1] Keyboard enable/disable (console keys unaffected) [CONTROL]+[F2] Screen DMA (ANTIC) enable/disable [CONTROL]+[F3] Key click sound enable/disable [CONTROL]+[F4] Domestic/International character set toggle Additional 1200XL Operating System enhancements compared to the 400/800 OS: - Text screen fine scrolling is available - The Resident Diskette Handler can read/write disk sectors having variable length from 1 to 65536 bytes. Default = 128 bytes (matching the 400/800 static value) - The Resident Diskette Handler can write a sector to the disk without a read-verify operation always following it. - Universal OS for both NTSC and PAL systems (including independent values for cassette timings and for keyboard auto-repeat functions) A few features from the 400/800 are lacking in the 1200XL. Most prominently, the 1200XL has only 2 controller ports, and no Memo Pad mode. With the 1200XL Atari made an apparent decision to preclude peripherals from drawing their power from the computer via the SIO bus: - The 1200XL lacks +12V on SIO pin 12, as was available on the 400/800. - On the 1200XL the +5V/Ready line (pin 10) on the SIO port supplies enough current for the Ready ("Computer On") function but not enough current for peripherals designed to use the line as their power source. ("FIX": Replace 100 Ohm resistor R63 with a 0 Ohm to 1 Ohm resistor, or a jumper wire.) Boot options - "ATARI" rainbow logo/graphics demo screen: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Press [HELP] from the "ATARI" logo screen to access Self Test program. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Box: "A Step Into the Future" or "The Next Logical Step" Versions of the Atari 1200XL: o "DOM" Domestic version for NTSC television - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC NTSC version, C012296 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5 - Switch Box jack for RF output for TV - Channel switch on back of computer selects TV output RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV connecting cable both supplied with computer - Most 1200XL units have the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.A built-in on ROM, while rare units, possibly only as a result of authorized repairs, have XL/XE OS Rev.B. Manuals: - The Atari 1200XL Home Computer Owner's Guide C061418 - 1200XL Home Computer Field Service Manual FD100217 Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply, input power 31 VA; shipped with Atari CA017964. The 1200XL was made in the USA from January 1983 to May 1983, and in Taiwan from April 1983 to July 1983. By analyzing 1200XL serial numbers, Karl Heller estimates that fewer than 120,000 units total were produced, and possibly fewer than 100,000. See the "1200XL Owners List" thread on AtariAge: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=107234 Scott Stilphen mentioned this 1200XL easter egg on 10 Feb 2006: On 1200XLs, if you select 'all tests', when it gets to the keyboard test it'll type out the programmer's name. 1200XL visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/1200xl/ ------------------------------ Subject: 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL? Introduced in June 1983 alongside the 800XL, 1400XL (never shipped), and 1450XLD (never shipped), and shipped that fall, the Atari 600XL was the low-end machine in the new range of computers that would replace the Atari 400/800/1200XL. The 600XL/800XL include most of the features of the 1200XL, minus the 4 Function keys, the 2 LED lights, and the "ATARI" logo screen. In addition, the 600XL/800XL offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing fast parallel access to the heart of the computer. Available current on the +5V/Ready line (pin 10) on the SIO port of the 600XL/800XL matches that on the 400/800, restoring compatibility with SIO peripherals designed to draw power from that line which would not work on the 1200XL. The 600XL has 16KiB RAM. The Atari 1064 Memory Module expands the 600XL from 16KiB to 64KiB RAM. The 600XL has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.1 and Atari BASIC Rev. B built-in on ROM. Boot options - Atari BASIC: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Self Test program: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Box: "Feature For Feature, Your Best Value" Versions of the Atari 600XL: o "DOM" Domestic version for NTSC television - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' NTSC version, C021697 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - No Monitor port - Switch Box jack for RF output for TV - Channel switch on back of computer selects TV output RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV connecting cable both supplied with computer o "PAL" and "UK" versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Lacks the luminance video signal on pin 1 - Lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5 - T.V. jack for RF output for TV - No TV RF Channel select switch - TV output: RF channel 4 ("PAL" version) or 36 ("UK" version) - RF Cable for TV connection supplied with computer Rare variations of the 600XL: o Some late-model 600XLs were sold with 64KiB RAM. These may have only appeared in Canada. The box had a round gold foil sticker reading: "64k Memory -- Now with a full 64k of memory built-in." 5 different types of 600XL/800XL keyboards were nicely documented by Beetle here: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=105170 Manuals: - The Atari 600XL Home Computer Owner's Guide C061530 (English for USA; 21 pages) - Atari Computer 600XL C061946 (English/German/Spanish/Italian/French/Dutch for Europe; 61 pages) - Atari Computer 600XL and Atari Computer 800XL Connection Instructions for PAL TV Systems C061947 (English/German/Spanish/Italian/French/Dutch for Europe) - Atari Computer 600XL Connection Instructions for NTSC TV Systems C062228 (English/French/Spanish for Canada/Mexico) - Atari 600XL Computer Field Service Manual FD100610 The 600XL was made in Hong Kong and Japan. Production of the 600XL was discontinued by July 1984. The Atari 600XL was utilized by Exidy as an embedded system in their Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (configurable to play: Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, or Flip and Flop). See: http://www.myatari.co.uk/issues/jan2003/maxaflex.htm ------------------------------ Subject: 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL? Introduced in June 1983 alongside the 600XL, 1400XL (never shipped), and 1450XLD (never shipped), and shipped that fall, the Atari 800XL was one of the new range of computers that would replace the Atari 400/800/1200XL. The 600XL/800XL include most of the features of the 1200XL, minus the 4 Function keys, the 2 LED lights, and the "ATARI" logo screen. But both the 600XL and 800XL have the Atari BASIC language built-in. In addition, these two systems offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing fast parallel access to the heart of the computer. Available current on the +5V/Ready line (pin 10) on the SIO port of the 600XL/800XL matches that on the 400/800, restoring compatibility with SIO peripherals designed to draw power from that line which would not work on the 1200XL. The 800XL contains 64KiB RAM, and has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.1 or Rev.2 and Atari BASIC Rev. B or Rev. C built-in on ROM. Boot options - Atari BASIC: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Self Test program: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Box: "More Memory Means More Power" Versions of the Atari 800XL: o "DOM" Domestic version for NTSC television - Produced by Atari, Inc. - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - Earlier units: ANTIC NTSC version, C012296 Later units: ANTIC 'E' NTSC version, C021697 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5 - Switch Box jack for RF output for TV - Channel switch on back of computer selects TV output RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV connecting cable both supplied with computer - Atari XL/XE OS Rev.1 (early units) or Rev.2 (most) built-in on ROM - Atari BASIC Rev. B (most) or Rev. C (late production) built-in on ROM - Made in Hong Kong and Taiwan - Some internal pics: http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=74 o "PAL" and "UK" versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - Produced by Atari, Inc. (earlier units) and Atari Corp. (later units) - Later units: "800XLF" motherboard - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - Early units: ANTIC PAL version, C014887 Most units: ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Later units: FREDDIE memory management chip introduced - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Earlier units: Lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5 - Later units: Pin 5 is connected as on the 800 - Switch Box jack for RF output for TV - No TV RF Channel select switch - TV output: RF channel 4 ("PAL" version) or 36 ("UK" version) - RF Cable for TV connection supplied with computer - Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2 built-in on ROM - Atari BASIC Rev. B (earlier units) or Rev. C (later units) built-in on ROM - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/800xlpal/ - More internal pics: http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=73 - Made in Hong Kong (earlier units) and Taiwan (earlier and later units) o SECAM version for SECAM television (France) - Produced by Atari Corp. - "SECAM ROSE" motherboard - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - FGTIA, C020120 - FREDDIE memory management chip - Monitor port is Atari SECAM 6-pin - No Switch Box jack - No TV RF Channel select switch - Internal color/monochrome switch - TV cable (Monitor port to SCART/Peritel) supplied with computer - Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2 built-in on ROM - Atari BASIC Rev. C built-in on ROM - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/800xlsecam - More internal pics: http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=15 - Made in Taiwan. 5 different types of 600XL/800XL keyboards were nicely documented by Beetle here: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=105170 Manuals: - The Atari 800XL Home Computer Owner's Guide C061859 - Atari Computer 800XL C024450 (international; 64 pages) - Atari Computer 600XL and Atari Computer 800XL Connection Instructions for PAL TV Systems C061947 (international) - Atari 800XL Computer Field Service Manual FD100740 Production of the 800XL was discontinued by 1985. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE? The Atari 65XE was introduced, alongside the 130XE, in January 1985. The 65XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but later production 65XE machines include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI). The 65XE offers 64KiB RAM, and has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2, Rev.3, or Rev.3B and Atari BASIC Rev. C built-in on ROM. Boot options - Atari BASIC: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Self Test program: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the Atari 65XE: o NTSC version for NTSC television - Most units: No ECI Late units: NTSC 130XE motherboard (including ECI, but only 64KiB RAM) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' NTSC version, C021697 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - TV Channel Select Switch on back of computer selects RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV Video Cable both supplied with computer - Most units: Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2 built-in on ROM Late units: Atari XL/XE OS Rev.3 built-in on ROM o PAL and UK versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - Early units: No ECI Most units: PAL 130XE motherboard (including ECI, but only 64KiB RAM) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - No TV Channel Select Switch - TV output: RF channel 4 (PAL version) or 36 (UK version) - TV Video Cable supplied with computer - Early units: Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2 built-in on ROM Most units: Atari XL/XE OS Rev.3 built-in on ROM - UK version also shipped in: Atari 65XE Home Computer Outfit o Arabic Atari 65XE Najm for PAL television in Arabia - Reportedly widely sold in Saudi Arabia and Egypt - "65XEN" motherboard - ECI port - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - No TV Channel Select Switch - TV output: RF channel 4 (probably?) - TV Video Cable supplied with computer - Atari XL/XE OS Rev.3B (Arabic localized OS) built-in on ROM - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/65xearab - Another analysis (Polish): atarionline.pl/v01/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1184283958 &archive=&start_from=20&ucat=6&ct=wynalazki - More info (Polish): http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/Arabski_65XE - Prototype NTSC Arabic 65XE: http://www.savetz.com/vintagecomputers/arabic65xe/ (The 65XE was not marketed in France.) Manuals: - Atari 65XE Personal Computer Owner's Manual C072018 The 65XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production). ------------------------------ Subject: 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE? The Atari 130XE was introduced, alongside the 65XE, in January 1985. The 130XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but it does include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI). The 130XE offers 128KiB RAM, and has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.2 (most) or Rev.3 (late production) and Atari BASIC Rev. C built-in on ROM. Boot options - Atari BASIC: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Self Test program: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the Atari 130XE: o NTSC version for NTSC television - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' NTSC version, C021697 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - TV Channel Select Switch on back of computer selects RF channel: 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV Video Cable both supplied with computer o PAL and UK versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - No TV Channel Select Switch - TV output: RF channel 4 (PAL version) or 36 (UK version) - TV Video Cable supplied with computer o SECAM version for SECAM television (France) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - FGTIA, C020120 - Monitor port is Atari SECAM 6-pin - No Television Jack - No TV Channel Select Switch - Color Mono switch on back of computer to affect video output - TV cable (Monitor port to SCART/Peritel) supplied with computer Manuals: - Atari 130XE Personal Computer Owner's Manual C025951 - Atari 130XE Reference Manual (field service manual) The 130XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production). ------------------------------ Subject: 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE? The Atari 800XE was announced (not by name at the time) in March 1987 in West Germany, and shipped later that year as a regional complement to the Atari 65XE and 130XE. The 800XE name was selected in a marketing attempt to capitalize on the recent and surprisingly swift final sellout of available inventory of new 800XL units. The 800XE was never introduced in the U.S. The 800XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but it does include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI). The 800XE offers 64KiB RAM, and has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.3 and Atari BASIC Rev. C built-in on ROM. Boot options - Atari BASIC: Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Self Test program: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on computer with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 2. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer. (System buzzer sounds.) 3. Press [RETURN] on the computer. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: Turn on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the Atari 800XE: o PAL version for PAL B/G television (Europe) PAL 130XE motherboard (including ECI, but only 64KiB RAM) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - Monitor port is Atari 5-pin - Television Jack for RF output - TV Channel Select Switch: Either not present, or has no effect - TV output: RF channel 4 - TV Video Cable supplied with computer Some images of the 800XE: http://www.silicium.org/oldskool/atari/800xe.htm Jindrich Kubec writes, "The problematic Chinese 800XEs with GTIA problems were manufactured in 1992." The 800XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production). The 800XE was last manufactured in 1992. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.10) What is the Atari XE game system? With the February 1987 introduction of the Atari XE game system, Atari both extended the established 65XE/130XE product line and also added a third game system to complement the established 2600 and 7800 product lines. Termed variously by Atari as the XE Video Game System, the XE Game System, or the XE System, the name was actually trademarked by Atari as simply: XE. (For clarity, this FAQ List will normally use "XE game system" or "XEgs".) The core component of the XEgs is the XE System Console, which is essentially a complete 65XE/800XE but without a keyboard. A companion XE System Keyboard was produced for use with the Console. The XE System Console offers 64KiB RAM, and has the Atari XL/XE OS Rev.4, Atari BASIC Rev. C, and Missile Command all built-in on ROM (all on a single 32KiB ROM chip, Atari#C101687). Distinctive hardware features of the XE System Console: - Keyboard Port (for the separate XE System Keyboard) - Audio jack (phono) - Video jack (phono, providing composite video) 65XE/130XE/800XE features not present on the XE System Console: - No Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI) - NTSC/PAL versions: No Monitor port - SECAM version: No Television jack XE System Console boot options - Missile Command: (a) With XE System Keyboard NOT connected: Turn on XE System Console with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. (b) With XE System Keyboard connected: Hold down [SELECT] while turning on the XE System Console with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Atari BASIC: With XE System Keyboard connected: Turn on XE System Console with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. (With XE System Keyboard NOT connected: Cannot boot to Atari BASIC) - Self Test program: (With or without XE System Keyboard connected) Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the XE System Console with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive #1. - Cartridge: Turn on XE System Console with cartridge inserted. - Cassette: 1. Hold down [START] while turning on the XE System Console. (System buzzer sounds.) 2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder with boot cassette inserted. 3. Press [START] on the XE System Console. - Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled: (a) With XE System Keyboard connected: Turn on XE System Console with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. (b) With XE System Keyboard NOT connected: Hold down [SELECT] while turning on XE System Console with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. - Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled: (With or without XE System Keyboard connected) Hold down [OPTION] while turning on XE System Console with boot disk inserted in powered disk drive #1. Versions of the XE System Console: o NTSC version for NTSC television - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' NTSC version, C021697 - GTIA NTSC version, C014805 - No Monitor port - Monitor Video Jack (phono) for composite video output - Television jack for RF output - TV Channel Selector switch on back of console selects RF channel 2 or 3 - TV Switch Box and TV Cable both supplied with console o PAL and UK versions for PAL B/G or PAL I television, respectively - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - GTIA PAL version, C014889 - No Monitor port - Monitor Video Jack (phono) for composite video output - Television jack for RF output - No TV Channel Selector switch - TV output: RF channel 4 (PAL version) or 36 (UK version) - TV Cable supplied with console o SECAM version for SECAM television (France) - 6502 MPU (Atari SALLY), C014806 - ANTIC 'E' PAL version, C021698 - FGTIA, C020120 - Monitor port is Atari SECAM 6-pin - Monitor Video Jack (phono) for composite video output - No Television jack - No TV Channel Selector switch - TV cable (Monitor port to SCART/Peritel) supplied with console The components of the XEgs were sold by Atari in several different packages, which are listed in the broader "kits" listing in this FAQ list. (see Atari User v3n9 p.28 for a partial list of packages) Manuals: - Atari XE System Owner's Manual C100608 / C033514 (26 pages) - Atari XE System Keyboard Owner's Manual C100609 / C033513 (99 pages) The XE System Console was made in Taiwan. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.11) What were the Atari 1400XL, 1450XLD, 65XEP, and 65XEM? Atari publicly introduced several computers in the tradition of the 400/800/XL/XE series that ultimately never shipped. The 1400XL was introduced by Atari, Inc. alongside the 600XL, 800XL, and 1450XLD at the June 1983 Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. Resembling the 1200XL in appearance, the 1400XL was to provide the features of the 800XL plus a built-in 300 baud modem and a built-in speech synthesizer. Prototype units exist, but the 1400XL never shipped. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/1400xl/1400.html The 1450XLD was introduced by Atari, Inc. alongside the 600XL, 800XL, and 1400XL at the June 1983 Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. The 1450XLD was to provide the features of the 1400XL plus a built-in double sided, dual/enhanced density 260KiB 5.25" floppy disk drive, with expansion space for a second disk drive. Atari continued to promote the 1450XLD through June 1984. Prototype units exist, but the 1450XLD never shipped. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/1450xld/1450xld.html The 65XEP was introduced by Atari Corp. alongside the 65XE and 130XE at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. The portable 65XEP was to provide the features of the 65XE, plus built-in 5" monochrome CRT display and 360KiB 3.5" disk drive. The 65XEP never shipped, and possibly only the single original mockup display unit ever existed. http://www.cyberroach.com/cyromag/14/DSCN3934.jpg The 65XEM was announced (but not shown) by Atari Corp. at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. The 65XEM was to provide the features of the 65XE, plus advanced sound/voice synthesis capabilities thanks to the addition of the AMY Sound Processor chip. Eight voices giving rich music giving the following features: (Page 6 #14 Mar/Apr 85) - Digital sample rate in excess of 30kHz. Over 60dB dynamic range. - Fundamental Frequency Range of 4.8Hz to 7.8kHz -10 2/3 octaves. - Fundamental Frequency Resolution of 1/64 semitones. - Precise control of harmonic amplitudes. 64 harmonics. The 65XEM never shipped, and no more than a handful of prototype units may exist. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html ------------------------------ Subject: 1.12) What are SALLY, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE? Portions of this section derived from De Re Atari. The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very different from other systems. It of course has a microprocessor (a 6502), random-access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), and a peripheral interface adapter (PIA). However, it also has three special-purpose large-scale integration (LSI) chips known as ANTIC, one of CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, and POKEY. These chips were designed by Atari engineers primarily to take much of the burden of housekeeping off of the 6502, thereby freeing the 6502 to concentrate on computations. While they were at it, they designed a great deal of power into these chips. Each of these chips is almost as big (in terms of silicon area) as a 6502, so the three of them together provide a tremendous amount of power. Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers is primarily a matter of mastering these three chips. 6502 MPU -- MOS Technology MCS6502A or equivalent (400/800,most NTSC):C014377 ======== Atari SALLY (400/800,late NTSC & all PAL; XL/XE,all):C014806 The MCS6502 microprocessor unit (MPU) was designed by Chuck Peddle and Bill Mensch for MOS Technology. It was released in 1975, just after the short- lived MCS6501. The 6501/6502 were the first two releases in the MCS6500 Microcomputer System product line (which was compatible with the Motorola M6800 bus structure). MOS Technology was acquired by Commodore Business Machines (CBM) in 1976, and would later operate as Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG). Versions of the 6502 were used in the popular Apple II and Commodore PET, and the popularity of the chip led MOS Technology to license other companies such as Rockwell and Synertek to second-source the 6502 and support components. MCS6502A equivalents shipped in most NTSC Atari 400/800 computers and marked with the Atari part number C014377 include the Synertek P6502A, Synertek P6502B, and Rockwell R6502-34. Later production NTSC 400/800 computers, all PAL 400/800 computers, and all of the Atari XL/XE computer models contain Atari's proprietary version of the 6502 chip. This chip was originally named SALLY by its Atari Inc. engineers, but Atari Customer Support documents (Field Services Manuals) variously described it as "6502 (Modified)", "6502 Modified", "Custom 6502", or "6502C". Field Service Manuals published by Atari Corp. reverted to using the chip's original name, SALLY, while Atari Corp. XE consumer owner's manuals (unfortunately) continued to use "6502C" in reference to the SALLY 6502. Several manufacturers produced the SALLY 6502 for Atari, including MOS Technology, Synertek, Rockwell, and NCR. It is important to note that chips marked "6502C" such as the MOS Technology MCS6502C, MOS Technology MPS6502C, Synertek SY6502C, or Rockwell R6502C are NOT the Atari "6502C" --these are all equivalents to the standard MOS Technology MCS6502. Atari SALLY 6502 chips are never marked "6502C" but always carry the Atari part number C014806. In contrast to the MCS6502 and equivalents, the SALLY 6502 has the addition of a /HALT signal on pin 35. The SALLY 6502 also has a second R/W signal on pin 36 (in addition to pin 34). Pins 35 and 36 are not connected on the MCS6502 and equivalents. The Atari's second microprocessor, ANTIC, must routinely interrupt the 6502 in order to utilize the processor bus for itself for direct memory access (DMA). /HALT on the SALLY 6502 facilitates this system design. Atari's earlier implementation of the same functionality in the 400/800 using the MCS6502 or equivalent requires a series of 4 additional chips that are unnecessary in computers designed for the SALLY 6502. Other systems utilizing the Atari SALLY 6502 chip: - Atari 5200 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop - Atari 7800 6502.org "the 6502 microprocessor resource": http://www.6502.org/ ANTIC -- ANTIC,NTSC:C012296 ANTIC,PAL:C014887 ===== ANTIC 'E',NTSC:C021697 ANTIC 'E',PAL:C021698 - ANTIC shipped in all 400/800/1200XL units and earlier 800XL units. - ANTIC 'E' shipped in all 600XL units, later 800XL units, and all XE units. ANTIC ("AlphaNumeric Television Interface Controller" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-8) is a microprocessor dedicated to the television display. It is a true microprocessor; it has an instruction set, a program (called the display list), and data. The display list and the display data are written into RAM by the 6502. ANTIC retrieves this information from RAM using direct memory access (DMA). It processes the higher level instructions in the display list and translates these instructions into a real-time stream of simple instructions to CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA. Specific ANTIC functions include: - DMA (Direct Memory Access) control. 2 types of "Display DMA" (also known as "cycle stealing") are: 1) Playfield DMA - Execution of display list instructions in RAM. 2) Player-Missile DMA - Automatic fetching of player-missile graphics data from RAM for CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA. Also automatically generates DMA addresses for the automatic refresh of the system's dynamic memory RAM (DRAM) chip(s). The earlier ANTIC version generates 7 bits of addresses, while the (backward compatible) ANTIC 'E' version generates 8 bits of addresses for DRAM memory refresh. This is the only difference between ANTIC and ANTIC 'E'. - NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt) control. 3 types of NMI on the Atari are: 1) Display List Interrupt (DLI) 2) Vertical Blank Interrupt (VBI) 3) System Reset (key) - Vertical and Horizontal fine scrolling - Light pen / light gun horizontal and vertical position registers - Updated upon pulse of any of the Joystick Trigger lines - Exception: 400 Controller Jacks 1-3 Trigger lines are not connected to ANTIC. - Vertical line counter - WSYNC (wait for horizontal sync) command -- allows the microprocessor to synchronize itself to the TV horizontal line rate Other systems utilizing the Atari ANTIC chip: - Atari 5200 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop ANTIC C012296 (NTSC) REV. D technical documentation by Atari: http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/antic.pdf CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA -- CTIA(NTSC):C012295 GTIA,PAL:C014889 =============== GTIA,NTSC:C014805 FGTIA(SECAM):C020120 CTIA = "Color Television Interface Adaptor" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-10 "Colleen Television Interface Adaptor" (probable original) GTIA = "Graphics Television Interface Adaptor" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-10 "George's Television Interface Adaptor" (probable original) FGTIA = "French Graphics Television Interface Adaptor" (probable) The CTIA, GTIA, or FGTIA is the television interface chip. ANTIC directly controls most of the operations of the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, although the 6502 can also be programmed to intercede and control some or all of the functions of the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA. The CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA converts the digital commands from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the video signal output. In addition to its basic television/video interface function, the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA performs color-luminance control for the entire video signal, player-missile control, and both priority control and collision detection among player-missiles and the background. The CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA also reads the controller port trigger inputs and the console keys (Start/Select/Option). In the 400/800, the CTIA/GTIA controls the built-in speaker. In the XL/XE, the GTIA/FGTIA senses the presence of an active ROM cartridge, and in the XE System Console the GTIA/FGTIA senses the presense of an XE Keyboard. Early NTSC 400/800 units shipped with CTIA. Later NTSC 400/800 units, all PAL 400/800 units, and all NTSC XL/XE and PAL XL/XE systems include GTIA. SECAM 800XL, 130XE and XE System Console units include FGTIA. The NTSC versions of CTIA/GTIA were designed to interface with the NTSC version of ANTIC. The PAL version of GTIA and the FGTIA were designed to interface with the PAL version of ANTIC. Robin Sherer of Santa Cruz Education Software as quoted in InfoWorld 3/15/82: "That had [GTIA] designed before the computer even went to market. They had already ordered 100,000 of the CTIAs--that's the rumored number. Not wanting to throw away chips, they introduced [computers] in this country with the CTIA." The GTIA is backward compatible with the CTIA, with the GTIA simply making available three additional graphics modes (GTIA Modes 1-3). The FGTIA is software compatible with the GTIA. However, in GTIA Mode 1 the FGTIA can only display 8 distinct luminances, compared to the 16 distinct luminances that can be displayed in GTIA Mode 1 by the GTIA. A substantial number of late-production Atari XE computer systems, especially later 800XE computers made in China, shipped with moderately defective GTIA chips. This page (in Polish) details the scope of the issue, including how to detect whether a given computer contains one of the faulty GTIA chips: http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/GTIA Whether CTIA or GTIA/FGTIA is installed can be determined by observing what happens as a result of trying to enter a GTIA graphics mode. In Atari BASIC, at the "READY" prompt, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN]. If the screen blackens, you have the GTIA or FGTIA chip. If it stays blue, you have the early CTIA chip. Bill Wilkinson offers a technique whereby software can determine whether a CTIA or a GTIA is installed in his "Insight: Atari" column in the January 1983 (#32) issue of Compute!, page 171, see: http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue32/085_1_INSIGHT_ATARI.php Pawel Rosowski published this detailed description of the highly-obscure temperature-dependent "Delayed GTIA Functions" ("DGF") phenomenon in 2013: atariage.com/forums/topic/209927-delayed-gtia-functions-detailed-description/ Other systems utilizing the Atari GTIA chip: - Atari 5200 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop Technical documentation by Atari: GTIA(NTSC) C014805: http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/gtia.pdf FGTIA: http://ftp.pigwa.net/stuff/collections/nir_dary_cds/Tech%2520Info/FGTIA.PDF POKEY -- C012294 ===== POKEY (name derived from POtentiometer and KEYboard) is a digital input/output (I/O) chip. It handles such disparate tasks as the serial I/O bus (SIO), audio generation, keyboard scan, timers, and random number generation. It also digitizes the resistive paddle inputs and controls selected maskable interrupt (IRQ) requests from peripherals (other IRQs are handled by the PIA). Other systems utilizing the Atari POKEY chip: - 40 production coin-operated arcade games released by Atari or Atari Games, from Missile Command (June 1980) to Tetris and Vindicators Part II (both released February 1989). (Thanks to Laurent Delsarte for the list.) - Centuri Tunnel Hunt, coin-operated arcade game licensed from Atari - Atari 5200 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop - Atari Ballblazer and Commando cartridges for the Atari 7800 POKEY Technical documentation by Atari: http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/pokey.pdf FREDDIE -- 800XL(late),XE(all):C061922/C061991 ======= According to Atari's design specification, the "Freddie RAM" Memory Control Unit (MCU) is a custom LSI chip providing dynamic RAM (DRAM) control functions. It replaces a number of small-scale integration (SSI) and medium- scale integration (MSI) transistor-transistor logic (TTL) parts, including a custom delay line. FREDDIE multiplexes 16-bit RAM addresses from the processor bus into 8-bit row and 8-bit column addresses for direct use in the DRAM, and it generates row and column DRAM address timing strobes. FREDDIE was initially designed by Atari Inc. in 1983 as chip that would cut production costs for future XL computers. FREDDIE was finally incorporated into late-production 800XL computers and in all XE computer systems. "FREDDIE" or "FREDDY"? Atari technical documentation consistently uses "FREDDIE" while Atari consumer documentation (Owner's Manuals for all XE systems) consistently uses "FREDDY." This FAQ List adopts the convention from Atari's technical documentation: "FREDDIE" FREDDIE technical documentation by Atari: www.atarimuseum.com/ahs_archives/archives/pdf/computers/8bits/freddie-mcu.pdf 6520 PIA -- MOS Technology MCS6520A or equivalent: C012298 or C014795 ======== The 8-bit Atari uses the MOS Technology MCS6520A or equivalent as a peripheral interface adapter (PIA). The 6520 is itself a clone of the earlier Motorola MC6820 PIA. MCS6520A equivalents shipped in Atari computers include: Synertek P6520A (C012298), Rockwell R6520-13 / R6520AP, Rockwell R6520-25 (C014795), Rockwell R6520-26 (C014795), California Micro Devices (CMD) G65SC21P-2 (C014795), Hitachi HD68B21P Manuals from Atari: - Hardware Manual - (c)1980 edition, 10/80 - BLUE title page (printings with line-printed title page include date imprint; printing with Atari logo on title page lacks date) - Section VI.C. Schematics is published single-sided. - Pages B-10 and B-11 (Memory Configurations) are hand-drawn. - Included in earlier printings of C016555, entitled: Atari Personal Computer System Operating System User's Manual and Hardware Manual (official nickname: "Technical User's Notes"), including printings dated: November 1980 (orange cover page), August 1981 (cover page??), January 1982 (yellow cover page) - (c)1982 edition. Identical to the 10/80 edition except: - BEIGE title page (with Atari logo) - Section VI.C. Schematics is published double-sided. - Pages B-10 and B-11 (Memory Configurations) are machine-produced. - Included in C016555 Rev. A (1982) entitled: Technical Reference Notes (blue cover page with Atari logo) - De Re Atari: A Guide to Effective Programming APX-90008 / C060070 (CO60070) http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/ (c1982) ------------------------------ Subject: 1.13) Why do the ANTIC Modes start with "Mode 2", what about 0 or 1? This section started by: Laurent Delsarte. Thanks also to Alphasys. Actually, the ANTIC graphic mode numbers are directly used as instructions in Display Lists (DL), to request the display of several lines of a specific text or graphic mode. For instance, the instruction "2" (for "Mode 2") in an ANTIC Display List requests 8 scan lines of "text 0". But the instructions "0" and "1" already have other meanings in an ANTIC Display List program: "0" means "display one blank line" "1" means "jump to location" and to be comprehensive, 16 (hex: 10), also means something special: "16" means "display two blank lines" Consequently, the first ANTIC mode is the "Mode 2", and the last one is "Mode 15". Here is the context of the full ANTIC display list instruction set: Instruction BASIC Scan Pixels Bytes Comments Decimal Hex mode lines line line Blank Line instructions 0 0 -- 1 -- -- 1 blank line 16 10 -- 2 -- -- 2 blank lines 32 20 -- 3 -- -- 3 blank lines 48 30 -- 4 -- -- 4 blank lines 64 40 -- 5 -- -- 5 blank lines 80 50 -- 6 -- -- 6 blank lines 96 60 -- 7 -- -- 7 blank lines 112 70 -- 8 -- -- 8 blank lines Character Mode instructions (text modes) 2 2 0 8 40 40 3 3 -- 10 40 40 Not supported by OS 4 4 12 8 40 40 Not supported by 400/800 OS 5 5 13 16 40 40 Not supported by 400/800 OS 6 6 1 8 20 20 7 7 2 16 20 20 Map Mode instructions (graphics modes) 8 8 3 8 40 10 9 9 4 4 80 10 10 A 5 4 80 20 11 B 6 2 160 20 12 C 14 1 160 20 Not supported by 400/800 OS 13 D 7 2 160 40 14 E 15 1 160 40 Not supported by 400/800 OS 15 F 8 1 320 40 Jump instructions (three bytes long) 1 1 -- -- -- -- JMP -- jump to location (creates one blank line on display) 65 41 -- -- -- -- JVB -- jump and wait until end of next vertical blank (VBLANK) Optional Modifiers to the above Character or Map Mode instructions: add add decimal hex bit Vertical scroll 16 10 4 Horizontal scroll 32 20 5 LMS Load Memory Scan 64 40 6 Optional Modifier to the above Blank Line or Jump instructions: DLI Display List Interrupt 128 80 7 More details of ANTIC display list programming can be found in the book "Mapping the Atari", Appendix 8 http://www.atariarchives.org/mapping/appendix8.php and also in the book "De Re Atari", Chapters 2, 5 and 6 http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt02.php ANTIC and the display list http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt05.php Display List Interrupts http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt06.php Scrolling ------------------------------ Subject: 1.14) What is the internal hardware arrangement of the 8-bit Atari? +---------+ +-+ +---------+ | 6502 | |p| | ANTIC +-<--- Controller Ports: Light Pen/Light Gun | MPU +---+ +-----+ | +---------+ |r| +-+-------+ +- Controller Ports: Triggers | | +->-+ +---<-+ (Joystick/Driving/Trackball Triggers) +---------+ |o| +-----+-+-+-<--- Console Switches (Start/Select/Option) | RAM +---+ | |CTIA/GTIA+--->- Picture Output (to TV/Monitor) |---------| |c+-----+ /FGTIA +--->- Sound Output (to TV/Monitor) | 8-48KiB | | | +-----+---+--->- Keyboard Speaker / to Sound Output | /64KiB | |e| +->-+ | /128KiB | | | +-+-------+ +---------+ |s| | POKEY +-<--- Keyboard | +-----+ +-<--- Controller Ports: Potentiometers +---------+ |s| +-------+-+ (Paddles, Touch Tablet) | ROM +->-+ | +-<SIO>+ Program Recorder |---------| |o| +-------+-+ | + Disk Drives | OS | | | | 6520 | | + Printers |10/14KiB | |r+-----+ PIA | | + Modem |---------| | | +-------+-+ | + 850 Interface | BASIC | | | | +->- to Sound Output | 8KiB | |b| | |---------| | | +------+ Controller Ports: Data Bits (Joysticks, | Missile | |u| Paddle Triggers, Light Pen Button, | Command | | | Driving, Touch Tablet Buttons, | 8KiB | |s| Trackballs, Light Gun Trigger, XEP80) |---------| +-+-----------<PBI/ECI>+ 1064 Memory Module (600XL) (48KiB RAM) |cartridge+-----------------------<--- Left Cartridge (8KiB/16KiB ROM) | 0-16KiB +-----------------------<--- Right Cartridge (8KiB ROM) +---------+ NOTES * 6502 MPU: Most NTSC 400/800: MOS Technology MCS6502A or equivalent Late NTSC 400/800, all PAL 400/800, and all XL/XE: Atari SALLY * ROM: 400/800: 10KiB (OS) 1200XL: 14KiB (OS) 600XL/800XL/65XE/130XE/800XE: 22KiB (14KiB OS + 8KiB Atari BASIC) XEgs: 30KiB (14KiB OS + 8KiB Atari BASIC + 8KiB Missile Command) * RAM: 400: 8KiB or 16KiB, or 48KiB with 48K RAM Expansion Kit 800: 8KiB-48KiB using 1-3 CX852 8K RAM or CX853 16K RAM Memory Modules 600XL: 16KiB, or 64KiB with 1064 Memory Module 1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEgs: 64KiB 130XE: 128KiB * CTIA: Earlier NTSC 400/800 GTIA: Later NTSC 400/800 and all NTSC/PAL XL/XE FGTIA: SECAM XL/XE * Right Cartridge: 800 only * Controller Ports: 400/800 have 4; XL/XE have 2 * Controller Port Triggers: Not connected to ANTIC on jacks 1-3 on the 400 * Keyboard Speaker: 400/800: An internal physical speaker XL/XE: Intergrated with Sound output to TV/Monitor * PBI: 600XL/800XL only * ECI: 130XE/65XE(later)/800XE only ------------------------------ Subject: 1.15) Who designed the Atari 8-bit computers? Section credits: Jerry Jessop, Scott Emmons, http://www.digitpress.com/, http://www.atarimuseum.com/, Mike Albaugh Interviewed by Dag Spicer, CHM Reference number: X5963.2011 Atari Inc. -Business is Fun, pp. 496, 504. www.ataribook.com http://www.atarimuseum.com/articles/joedecuir.html http://dougneubauer.com/atari/#headnumber3 http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/access/text/2011/10/ 102743036-05-01-acc.pdf Special thanks: Mr. Doug Neubauer (via James Finnegan); Mr. Gregg Squires Atari 400/800 hardware engineers: Jay G. Miner - Project Chief Engineer, original concepts Joseph C. Decuir - Original concepts, overall system design, ANTIC design Larry Kaplan - Contributed to original concepts by Miner/Decuir (also co-wrote the Atari OS and wrote Video Easel and Super Breakout) Steven T. Mayer - Overall system design Ronald E. Milner - Overall system design Francois Michel - ANTIC logic design George McLeod - CTIA and GTIA logic design Douglas G. Neubauer - POKEY logic design (also wrote Star Raiders) Scott Shiffman - System integration Alan Miller - RAM selection, serial protocol, device communications (also co-wrote the Atari OS and wrote Basketball) Howard Bornstein - System monitor/resident firmware Michael Albaugh - Lobbied Miner/Decuir for upper/lower case character set and display list interrupts; consulted on SIO issues Mark Shieu - POKEY chip design Steve Stone - POKEY layout design Steve Smith - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA Delwin Pearson - Technician for POKEY Kevin P. McKinsey - 800 case design Hugh M. Lee - 800 case design Jeffery O. Nelson - 400 case design Douglas A. Hardy - 400 case design Atari 1200XL/600XL/800XL hardware engineers: Ajay Chopra - Atari Sweet 16 Home Computer Specifications Dave Sovey - ? Larry Plummer - Director of Engineering, Home Computer Division Regan Cheng - 1200XL/600XL/800XL case designs ? - FREDDIE ? - FGTIA At Atari's Research Laboratory in New York City (early 1200XL design): Steven T. Mayer - Laboratory Director Gregg Squires - Project Manager (previously of Racal-Vikonics) Robert (Bob) Card - Principal Engineer (previously of Racal-Vikonics) Steven Ray - Critical Electronics Layout Designer (previously of Racal-Vikonics) Joel Moskowitz - Mechanical Engineer Philippe des Rioux - Project engineer Glenn Boles - Project engineer Henry Dreyfuss Associates - Early case design concepts Risa Rosenberg - Secretary to Gregg Squires Atari Corp. 800XL/65XE/130XE/800XE/XEgs hardware engineers: Jose A. Valdes - 800XL/65XE/130XE/800XE/XEgs development engineer Ira Velinsky - 65XE/130XE/800XE/XEgs industrial design (case design) Atari Operating System designers and programmers are given elsewhere in this FAQ List. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.16) What issues surround NTSC vs. PAL vs. SECAM computer versions? Some quick definitions first: NTSC: "National Television Standards Committee" TV signal standard used in North America, Central America, a number of South American countries, and some Asian countries, including Japan. o 525 lines per frame o 60 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 60Hz o Complete frame refreshed 30 times per second PAL: "Phase Alternation by Line" TV signal standard used in the United Kingdom, most of the rest of Europe, several South American countries, some Middle East and Asian countries, several African countries, Australia, New Zealand, and other Pacific island countries. o 625 lines per frame o 50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50Hz o Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second. SECAM: "Sequentiel couleur avec memoire" TV signal standard still used in France, the former USSR, and some African countries. Until the 1980s SECAM was the standard in eastern Europe, including East Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. o 625 lines per frame o 50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50Hz o Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second. While the above draws a clear distinction between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, a further discussion of the NTSC/PAL/SECAM color encoding systems will help to distinguish between all three standards. =-=-=-=-= This discussion by Laurent Delsarte (2008.12) (with minor edits by mc). First of all, it is important to remind that NTSC, PAL and SECAM are all color encoding systems. They are used in conjunction with older standards for the base monochrome signals--the old standards that were used when all the TV sets were still black & white. In other words, the first televisions standards, referenced with letters (M/B/G/I/K/etc.), were used to broadcast pure monochrome, black & white images. The NTSC, PAL and SECAM standards were then introduced to add a specific color signal to colorize this pure monochrome signal. When the color was introduced, the idea was to remain compatible with the existing old black & white TV sets, so that these old black & white TV sets would still continue to be able to display the image (but in black & white, obviously). In the television world, the black & white image, also known as the monochrome signal, is called the "luminance" ("Y" for short); whilst the color information is called the "chrominance" ("C" for short). For every dot defining the image, the "luminance" states how intense (ranging from pure black to pure white) the dot is. For every dot defining the image, the "chrominance" states what is the color of the dot (within the limit of the color palette that the color standard allows). In the Atari 8-Bit world, the "luminance" notion can be understood if you use the standard Graphics mode 9: you have just one color at your disposal (say, white), and all you can do is draw graphics using 16 intensities of white (ranging from pure black to pure white). And the "chrominance" notion can be understood if you use the standard Graphics mode 11: you have 16 colors at your disposal, but they all have the same intensity. You control the color, but not the brightness of the color. To display a black & white image, the "luminance" ("Y") signal is enough. To display a color image, the "luminance" ("Y") and the "chrominance" ("C") signals are needed. When a black & white TV set receives a color signal, it uses the "Y" signal as usual and remains unaware of the existence of the "C" signal. When a color TV set receives the same color signal, it processes both "Y" & "C". In practice, the chrominance ("C") is transmitted with two separate signals, "U" and "V". Now you probably recognize the familiar "YUV" acronym you've surely seen in discussions related to TV signals. To simplify, PAL & SECAM signals are quite similar, except that they use a different way to transmit the "U" & "V" signals ("chrominance"). PAL transmits "U" & "V" together, then the same "U" & "V" information again but slightly differently, to increase the accuracy. SECAM transmits "U" then "V". The way that PAL vs. SECAM handle color is thus very different but since the black & white TV standards were quite similar across Europe (625 lines / 50 Hz), a PAL TV set is very likely to be able to display a SECAM video signal (and the other way around), but in black & white (because it can decode "Y" but not "U" nor "V"). The situation is totally different with NTSC vs. PAL. Although they are very similar in the way they handle color, they are based on totally different black & white TV standards (625 lines/50Hz for PAL, 525 lines/60Hz for NTSC). You have to remember that, by design, the 50Hz & 60Hz display refresh frequencies were based on the mains (household electric power supply) frequencies: 120V 60Hz in USA and 220V-240V 50Hz in Europe. Up to the mid-80s, devices that were able to handle both 50Hz & 60Hz video signals were very expensive. Nowadays (2009), almost any PAL TV set is able to display a 60Hz NTSC video signal. While it is often enough to distinguish between NTSC/PAL/SECAM, in practice each color encoding system has been combined with multiple earlier monochrome broadcast standards. Thus, to fully specify the broadcast signal standard used in any given country, both color system and base monochrome system is indicated. Common examples: NTSC M, PAL B/G, SECAM L. A more complete list: NTSC M : USA NTSC J : Japan PAL B/G : Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, Netherlands, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Algeria, Turkey, Ghana, India, Israel, New-Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Thailand, etc. PAL I : United Kingdom, Ireland, Hong Kong. PAL D/K : Romania, China, Burundi, Cameroun, etc. PAL M : Brazil. PAL N : Argentina, Uruguay. SECAM L/L': France, Monaco SECAM B/G : Greece, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, etc. SECAM D/K : Bulgaria, C.E.I., DOM TOM, etc. In France (Europe), in the early 80s, it was possible to buy "SECAM" devices (TV set, VCR, etc...) or "PAL/SECAM" devices; the latter - being able to process both SECAM and PAL signals - were more expensive. For instance, "PAL/SECAM" TV sets were popular among movies addicts (owning high end equipment such as PAL LaserDisc players, etc) and for people living close to a PAL-broadcasting country (at the Belgian border for instance, to receive the PAL Belgian French-speaking programs). Last but not least, some companies did manufacture some PAL-to-RGB "video translators" devices, to convert a PAL signal into a universal RGB signal, that most SECAM TV sets were able to accept as video input. These PAL-to-RGB "video translators" were quite useful to display PAL signals (from various home computers, including PAL Atari XL & PAL Commodore 64) on SECAM TV sets. The models manufactured by "CGV" (the company still exists, www.cgv.fr) were very popular and widely available in the computer shops. (actual pictures available: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/cgv-pvp80.zip ) Consequently, in 1984, Atari France was not afraid to distribute PAL 600XL & 800XL computers in a SECAM country (although it could increase the total cost of the solution). Indeed, it would have been dangerous to ignore this market, where other US competitors were already present and successful (Commodore 64, Apple II, etc). The French owners of the PAL Atari XL computers had two choices: - Use a PAL/SECAM TV set - Buy a PAL-to-RGB converter, and use a common SECAM TV set A couple of months later (Q4, 1984), the SECAM Atari 800XL computers were finally available. It is worth noting that in the early 80s the Atari 400 and 800 models had also both been officially distributed in France, but only the PAL models, and only in specialized computers shops. Consequently, they were more difficult to acquire, very expensive and limited to wealthy amateurs. =-=-=-=-= Piotr Fusik writes (3/06): In Poland we had PAL Ataris, which was a problem in the time of SECAM. You could connect a PAL Atari to a SECAM TV, but there was no color and (IIRC) no sound. The solution was to buy an inexpensive converter mounted inside the TV, so the TV supported PAL in addition to SECAM. This was quite popular, because the VCRs were PAL, too. =-=-=-=-= In some ways the specifications of the hardware in the 8-bit Atari computer are closely linked to the specifications of the television signal standard used in the market where the machine was designed to be used. Thus there were different versions of the Atari computers produced for different markets, based on the TV standards used in those markets: NTSC versions: 400,800,1200XL,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XEgs PAL B versions: 400,800,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XEgs PAL I versions: 400,800,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XEgs SECAM versions: 800XL,130XE,XEgs NTSC computers contain NTSC versions of the ANTIC and CTIA/GTIA chips; PAL computers contain PAL versions of the ANTIC and GTIA chips; SECAM computers contain a PAL version of the ANTIC chip, and the FGTIA chip. =-=-=-=-= So with all that out of the way... What are the software compatibility issues surrounding all these different NTSC/PAL-B/PAL-I/SECAM versions of the Atari 8-bit computers? -- PAL B and PAL I computers differ only in the TV channel frequencies used by the RF signal produced. So in terms of sofware compatibility, all PAL Atari computers are indistinguishable. -- The FGTIA is designed to be 100% software compatible with the PAL GTIA. This fact, along with the fact that SECAM computer models include a PAL ANTIC, mean that the PAL and SECAM versions of the Atari computers are completely software compatible, but with one practical exception: in GTIA Graphics Mode 1 (BASIC Graphics mode 9), while the GTIA can display 16 distinct luminances, the FGTIA can only display 8 distinct luminances. Thus the situation essentially simplifies down to just two sets of Atari computers that may have potential software compatibility issues between them: NTSC computers vs. PAL/SECAM computers =-=-=-=-= What might happen if you run a software program designed with an NTSC Atari on a PAL or SECAM Atari, or a program designed with a PAL or SECAM Atari on an NTSC Atari? There are a number of possibilities: 1) The program may run faster or slower than intended. In order to work with the different timings of the NTSC and PAL/SECAM video signal standards, components of the NTSC versions of the Atari computers run at slightly different speeds than they due on PAL/SECAM Atari computers. The CPU clock rate of the PAL/SECAM Atari computer is slightly slower than that of the NTSC Atari: NTSC machines: 1.7897725MHz PAL/SECAM machines: 1.7734470MHz Software timing that is based exclusively on the CPU clock rate would thus run nearly 1% faster/slower on the opposite type of Atari. This effect, while small, can be significant in applications that are computation- or timing- sensitive, such as music players, or in any programs designed to simulate real time. The screen refresh rate of the PAL/SECAM Atari computer is considerably slower than that of the NTSC Atari: NTSC machines: 59.94Hz PAL/SECAM machines: 49.86Hz Software that operates as a Vertical Blank Interrupt (VBI), that is, software that is repeatedly executed during the times between screen frame refreshes, is thus executed at considerably different frequencies on NTSC machines vs. PAL/SECAM machines. Based on this effect alone, a VBI programmed on an NTSC machine would run 16.8% slower on PAL/SECAM machines. Conversely, a VBI programmed on a PAL/SECAM machine would run 20.2% faster on NTSC machines. (59.94Hz-49.86Hz=10.08Hz ; 10.08Hz/59.94Hz=16.8% ; 10.08Hz/49.86Hz=20.2%) These calculations ignore the above-mentioned CPU clock rate differences, which would also come into play. 2) The program may exhibit some sort of "screen flickering" effect. The ANTIC display list is the software program responsible for the video display, horizontal scan line by horizontal scan line. There are 262 lines available in the (non-interlaced) NTSC video signal, while there are 312 lines available in the (non-interlaced) PAL/SECAM video signal. If software written on a PAL/SECAM machine sets up an ANTIC display list that is made up of more scan lines than are available in the NTSC video standard, the program will exhibit a "screen flickering" effect if run on the NTSC Atari. 3) The system may crash. NTSC and PAL/SECAM machines have different numbers of machine cycles available for execution of software routines designed as vertical blank interrupts (VBIs). An Immediate VBI must complete execution within the number of machine cycles available during the vertical blank time: NTSC: 2508 machine cycles (262 NTSC scanlines - 240 Atari scanlines) * 114 cycles/scanline PAL/SECAM: 8208 machine cycles (312 PAL/SECAM scanlines - 240 Atari scanlines) * 114 cycles/scanline 8208 - 2508 = 5700 PAL/SECAM machines have a total of 5700 more machine cycles available for Immediate VBIs than are available on NTSC machines. A Deferred VBI must complete execution within the number of machine cycles available from one vertical blank to the next. The number of machine cycles available for a Deferred VBI depends upon the ANTIC Display List in use, but the upper limit may be derived from the total number of machine cycles per frame: NTSC: 29859 machine cycles / frame PAL/SECAM: 35568 machine cycles / frame 35568 - 29859 = 5709 PAL/SECAM machines could have as many as 5709 more machine cycles available for Deferred VBIs than are available on NTSC machines. If there are not enough machine cycles available on an NTSC machine to execute a VBI that was developed on a PAL/SECAM machine, the NTSC system will crash. 4) The colors displayed by the program are not what was intended. When utilizing ANTIC graphics modes 2, 3, or 15, NTSC Atari computers exhibit unique color artifacting effects that are not present on PAL/SECAM Atari computers. (Artifacting is discussed elsewhere in this FAQ list.) As a result, software that utilizes one of these high-resolution graphics modes can appear to be using very different colors on NTSC machines in comparison to PAL/SECAM machines. Also, the additional color frequency generation circuitry present in PAL/SECAM machines produces a color palette that is similar to, though different from, the color palette of NTSC Atari computers. These differences are subtle enough that they are generally not problematic. 5) The program may explicitly refuse to run on incorrect hardware. Software may be designed to determine whether the Atari is NTSC or PAL/SECAM, and refuse to run if the hardware present does not match what is expected. 6) The program may not load correctly at all. This would mostly likely result from copy protection techniques based upon precise hardware timing associated with disk drives, cassette recorders, or components of the computer itself, where the timing was not anticipated to vary depending upon NTSC vs. PAL/SECAM hardware. According to Jindroush (2/26/02), two examples of programs that run on NTSC machines but not PAL/SECAM machines as a result of timing-based copy protection techniques (probably based on vblank timing) are Transylvania and The Quest, both by Penguin Software. 7) The program may run fine on both NTSC and PAL/SECAM machines. Either the differences are too slight to matter, or the software may be sophisticated enough to detect NTSC vs. PAL/SECAM hardware, as described above, and act accordingly. An example of a program that alters its behavior depending upon detection of NTSC versus PAL/SECAM is Ghostbusters by Activision (checks the GTIA type). =-=-=-=-=-=-= How can software determine whether it is running on NTSC or PAL/SECAM hardware? Several techniques are available to programmers, as follows: (1) The XL/XE OS (not the 400/800 OS) provides a flag called PALNTS at decimal memory location 98 (hex: $62). PALNTS indicates whether the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA has reported itself to be NTSC or PAL/SECAM, where 0 means NTSC, or 1 means PAL/SECAM. In Atari BASIC, enter "? PEEK(98)" to determine the value of the PALNTS flag. (2) An approach which works on all 400/800/XL/XE systems is to use the same method used by the XL/XE OS to set the value of the PALNTS flag described above. That is, to read and interpret the "PAL" memory flag, decimal location 53268 (hex: $D014). The value of PAL is provided by the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA chip itself. Meanings are: Bit 1-3 clear (xxxx000x) = PAL/SECAM Bit 1-3 set (xxxx111x) = NTSC (Proper interpretation of the value returned by PEEK(53268) in Atari BASIC would thus be a bit of a programming challenge. This is left to the reader!) (3) Software may determine NTSC or PAL/SECAM by determining how many scan lines are being generated by ANTIC. This is done by monitoring the VCOUNT memory register. VCOUNT (54283 decimal, $D40B hex) is used by ANTIC to keep track of which line is currently being generated on the screen. Values reflect the line count divided by two. VCOUNT values range from zero to 130 for an NTSC ANTIC (131*2=262 scan lines), while VCOUNT values range from zero to 155 for a PAL ANTIC (156*2=312 scan lines). =-=-=-=-=-=-= Bottom line: Software written for NTSC machines (North America) will (almost) always work on PAL/SECAM machines (Europe), but software designed on PAL/SECAM machines sometimes won't work as intended on NTSC machines. Replacing the NTSC ANTIC chip in an NTSC Atari with a PAL ANTIC changes the screen refresh rate to 50Hz, allowing most of the PAL/SECAM-only European software to run on a North American NTSC Atari. However, make sure your display device can support a 50Hz PAL signal first! North American Atari users might also obtain and use real European PAL or SECAM Atari machines, with the same caveat concerning the display device. ------------------------------ Subject: 1.17) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari? Controller Port 1 (male jack)(all machines): 1 5 o o o o o o o o o 6 9 1. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 0 - Joystick #1 Forward/Up - Driving Controller #1 Bit 0 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #1 X Direction (high=right low=left) - Touch Tablet #1 Stylus Button - Light Pen Button - Light Gun Trigger 2. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 1 - Joystick #1 Back/Down - Driving Controller #1 Bit 1 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #1 X Motion (square wave) 3. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 2 - Joystick #1 Left - Trackball #1 Y Direction (high=down low=up) - Touch Tablet #1 Left Button - Paddle #1 Trigger 4. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 3 - Joystick #1 Right - Trackball #1 Y Motion (square wave) - Touch Tablet #1 Right Button - Paddle #2 Trigger 5. Potentiometer Scan 1 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #2 Position - Touch Tablet #1 Vertical Position 6. Trigger 0 - Joystick #1 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Driving Controller #1 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Trackball #1 Triggers/Buttons (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Light Pen/Light Gun Read (ANTIC)(not connected on 400) 7. +5V 8. Ground 9. Potentiometer Scan 0 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #1 Position - Touch Tablet #1 Horizontal Position Controller Port 2 (male jack)(all machines): 1 5 o o o o o o o o o 6 9 1. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 4 - Joystick #2 Forward/Up - Driving Controller #2 Bit 0 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #2 X Direction (high=right low=left) - Touch Tablet #2 Stylus Button - Light Pen Button - Light Gun Trigger 2. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 5 - Joystick #2 Back/Down - Driving Controller #2 Bit 1 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #2 X Motion (square wave) 3. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 6 - Joystick #2 Left - Trackball #2 Y Direction (high=down low=up) - Touch Tablet #2 Left Button - Paddle #3 Trigger 4. PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 7 - Joystick #2 Right - Trackball #2 Y Motion (square wave) - Touch Tablet #2 Right Button - Paddle #4 Trigger 5. Potentiometer Scan 3 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #4 Position - Touch Tablet #2 Vertical Position 6. Trigger 1 - Joystick #2 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Driving Controller #2 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Trackball #2 Triggers/Buttons (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Light Pen/Light Gun Read (ANTIC)(not connected on 400) 7. +5V 8. Ground 9. Potentiometer Scan 2 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #3 Position - Touch Tablet #2 Horizontal Position Controller Port 3 (male jack)(400/800 only): 1 5 o o o o o o o o o 6 9 1. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 0 - Joystick #3 Forward/Up - Driving Controller #3 Bit 0 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #3 X Direction (high=right low=left) - Touch Tablet #3 Stylus Button - Light Pen Button - Light Gun Trigger 2. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 1 - Joystick #3 Back/Down - Driving Controller #3 Bit 1 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #3 X Motion (square wave) 3. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 2 - Joystick #3 Left - Trackball #3 Y Direction (high=down low=up) - Touch Tablet #3 Left Button - Paddle #5 Trigger 4. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 3 - Joystick #3 Right - Trackball #3 Y Motion (square wave) - Touch Tablet #3 Right Button - Paddle #6 Trigger 5. Potentiometer Scan 5 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #6 Position - Touch Tablet #3 Vertical Position 6. Trigger 2 - Joystick #3 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Driving Controller #3 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Trackball #3 Triggers/Buttons (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Light Pen/Light Gun Read (ANTIC)(not connected on 400) 7. +5V 8. Ground 9. Potentiometer Scan 4 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #5 Position - Touch Tablet #3 Horizontal Position Controller Port 4 (male jack)(400/800 only): 1 5 o o o o o o o o o 6 9 1. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 4 - Joystick #4 Forward/Up - Driving Controller #4 Bit 0 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #4 X Direction (high=right low=left) - Touch Tablet #4 Stylus Button - Light Pen Button - Light Gun Trigger 2. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 5 - Joystick #4 Back/Down - Driving Controller #4 Bit 1 (of 2-bit Gray code) - Trackball #4 X Motion (square wave) 3. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 6 - Joystick #4 Left - Trackball #4 Y Direction (high=down low=up) - Touch Tablet #4 Left Button - Paddle #7 Trigger 4. PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 7 - Joystick #4 Right - Trackball #4 Y Motion (square wave) - Touch Tablet #4 Right Button - Paddle #8 Trigger 5. Potentiometer Scan 7 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #8 Position - Touch Tablet #4 Vertical Position 6. Trigger 3 - Joystick #4 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Driving Controller #4 Trigger (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Trackball #4 Triggers/Buttons (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA) - Light Pen/Light Gun Read (ANTIC) 7. +5V 8. Ground 9. Potentiometer Scan 6 (POKEY) (returns values from 228 to 1) - Paddle #7 Position - Touch Tablet #4 Horizontal Position Serial I/O (SIO) / Peripheral port (male jack)(all machines): 2 12 o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 13 1. Clock Input (POKEY) 8. Motor Control (PIA) 2. Clock Output (POKEY) 9. /Proceed (PIA) 3. Data Input (POKEY) 10. +5V/Ready (true = 1mA maximum) 50mA current rating (OS Manual p146) 1200XL exception: 1mA current rating only 4. Ground 11. Audio Input 5. Data Output (POKEY) 12. 400/800: +12V ("of unknown current rating") XL/XE: Not Connected 6. Ground 13. /Interrupt (PIA) 7. /Command (PIA) Some features of the proprietary Atari SIO bus: (some of this from the OS User's Manual, pp. 145-148) - The Atari computer has one SIO port (managed by POKEY). - Most Atari-specific peripherals include 2 identical SIO ports. - Multiple SIO devices may be connected to the Atari via the SIO bus "daisy-chain" -- that is, a second SIO device is connected to one of the 2 identical SIO ports of the first SIO device, and the first SIO device is connected to the computer via its other SIO port. Any Atari SIO device that only has one SIO port must be connected to the system at the end of the SIO daisy chain. - There are no pin reassignments made in the Serial bus cable, so pin 3, the computer's Data In line, is the peripheral's data output line; and similarly for pin 5. - Peripherals with 2 SIO ports allow all signals and power to pass through on the SIO bus, whether or not the peripheral is powered on. - The Atari OS supports asynchronous SIO communication at 19,200 baud - Data is transmitted and received as 8 bits of serial data preceded by a logic zero start bit and succeeded by a logic one stop bit. - All bus commands must originate from the computer; Peripherals will present data on the bus only when commanded to. - Every bus operation will go to completion before another bus operation is initiated (no overlap). - An error detected at any point in the command sequence will abort the entire sequence. - Three types of SIO bus protocol commands: 1) Data send, 2) Data receive, 3) Immediate (no data -- command only) - The Atari OS does not utilize the lines: Clock Input, /Proceed, /Interrupt Monitor port (female jack): (all but 400, NTSC 600XL, SECAM 800XL, 3 o o 1 SECAM 130XE, XEgs) o o 5 o 4 2 1. Composite Luminance (except PAL 600XL: Not Connected) 2. Ground 3. Audio Output 4. Composite Video 5. Composite Chrominance (except 1200XL: Not Connected; PAL 600XL: Ground; all but very late-production 800XL: Not Connected) Monitor port (female jack)(SECAM 800XL, SECAM 130XE, SECAM XEgs): 5 1 1. +12V 5mA max (Select - held at +5V to cause the TV to o 6 o switch to this video source) o 2. Audio (High Level - amplitude about 6 x regular Audio - o o unused by Atari-distributed SCART/Peritel cable) 4 o 2 3. Audio 3 4. Composite Video 5. Ground (common for audio & video) 6. +5V 100mA max (UHF power modulator - unused by Atari-distributed SCART/Peritel cable) The standard video cable provided by Atari France with SECAM 800XL, 130XE and XE System console units has the male 6-pin DIN on one end, and a standard male SCART/Peritel connector on the other end, with this pinout: 2. Audio (right channel, from port pin #3) _20_________________2_ 4. Ground (for audio, from port pin #5) \ o o o o o o o o o o | 6. Audio (left channel, from port pin #3) (21)\ o o o o o o o o o o| 8. +5V (Select, from port pin #1) 19------------------1 17. Ground (for video, from port pin #5) 20. Composite video (from port pin #4) Power (female jack)(all but 400,800,1200XL): 7 6 1. +5V o o 2. Shield 3 o o 1 3. Ground o o 4. +5V 5 o 4 5. Ground 2 6. +5V 7. Ground Cartridge Slot (Left; present on all machines): A B C D E F H J K L M N P R S o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 15 1. /S4 (CSA) Select cartridge for A. 400: Not Connected. 800/XL/XE: $8000-$9FFF RD4 ROM Detected for $8000-$9FFF 2. A3 Address bus line 3 B. GND Ground 3. A2 Address bus line 2 C. A4 Address bus line 4 4. A1 Address bus line 1 D. A5 Address bus line 5 5. A0 Address bus line 0 E. A6 Address bus line 6 6. D4 Data bus line 4 F. A7 Address bus line 7 7. D5 Data bus line 5 H. A8 Address bus line 8 8. D2 Data bus line 2 J. A9 Address bus line 9 9. D1 Data bus line 1 K. A12 Address bus line 12 10. D0 Data bus line 0 L. D3 Data bus line 3 11. D6 Data bus line 6 M. D7 Data bus line 7 12. /S5 (CSB) Select cartridge N. A11 Address bus line 11 for $A000-$BFFF 13. +5V P. A10 Address bus line 10 14. 400: Not Connected. 800/XL/XE: R. 400/800/1200XL: RD5 ROM Detected for $A000-$BFFF R/WE Read/Write Early 600XL/800XL/XE: R/W Read/Write 15. /CCTL (Y5) Cartridge Control select S. 400/800: $D500-$D5FF RAS Row Address Strobe Time XL/XE: B02 Buffered Phase 2 Clock Right Cartridge Slot (800 only): A B C D E F H J K L M N P R S o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 15 1. R/W Late 1 - Read/Write Late 1 A. 02 Phase 2 clock 2. A3 Address bus line 3 B. GND Ground 3. A2 Address bus line 2 C. A4 Address bus line 4 4. A1 Address bus line 1 D. A5 Address bus line 5 5. A0 Address bus line 0 E. A6 Address bus line 6 6. D4 Data bus line 4 F. A7 Address bus line 7 7. D5 Data bus line 5 H. A8 Address bus line 8 8. D2 Data bus line 2 J. A9 Address bus line 9 9. D1 Data bus line 1 K. A12 Address bus line 12 10. D0 Data bus line 0 L. D3 Data bus line 3 11. D6 Data bus line 6 M. D7 Data bus line 7 12. /S4 Select cartridge ROM for N. A11 Address bus line 11 $8000-$9FFF 13. +5V P. A10 Address bus line 10 14. RD4 ROM Detected for $8000-$9FFF R. R/WE Read/Write Early 15. Y5 (/CCTL) Cartridge Control select S. RAS Row Address Strobe Time $D500-$D5FF Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only): 1 49 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 2 50 1. GND Ground 2. /EXTSEL External Select (Input) 3. A0 Address Line 0 (Output) 4. A1 Address Line 1 (Output) 5. A2 Address Line 2 (Output) 6. A3 Address Line 3 (Output) 7. A4 Address Line 4 (Output) 8. A5 Address Line 5 (Output) 9. A6 Address Line 6 (Output) 10. GND Ground 11. A7 Address Line 7 (Output) 12. A8 Address Line 8 (Output) 13. A9 Address Line 9 (Output) 14. A10 Address Line 10 (Output) 15. A11 Address Line 11 (Output) 16. A12 Address Line 12 (Output) 17. A13 Address Line 13 (Output) 18. A14 Address Line 14 (Output) 19. GND Ground 20. A15 Address Line 15 (Output) 21. D0 Data Line 0 (In/Out) 22. D1 Data Line 1 (In/Out) 23. D2 Data Line 2 (In/Out) 24. D3 Data Line 3 (In/Out) 25. D4 Data Line 4 (In/Out) 26. D5 Data Line 5 (In/Out) 27. D6 Data Line 6 (In/Out) 28. D7 Data Line 7 (In/Out) 29. GND Ground 30. GND Ground 31. B02 Buffered Phase 2 Clock (Out) 32. GND Ground 33. Reserved 34. /RST Reset (Output) 35. /IRQ Interrupt Request (Input) 36. RDY Ready (Input) 37. Reserved 38. EXTENB External Decoder Enable (Out) 39. Reserved 40. /REF Refresh (Output) 41. /CAS Column Address Strobe (Out) 42. GND Ground 43. /MPD Math Pack Disable (Input) 44. /RAS Row Address Strobe (Output) 45. GND Ground 46. LR/W Latched Read/Write (Output) 47. Reserved (600XL: +5V) 48. Reserved (600XL: +5V) 49. AUDIO Audio In (Input) 50. GND Ground Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI)/Expansion port (130XE, 800XE, & later 65XE) A B C D E F H o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 7 A. Reserved 1. /EXTSEL External Select (Input) B. /IRQ Interrupt Request (Input) 2. /RST Reset (Output) C. /HALT (Input) 3. /D1XX Select device ROM for $D1xx (Input) D. A13 Address Line 13 (Output) 4. /MPD Math Pack Disable (Input) E. A14 Address Line 14 (Output) 5. AUDIO Audio In (Input) F. A15 Address Line 15 (Output) 6. /REF Refresh (Output) H. GND Ground 7. +5V Keyboard Port (XE System Console only): 1 8 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 9 15 1. KR2 Keyboard Response 8. K2 Keyboard Scan 2. K3 Keyboard Scan 9. Ground 3. K4 Keyboard Scan 10. Not Connected 4. K5 Keyboard Scan 11. Ground 5. KR1 Keyboard Response 12. Not Connected 6. K0 Keyboard Scan 13. Trigger 2 7. K1 Keyboard Scan 14. 5V DC 15. 5V DC ------------------------------ Subject: 2.1) What video display devices and speakers can I use with my Atari? The Atari 8-bit computers produce a single video signal and monophonic audio. The 400/800 models also produce some sounds (primarily the keyclick and system buzzer sounds) by way of an internal speaker. Most 8-bit Atari computers put out their video and audio signals in two places: 1) Television cable (400/800) or jack (XL/XE except SECAM versions) This provides an analog Radio-Frequency (RF) signal carrying both video and audio. The Atari's RF signal may be used on a television that: - Supports use of an external RF antenna (normally for viewing over-the-air TV broadcasts) - Can decode an analog television signal (NTSC or PAL, matching the version of the computer) - Has a tuner that can additionally tune to the necessary TV channel(s) used by the Atari: - Domestic Atari computers (for NTSC television) use one of two television frequencies, selected with a physical switch located on the back (all but the 800) or side (800) of the computer: - 55.25MHz video/59.75MHz audio (TV Channel 2 in North America), or - 61.25MHz video/65.75MHz audio (TV Channel 3 in North America) - UK Atari computers (for PAL I television) use: - 591.25MHz video/597.25MHz audio (TV Channel 36 in the UK) - PAL Atari computers (for PAL B television) use: - 62.25MHz video/67.75MHz audio (TV Channel 4 in Western Europe, TV Channel 2 in Eastern Europe (approximately), or TV Channel 1 in Australia (approximately) If the television has a speaker then it should support the Atari's sound output as well. Television connection accessories: a) RF Cable / TV Video Cable, a proprietary cable for Atari XL/XE computers The input end is a phono plug that plugs into the Switch Box/ Television jack on the computer. The output end is a phono plug that plugs into the TV Switch Box. The 400/800 models have no Switch Box/Television jack. Instead, there is a cable that comes out of the back of the computer. This cable carries the RF signal. The output end is a phono plug that plugs into the TV Switch Box. b) TV Switch Box (CA014746, included with NTSC Atari computers) This includes a phono jack for RF signal input from the Atari, input connector(s) for your TV/cable/satellite antenna, and 75- and/or 300-ohm output connector(s) for connection to the antenna input on the television. While the display quality of the RF video signal may be adequate, the quality of the video provided at the Atari's Monitor port is noticeably superior. 2) Monitor port A proprietary 5-pin (NTSC/PAL except XE System console) or 6-pin (SECAM) DIN Monitor port, which along with the audio signal provides one or two video signals: a) Composite video - NTSC, PAL, or SECAM encoding, depending on the computer version b) Y/C Video, also known as S-Video - Separate composite luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals - NTSC or PAL encoding, depending on the computer version (Not provided on SECAM computer versions) The separate chrominance/luminance video signal is noticeably superior to both the RF television output and the composite video output. Monitor port exceptions among Atari computer models: - The 400, NTSC 600XL, and XE game system lack the Monitor port. - The SECAM 800XL, SECAM 130XE, and SECAM XE System console have a different, 6-pin Monitor port that provides composite video but not separate chrominance/luminance signals - The XE System console includes a phono Monitor Video Jack providing the composite video signal, and also a phono Monitor Audio Jack providing the audio signal. - The 1200XL (all), PAL 600XL (all), and 800XL (all but very late production) lack the separate chrominance signal at the Monitor port, and the PAL 600XL also lacks the separate luminance signal at the Monitor port. Any video display monitor that supports composite video input (this generally includes modern televisions) should be able to display the Atari's composite video signal. Monitors with built-in speakers for audio support, and monitors with support for separate chrominance/luminance video inputs, are preferred for use with the Atari. Commodore produced many monitors with separate chrominance and luminance inputs, making them popular with Atari users. Lonnie McClure provides this list of suitable Commodore monitors: 1701, 1702, 1802, CM-141, 1080, 2002, 1902, 1902A*, 1084**, 1084S** * The 1902A used a DIN connector for chrominance/luminance, which makes cabling a bit more of a problem. The composite and audio connectors are standard phono jacks, however. ** The 1084 and 1084S had more than one version. Some used the a DIN connector for chrominance/luminance connections, like the 1902A, while some used standard phono jacks. The 1902 and 1902A are very different in appearance. The original 1902 shares the same slightly rounded front case design as the 1080 and 2002, while the 1902A is has a rather square case design, and was manufactured by Magnavox (as were some of the 1084 and 1084S versions). The pinout for the Atari Monitor port is in the pinouts section of this FAQ list. The typical Atari monitor cable includes the male 5-pin DIN connector on one end, and two phono plugs on the other end. One of the phono plugs will carry the monophonic sound signal, and the other will carry the composite video signal. Atari's own CX89 Color Monitor Cable is of this type. You may find an Atari monitor cable where the video signal carried on the second phono plug is not the composite video signal, but is rather the composite luminance signal. These cables are for use with monochrome composite video monitors (usually green or amber). Atari's own CX82 Black and White Monitor Cable is of this type. The ideal Atari monitor cable includes 4 phono plugs at the output end, carrying the sound signal, the composite video signal, the composite luminance signal, and the composite chrominance signal. Only the best composite monitors include separate chrominance and luminance inputs. When the separate chrominance and luminance connectors are used, the composite video connector is not used. There is no real standard for colors for the different monitor cable connectors. It is safe to identify them by trial and error. The separate composite chrominance and luminance signals that the Atari puts out comprise what the world has since come to call Y/C video or S-video. S-video connectors are normally Mini4. It is possible to build a cable, or purchase several adapters, that can allow you to utilize the separate Y/C signals generated by the Atari with a television (or other display device) that provides a standard S-video Mini4 input jack. This is the ultimate display option for the 8-bit Atari. Clarence Dyson has a nice page about such a project at http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/svideo.html . A "video scaler" or "up-converter" is an adapter that will accept a lower- resolution input video signal such as RF, composite video, or s-video, and output a conversion of the signal as a standard, higher-resolution video signal. With such a device, the 8-bit Atari can be used with any modern television or monitor. Examples: - AV Toolbox manufactures several suitable adapters, listed at: http://www.avtoolbox.com/upconpage.shtml - Ambery markets their "Ultra Video to VGA Converter", see: http://www.ambery.com/vitoxgacoscs.html and other suitable, more expensive Video to VGA/RGBHV Converter Scalers: http://www.ambery.com/vitovgcosc.html - Earlier popular devices included: - Cheese Video Box from AV Toolbox - JAM!! from AIMS Lab Some people report good results viewing the Atari computer's video signal through a PC using a TV/video capture card. Wikipedia's article about such devices: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_capture_card SCART - an acronym for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorecepteurs et Televiseurs - is a 21-pin universal connecting cable/socket system used for audio/video components in Europe. The cables transmit RGB, composite video, S-Video, mono and stereo sound. SCART, which is also known as PERITEL, EURO AV BUS and EUROCONECTOR, is common throughout Europe, particularly in France, England, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. SCART is also very popular in the Russian Audio Video market. It is possible to interface the Atari's composite video signal, along with the audio signal. DGS sells such a cable, see: http://www.dgs.clara.net/ Two current sources for Atari monitor connectivity products: More Than Games produces "A8 A/V BOB", an audio/video breakout box featuring phono jacks for composite video, chrominance, luminance, and mono audio; it also features an s-video jack providing chrominance and luminance. http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0101.htm Vintage Computer Cables produces Atari monitor cables designed for use with televisions, plus an Atari S-Video cable. http://www.vintagecomputercables.com/ ------------------------------ Subject: 2.2) What were the Atari XC1411 and XM128 monitors? The Atari XC1411 monitor was shown at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. It was to be a 14" color composite video monitor, with built-in speaker, styled to match the Atari XE computers. The prototypes had two phono jacks, one for composite video and one for sound, and were in the same case as the original Goldstar-produced Atari SC1224 monitor for Atari ST computers. The XC1411 was never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. The Atari XM128 monitor was shown at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. It was to be a 12" green monochrome monitor, styled to match the Atari XE computers, suitable for high-resolution 80-column text display. The XM128 was never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. ------------------------------ Subject: 2.3) What is artifacting? The term TV artifacts refers to a spot or "pixel" on the screen that displays a different color than the one assigned to it. --De Re Atari, p. D-1 There are two different types of artifacting associated with the Atari. The first type is considerably more intuitive. Color cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer displays generate color by exciting red, green, and blue phosphors arranged in either an aperture grille pattern (vertical wires) or a shadow mask pattern (triads of dots). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture_grille http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow_mask The density of the phosphors defines the "dot pitch" of the display device. If a video signal source defines a spot or pixel that is smaller than the dot pitch of the display device, then accurate color cannot be reproduced by that display device in that precise spot on the screen. This type of artifacting is relatively minor with the Atari because of the relatively low resolution of Atari graphics modes in comparison to the dot pitch of CRT display devices. NTSC Atari computers exhibit a considerably more profound type of artifacting than the above. The following is from Atari's De Re Atari, Appendix D: "Television Artifacts": http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chaptD.php Appendix D is credited to Atari's Lane Winner with assistance from Jim Cox. =-=-=-=-=-= This section discusses how to get multiple colors out of a single color graphics mode through the use of television artifacts. The ANTIC modes with which this can be accomplished are 2, 3, and 15. ANTIC mode 2 corresponds to BASIC mode 0, ANTIC mode 15 is BASIC mode 8, and ANTIC mode 3 has no corresponding BASIC mode. Each of these modes has a pixel resolution of one half color clock by one scan line. They are generally considered to have one color and two luminances. With the use of artifacts, pixels of four different colors can be displayed on the screen in each of these modes. A simple example of artifacts using the Atari computer is shown by entering the following lines: GRAPHICS 8 COLOR 1 POKE 710,0 PLOT 60,60 PLOT 63,60 These statements will plot two points on a black background; however each pixel will have a different color. To understand the cause of these differing colors one must first understand that all the display information for the television display is contained in a modulated television signal. The two major components of this signal are the luminance, or brightness, and the color, or tint. The luminance information is the primary signal, containing not only the brightness data but also the horizontal and vertical syncs and blanks. The color signal contains the color information and is combined or modulated into the luminance waveform. The luminance of a pixel on the screen is directly dependent on the amplitude of the luminance signal at that point. The higher the amplitude of the signal, the brighter the pixel. The color information, however, is a phase shifted signal. A phaseshifted signal is a constantly oscillating waveform that has been delayed by some amount of time relative to a reference signal, and this time delay is translated into the color. The color signal oscillates at a constant rate of about 3.579MHz, thus defining the highest horizontal color resolution of a television set. This appears on the screen in the form of 160 visible color cycles across one scan line. (There are actually 228 color cycles including the horizontal blank and sync, and any overscan.) The term "color clock" refers to one color cycle and is the term generally used throughout the Atari documentation to describe units of measurement across the screen. The graphics mode 7 is an example of one color clock resolution, where each color clock pixel can be a different color. (There are microprocessor limitations though.) Atari also offers a "high resolution" mode (GRAPHICS 8) that displays 320 pixels across one line. This is generated by varying the amplitude of the luminance signal at about 7.16MHz, which is twice the color frequency. Since the two signals are theoretically independent, one should be able to assign a "background" color to be displayed and then merely vary the luminance on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This in fact is the way mode 8 works, the "background" color coming from playfield register 2, and the luminances coming from both playfield registers 1 and 2. The problem is that in practice the color and luminance signals are not independent. They are part of a modulated signal that must be demodulated to be used. Since the luminance is the primary signal, whenever it changes, it also forces a change in the color phase shift. For one or more color clocks of constant luminance this is no problem, since the color phase shift will be unchanged in this area. However, if the luminance changes on a half color clock boundary it will force a fast color shift at that point. Moreover, that color cannot be altered from the transmitting end of the signal (the Atari computer). Since the luminance can change on half color clock boundaries, this implies that two false color, or artifact pixel types can be generated. This is basically true. However, these two pixels can be combined to form two types of full color clock pixels. This is illustrated below: TV Scan | | | Line |<---1 color clock---->| | | | | | | | | | |<-1 pixel->| | | | | | | | | Luminance 0 1 0 0 1/2 cc pixel color A (0=off, 1 0 0 0 1/2 cc pixel color B 1=on) 1 1 0 0 1 cc pixel color C 0 1 1 0 1 cc pixel color D Note that each of these pixels requires one color clock of distance and therefore has a horizontal resolution of 160. The colors A through D are different for each television set, usually because the tint knob settings vary. Thus they cannot be described as absolute colors, for example, red; but they are definitely distinct from each other, and programs have been written that utilize these colors. =-=-=-=-=-= The actual colors seen depends upon the tint setting of the NTSC display device, and also upon the version of the NTSC Atari computer used, as pointed out by Bryan on Oct 7, 08: It's well known that different models produce different artifact colors. The 800 produces Blue/Green, the 1200XL produces Green/Purple, and the other XLs produce Blue/Red. The reason for this doesn't lie with GTIA, but rather with the delays inherent in the different video buffer circuits. When you start modifying the video circuits, you slightly alter the time alignment between chroma and luma and the artifact colors change. The TV's decoder will be synched to the colorburst supplied by the chroma signal, but artifact colors are produced by changing the luma level at the 3.579 color frequency which the NTSC Atari models are inherently set up to do. A classic example of a game that utilizes color artifacting on the NTSC Atari is the Broderbund game, Choplifter!. 2nd example: Drol, also by Broderbund. More information about artifacting on the Atari 8-bit computers: "Atari Artifacting" by Judson Pewther, Compute! #38, July 1983, p. 221: http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue38/096_1_ATARI_ARTIFACTING.php or from Compute!'s Second Book of Atari Graphics: http://www.atariarchives.org/c2bag/page193.php "GRAPHICS 8 In Four Colors Using Artifacts" by David Diamond, Compute!'s First Book of Atari Graphics: http://www.atariarchives.org/c1bag/page203.php A posting on AtariAge by phaeron, Posted Fri Jan 28, 2011 (two-line URL): www.atariage.com/forums/topic/160913-vbxe2-preorder-starts- today/page__view__findpost__p__2195808 ------------------------------ Subject: 2.4) What is HDTV display lag? Much software on the 8-bit Atari is highly interactive and timing-critical. For example, many games are highly responsive to input from the game player via a game controller (such as a joystick). The Atari software programmer can reasonably assume that the video display device can reflect changes as output by the Atari with no perceivable additional delay. Software timing considerations are normally limited to the capabilities and constraints of the Atari hardware itself. However, in some cases a television or video monitor may introduce a noticeable lag time between the video signal as input by the Atari, and the video signal as actually displayed by the device. While any such effect is truly negligible with most display devices used with the Atari, the modern high-definition television (HDTV) has emerged as an important exception. An HDTV typically dedicates considerable processing efforts (hardware+software) toward presenting the most attractive picture possible. Since few HDTV applications require precise interactive timing, this video processing is generally not optimized for time efficiency. When used with an older but timing-precise device such as an 8-bit Atari computer, the resulting delay can be quite noticeable, making the HDTV essentially unusable for "serious" action gaming. Fortunately, many HDTVs offer a "game mode" that circumvents much of the video processing otherwise performed, thereby eliminating most of the display lag otherwise introduced by the television. If an HDTV is to be used with the Atari for gaming, a "game mode" on the HDTV is essential. Wikipedia on the topic: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Display_lag ------------------------------ Subject: 3.1.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, & XC12 Program Recorders? An Atari Program Recorder resembles an ordinary audio cassette tape player, providing secondary (not directly accessible by the computer's central processing unit) and offline (removable from the computer) magnetic storage and retrieval of digital data, using a standard compact cassette. In addition to the digital track, the program recorder can also play back an audio track, allowing the computer user to both run programs and listen to voice or music. A single program recorder is used with a single Atari 8-bit computer. Under the Atari Operating System, the digital storage capacity of a 60-minute cassette is about 102,400 bytes. The Atari OS writes to the program recorder at 600 bit/s. Specifications common to all Atari program recorders: - Tape structure is standard 1/4 track stereo format: - 4 tracks, divided into 2 channels/sides ("Side A" and "Side B") - Each tape channel/side is stereo, consisting of 2 tracks: - Left / Audio - Right / Digital - Automatic/software motor control: the computer can control tape motion start/stop (both play and record functions), if the recorder PLAY button has already been pressed by the user. - Tape speed: 1.875 IPS (inches per second) - 3-digit tape counter - Audio track plays through television/monitor speaker - Preset volume levels (both playback and recording) - Media used is Philips Compact Cassette or equivalent (Atari CX4100 blank cassette tapes never shipped.) - Cassettes can play/record on both sides -- Cassette must be removed, flipped-over, and re-inserted to access the reverse channel/side of the tape. - Cassette write protect notch status is respected: Will not write to a cassette side missing the write protect notch corresponding to that side of the cassette. - The cassette utilization/filesystem is controlled entirely by software, normally the C: Cassette Handler of the Atari Operating System. Specifications are provided elsewhere in this FAQ list. 410 Program Recorder - Shipped with the earliest (1979-1980) 800 computer systems - Was also included in the kit: CX482 The Educator - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain - Produced 1979-1983. Replaced by the 1010. - Manuals: - Atari 410 Program Recorder Operator's Manual C014810 (CO14810) (shipped with earlier units) - Atari 410 Program Recorder Owner's Guide C060055 (CO60055) (shipped with later units) - Atari 410 Program Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual FD100004 - Atari 410 Program Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual PAL-UK FD100005 - 3 main versions, each with two different variations: 1) Unreleased prototype 410 version - Small/narrow profile - Chrome carrying handle - "Atari 410" label between cassette bay door and buttons - Above cassette bay door, left to right: Atari logo, tape counter, "Program Recorder" - 6 Buttons, left to right: Rewind, REC, Play, Advance, Stop, Eject - Two unreleased prototype version variations: 1a) Buttons are black, except red REC button See: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro400.htm and: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro800.htm 2a) Buttons are white with black borders See: http://www.rhod.fr/images_periph/410/410proto.jpg 2) Made in Japan by Bigston (initial production version) - Carrying handle - "Atari 410" label between cassette bay door and buttons - Tape counter also between cassette bay door and buttons - 5 Buttons, left to right: Record (red label), Rewind, Play, Advance, Stop/Eject - Two Japan 410 version variations: 2a) 120V Made in Japan version Power: plugs directly into wall (120V AC, 6W) 2b) 410P (Direct Current) Made in Japan version Power jack on the RIGHT side of the unit. Center positive. Power: Used with an external DC power supply rated for 6.0V DC and 300mA, such as the Tadmod 6498 or Atari AC/DC Adapter Type FW3199 (both detailed elsewhere in the FAQ list) or equivalent. 3) Made in Hong Kong by Transtek or Chelco - No carrying handle - "Atari 410" label on cassette bay door - Tape counter above cassette bay door - 6 Buttons, left to right: REC, Play, Rewind, Advance, Stop/Ej., Pause - Two Hong Kong 410 version variations: 3a) 120V 60Hz 7 watts Made in Hong Kong version Power: plugs directly into wall (120V AC, 6W) 3b) 410P (Direct Current) Made in Hong Kong version Power jack on the BACK of the unit. Center positive. Power: Used with an external DC power supply rated for 6.0V DC and 300mA, such as the Tadmod 6498 or Atari AC/DC Adapter Type FW3199 (both detailed elsewhere in the FAQ list) or equivalent. - C015705 REV3 Atari sales flyer reads: "Two styles of the Atari 410 Program Recorder are currently manufactured, with equivalent performance." This refers to versions #2 and #3 above. 1010 Program Recorder - Produced from 1983-1985. Replaced the 410; replaced by the XC11. - Also included in the kit: KX7114 Programming System All-In-One-Pak - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: Owner's guide, Atari SIO cable, power adapter - Manuals: - The Atari 1010 Program Recorder Owner's Guide C061133 - Atari 1010 Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual FD100223 - Power: Used with an external 8.5 to 9.0 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 8 watts, such as Atari#C061515 or C061516 (detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list), or equivalent. - Two slightly different versions were manufactured: 1) Made in Hong Kong by Chelco - 6 Buttons, left to right: Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Stop/Ej, Pause - Silver sticker inside cassette bay 2) Made in Japan by Sanyo - 6 Buttons, left to right: Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Pause, Stop/Ej - Orange sticker inside cassette bay XC11 Program Recorder - Announced at the Jan. 1986 CES. Replaced the 1010; replaced by the XC12 - Advertised in the UK from late fall 1985 through summer 1986 (Atari User) - "Not released in the U.S." --Best Electronics Rev.10 catalog p. 140 - Has a built-in SIO cable and one free SIO port - Power: Drawn from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready) XC12 Program Recorder - Shipped in mid-1986, replacing the short-lived XC11 - Introduced to the U.S. at the January 1987 CES (reported as the XC11) - "had a very limited release in the U.S., mainly shipped to the European market place" --Best Electronics Rev.10 catalog p.140 - Also included in the kits: - Atari 65XE Home Computer Outfit (Dixons/Currys special offer) - 130XE Starter Pack (UK) - XE 2012 (France) - "Round" window - Based on the Phonemark PM-4401A - Printed circuit board is marked "PM4401-4" - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain - Power: Drawn from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready) - XC12 modifications (other than speed enhancements described elsewhere): - I-PLAY, by Bluki, July 15, 2012 "allows you to start playbacking always when you press the PLAY button, and at the same time the computer keeps the recording and playbacking processes under control." http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/201291-i-play-for-xc12/ ------------------------------ Subject: 3.1.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari? Important contributor to this section: Tomasz Krasuski Unlike other microcomputer systems of the time period, only Atari-specific cassette tape recorders could be used with Atari 8-bit computers. Several such peripherals were produced: Compu-Mate Computer Data Recorder by General Electric (GE, G.E.) - 3-5148A (unit) / 3-5156 (box) - 3-5149A Atari/Commodore Interface Module (IFM) - 1st data cable: Data Recorder <-> IFM Interface or Data Recorder <-> C64 - 2nd data cable: IFM Interface <-> Atari computer SIO connector - Monophonic -- No support for audio track as supported by other program recorders for the Atari - No second SIO port - must be at end of SIO chain - Battery operated or uses an external power supply - Switch on the bottom, Atari or "All other computers". - More info: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=128505 - Pics: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/161936-atari-1010-problem/ Phonemark PM-4401A and derivatives - Manufactured for Atari as the Atari XC12 - "Round" window and "notched" top case design - No second SIO port - must be at end of SIO chain - PM-4401A by Phonemark - Top of unit: "Phonemark" in white lettering on black label - Bottom of unit: "Computer Cassette Data Unit" - Unit photos, earlier Atari XL case color version (with black buttons): http://kompjutry.014.cz/soubory/prislusenstvi_html_big/ zahr_kazetovamechanika_(atari)_phonemark_big.html - Unit photos, later Atari XE case color version (with gray buttons): http://kompjutry.014.cz/soubory/prislusenstvi_html_big/ zahr_kazetovamechanika_atari_phonemark_hranaty_big.html - Box: Blue background, "Phonemark Computer Cassette" "PM-4401A" "Suitable For Use With Atari Home Computer" - XG12 [by Phonemark for Datamark] - Atari XE case color - Top of some units: "Datamark XG12" in red lettering - Top of other units: Black label, no branding - Bottom of unit (some): "Datacorder" on gold label - Box: Datamark DM-6402A (see below). These units seemingly sometimes shipped by Datamark as a substitute for their own DM-6402A. - See below for the Datamark-derived version of the XG12. - TurboData [by Phonemark for ?????] - Atari XE case color - Built-in Turbo upgrade??? - Top of unit: "TurboData" in red lettering on white label - Unit photos: http://kompjutry.014.cz/soubory/prislusenstvi_html_big/ zahr_kazetovamechanika_(atari)_turbodata_big.html - Box unknown - XL12 [by Phonemark for Logical Design Works (LDW) on behalf of Atari] - Atari XE case color - Top of some units: "For Atari XL12" in red/silver - Top of other units: "For Atari XE, 800XL" in white lettering on black label - Bottom of some units: "Computer Cassette Data Unit" "Model No XL12" - Bottom of other units: "For Atari" - Box: Atari-like, with red strip down ONE side of box, "XL 12" in large font (with space in middle), "XC12" mistake in smaller type, "For Atari" does NOT use Atari logo font, Phonemark unit is pictured - Utilized parts supplied by Atari, after Atari discontinued their own XC12 - Sold in Chile and in Eastern Europe - Replacement for the Atari XC12; would be replaced in Europe by the XCA12 - See below for Datamark-derived version of the XL12. - XCA12 [by Phonemark for California Access (brand of LDW) on behalf of Atari] - Atari XE case color - Top of unit: "For Atari Computer" in black/red/black, "XCA12" in silver - Bottom of unit: "For Atari Computer" "Model Number XCA12" - Box: Atari-like, white with orange strip down one side of box, "For Atari Computer" with Atari logo font - Front (very small pic): http://img.archiwumallegro.pl/?876820703 - Rear: http://starekomputery.pl/photos/152/f6eca103be76d46fc8cf1942d6ec0cfe.jpg - Utilized parts supplied by Atari, after Atari discontinued their own XC12 - Sold in Eastern Europe, especially Poland - Replaced the XL12; would be replaced by the CA12 (once Atari parts supply ran dry) - CA12 [by Phonemark for California Access (brand of LDW)] - Atari XE case color - Top of unit: "For Atari Computer" in black/red/black, "CA12" in silver - Bottom of unit: "For Atari Computer" "Model Number CA12" - Printed circuit board has the markings "P.M." "4401-5" "REVB" - Box: White with Orange highlights, "CA-12 Program Recorder" http://www.aceton.pl/images/105338.jpg - Sold in Eastern Europe, especially Poland - Replacement for the XCA12 (produced independently of Atari) Datamark DM-1301A - Similar dimensions to Phonemark PM-4401A and derivatives, but even more Atari-inspired case styling includes slanted lines matching those of Atari XE computers and peripherals. - Top of unit: "Datamark" in red lettering - Unit pictured in center: http://www.retrogames.cl/imagenes/varios/zz/caseteras.jpg - Box: Atari-like, with red stripes down BOTH sides - Box pictured at upper-left: http://www.retrogames.cl/imagenes/varios/zz/casencaja.jpg Datamark DM-6402A and derivatives - "Square" window and "un-notched" top case design - No second SIO port - must be at end of SIO chain - DM-6402A by Datamark - Atari XL case color, black label (unlabeled), black buttons - Units exist???? - Box: Black background, "Datacorder Unit" in yellow, "Model DM-6402A" in orange", "Power Without the Price" in red - XG12 by Datamark - Atari XE case color - Top of unit: "Datamark XG12" in red lettering - Box: Datamark DM-6402A (see above) - See above for the Phonemark-derived version of the XG12. - XL12 [by Datamark for Logical Design Works (LDW) on behalf of Atari] - Atari XE case color - Top of units: "XL12" in silver - Top of some units: "For Atari" in silver/red - Bottom of some units: "Datarecorder" "For Atari Computer" "DM-6402A" - Bottom of other units: "For Atari" - Unit photos: http://kompjutry.014.cz/soubory/prislusenstvi_html_big/ zahr_kazetovamechanika_(atari)_atari_xl12_big.html - Box: Atari-like, with red strips down BOTH sides of box, "For ATARI" uses Atari logo font, features photo of Datamark original version unit - Utilized parts supplied by Atari, after Atari discontinued their own XC12 - Sold in Chile and in Eastern Europe - Replacement for the Atari XC12; would be replaced in Europe by the XCA12 - See above for the Phonemark-derived version of the XL12. - Many XL12 units in Chile shipped with Injektor pre-installed by Coelsa, http://www.retrogames.cl/injektor.html Taihaho Computer Cassette - Photos in this AtariAge Forums thread: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/165991-atari-410-vsatari-410-1010xc1112-too/ LINKS http://kompjutry.014.cz/soubory/prislusenstvi_html/zahranicni_kazetaky.html http://computers.mcbx.netne.net/8bit/aptaperec/index.htm ------------------------------ Subject: 3.1.3) What speed upgrades are there for Atari program recorders? Numerous methods were created for upgrading the (painfully) slow data transmission speed of the Atari program recorders. Most of these originated in regions of the world where program recorders were normally used with the Atari rather than (extremely expensive) disk drives. - Turbo project for XC12, from Atari Klub Praha (Prague, Czech Republic) o Commercialized by JRC (and others?) o For Turbo: TT-DOS, a DOS 2.5 clone with high-speed tape handler, B: o For Turbo: B-TAPE high-speed system by Jiri Bernasek (BEWESOFT) for use with BW-DOS or SpartaDOS - Rambit TurboCharger (1986?) o From the UK o For: 410, 1010, XC11, Phonemark, XC12 o Circuit board + conversion utility program on cassette. The software is used to convert standard Atari data cassettes to Rambit format cassettes. o 3300-3600 bit/s achieved o Review: http://www.page6.org/archive/issue_24/page_30.htm - Atari Super Turbo aka AST (late 1987 according to Bajtek 4/1989) o The first Polish system for turbo tape. o Designed by Slawomir Nienaltowski (designer of the SN-360 disk drive), sold to Atari Studio (later, Mirage) o Originally for the 1010, later released for XC12 and clones. o Later version(s) sold with software on cartridge: AST Turbo Cartridge - Turbo 2000, by KSO (Poland) - Turbo 2001, by TOMS (Poland) - Turbo 2600 - Blizzard Turbo, by Atares (Poland) - Turbo-ROM, jointly developed by PLUS and MAPASOFT (Poland) (1991?) o Special software cartridge loader required to read such cassettes - Hard Turbo (Poland) - Turbo 2000F, by MUELA (late 1980s) o Compatible with KSO Turbo 2000 o System consists of a software cartridge - Turbo 2T06 - Turbo 6000 (1988?) o From East Germany - CASA Turbo Tape, by CASA (Dutch) (1985) o Purely software - Injektor High Speed system, by Coelsa Computacion (Chile) (1990) o Created by Pedro Caraball (software) and his father (hardware) o Many XL12 units (Datamark version) in Chile shipped with Injektor pre- installed by Coelsa o http://www.retrogames.cl/injektor.html Most of the above upgrades are described in detail at: http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/Systemy_turbo ------------------------------ Subject: 3.1.4) How do I run a program from cassette, or save to cassette? To run a machine language program from cassette upon startup (Cassette Boot): 1. Place the cassette in the recorder. 2. Press REWIND or FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position where the program is located. 3. (Except XE System Console) Press PLAY on the recorder. 4. Remove any cartridges from the computer. 5. Turn on the computer while holding down the START key. If the computer has Atari BASIC built-in, also hold down the OPTION key to disable BASIC. 6. The computer keyboard speaker will "beep". 7. Let go of the START/OPTION button(s). 8. (XE System Console only) Press PLAY on the recorder. 9. (Except XE System Console) Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard. (XE System Console only) Press the START key. Tape motion starts, the program loads from the cassette into RAM, tape motion stops, and the loaded program runs. 10. You may press STOP on the recorder once the program is running, unless the program is designed to control further tape motion start/stop. To load and run an Atari BASIC program from cassette: 1. Place the cassette in the recorder. 2. Press REWIND or FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position where the program is located. 3. Boot the computer to the Atari BASIC READY prompt. 4. There are several possibilities for the next step, depending on how the program was saved, and whether you want to run the program or just load it into RAM. Enter one of the following four commands: a. CLOAD loads programs saved with CSAVE b. LOAD "C:" loads programs saved with SAVE "C:" c. ENTER "C:" loads programs saved with LIST "C:" d. RUN "C:" loads and runs programs saved with SAVE "C:" 5. The computer keyboard speaker will "beep" as a signal for you to press PLAY on the recorder. 6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard. Tape motion starts, the program loads from the cassette into RAM, and then tape motion stops. Then, if you entered RUN "C:" above, the loaded program runs; otherwise a READY prompt is displayed. 7. You may press STOP on the recorder once the program is loaded, unless the program is designed to control further tape motion start/stop. 8. If the loaded program is not running yet (you did not enter RUN "C:" above), now enter the command: RUN To save an Atari BASIC program from computer RAM to cassette: 1. Place the cassette in the recorder. 2. Press REWIND or FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position where the program is to be recorded. 3. Boot the computer to the Atari BASIC READY prompt. 4. Enter one of the following three commands: a. CSAVE (short inter-record gap - fastest read/write speed - tokenized files) b. SAVE "C:" (long inter-record gap - middle read/write speed - tokenized files) c. LIST "C:" (long inter-record gap - slowest read/write speeds - straight ATASCII - tape actually stops in between block reads/writes) 5. The computer keyboard speaker will "beep" twice as a signal for you to press both PLAY and RECORD on the recorder. 6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard. Tape motion starts, the program is copied from RAM to the cassette, and then tape motion stops. 7. You may press STOP on the recorder once recording has finished. ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.1) What is the Atari 810 Disk Drive? Portions of this section developed by Laurent Delsarte from the 810 Field Service Manual. The Atari 810 is a floppy disk drive that provides secondary (not directly accessible by the computer's central processing unit) and offline (removable from the computer) magnetic storage and retrieval of digital data, using a standard (of its time) 5.25 inch diskette. Diskette storage capacity is 90KiB. The 810 Disk Drive is used with a single Atari 8-bit computer with a minimum of 16KiB of RAM installed. Up to four 810 disk drives may be attached and used with an Atari computer at the same time. The front of the 810 features a Power on/off switch, a "Power" indicator light, and a "Disk busy" indicator light. The rear of the unit includes two SIO ports ("I/O Connectors"), a power input jack, and drive number selector switches: Black & White left: Drive 1 Black right, White left: Drive 2 Black & White right: Drive 3 Black left, White right: Drive 4 810 Performance Specifications - Capacity per diskette: 40 tracks x 18 sectors/track = 720 sectors/disk 720 sectors x 128 bytes/sector = 92,160 bytes/disk (90KiB) - Average Data Transfer Rate: 6k baud (19.2k baud max.) - Average Latency: 100 milliseconds - Track to Track Access Time: 5 milliseconds - Average Access Time: 74 milliseconds - Head Settling Time: 15 milliseconds - Head Loading Time: 35 milliseconds - Power-up Delay: 0.5 seconds - Maximum Data Access Time: 236 milliseconds 810 Functional Specifications - Disk Rotation Speed: 288 RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) +- 1% - Recording Density: 2,938 BPI (Bits Per Inch) (maximum) - Flux Density: 5,876 FCI (Flux Changes per Inch) (maximum) - Track density: 48 TPI (Tracks Per Inch) - Tracks: 40 - Encoding method: FM (frequency modulation / "single density") - Drive heads: One - Media used is Atari CX8100 or Shugart Associates SA104 (40 tracks) or equivalent: - 5.25" Minidiskette / mini-disk / flexible disk / minifloppy diskette / mini-floppy diskette / floppy disk - Soft-sectored (no sector holes; one index hole, which the 810 ignores) - 48 TPI / "single density" / "double density" (any of these terms) - 40 tracks (The earliest (1976/77) 5.25" diskettes had a smaller head access slot, supporting only 35 tracks. Such disks were already becoming rare by the time of the Atari 810 disk drive.) - Single-sided or Double-sided - The 810 is a single-sided drive, using the lower disk surface only. However, the reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by inserting the disk into the drive upside-down. NOTES: - 96 TPI 80-track "High Density" (HD) 1200KiB 5.25" floppy diskettes, which are very common, can NOT be used with Atari 810 and compatible drives. The media is physically different from 48 TPI diskettes. - 96 TPI 80-track "double-density" / "quad density" 720KiB 5.25" floppy diskettes, which are rare, MAY be used with Atari 810 and compatibles. The media in these is actually identical to that of 48 TPI diskettes. - Diskette write enable notch status is respected: will not write to diskette side lacking (or having a covered) write enable notch corresponding to that side of the disk. - On the Atari, an empty floppy disk drive is powered on prior to inserting a diskette into the drive. Conversely, the diskette is removed from the drive before the drive is turned off. These procedures protect the integrity of data on diskettes. 810 Internals - 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent) @ 500KHz, C010745 - ROM, C011299 - 6810 128 x 8 bit static RAM (1KiB) (Motorola MCM6810), C014328 - 6532 PIA (MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent), C010750 - Western Digital FD1771 Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) @ 1MHz, C014329 - Read/Write Head Gap: .013 inches - Guard Band: .008 inches - Pad Pressure: 17 grams The 810 underwent several significant design revisions over the course of its manufacture. Original 810 Disk Drive (1980-1981, no Data Separator and "Pre-Analog") specifications: - Micro Peripherals, Inc. (MPI) minifloppy diskette drive mechanism - Two printed circuit boards: a Side Board and a Rear Board - Power Input: 9 volts AC, 1.7 amperes - Power Usage: 20-21 watts - Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply: Atari CA014748 or equivalent (earlier 20W C014319 units only; later 18.5W C014319 units are inadequate) 810 drives manufactured after September 1, 1981 ("DS" sticker) shipped with an External Data Separator Board, which enhances the ability of the FD1771 FDC to process data. It is installed in the Side Board where the FDC chip would otherwise be installed. (810 FSM p.1-9) The Side Board stepper motor circuit voltage was increased to regulated 12 volts DC as well, leading to greater power requirements for the drive: - Power Input: 9 volts AC, 3 amperes - Power Usage: 30 watts - Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply: Atari C016804 or equivalent The External Data Separator Board was also offered as an upgrade for earlier 810 drives. Earlier Side Boards must be upgraded in order to accept the Data Separator. Next, Atari introduced the 810 Revision C ROM in November 1981 ("C" sticker). According to Antic (Oct. 82), "ROM C causes diskettes to be formatted with an improved sector layout which is more efficient than that used by earlier 810 control ROMs." Performance was reported to be 20% faster than with the original B ROM. The ROM C was also offered as an upgrade for older drives. 810 drives produced from about spring 1982 used the new "810 Analog" ("810M Analog") design: (810 FSM p.8B-1) 1. A Power Supply Board now bolts onto the common base plate where the Rear Board used to be. The Power Supply Board contains: a) A redesigned Power Supply. b) A Tachometer/Speed Switch I.C. (frequency to voltage converter) added as the Tach circuit to stabilize the motor speed. 2. An Analog Board now bolts to the top of the Drive Mechanism. This board contains the Analog circuitry which used to be on the Rear Board. The major changes are to the Read/Write circuitry. The Analog Board contains: a) Operational amplifiers ("op-amps") and discrete transistors in place of transistor arrays. b) A multiplexor chip for switching the Read/Write amplifiers. 3. A 10 pin flat cable connects the Analog Board to the Power Supply Board. 810 Analog power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 30 watts; shipped with Atari CA017964. The 3 new 810 Analog components were also offered together as an upgrade: - CB101128 "Grass Valley Analog Board Set" for Pre-Analog 810 drives. In November 1982, the drive mechanism of the 810 Analog disk drive was changed from MPI to Tandon. The Tandon version is known as the "810T Analog" disk drive. TANDON (810T Analog) MPI (Pre-Analog & 810M Analog) FRONT Operated by a front latch. Operated by a door release BEZEL No diskette eject mechanism. Raise button. the front latch to access diskette. Contains a diskette eject Plastic guides and front latch mechanism. inhibitor position the diskette. UPPER Contains no pressure spring. Contains pressure spring ARM assembly. ASSEMBLY Adjust by turning the two nuts which Adjust pressure spring. secure the upper arm to the carriage. STEPPER Adjust by turning the cam screw at Adjust by loosening setscrew MOTOR rear of Drive Mechanism. to move Stepper Band Pulley. ADJUSTMENT TRACK 00 Adjust by monitoring increase and Adjust for 0.010 clearance. STOP decrease in waveform amplitude. WRITE Microswitch Assembly Phototransistor PROTECT CIRCUIT 810 manuals by Atari: - Atari 810 Disk Drive Operator's Manual C014760 (CO14760) (earlier units) - Atari 810 Disk Drive Owner's Guide C060056 (CO60056) (later units) - Atari 810 Disk Drive Field Service Manual (Preliminary) c1979 (~190 pages) - Atari 810 Disk Drive Field Service Manual July 1980 FS015854 REV.1 (~122p.) - Atari 810 Disk Drive Field Service Manual FD100003 Rev.03 May, 1983 From winter 1980 to fall 1981 the 810 shipped with CX8101 Master Diskette (boxed; DOS I). From fall 1981 to May 1983 the 810 shipped with CX8104 Master Diskette II (boxed; DOS II version 2.0S or DOS 2.0S). Box contents for both are detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list. 810 accessories from Atari: CX8100 5 Diskettes. Box contains five CX8100 Atari 810 Blank Diskettes 810 accessories from Atari, announced but never shipped: CX8111 Atari 810 Formatted Diskettes II (5 per box) CX8202 5 Blank Diskettes. Box contains five CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (certified for double density use) Production of the 810 ended in May 1983. Third-party upgrades for the 810: Fast-Chip, by Binary Corporation - 30% faster formatting for earlier 810 drives (prior to "ROM C"), or 10% faster formatting for 810 drives with "ROM C" (Nov. 1981 or later) - Disks formatted by an 810 with Fast-Chip utilize an improved sector layout which is more efficient than those created by standard 810 drives. The Chip, developed by Spartan Software of Minnesota (later, ICD) - Marketed by Southern Software - "Disk backup/development system" - Replacement ROM, with Archiver/Editor software 810 Archiver, by Computer Software Services (CSS) - Copy many copy-protected programs 810 Enhancement ("Happy 810" or "Happy Enhancement") - By Happy Computing / Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams) - RAM buffer: 18 sectors (2304 bytes) - Warp Speed: reads disks up to 3 times faster than standard 810 - Original version for Pre-Analog 810; -H version for 810 Analog - Warp Speed Software: - Diagnostic program - Sector Copy Program / Sector Copier - Happy Backup Program (Single Drive version) - Happy Compactor Program (combine up to 8 boot-load programs on 1 disk) - Multi Drive Program (Happy Backup for multiple drives) - Tracer program - Warp Speed DOS (modified DOS 2.0S uses "Warp Speed" not just for reads but also for writes with verify (about 5 times faster than standard 810) - Software sold separately by Happy; each supports Warp Speed read/write: - Customizer Program (create non-standard disks track-by-track) - Warp Speed DOS XL (by OSS, modified by Happy Computers) - TOP DOS 1.5 & up, by Eclipse Software - SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I. - Happy Version Archiver/Editor software - Developed by Spartan Software of Minnesota (later, ICD) - Marketed by Southern Software 810 Turbo, by Neanderthal Computer Things (NCT) - Double density, - Track buffering, - Speed comparable to Happy 810 Enhancement - Distributed with MachDOS ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.2) What is the Atari 1050 Disk Drive? Portions of this section developed by Laurent Delsarte from the 1050 Field Service Manual. The Atari 1050 disk drive was introduced in March 1983 as a replacement for the 810 disk drive. The 1050 is fully backward compatible with the 810, with the addition of a new "double density" mode of operation offering 130KiB of data storage per diskette. The "double density" mode works with a standard (of its time) 5.25 inch soft-sectored diskette ("floppy disk") which is certified for double density (Modified Frequency Modulation encoding method) use. While Atari called the new 1050 mode "double density", the 1050 is not capable of the 180KiB double density standard offered in many third party Atari disk drives. Thus, the 1050's "double density" is usually referred to as "enhanced density" or "dual density." Like the 810, the 1050 drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/ write to one side of the disk. The reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by inserting the disk into the drive upside-down. The front of the 1050 features a Power on/off switch, a Power indicator light, and a "Disk busy" indicator light. The rear of the unit includes two SIO ports ("I/O Connectors"), a Power In jack, and Drive Select switches: Black & White left: Drive 1 Black right, White left: Drive 2 Black & White right: Drive 3 Black left, White right: Drive 4 More features/specifications of the 1050 disk drive: - 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent) @ 1MHz, C010745 - ROM, Custom 2732 FC100541 - 6810 128 x 8 bit static RAM (1KiB) (Motorola MCM6810), C014328 - 6532 PIA (MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent), C010750 - Western Digital WD2793 Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) @ 1MHz, FC100542 - Later production units substituted: Western Digital WD2797, FC100817 Media used is Atari CX8100 or Shugart Associates SA104 (40 tracks) or equivalent: - 5.25" Minidiskette / mini-disk / flexible disk / diskette / floppy disk - Soft-sectored (no sector holes; one index hole, which the 1050 ignores) - 48 TPI / "single density" / "double density" (any of these terms) - 40 tracks - Single-sided or Double-sided - The 1050 is a single-sided drive, using the lower disk surface only. However, the reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by inserting the disk into the drive upside-down. Single Density "Double Density" (Read/Write) (Read/Write) - Tracks per surface 40 40 - Tracks per inch 48 TPI 48 TPI - Recording density (Track 39, max) 2,878 BPI 5,757 BPI - Flux density (Track 39, max) 5,757 FCI 5,757 FCI - Encoding method FM MFM - Capacity unformatted o Per track 3,382 bytes 6,510 bytes o Per surface 135,280 bytes 260,400 bytes - Capacity formatted o Sectors per track 18 26 o Bytes per sector 128 bytes 128 bytes o Bytes per track 2,304 bytes 3,328 bytes o Bytes per surface 92,160 bytes 133,120 bytes - Transfer rate 125,000 bit/s 250,000 bit/s - Read/Write head 1 1 - Write protect sensor Yes Yes - Track 00 sensor Yes Yes - Rotational speed 288 RPM 288 RPM - Rotational speed accuracy +/-3% +/-3% - Average latency 110 milliseconds 110 milliseconds - Access time o Track to track (max) 40 milliseconds 40 milliseconds o Head settling (max) 30 milliseconds 30 milliseconds o Motor start (max) 1000 milliseconds 1000 milliseconds - Power Consumption Standby: 1.5 watts (maximum) Operating: 30 watts (maximum) Start Up: 50 watts (maximum) The 1050 drive features a horizontal slot with latch bar door mechanism. To complete the insertion of a disk, turn the latch bar clockwise ninety degrees. To release the disk, turn the latch counterclockwise. There were two production versions of the 1050 drive, designed to appear and function identically. The earlier 1050 made in Singapore for Atari, Inc. uses a Tandon drive mechanism, while the later 1050 made in Hong Kong for Atari Corp. uses a World Storage drive mechanism. The 1050 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 50 watts; shipped with Atari CA017964. The 1050 drive shipped with DOS 2.0S (1983), DOS 3 (1984), or DOS 2.5 (1985- 1987). Manuals: - Atari 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Guide C061509 - Atari 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Guide C024321 (international / 6 languages) - Atari DOS 2.5: 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C072033 - Atari 1050 Disk Drive Field Service Manual FD100330 Third-party upgrades for the 1050 ================================= Happy Warp Speed and compatible: ------------------------------- Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement ("Happy 1050" or "Happy Enhancement") - By Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams) - Adds true single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation - RAM buffer: 36 sectors (4608 bytes) - Warp Speed reads: about 3 times faster than standard 1050 - Warp Speed Software: - Diagnostic program - Sector Copy Program / Sector Copier - Happy Backup Program (Single Drive version) - Happy Compactor Program (combine up to 8 boot-load programs on 1 disk) - Multi Drive Program (Happy Backup for multiple drives) - Tracer program - Warp Speed DOS (modified DOS 2.0S uses "Warp Speed" not just for reads but also for writes with verify (about 5 times faster than standard 1050) - IBMXFR IBM Transfer Program (Warp Speed software version 7.1 only) - Read/write standard SS/DD 180KiB 5.25" MS-DOS floppy disks - Software sold separately, each supports Warp Speed read/write: - Customizer Program (create non-standard disks track-by-track) - Warp Speed DOS XL (by OSS, modified by Happy Computers) - TOP DOS 1.5 & up, by Eclipse Software - SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I. - Happy Version Archiver/Editor software - Developed by Spartan Software of Minnesota (later, ICD) - Marketed by Southern Software - Hardware upgrades for Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement: o Happy Doubler, by Innovative Concepts, 1989 - Disk software, programs the Happy 1050 to be fully compatible with ICD's US Doubler, including formatting disks in the US skew - Also allows you to re-program the drive numbers up to D8: o Imitator Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1989 - Hardware switch to select Happy Fast or Slow mode - Second hardware switch for write-protect - Two-color LED for write-protect status o IC Chip, by Innovative Concepts - Replacement ROM for Happy 1050 Enhancement - Automatic detection and support for SpartaDOS skewed disks Happy 1050 Maximizer - By Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams) - Adds true single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation - Upgrades: 1) Maximizer to Enhancement Upgrade available from Happy Computers 2) Happy 1050 Controller (see below) Happy 1050 Controller - By Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams) - When used with the Happy 1050 Enhancement or Happy 1050 Maximizer: - Allows writing on the flip side of disks without punching holes - Selects protection from writing on valuable disks. Selection can be made both from software commands and a three position switch. - When used with the Happy 1050 Enhancement: - Allows both switch and software control of reading and writing speeds. - When used in otherwise stock 1050: - Manual control of write protection Hyper Drive - By Chaos! Computers - SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52kbit/s ICD UltraSpeed and compatible: ----------------------------- US Doubler - By ICD - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed (US) 54kbit/s, sector skewing Super Archiver - By Computer Software Services (CSS) - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54kbit/s, sector skewing - Copying and disk editing tool - Will produce/reproduce "phantom" sectors. - Fully compatible with the CSS 810 Archiver - Can be upgraded with CSS Bit-Writer Super Archiver II - By Computer Software Services (CSS) - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54kbit/s, sector skewing - All the features of CSS Super Archiver - Edits and copies all enhanced density programs - Sold as one of: 1) complete package 2) software upgrade to CSS Super Archiver - Can be upgraded with CSS Bit-Writer Bit-Writer - By Computer Software Services (CSS) - Upgrade to CSS Super Archiver or Super Archiver II - Writes bits rather than sectors -> should be able to copy ANY disk Speedy 1050 - By Compy-Shop, 1988 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 70kbit/s - 8KiB buffer - DOS, copier, track & density displays - beep speaker - http://www.mia-net.org/speedy.html Mini-Speedy - By Compy-Shop - Same as Speedy 1050, but without displays & speaker - Can be upgraded with Super Speedy Super Speedy - By Compy-Shop - Upgrade for Mini-Speedy - Same specs an Mini-Speedy, but adds switches and an LED display SuperMax - By Super Products - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 52kbit/s, sector skewing Turbodrive and compatible: -------------------------- 1050 Turbo SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud, printer interface Bernhard Engl, 1986. software: Backup Machine II, Magic Formatter, Maintenance Box http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/1050Turbo/ 1050 Turbo II v3.5 SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud, printer interface Bernhard Engl, 1986. software: Backup Machine II, Magic Formatter, Maintenance Box http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/1050Turbo/ Top Drive 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud (1050 Turbo clone), printer interface, software in ROM Add support for multiple above enhancements: -------------------------------------------- Lazer 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed and UltraSpeed 54kbit/s (USD/Happy clone) 1050 I.S. Plate SS SD/ED/DD Ultra/Warp (USD/Happy clone) (Innovated Software) TOMS Multi Drive 1050 or "TOMS Multi 1050". 1991. SS SS/ED/DD/IBM formats IBM format: 40 tracks, 9 sectors of 512 bytes = 180KiB Top speed 70000 baud (68.2 kbit/s) in all formats Supports Turbodrive and UltraSpeed highspeed protocols Other upgrades: --------------- The Chip, developed by Spartan Software of Minnesota (later, ICD) - Marketed by Southern Software - Replacement ROM, with Archiver/Editor software 1050 Duplicator SS SD/ED/DD "read 18 sectors in the time normally for 1" (Duplicating Technologies (DT)) sources(Jim Patchell)http://www.oldcrows.net/~patchell/atari/duplicator.html - Upgrades: - CheerUp Upgrade, by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams) - Converts 1050 Duplicator to Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement IC1050 Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1989 - Hardware switch for write-protect - Two-color LED for write-protect status ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.3) What is the Atari XF551 Disk Drive? The Atari XF551 disk drive was introduced in June 1987 as a replacement for the 1050 disk drive. The XF551 is fully backward compatible with the 1050, with the addition of two new modes of operation: a true "double density" mode offering 180KiB of data storage per (single-sided) diskette (fully compatible with 3rd party double density drives for the Atari), and a "double-sided double density" mode offering 360KiB of data storage per (2-sided) diskette. Unlike the 810 or 1050, the XF551 drive has two drive heads, so it can read/write to both sides of a 2-sided floppy disk (in double-sided double density 360KiB disk mode). The 360KiB mode of the XF551 writes "backwards" to the second side of the disk in comparison to the way data would be stored on the reverse side of a two-sided "flippy" disk in single-sided double density 180KiB mode. When working with double-sided double density 360KiB disks, the XF551 is also capable of communicating with the computer at about twice data rate of the earlier Atari 1050 or 810 drives. This XF551 high speed mode is supported by: DOS XE, SpartaDOS X, XDOS, MyPicoDos, Micro-SpartaDOS, SuperDOS, Turbo-DOS, BW-DOS. A patch was also developed for SpartaDOS 3.2d. The front of the XF551 features a "Disk busy" indicator light. (Notably, there is no power indicator light on the XF551.) The rear of the unit includes a power on/off switch, a Power jack, two SIO ("Peripheral") ports, and Drive Select DIP switches: Left & Right down: Drive 1 Left down, Right up: Drive 2 Left up, Right down: Drive 3 Left & Right up: Drive 4 More features/specifications of the XF551 disk drive: - 8040/8050 MPU. One of: - Intel 8050 microcontroller (MCU) @ 8.3333MHz, C070235 - Intel 8040 microcontroller (MCU) @ 8.3333MHz, CB101393 - The 8050 has internal ROM space that is not used in the XF551. - (Initial Atari and media reports incorrectly indicated a 6507 MPU.) - (The DOS XE: XF551 manual incorrectly indicates 18.3333MHz.) - Western Digital WD1772 Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) C026028 - Late production units substituted: Western Digital WD1770 - SIO Data rate (normal): 19,040 bit/s (NTSC), 18,688 bit/s (PAL) (high speed): 38,908 bit/s (NTSC), 38,553 bit/s (PAL) - High speed available in DS/DD 360KiB mode operation only - Rotation rate: 300 RPM Virtually all other Atari-specific drives spin at 288 RPM. This results in rare compatibility issues. Specifically, these commercial disks do not load in, and can possibly be damaged (!) by the XF551: - Flight Simulator II (subLOGIC) - Blue Max (Synapse) (I have personally destroyed multiple Blue Max disks with the XF551 drive! -mc) - Bank Street Writer (Broderbund). Conflicting reports about this one. - Boulder Dash II (Databyte release?) - Inside (Spektra, 1990?--original Polish version?) - Media used is Atari CX8100 or Shugart Associates SA104 (40 tracks) or equivalent: - 5.25" Minidiskette / mini-disk / flexible disk / diskette / floppy disk - Soft-sectored (no sector holes; one index hole, which is utilized as discussed below) - 48 TPI / "single density" / "double density" (any of these terms) - 40 tracks - Single-sided or Double-sided Operating modes Single Dual Double Double Encoding Method FM MFM MFM MFM Number of sides 1 1 1 2 Total tracks 40 40 40 80 Sectors per track 18 26 18 18 Bytes per sector 128 128 256 256 (total capacity) Total Bytes 92,160 133,120 184,320 368,640 (total capacity) The XF551 drive features a horizontal slot with latch bar door mechanism. To complete the insertion of a disk, turn the latch bar clockwise ninety degrees. To release the disk, turn the latch counterclockwise. XF551 drives were manufactured for Atari in two versions, both made in Japan. - Mitsumi XF551 (earlier/common production) - Disk Busy light is rectangular, and is located below the drive latch. - "Straight" drive latch - See: http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4052/4669794021_de721aa12d_b.jpg - When the drive latch is opened, an inserted disk stays in place until removed manually. - Inserting a disk does not cause any drive activity. - Like the Atari 810 and 1050, the Mitsumi XF551 ignores the index hole of a soft-sectored diskette when reading/writing, so the Mitsumi XF551 CAN read from, and write to, the flip side of a 2-sided disk in single-sided (90KiB, 130KiB, or 180KiB) mode if the disk lacks a 2nd jacket index hole corresponding to the reverse side of the disk. - Chinon XF551 (later/uncommon production) - Disk Busy light is round, and is located directly to the left of the drive latch. - "Non-straight" drive-latch - http://www.atarimax.com/jindroush.atari.org/data/hardpics/xf551__f.jpg - Opening the drive latch causes an inserted disk to be ejected. - When a disk is inserted, the drive motor briefly spins and the Disk Busy light flashes accordingly. - Unlike the Atari 810 and 1050, the Chinon XF551 utilizes the index hole of a soft-sectored diskette when reading/writing, so the Chinon XF551 CANNOT read from, nor write to, the flip side of a 2-sided disk in single-sided (90KiB, 130KiB, or 180KiB) mode if the disk lacks a 2nd jacket index hole corresponding to the reverse side of the disk. Unlike the Atari 810 and 1050, the XF551 (both Mitsumi and Chinon) utilizes the index hole of a soft-sectored diskette when formatting the disk. As a result, the XF551 CANNOT format the flip side of a 2-sided disk in single- sided (90KiB, 130KiB, or 180KiB) mode if the disk lacks a 2nd jacket index hole corresponding to the reverse side of the disk. The XF551 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 50 watts; shipped with Atari CA017964. The XF551 shipped with DOS 2.5 (1987-1988) or DOS XE (from 1989). Manuals: - Atari DOS 2.5: XF551 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C033537 - Atari DOS XE: XF551 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C300557 The key engineer/designer of the XF551 was Jose Valdes at Atari. Third-party upgrades for the XF551: XF35 Kit - Developed by Bob Woolley; Marketed by Innovative Concepts (Mark Elliott), 1989 - A standard 3.5" 720KiB drive mechanism (not included with Kit) may replace the 5.25" drive of the XF551, or it may be added to the drive making it possible to select one or the other using a toggle switch. - Dual drive option requires several additional parts, not included with Kit - Kit also includes replacement drive ROM: (thanks Bob Woolley for details) - Changes the number of tracks to 80, - Tweaks the track seek timing to match a typical 3.5, - Adds (or deletes) spin-up delay that improves write reliability, and - Provides for density retry. - XF551 high speed remains available XF Single Drive Upgrade - By Computer Software Services (CSS), 1991 - A replacement 3.5" 720KiB drive mechanism + replacement drive ROM - UltraSpeed compatibility - Included IBM/ST Transfer Utility (IBMREAD.COM) allows the upgraded XF551 drive to read the 512 byte sectors used in the disk formats of the IBM PC and compatibles, and the Atari ST computers. It will automatically adapt to either single-sided or double-sided formats, and supports the increased sector density of the 'twister' ST disk formats. Program includes built-in text translation. - Kit sold with or without 3.5" drive - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm XF Dual Drive Upgrade - By Computer Software Services (CSS), 1991 - Same as XF Single Drive Upgrade, except keep using the XF551 5.25" drive as well. Result is two disk drives; the new 3.5" drive assumes the next drive number higher than the 5.25" drive. - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm XF551 Enhancer - By Computer Software Services (CSS) - Provides a switch that allows the XF551 to read/write/format, in single- sided mode, the back side of a disk that has only one jacket index hole corresponding to the front side of the disk. - No need for the disk to have a second write protect hole. - A write protect disable is built in. - 60Hz version for North America or 50Hz version for Europe - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XF551enh.htm XF Update - By Computer Software Services (CSS), 1992 - Replacement drive operating system (ROM) - "Runs more commercial software" - Changes density properly - Supports UltraSpeed (slightly faster than 1050 UltraSpeed) - Improved/optimized interleave in high speed formats - Included IBM/ST Transfer Utility (IBMREAD.COM) allows the upgraded XF551 drive to read the 512 byte sectors used in the disk formats of the IBM PC and compatibles, and the Atari ST computers. It will automatically adapt to either single-sided or double-sided formats, and supports the increased sector density of the 'twister' ST disk formats. Program includes built-in text translation. - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFupdate.htm XF Speedy - (c) 1994 Klaus Peters Elektronik + Software - 100% compatible with the 1050 Speedy: SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 70kbit/s, plus DSDD 360KiB - Replaces the 8040 MPU with a 65C02 + ROM + Memory - Reviewed: http://www.pokey.nl/xoops/modules/megazine/index.php?op=viewarticle&artid=225 Hyper-XF (or HyperXF) - (c) 1998 Stefan Dorndorf - Replacement drive operating system (ROM) - Hyper-XF 1.0A is for original XF551 with 5.25" drive - Hyper-XF 1.0B is for the XF551 with replacement 3.5" drive installed - UltraSpeed (sector skewing; no track buffer) 55420 bit/s PAL or 55931 bit/s NTSC, see: atariage.com/forums/topic/108472-xf551-oses/page__view__findpost__p__2059318 - Hyper-Speed 55000 bit/s (same speed as UltraSpeed) - Hyper-Speed DOS Patches for: BIBO-DOS 6.4RF, Turbo-DOS 2.1XF, XDOS 2.3N - Driver can also be downloaded directly from the drive, before a DOS boot - Can use disk partitions (2 on 5.25", 4 partitions on 3.5") with mixed Densities (S/E/D) or standard 360KiB (5.25") / 720KiB (3.5") - Can theoretically read/write ST/PC 720KiB disks (software is missing!) - Improved double density detection - Available: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/84017-xf551/page__view__findpost__p__1023935 ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.4) What were the Atari 815, XF521, and XF351 Disk Drives? The 815 Dual Disk Drive was introduced by Atari in June 1980 at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Chicago. The unit would feature two single-sided, double density (MFM encoding) disk drives. The 815 drives would not have a single density (810-compatible) operation mode. - Total storage capacity per diskette: 40 tracks x 18 sectors/track = 720 sectors/disk 720 sectors x 256 bytes/sector = 184,320 bytes/disk (180KiB) - While most prototype 815 drives utilized the same Tandon drive mechanism found in late-production Atari 810 drives, there were also prototype 815 drives built that used the MPI drive mechanism found in earlier 810 drives (including all 810 drives manufactured while the 815 was under development). - Manual: Atari 815 Operator's Manual C016377 (CO16377) - The 815 disk drive has a built-in power supply (plugs directly into the wall, 120V AC). - 815 accessories from Atari: o CX8201 Master Diskette II (DOS II version 2.0D, or DOS 2.0D; version of DOS II supporting both 815 and 810 disk drives; never shipped) o CX8202 5 Blank Diskettes. Box contains five CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (certified for double density use; never shipped). - Software titles announced by Atari to require the 815: o CX401 The Atari Accountant: General Accounting System (never shipped) o CX402 The Atari Accountant: Accounts Receivable System (never shipped) o CX403 The Atari Accountant: Inventory Control System (never shipped) The Atari Accountant flyer at AtariMania: http://www.atarimania.com/catalog-atari-atari-usa-_138_8.html o CX408 Atari Word Processor (Atari 815 Version; never shipped) - Atari continued to promote the 815 for around a year; it was dropped from the product line around mid-1981. Prototype units exist (according to Atarimuseum.com: 60 units were produced), but the 815 never shipped. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/400800/815/815.html The XF521 5.25" disk drive was previewed by Atari in January 1985 at the Winter CES in Las Vegas. The XF521 was to be a 130KiB, XE-styled, feature- equivalent, and gradual replacement for the Atari 1050. The XF521 never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. Pictures: http://www.atari-computermuseum.de/pics/zubehoer/xe/xf521.jpeg http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/Xf521_xegs.jpg The XF351 3.5" single-sided double density disk drive was first previewed by Atari in March 1986 at CeBIT in Hanover, West Germany. The XF351 was subsequently previewed at the 1986 Spring COMDEX show in Atlanta and at the January 1987 Winter CES in Las Vegas. With the prototype ADOS (would ship as: DOS XE), the XF351 was reported to provide 325KiB (6/1986 report) or 320KiB (9/1986 report) of storage (formatted) per disk. The XF351 never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. Picture: http://www.atari-computermuseum.de/pics/zubehoer/xe/xf351.jpg ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari? Major contributors to this section: Glenn M. Saunders, Tomasz M. Tatar, James Bradford, Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, Don Schoengarth, Andreas Koch, TXG/MNX It is possible to use floppy disk drives besides Atari's own 810, 1050, and XF551 drives with the 8-bit Atari computers. Media requirements for Atari-specific floppy disk drives, unless stated otherwise, are: - 5.25" Minidiskette / mini-disk / flexible disk / diskette / floppy disk - Soft-sectored (no sector holes; one index hole) - 48 TPI / "single density" / "double density" (any of these terms) - 40 tracks - Single-sided or Double-sided - Single-sided drives use the lower disk surface only. However, the reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by inserting the disk into the drive upside-down. NOTES: - 96 TPI 80-track "High Density" (HD) 1200KiB 5.25" floppy diskettes, which are very common, can NOT be used with Atari and compatible drives. The media is physically different from 48 TPI diskettes. - 96 TPI 80-track "double-density" / "quad density" 720KiB 5.25" floppy diskettes, which are rare, MAY be used with Atari and compatible drives. The media in these is actually identical to that of 48 TPI diskettes. This section attempts to comprehensively list: 1) 3rd-party floppy disk drives used directly with the Atari Many such drives include an interface for adding one or more standard "slave" floppy disk drives. 2) Interfaces for the Atari that allow the use of standard "slave" drives 3) Standard "slave" drives marketed for use with Atari drives/interfaces that support the use of slave drives LEGEND ====== SD = Single Density, 5.25" floppy disks, 90KiB/side, 810 compatible ED = Enhanced Density, 5.25" floppy disks, 130KiB/side, 1050 compatible DD = Double Density, 5.25" floppy disks, 180KiB/side, Percom compatible SS = Single-Sided Drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/write to one side of the disk. The reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by inserting the disk upside-down. DS = Double-Sided The following information is taken from the documentation for HiassofT's WriteAtr program, http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ Double-Sided drives for the Atari may use one of three different drive-mapping possibilities. * Most double-sided Atari disk drives: First fill tracks 0-39 (or 0-79) on the first side, then switch over to side 2 and again fill tracks 0-39 (0-79 for 3.5" disks). * The XF551 first fills track 0 on the first side. Then it fills track 1, then track 2, ... up to track 39 (on a 5.25" disk) or 79 (on a 3.5" disk). Then it switches to side 2 and fills the disk in reverse order (starting at track 39/79, then 38/78, ... til it has reached the end of the disk at track 0). * The third possibility is the standard in the PC world, but on the Atari it's possibly unique to drives connected via the Karin Maxi interface. If your Atari disk drive uses this mapping, it first fills track 0 on side 1, then track 0 on side 2, then seeks to track 1, again first fills track 1 / side 1, then track 1 / side 2, and so on, until it finishes with track 39 (79) / side 2. The drive switches the heads (sides) first before switching the track. Master = Includes drive controller, can add additional, non-Atari-specific "slave" floppy disk drives Printer port = Has a standard DB25 parallel printer port, + maybe a print buffer Top transfer rate is 19.2kbit/s unless stated otherwise 1) 3rd-party floppy disk drives for the 8-bit Atari =================================================== Access Unlimited ATAR88-1 SS SD master Access Unlimited ATAR40-1 SS SD/DD master Amdek Amdisk III AMDC-1 SS SD/ED/DD uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not 3.5") disks by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard 5.25" floppies to the Atari, printer port, master shipped with DOS XL Amdek Amdisk III AMDC-2 SS SD/ED/DD dual drives, uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not 3.5") disks by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard 5.25" floppies to the Atari, printer port, master shipped with DOS XL SN-360 DS SD/ED/DD. 8051 processor, WD2797 controller by Atari Studio AS (later, Mirage) Astra 1620 SS SD/DD dual drives. Shipped with OS/A+ or DOS XL (earlier) or SmartDOS or choice of SmartDOS/MYDOS Astra 2001 SS SD/DD dual drives. Earlier units shipped with choice of SmartDOS or MYDOS; later units all shipped with SmartDOS. The 2001 replaced the earlier 1620. Astra "Big D" DS SD/DD dual drives. shipped with MYDOS (earlier) or Top-DOS (later) Astra "The One" DS SD/DD, printer port. Shipped with Top-DOS. Astra 1001 SS SD/DD, printer port. Shipped with SmartDOS. B&C 810 SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52kbit/s California Access CA-2001 (or "CA2001") SS SD/ED/DD. Cost-reduced but compatible replacement for LDW Super 2000, released 1988. image: http://membres.multimania.fr/romualdl/images/atari/ca2001.jpg Available 38400bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I1 (with GTSYNC.COM) Available 68200bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I2 (modified GTSYNC.COM) - under SpartaDOS X with INDUS.SYS Sold with DOS XL 3.25I1 (manual: "DOS XL 2.35L") Upgrades: - TOMS Turbo Drive LDW. (or just "TOMS Turbo Drive") - SS SS/ED/DD/IBM formats - IBM format: 40 tracks * 9 sectors * 512bytes=180KiB - Top speed 70000 baud (68.2 kbit/s) in all formats - Supports Turbodrive & UltraSpeed highspeed protocols - TOMS Multi Drive LDW. 1991. - Similar to TOMS Turbo Drive LDW, with added software utilities in ROM and improved overall performance - SRAMCharger by trub, http://trub.atari8.info/ (California Access CA-2002 canceled two-sided successor to CA-2001, never produced) Concorde C-221M SS SD/DD master Concorde C-222M DS SD/DD master SBG D.8002 HS DS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed see: http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/D.8002_HS Flop Roznov pod Radhostem VD 40 F SS SS/ED/DD, XF551 compatible, printer port see: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=99716 Indus GT SS SD/ED/DD, Z-80 MPU Available 38400bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I1 (with GTSYNC.COM) Available 68200bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I2 (modified GTSYNC.COM) - under SpartaDOS X with INDUS.SYS sold with one of: OSS DOS XL 2.20, 2.30, 2.35I1, 2.35I2 sold with "GT DrivingSystem" software titles: - GT Estate Wordprocessor, (c) 1983 Elcomp Publishing author: H. C. Wagner for IJG, Inc. - GT Albert E. Spreadsheet by SIM Computer Products Inc. (c) 1982-1983 by David H. Hewit - GT Data Manager, (c) 1984 Vervan Software authors: Carl M. Evans and Richard M. Leonard upgrades: - Indus RAM-Charger: 64KiB RAM + CP/M 2.2 + software - SRAMCharger by trub, http://trub.atari8.info/ LDW Super 2000 SS SD/ED/DD, Indus GT clone. firmware is identical to the firmware of the last Indus GT drives (version 1.20). Shipped Dec. 1987. image: http://membres.multimania.fr/romualdl/images/atari/super2000.jpg Available 38400bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I1 (with GTSYNC.COM) Available 68200bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I2 (modified GTSYNC.COM) - under SpartaDOS X with INDUS.SYS Sold with DOS XL 3.25I1 (manual: "DOS XL 2.35L") Upgrades: - TOMS Turbo Drive LDW. (or just "TOMS Turbo Drive") - SS SS/ED/DD/IBM formats - IBM format: 40 tracks * 9 sectors * 512bytes=180KiB - Top speed 70000 baud (68.2 kbit/s) in all formats - Supports Turbodrive & UltraSpeed highspeed protocols - TOMS Multi Drive LDW. 1991. - Similar to TOMS Turbo Drive LDW, with added software utilities in ROM and improved overall performance - SRAMCharger by trub, http://trub.atari8.info/ L.E. Systems LEDS5-01 SS SD/DD master, 134.4kbit/s, 800 only CP/M expansion: 4MHz Z80, 64KiB RAM L.E. Systems LEFDC-04 SS SD Four drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only L.E. Systems LEFDC-08 SS SD Eight drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only Micro MainFrame MF-1681 SS SD/DD, printer port, 4KiB to 54KiB printer buffer, hard disk firmware included, master, Z-80 MPU with 16KiB to 64KiB RAM for CP/M, TRSDOS, MaxiDOS A, and OASIS. Micro MainFrame MF-1682 dual drives version of MF-1681 Percom RFD40-S1 SS SD/DD, master, introduced March 1982. Early units shipped with "BLD" utility to build Percom DOS 2.0P (double density support) from a copy of Atari DOS 2.0S; later/most units shipped with OS/A+ Version 2. Percom RFD44-S1 DS SD/DD, master; shipped with OS/A+ Version 4. Percom RFD40-S2 SS SD/DD dual drives, master; shipped with OS/A+ Version 4. Percom RFD44-S2 DS SD/DD dual drives, master; shipped with OS/A+ Version 4. Percom AT88-S1 SS SD, master; shipped with OS/A+ Version 2. Introduced Nov 1982 marketed as: "AT-88" Upgrade: AT88-DDA Doubler ("Double Density Adapter") Percom AT88-S2 SS SD dual drives, master; shipped with OS/A+ Version 2. Percom AT88-S1PD SS SD/DD, printer port, master; shipped with DOS XL. Announced summer 1983. Sales flyer: "AT-88S1PD" (Percom AT88-S2PD Announced summer 1983, never shipped) Percom AT88-SPD SS SD/DD, printer port, master; shipped with DOS XL. Manual cover page: "AT88SPD". Announced summer 1984. (IW 9/3/84) Rana 1000 SS SD/ED/DD, stand alone disk formatting, shipped with SmartDOS RCP 810 SS SD San Jose Computer Special Edition 810 SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52kbit/s Spider SS SS/ED/DD,XF551 compat,printer port,only 70 protos made see: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=99716 TOMS 720 DS SD/ED/DD/ID/QD/ST. 1991. DS-DD 360KiB format is XF551 compatible. Other formats: SS-iD IBM - 40 tracks of 9 sectors of 512 bytes = 180KiB DS-QD 80 tracks of 18 sectors of 256 bytes = 720KiB DS-ID IBM - 40 tracks of 9 sectors of 512 bytes = 360KiB DS-CD IBM/ST - 80 tracks, 9 sectors of 512 bytes = 720KiB Intel 8085 microprocessor 70,000 baud (68.2kbit/s) Supports Turbodrive & UltraSpeed highspeed protocols MYDOS 4.50, IBMST, and other utilities on ROM TOMS 720C TOMS 720 + printer port TOMS 720CR TOMS 720 + printer port + RS-232 port TOMS 710 DS SD/ED/DD/QD. 1994. DS-DD 360KiB format is XF551 compatible. Other format: DS-QD 80 tracks of 18 sectors of 256 bytes = 720KiB 8080 microprocessor. 70,000 baud (68.2kbit/s) Supports Turbodrive & UltraSpeed highspeed protocols TOMS Navigator and other utilities on ROM TOMS 360 DS SD/ED/DD. 1996. DS-DD 360KiB format is XF551 compatible. 70,000 baud (68.2kbit/s) Supports Turbodrive & UltraSpeed highspeed protocols TOMS Navigator and other utilities on ROM Trak AT-1 SS SD/DD master. upgrades: printer port, +2KiB/16KiB buffer upgrade: Turbo Software ROM allows drive to perform track-buffered reads (but not writes); also includes an extra 2KiB of RAM, expanding the print buffer to 4KiB. Trak AT-D1 SS SD master, printer port, 2KiB print buffer. Upgrade: DD / 16KiB print buffer Trak AT-D2 SS SD/DD master, printer port, 2KiB print buffer. Upgrade: 16KiB print buffer Trak AT-D4 DS SD/DD, master, printer port, print buffer Trak Champ SS SD master Trak Champ2 SS SD/DD master VD-40-F SS SS/ED/DD, printer port by FLOP, licensed from Viatronic 8085 microprocessor, 8KiB RAM, 8KiB ROM, disk controller WD2797A-PL Top speed 38400 bit/s, XF551 highspeed protocol 300 RPM. http://blog.3b2.sk/igi/post/ATARI-floppy-disk-drive-VD-40-F.aspx XFD601 (Jacek Zuk) DS SD/ED/DD high-speed: 68.2 kbit/s or 80 kbit/s (jumper selectable) Highspeed protocols: Turbodrive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed Available 68200bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I2 (modified GTSYNC.COM) - under SpartaDOS X with INDUS.SYS disk rotation: 360 RPM http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/XFD601 XFD602 (Jacek Zuk) DS SD/ED/DD dual drives high-speed: 68.2 kbit/s or 80 kbit/s (jumper selectable) Highspeed protocols: Turbodrive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed Available 68200bit/s Synchromesh DataTransfer mode: - under OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35I2 (modified GTSYNC.COM) - under SpartaDOS X with INDUS.SYS disk rotation: 360 RPM http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/XFD602 2) Interfaces for utilizing standard "slave" floppy disk drives =============================================================== CSS Floppy Board, for the CSS Black Box, master, support PC 720KiB and 1440KiB 3.5" drives, support PC 1200KiB and 360KiB 5.25" drives, also read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks see: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm HDI High-density Disk Interface by Erhard Puetz. a PCB, master, connect up to 4 standard PC high density floppy drives, 1440KiB 3.5" and 1200KiB 5.25" drives both supported, density is 256 bytes/sector Karin Maxi Disk Drive by Mariusz Geisler. PBI/ECI New Device. internal or external Cartridge/ECI (or PBI with adapter) versions, master, WD1772 + 2KiB driver ROM supports standard PC floppy disk drives of 3 types: 5.25"/360KiB, 5.25"/720KiB, 3.5"/720KiB sold with MYDOS 4.50 DS formats use PC-standard 'head-first' mapping http://blog.3b2.sk/igi/post/ATARI-floppy-disk-drive-KARIN-MAXI.aspx http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/Karin_Maxi Software Publishers/ 4MHz Z80, master, printer port, RS-232. SWP ATR8000 Original version: 16KiB RAM for disk and printer buffer, 64K Upgrade + double density CP/M 2.2 sold separately. 64KiB RAM version: double density CP/M 2.2 included. Attach up to 4 5.25" or 8" floppy disk drives, single or double or quad density, single or double-sided. 1982-1983: OSS OS/A+ Version 4 sold separately. 1983- : Shipped with MYDOS 3.1. options: 128KiB or 256KiB CO-POWER-88 with MS-DOS (64KiB version), CP/M-86, AUTOTERM-80 (80-column display output) SWP ATR8500 4MHz Z80, 64KiB RAM, RS-232, master, printer port, CP/M 2.2. Run up to four floppy disk drives (40T/80T, SS/DS) hardware UART serial port controller, Z80 expansion bus, hard drive support, shipped with MYDOS 3.2 options: DMA controller, built-in drives, hard disk 3) Standard "slave" floppy disk drives marketed to Atari users ============================================================== Access Unlimited ATAR88-A1 SS SD slave Access Unlimited ATAR40-A1 SS SD/DD slave Amdek Amdisk IIIB SS SD/ED/DD dual drives, uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not 3.5") disks by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard 5.25" floppies to the Atari, printer port, slave Concorde C-221S SS SD/DD slave Concorde C-222S DS SD/DD slave Percom RFD40-A1 SS SD/DD slave Percom RFD44-A1 DS SD/DD slave (released???) Percom AT88-A1 SS SD slave RCP 100 DS SD/DD, slave RCP 200 DS SD/DD dual drives, slave Trak AT-S1 SS SD/DD slave ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.6) What is the Percom configuration block? The following is largely verbatim from Bill Wilkinson's "Insight: Atari" column, Compute! magazine #65, October 1985, page 110-111. See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue65/insight_atari.php As defined by the Percom standard (Percom was the first manufacturer of double density disk drives for the Atari), a config block is a set of 12 bytes within the memory of the disk control microprocessor--which is inside your disk drive(s). You read a drive's config block by passing "N" to it as an SIO command. You can write a new config block to a drive via an "O" command. The "N" and "O" commands closely parallel the "R" and "W" sector input/output commands, except the data length is always 12 bytes and, no sector number is needed. The 12 bytes in the block are shown in the table: Byte # # of Description Bytes 0 1 Number of Tracks 1 1 Step Rate (values have no universal meaning) 2-3 2 Sectors per Track (byte 2 is high byte; byte 3 is low byte) 4 1 Number of Sides or Heads (0=one head, 1=two heads) 5 1 Density (0=FM/Single, 4=MFM/Double) 6-7 2 Bytes per Sector (byte 6 is high byte; byte 7 is low byte) 8 1 Drive Selected? 9 1 Serial Rate Control (values have no universal meaning) 10-11 2 Miscellaneous (reserved) While the successful establishment of the Percom standard allowed for interchangeable double density (and greater) disk drives for the Atari, the extent of support for the full standard varies widely among particular disk drives. Atari's own 810 and 1050 drives do not support the Percom config block at all, but most 3rd party disk drives designed for the Atari support at least portions of the Percom standard. For example, the Indus GT supports Percom config block bytes 5-7 (Density and Bytes/Sector) only. ------------------------------ Subject: 3.2.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks? Lee Hart writes (January 2004): Personally, I have several hundred floppy disks for my Atari 800, Kaypro 4, Heathkit H89, and IMSAI 8080 computers that are 10-20 years old. What I can say in general: - Most disks stored in plastic boxes or ziplock baggies survived. - Most disks stored in cardboard boxes or just their sleeves did NOT survive. - Some brands lasted better than others, but I haven't collated the information so as to make any kind of definitive statements. - If a disk cannot be read, CLEAN THE DISK DRIVE HEAD before attempting to read another disk! Otherwise, crap from the bad disk will remain on the head, and will scar and destroy any SUBSEQUENT disk you put in the drive! (the voice of painful experience). - For lack of a better plan, for each of my surviving disks I am: a. reformatting another blank disk b. copying the data from an old disk onto the blank disk Then I have a more recently-produced backup disk in case the original disk later fails. ------------------------------ Subject: 3.3.1) What hard disk drives were designed for my Atari? Atari never produced hard drives for the 8-bit Atari, but the following were produced and marketed to Atari users by third parties. ==> Corvus hard drive (6MB, 11MB, or 20MB), by Corvus Systems, 1982 (some Corvus info from an eBay auction by Ben Corr, 7/03) Attaches via joystick ports 3 & 4 on the Atari 800 only. -- Integrater by ADS - allows access to the Corvus Disc without the Corvus software, so that any DOS that uses standard SIO calls will work. -- Corvus Multiplexer - used to network up to 8 Ataris to one Corvus Drive -- Corvus Mirror card - back up the drive's contents onto video tape Shipped with DOS Corvus A2.0D (4/25/81), a modified Atari DOS 2.0 AtariAge thread: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/144804-corvus/ ==> SupraDrive Hard Disk System, by Supra, 1986 System includes: - SupraDrive AT hard disk - 10MB, 20MB, 30MB, or 60MB drive - Supra Hard Disk Interface - Sold with MYDOS and software utilities supporting: - write-protect and write-enable the hard disk - control the flow of linefeeds to the printer - "park" the drive - format the hard disk, then check it for bad sectors See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n6/Supradrivefor8Bit.html ==> BTL Hard Disk System, by William Lurie & Associates, 1986 System includes: - Hard disk drive: 10MB standard; drives up to 85MB were offered - BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter - One of: - BTL 2001 Connector for PBI - BTL 2002 Connector for Cartridge/ECI - Supplied with MYDOS. SpartaDOS 3.2 also supported. See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n12/BTLHardDisk.html http://www.atarimagazines.com/v6n9/ShoppersGuide.html While the hard drives mentioned in this section were originally the only ones available to use with the Atari, more recent solutions involve using a SCSI or PATA (IDE) interface to attach a newer drive to the Atari. Such interfaces are covered in other sections of this FAQ List. ------------------------------ Subject: 3.3.2) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's storage devices? ==> The Critical Connection, by USS Enterprises (Vincent Cate) A hardware interface and CP/M software package that links an Atari computer to CP/M compatible computers. Features (disk emulation): - Utilize an entire CP/M disk as an emulated 600KiB Atari disk drive - Utilize 92KiB CP/M disk files as emulated Atari 90KiB disk drives - This feature requires CP/M 2.0 or above, and a copy of Atari DOS - Can only access one CP/M drive at a time Two versions: - The Critical Connection (original) for Atari 400/800 computers - The Critical Connection XL for Atari XL/XE computers ==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC compatible computers. The hardware is known as an SIO2PC Cable. Software features (disk emulation): - Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives - Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives - Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up - No software or drivers required for the Atari; no conflicts: use your favorite DOS - Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable - Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain - Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc. - Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm More SIO2PC cable designs: - http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/ (Clarence Dyson) - http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sio2pc.htm - Atarimax Universal SIO2PC/ProSystem interface (Steven Tucker) USB or RS232/Serial versions http://www.atarimax.com/sio2pc/documentation/ ==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker - Hardware component: APE Interface Cable (or SIO2PC cable) - Software program features (disk emulation): - Up-To 8 Hard Drives & Floppy Drives - Single, Double, Quad, and 1050 Enhanced Density for any floppy drive - Disk images of up to 16MiB in size, up to 8 hard drives at once - SpartaDOS UltraSpeed I/O, or APE+ 3X SIO in any drive & density combination - Full cooperation with real SIO devices, such as disk drives, modems, printers, etc. - Load EXE files directly from your PC Hard Drive - Special APE+ 3x SIO mode - PC Mirror drive gives access to files on your PC hard drive & MSDOS filesystem with any DOS and at all SIO speeds, including APE+ 3X SIO - Registered users may write files, as well as read them from the PC mirror - APE ProSystem support http://www.atarimax.com/ ==> 800XL DJ, by Kolja 'joust' Koischwitz & Christian 'chrisker' Krueger Edward S. Baiz Jr. writes: Basically, 800XLDJ is to TOS users what APE is to PC users. It simulates an Atari disk drive and uses disk images (DI extension) to load programs. It also needs the SIO2ST cable which is the same thing as the SIO2PC cable. More info: http://www.gooddealgames.com/articles/Atari_800XLDJ.htm 800XL Deejay Version 2.41 (1994): http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/Emulators/800xldj.lzh 800XLDJF.APP is for Falcon ; 800XLDJ.APP is for ST ==> AtariSIO driver and utilities V0.30, by Matthias Reichl AtariSIO requires a 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 or 3.x series Linux kernel (with enabled module support) and a serial port with a 16550 or 16C950 compatible chip. Consists of: - A kernel module to handle the low-level part of the Atari SIO protocol - atarixfer Used to read/write disk images from/to a Atari drive connected to your Linux box with an 1050-2-PC cable. An APE ProSystem cable will also work, but you have to add the command-line switch "-p". - atariserver An SIO-server, like SIO2PC or APE for MSDOS-machines. - adir List the directory of an image - dir2atr Create a disk image from a directory of files on your PC AtariSIO supports the following interfaces: - One chip SIO2PC (with MAX232), command connected to RI - One chip SIO2PC, command connected to DSR - One chip SIO2PC, command connected to RTS - 1050-2-PC (with MAX232), command connected to RTS - Ape ProSystem cable (with 14C89), command connected to DTR http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ ==> SIO2Linux, by Preston Crow Pavel Machek made an initial attempt at communicating with the Atari through an SIO2PC cable using Linux's serial port drivers. He came up with a simple floppy emulator, femul.c. Preston Crow rewrote that to add more features: * No kernel modules. Unlike the AtariSIO project, this is just a simple user-space program that uses a serial port device. * Create new dynamically sized images Each image starts as a 3-sector image file, but grows to accommodate the highest-numbered sector written. * Mount your native file system as an Atari disk It's read-only for now, and it doesn't support subdirectories, but each file is mapped to a different starting sector, and as that sector is read, it automatically maps in the rest of the file. http://www.crowcastle.net/preston/atari/ ==> Atari810, by Dan Vernon A disk drive emulator in the tradition of SIO2PC, for the Windows NT/2000/XP platform. http://retrobits.net/ ==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe - Software program: A peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers that allows the Atari computer to use an OSX based Macintosh as a disk drive or a cassette drive - Hardware components: SIO2PC/APE cable and a selected USB to Serial dongle http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php ==> Multi-platform Distributive Operating System Professional for Atari, by Krishna Software (Krishnasoft) MPDOS Professional for Atari Features (disk emulation): o Simulates up to 4 Atari disk drives (D1:, D2:, D3:, D4:) o Simulates Atari cassette player (C:) o Includes easy to use parallel port cable (plug and play) o Hardware level simulation (no drivers required, except for keyboard) o Supports PC video overlay window o KDOS4-- a fast binary file uploader o Multimedia CDROM included (runs on PC and Atari using distributive programming) o Simple GUI interface for simulating peripherals, compiling, and uploading o On-line 100+ page manual with technical and general information http://www.krishnasoft.com/sps.htm ==> AspeQt, by Fatih Ayguen, with updates by Ray Ataergin A cross-platform, free and open source Atari 8-bit serial peripheral emulator. The name is an acronym for Atari serial peripheral emulator for Qt, Qt being the cross-platform application development framework used by AspeQt. AspeQt emulates various Atari 8-bit peripherals like disk drives and printers via a SIO2PC cable. Features (disk emulation): - 8 disk drive emulation - Up to 6x SIO speed - Support for ATR, XFD, PRO and ATX (preliminary) disk images - Mount folders as emulated disks - Disk image explorer - Directly boot Atari executables - Cassette image playback - Multilingual GUI (English, Polish, Turkish and Russian) - AspeQt client module (AspeCl) for Atari, downloads information from the host to the Atari. Time/Date is an example with more functionality to come in the future. - Currently runs under Windows and Linux http://aspeqt.sourceforge.net ==> SIO2BSD, by Konrad Kokoszkiewicz A program that handles the SIO2PC cable under: FreeBSD, Linux, MacOS X. It serves as a replacement for APE. http://drac030.krap.pl/en-inne-pliki.php http://drac030.krap.pl/pl-inne-pliki.php ==> SIO Server, by mellis / Ellis Softworks Allows the Atari computer to use up to four virtual disk drive devices located on a Mac OS X based computer, connected via an SIO2PC cable by way of a USB- to-RS232 adapter. Documentation, including cable build instructions: http://www.ellissoftworks.com/sioserver/docs/ Mac application download: http://www.ellissoftworks.com/sioserver/SIO%20Server.app.zip ------------------------------ Subject: 3.3.3) How can I use Secure Digital (SD) cards with my Atari? (SD background derived from Wikipedia) Secure Digital (SD) is a flash memory (non-volatile) memory card format used since 1999 in portable devices, including digital cameras, handheld computers, PDAs and GPS units. SD was based on the MultiMediaCard (MMC), which was introduced in 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens. The SD format includes four card families available in three different form factors. The four families are the original Standard-Capacity (SDSC), the High-Capacity (SDHC), the eXtended-Capacity (SDXC), and the SDIO, which combines input/output functions with data storage. The three form factors are the original size, the "mini" size, and the "micro" size. There are many combinations of form factors and device families. ==> SIO2SD, by Jakub Kruszona-Zawadzki, Pajero/MadTeam, Jakub Husak Load games/applications into 8-bit Atari computers via SIO interface from SD/MMC cards. Device features: - Supported cards: MMC/SDSC/SDHC (and very likely with SDXC, but only FAT32 formated) - Supported partitioning schemas: no partition, MBR (Master Boot Record), GPT (GUID Partition Table - EFI) - Supported formats: FAT12,FAT16 and FAT32 - Handles ATR (rw), XFD (ro) and COM/XEX (ro) file types - 16x2 LCD display allows to "walk" catalog tree and choose files to load (40x2 LCD displays are also supported) - TURBO: 7th bit of command switches turbo. This is new turbo mode very similar to XF551 turbo mode. - All densities with 128B and 256B sectors, including 16MiB disks - Number of simulated drives: 15 + 100 - Configuration program: - has to be present on SD card, but any program can be used - New ATR files and new folders can be created using SIO commands - "Empty disk" mode (ATR file created automatically during format command) - Deleting files from card using SIO commands - Renaming files and folders using SIO commands - Reading and writting all files using SIO commands (inside Atari folder and subfolders) - 100 extra "virtual drives" V0..V99, which can be mapped to any drive from D1 to D15 - Fast mapping - Drives V0 to V3 have additional, special meaning. When one of keys from K1 to K4 is pressed during start then device overrides mapping of D1 and maps one of those drives to D1 (K1 = V0, K2 = V1 etc.). - Builtin very simple TURBO loader (for 7th bit mode - turbo mode similar to one used in XF551) - Available: http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/angebote.html (v.1,v.2) - Available: http://afs.atari.org/ (v.2) - SIO2SD project home: http://sio2sd.gucio.pl/ ==> SDrive, by C.P.U. (Radek Sterba (Raster) & Robert Petruzela (Bob!k)) http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sdrive/sdrive.htm The SDrive is a device that connects to Atari XL/XE's serial (SIO) port and simulates an Atari floppy disk drive with full read/write access to programs and data stored on a Secure Digital (SD) flash mamory card. Main features: - Supported flash cards: Secure Digital up to 2GB size, FAT16 filesystem - Maximum number of drives: 4 (D1: to D4:) + 1 special boot drive - Supported SIO transfer rates: 3.5 to 128kbit/s (standard 19 and 69kbit/s) - Supported disk images: ATR, XFD, size up to 16MiB, 128 or 256B sectors - Supported executable files: COM, XEX, BIN.... (any filename extension). - Device controlled by software running on Atari from the SD card, which can be therefore easily updated/replaced - Drives swappable on the fly by buttons - Write protect/enable switch - SDrive ID number selection switch - simultaneous use of up to 4 SDrives - Low cost design - no LCD, a few LEDs, cheap DIL28 Atmega8 MCU, single-sided PCB - Firmware and software source code freely available Special features: - Buffered reads for speedup - Delayed writes for speedup and greatly reduced flash write cycles - Built-in bootloader requiring less than 256 bytes including sector buffer, relocatable in the $0500-$05F7 to $BE00-$BEF7 range, with SKCTL initialization before every block. Supports executable files of up to 8MiB size. - Directory with filename simulated for active files in drives, data handled through standard 128B sectors. Executable files can be run from most DOSes or Q-MEG. Random data files with arbitrary suffix can be activated and opened by a program through DOS or copied to disk images. (Note: 80KiB file size limit applies to standard DOSes, 8MiB to Q-MEG and MyDOS) ==> SDrive NUXX, by Steve Vigneau / c0nsumer http://nuxx.net/wiki/SDrive_NUXX Based on SDrive by C.P.U. Changes from the original SDrive: - A readily available enclosure and custom end panels with cutouts and artwork. - An SIO connector footprint. This allows a standard Atari SIO connector to be used, allowing easy connectivity with any of the compatible Atari 8-bit computers. - Incorporates a low-cost AVR programmer allowing a SDrive builder who doesn't have AVR programming hardware readily available an easy method of loading the firmware on the microcontroller. - The built-in Brown-Out Detector has been enabled with a 4.0V threshold. ==> SDrive Standard, by Rick L. Detlefsen / Rix / More Than Games (based on SDrive by C.P.U.) http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0130.htm ==> SDrive Bay Mount version, by Rick L. Detlefsen / Rix / More Than Games (based on SDrive by C.P.U.) http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0140.htm ==> SIO2MicroSD, by Don Peruski An Arduino board was used as the platform. Features: - 4 Virtual Drives (D1:-D4:) - Supports standard SD/ED/DD ATR files - Up to 4 sub-directories under the Atari sub-directory - High Speed SIO * - Load/Unload/Swap with 4 buttons and 16x2 LCD Display - Optional "Game/Simple Mode" configuration to limit menu choices for easier use - LCD detail mode to view access commands and use - XEX Boot-Loader ** - Ability to save current configuration of all settings - S-Drive main functions compatible *** - Full board version has built-in USB to update firmware or use as SIO2PC device - Because it is based on the Arduino, the hardware configuration options are limitless * Limited to mode 9 (about 56 kbit/s) due to 16Mhz crystal used with the stock Arduino. ** XEX Bootloader code used from S-Drive source *** Only main portions of S-Drive were implemented based on documentation http://diskwiz.wordpress.com/sio2microsd/ ------------------------------ Subject: 3.3.4) How can I use a USB flash drive with my Atari? USB flash drives are NAND-type flash memory data storage devices integrated with a USB (universal serial bus) interface. They are typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable. ==> SIO2USB, by ABBUC Regional Group Frankfurt / Main (2007) The SIO2USB Interface is a peripheral device that can be attached to an Atari 8-bit computer using the SIO-Bus. It emulates one or more Atari Floppy- Drive(s) and does not require any special drivers or Operating-Systems, it is fully compatible with all Atari DOS Systems and extensions. Because the device is connected to the SIO-Bus, it is not necessary to open or modify the Atari. The device is powered by the SIO-Bus and does not need an external Power Adapter. The data are stored on standard USB Mass Storage Devices (USB FLASH Drives) as Atari-Imagefiles (ATR or XFD) on a standard FAT filesystem. Features: o Can boot an Atari 8-bit Computer without physical Floppy Drive o Emulation of up to 3 (virtual) Disk drives simultaneously o Simple device, attached to SIO-Port, no modification of computer necessary o Mixed operation of real Floppy and SIO2USB possible o Fully compatible with all Atari DOS and OS and all Atari compatible extensions o Storage of Atari-Imagefiles on standard USB FLASH Drives o Configuration of the device by built-in keys and LC-Display or configuration program on the Atari o Built-in Real Time Clock (RTC) o Power supply for the device and USB FLASH Drive from SIO-Bus o Updated SIO2USB Firmware can be applied from within the Atari (no additional device or computer required) o Updates available via Internet (USB FLASH Drive) or direct from the Atari (real Disk Drive) http://home.arcor.de/grasel/sio2usb_e.htm orders, English http://home.arcor.de/grasel/sio2usb_d.htm orders, German http://home.arcor.de/grasel/files_e.htm support files, English http://home.arcor.de/grasel/files_d.htm support files, German ------------------------------ Subject: 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers? The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the 400/800 computers. Atari 820 Printer - Sold by Atari in the USA only - 40-column dot matrix impact printer - 5x7 dot matrix - 40 characters per line, upper & lower case alpha - Horizontal and vertical alphanumeric characters - 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent), C010745 - 6532 PIA (MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent), C010750 - 2KiB ROM - 40 characters per second - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P: and P1: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: - Atari SIO cable CA14122 (3 ft.) - Ribbon - Standard Roll Paper (one roll) - Atari 820 Printer Operator's Manual C014762 (CO14762) - Field Service Manual FD100048 - Power supply is built-in (plugs directly into the wall, 120V AC, 18W) - (There is no 220V/240V version of the 820.) - Uses Standard Roll Paper/adding machine paper - Print mechanism: LRC 7000 / Eaton 7000 - Made in ???????? - Sold separately: - Atari 820 Printer Paper (Roll Paper) C014062 - Atari 820 Printer Ribbon C014854 Atari 822 Thermal Printer - 37 characters per second - 10 characters per inch - 40 characters per line, upper/lower case and point graphics - 5x7 dot matrix - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P: and P1: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: - AC Power Adapter - I/O Data Cord - One roll of white thermal paper installed - Atari 822 Thermal Printer Operator's Manual C015954 (CO15954) - Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 18 watts: Atari CA014748 or equivalent - Print mechanism: Trendcom 100 - Made in ??????? - Sold separately: - Atari 822 Thermal Printer Paper (2 rolls) C016345 Atari 825 80-Column Printer - Sold by Atari in the USA only - Dot matrix impact printer - 3 character sets: monospaced 7x8 dot matrix at 10 characters per inch monospaced condensed at 16.7 cpi proportionately spaced Nx9 dot matrix at avg of 14 cpi (N=6..18) - Each character set with 96 standard ASCII characters - All characters can be elongated (printer double width) - Characters per line: 80 at 10 cpi; 132 at 16.7 cpi - Speed: 50 cps at 10 cpi; 83 cps at 16.7 cpi; 79 cps avg. proportional - Print buffer: 1200 dot columns - Controls along bottom of front of printer, left to right: - Online/Local - Paper Rev<->Fwd - Power Off On - Paper: roll, fanfold, or cut sheets - Requires Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent to connect to Atari computer - Included: - Ribbon - Atari CX86 Printer Cable - Atari 825 80-Column Printer Operator's Manual C015506 (CO15506) - Power supply is built-in (plugs directly into the wall, 120V AC, 100W) - (There is no 220V/240V version of the 825.) - Print mechanism: Centronics 737 - Made in ???????? - Sold separately: - Atari 825 80-Column Printer Ribbon (3 per box) CA016087 - Atari 825 80-Column Printer Paper (Roll Paper) C016233 ------------------------------ Subject: 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers? The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the XL series computers. Atari 1020 Color Printer - Type: Color printer/plotter - Text Mode Operations: - Set Character Width. One of: - 10 characters per inch (40 columns per line, regular/default) - 5 characters per inch (20 columns per line) - 20 characters per inch (80 columns per line) - Set Character Scale - 64 character sizes available - International Characters - Graphics Mode Operations: Home, Change Color, Line Type, Draw, Initialize, Relative Draw, Move, Relative Move, Axis Drawing, Alpha Rotate - Printing speed: 10 characters per second (10 CPI mode) - Paper type: Standard roll paper (40-column width) - 4-color print head - Prints and plots vertically and horizontally - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P4: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: - Atari SIO cable - 2 pens each: red, blue, green, black - TX9032 Graphics demonstration/Joystick Sketchpad Program Cassette - Side 1: Joystick Sketchpad (requires Atari BASIC): program to plot directly onto printer using a joystick - Side 2: Six sample graphics programs (all require Atari BASIC): Program Counter Number SAMPLE 002 GRAPH 047 RANDOM 017 COLOR 061 TRANGLE 032 TRIANG2 070 - Manuals: - The Atari 1020 Color Printer Owner's Guide C061368 (CO61368)(included) - Joystick Sketchpad Instruction Guide C061578 (included) - Atari 1020 Color Printer Field Service Manual FD100288 - Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 15 watts; shipped with Atari CA017964. - Print mechanism: ALPS - also found in: Commodore 1520, Tandy Radio Shack CGP-115, Sharp CE-150, Mattel Aquarius 4615, Texas Instruments HX-1000 - Made in Japan - Sold separately: - Atari 1020 Rainbow Pen Pack C061299 - Atari 1020 Replacement Pen Pack (Black) C061420 - Atari 1020 Replacement Roll Paper BX4207 Atari 1025 80-Column Printer - Type: 5 x 7 dot matrix impact - Formats - Regular: 10 characters per inch (80 columns) - Extended: 5 characters per inch (40 columns) - Condensed: 16.7 characters per inch (132 columns) - Printing Speed: 40 characters per second (10 CPI format) - Paper type: computer fanfold, roll, or single-sheet - Online switch - Buffer: 132 chrs at 16.7 cpi, 80 chrs at 10 cpi - European Character Set supported - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P3: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: The Atari 1025 Printer Owner's Guide C060505, Printer ribbon, Atari SIO cable, Power adapter (240V/220V versions) - CPU: Intel 8051 microcontroller (MCU), FC100387 - 8155 RAM I/O: Intel 8155 2048 bit static MOS RAM with I/O ports and timer, FC100389 - Field Service Manual FD100290 Rev.01 June, 1983 - Power, 120V version: Plugs directly into wall (120V AC, 100W) - Power, 240V version: Used with an external 9V AC power adapter rated for 3.4A such as Atari#C060592-34/CA017964 or equivalent (mc is still looking for pictures of such a 1025 printer. Sole source of this info so far is the Best Electronics catalog.) - Power, 220V version: Used with an external AC power adapter with two outputs, one rated for 29VAC/600mA and the other rated for 8.6VAC/1A. Atari#14750, one such supply, is detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list. - Print mechanism: Okidata ML80 / Microline 80 - Made in Japan - Sold separately: Atari 1025 80-Column Printer Ribbon C061419 / BX4202 Atari 1027 Letter Quality Printer - Type: Letter quality (fully formed characters Prestige Elite 12) - Format: 12 characters per inch (80 columns) - Printing speed: 20 characters per second - Paper type: Single sheets or Roll paper - Bi-directional printing - Underlining capability - International characters - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P5: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Included: The Atari 1027 Letter Quality Printer Owner's Guide C061387, Ink roller, Atari SIO cable, power adapter - Atari 1027 Printer Field Service Manual FD100670 - Power, 120V version: Used with an external 9.5V AC power supply rated for 4.2A or 40VA, such as Atari#C061636 or equivalent - Power, 220V version: Used with an external 9V AC power supply rated for 4.2A, such as Atari#C061605-11 or equivalent - Print mechanism: Mannesmann Tally Riteman LQ - Remarkably, there are possibly NO working 1027 printers today because it seems all 1027 print heads have deteriorated due to age. - Made in ?????? - Sold separately: Atari 1027 Replacement Ink Roller CA061649 / BX4212 Atari 1029 Programmable Printer - Printing method: 5 X 7 dot matrix impact - Formats: Regular width (10 characters per inch, 80 columns across) Elongated (5 characters per inch, 40 columns across) - Line spacing: 6 lines per inch (regular width and elongated formats) 9 lines per inch (graphics mode) - Printing speed: 50 characters per second (regular width format) - Character set: 132 characters (international and non-international) - Feed mechanism: Friction feed and pin (tractor) feed Friction feed using platen knob - Manual Feed: Forward and reverse using platen knob - Paper type: Computer fanfold (4.5 to 9.5 inches wide) Single-sheet (8.5 inches wide) - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P6: - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Power - 220V-240V 50Hz-60Hz 0.15A version: Plugs directly into wall - 120V version: plugs directly into wall (released in Canada but not the USA) - Print mechanism: Seikosha GP-500 ; clone of Seikosha GP-500AT - Made in Japan for Atari Corp. in 1984, following conception by Atari Inc. - Info sources: http://www.cpcwiki.eu/index.php/Amstrad_DMP1_printer http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/AtariTenZwentynine/Atari1029Manual.pdf - Case design done by Tom Palecki, according to http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/xlperipherals/1029.html - Sold separately: - Atari 1029 Dot Matrix Printer Inked Ribbon For 10 Inch Model C070028 ------------------------------ Subject: 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers? The following printers were produced by Atari Corp. and styled to match the XE series computers. Atari XMM801 Dot Matrix Graphics Printer ( = SHINWA CP80 ) - Dot matrix impact printer - 80 columns - Pica 10 cpi, double width pica 5 cpi, elite 12 cpi, double width elite 6 cpi, condensed 16.5 cpi, double width condensed 8.25 cpi - 96 ASCII character set and 36 International Characters. - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P7: - Included: - Direct connect 3 ft Atari SIO Cable, - Wire paper feed Rack, - Owners Manual - Multi Strike black Ribbon Cassette - Field Service Manual C070435 - Power supply is built-in (plugs directly into the wall, 120V AC) - Friction feed or pin feed - Ribbon: Commodore 1526 and the Mannesman-Tally Spirit 80 - Made in Japan Atari XDM121 Letter-Quality Daisy Wheel Printer - Daisy wheel impact printer - 80 columns - Underlining, subscripts, superscripts - Courier 10 Print Wheel - International Character Set - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P8: - Included: - 3 foot Direct connect Atari SIO cable, - Owners manual - Multi Strike Black Ribbon Cassette - Power supply is built-in (plugs directly into the wall, 120V AC) - Friction feed paper - Ribbon: Silver Reed CF130,Olivetti ET201,ET221,Nu-Kote NK136 - Made in ?????? ------------------------------ Subject: 4.4) What were the Atari XTM201 and XTC201 Printers? The XTM201 printer was introduced by Atari in January 1985 at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. A monochrome thermal printer, the XTM201 would accept single sheets of thermal paper or plain paper (Xerox 4024 or equivalent), and would also have both ribbon-end and paper-out sensors. The normal-density graphics mode would be Epson-compatible. Speed: 20 characters per second. The XTM201 never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. The XTC201 printer was introduced by Atari in January 1985 at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. A color thermal printer with support for monochrome (black) printing as well, the XTC201 would accept single sheets of thermal paper or plain paper (Xerox 4024 or equivalent), and would also have both ribbon-end and paper-out sensors. The normal-density graphics mode would be Epson-compatible. Speed: 20 characters per second. The XTC201 never shipped, and no more than a handful may exist. ------------------------------ Subject: 4.5) What other printers can I use with my Atari? Some third-party printers were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit computers: Alphacom 42 + Alphacom Atari cartridge cable interface - Thermal printer - Friction feed - 40 columns / 4 1/2" max paper width - 80 cps / 2 lines per second - 10 cpi - One line buffer - Graphics and full ATASCII character set support Alphacom 81 80-Column Printer + Alphacom 81 Intelligent Interface Cable for all Atari Home Computers - Thermal printer - Friction feed - 80 columns / 8.75" max paper width - 100 characters per second - 10 cpi - One line buffer - Graphics and full ATASCII character set support Alphacom Pluswriter / Letter Quality Daisywheel + Alphacom Atari cartridge cable interface - Daisy wheel impact printer - 20 cps - Released???? Axiom Seikosha AT-100 ( = Seikosha GP-100A) (1983) - First Atari-specific 3rd-party printer - Also marketed as: Axiom GP-100AT Economical Printer - Built-in Atari SIO cable - Atari SIO port for daisy-chain of other peripherals - Dot matrix impact printer, 80 columns, 5x7 character set - 30 cps (earlier version) or 50 cps (later version) - Screen dump programs included - Sold separately: GraphAX HiRes Dump (prints .MIC Micro-Painter files) Seikosha GP-500AT - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Dot matrix impact printer - 80 columns, 50 cps - 5x7 character set - 5 or 10 characters per inch - 6 or 9 lines per inch - Standard and international character sets - Graphics: 60 dots per inch (480 lines) - Sold widely in Poland - More info: http://www.pslib.cz/muzeum/index.php?singleitem=460 - Also sold as the Comrex CR-220AT and as the Atari 1029 Comrex ComRiter CR-220AT Dot Matrix Printer (1985) - Seikosha GP-500AT (and Atari 1029) clone - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Dot matrix impact printer - 80 columns, 50 cps - 5x7 character set - 5 or 10 characters per inch - 6 or 9 lines per inch - Standard and international character sets - Graphics: 60 dots per inch (480 lines) Axiom GP-550AT Dual Mode Printer (by Seikosha) - Built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port - Dot matrix impact printer - Near letter quality and draft modes - 86 cps (draft mode); 43 cps (nlq mode) - Screen dump programs included - Sold separately: GraphAX HiRes Dump (prints .MIC Micro-Painter files) Axiom GP-700AT Full Color Printer (by Seikosha) - Built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port - Dot matrix impact printer - Pin feed - 4 hammer print heads, 4-color ribbon cartridge - 25 colors - 30 cps or 50 cps (different versions produced???) - 5 cpi - 10 cpi - One line buffer - 80 columns / 9.5" max paper width - Screen dump programs included - Sold separately: GraphAX HiRes Dump (prints .MIC Micro-Painter files) Axiom Elite-5 + Direct-Connect interface for Atari - Daisy wheel impact printer - 12 cps - 11.8" max paper width - Released? Axiom Elite-10 + Direct-Connect interface for Atari - Daisy wheel impact printer - 22 cps - 13.8" max paper width - Released? Axiom Elite-15 + Direct-Connect interface for Atari - Daisy wheel impact printer - 45 cps - 16.7" max paper width - Released? Epson HomeWriter-10 + Printer Interface Cartridge (PIC or P.I.C.) for the Atari (Epson#8692 ?) - PIC emulates the Atari 1025 (no graphics) - Dot matrix impact printer - Draft quality printing at 100 cps and near letter quality at 16 cps - (No graphics) Epson Spectrum LX-90 + Printer Interface Cartridge (PIC or P.I.C.) for the Atari (Epson#8692 ?) - PIC emulates the Atari 1025 (no graphics) - Dot matrix impact printer - Draft quality printing at 100 cps and near letter quality at 16 cps - (Printer's native graphics capabilities unavailable via Atari PIC) General Electric TXP-1000 / Letter Quality Printer (GE 3-8100) (GE 8100) + GE Model 3-8150A Interface for operating GE 3-8100 Printer with Atari and Commodore computers - Thermal printer (not dot matrix as reported in Antic June 1985) - 50 cps "draft" mode, 25 cps "normal"/"letter quality" mode - http://www.classiccomputer.de/com/getxp1000.jpg Okidata Okimate 10 Personal Color Printer + Plug 'n Print Interface for Atari - Thermal printer - Single-sheet or tractor-feed paper - 26 colors - 240 words per minute Tesla BT-100 (Tesla Prelouc, Czech Republic) - Plugs into 2 joystick/controller ports - Dot matrix impact printer (1 pin!) - Carbon paper instead of ribbon - 480 dots per line - 150 dots per sec (A4 paper in 10 minutes) - Input power 5W - http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwbt.htm - Can be installed in the SP 210-T Data Cassette Recorder Merkur Alfi (Kovopodnik Broumov, Czech Republic) - Plotter - Standard, size A4 paper - Pens - Any - Length of step - 0.15 mm - Sold only as kit - http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwal.htm Alfigraf - Plotter - http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwag.htm Minigraf 0507 Aritma (Aritma Praha, Czech Republic) - Plotter - Paper - Standard, size A4 - Pens KIN 0577; Centropen 1939; KOH-I-NOOR 4443; Staedtler 40T06-S; Staedtler 32T03-S - Speed - max. 80 mm/s - Length of step (error) - 0.125 mm (+- 0.005 mm) - Input power 30W - http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwmi.htm Graficka Jednotka XY4140 / XY4150 (Laboratorni Pristroje Praha) - Plotters - Paper Standard, size A4 (297 x 210 mm) - Printable space 260 x 185 mm (2600 x 1850 steps) - Step 0.1 mm - Speed 100 mm/sec - http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwxy.htm Beyond the above printer models, many standard (of the time) printers can work well with the Atari. The first popular printer for use with home computers was the iconic Epson MX-80 dot matrix impact printer (1979). For many years, most printers marketed for home use could be classified into one of two categories: parallel or serial interface. The MX-80 and comparable printers typically featured the standard parallel "Centronics" micro ribbon 36-pin female connector for interfacing to a computer. The Centronics connector was a legacy of an earlier printer, the Centronics 101 dot matrix impact printer (1970). The common way to use a standard parallel printer with the Atari is to connect it to the Parallel (8-Bit) Printer Interface port of the Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent (such as the ICD P:R: Connection). One gotcha here is that the 850's parallel port is DB15F, in contrast to the DB25F connector that became the standard parallel printer port on PCs. So you need to find or build an Atari-specific printer cable, such as the Atari CX86 Printer Cable, that provides the DB15M connector at one end, and the standard male Centronics 36-pin micro ribbon connector at the other end. The pinouts necessary for building such a cable are available in the Atari 850 Interface section of this FAQ list. Many 3rd-party disk drives for the Atari, along with the Atari XEP80 Interface Module, include a standard DB25F parallel printer port. This allows a standard parallel printer to be connected to the Atari using a standard PC parallel printer cable. The Atari 850 Interface Module and equivalents also provide standard DB9 serial RS-232-C ports, permitting use of standard RS-232 serial printers with the Atari. But RS-232 serial printers are much less common than Centronics parallel printers. Some have connected more modern inkjet and laser printers that have Centronics parallel connections to the 8-bit Atari with success. Graphics printouts from the Atari may be less than ideal (look for a printer with an Epson MX/FX/LX printer series emulation mode), but these types of printers should work fine for plain text output if they can handle simple text print jobs. Mathy van Nisselroy provides an AtariWriter printer driver for the HP LaserJet here: http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/special%20stuff.htm Modern printers designed for "modern" home PCs now normally utilize USB connectors, or even wireless connectivity, rather than the older standard Centronics parallel connector, posing further challenges to connecting them to the Atari. ------------------------------ Subject: 4.6) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's printer? ==> The Critical Connection, by USS Enterprises (Vincent Cate) A hardware interface and CP/M software package that links an Atari computer to CP/M compatible computers. Features (printing): - Utilize the CP/M computer system's printer as an output device for the Atari Two versions: - The Critical Connection (original) for Atari 400/800 computers - The Critical Connection XL for Atari XL/XE computers ==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC compatible computers. The hardware is known as an SIO2PC Cable. Software features (printing): - Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm More SIO2PC cable design plans: - http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/ (Clarence Dyson) - http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sio2pc.htm ==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker - Hardware component: APE Interface Cable (or SIO2PC cable) - Software program features (printing): - Full emulation of the Atari 850 interface, allowing you to use your PC printer from any Atari application that can use the 850 interface. - Full cooperation with real SIO devices, such as disk drives, modems, printers, etc. http://www.atarimax.com/ ==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe - Software program: A peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers that allows the Atari computer to use an OSX based Macintosh as a printer. - Hardware components: SIO2PC/APE cable and a selected USB to Serial dongle http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php ==> AspeQt, by Fatih Ayguen, with updates by Ray Ataergin A cross-platform, free and open source Atari 8-bit serial peripheral emulator. The name is an acronym for Atari serial peripheral emulator for Qt, Qt being the cross-platform application development framework used by AspeQt. AspeQt emulates various Atari 8-bit peripherals like disk drives and printers via a SIO2PC cable. Features (printing): - Text only printer emulation with PC print, save, and ATASCII font support - Multilingual GUI (English, Polish, Turkish and Russian) - Currently runs under Windows and Linux http://aspeqt.sourceforge.net ------------------------------ Subject: 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems? Thanks to Laurent Delsarte for some of the research and writing for this section. A modem (MOdulator-DEModulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information for transmittal, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode received transmitted information. The common example from the main time period of the 8-bit Atari computers is the voice band modem, otherwise known as a "dial-up modem" that turns the digital data of a personal computer into modulated electrical signals in the voice frequency range of a telephone channel. These signals can be transmitted over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Thus, in this pre-Internet form of computer networking, any two computers may communicate with each other over a standard telephone line. The first commercially successful modem was the Bell 103 from AT&T. While the AT&T Bell System maintained monopolistic control over the direct connection to its phone lines in the USA, third-party manufacturers could only offer "acoustic" modem configurations. Acoustic modems featured a cradle designed to fit snugly around the microphone and earpiece of a standard (of the time) Bell telephone handset. A standard Bell telephone was utilized for it's microphone, speaker, and dialing capabilities. Such modems were designed to be interoperable with the Bell 103, which maintained its role as the effective industry standard. Later "direct-connect" modems, led by the Hayes Smartmodem, instead connected directly to the phone line. These modems contained their own microphones, speakers, and dialing capabilities controlled via software. The "Hayes command set" successfully established the industry standard for controlling modem features via computer software. Most voice band modems have a pass-through line allowing a standard telephone to be physically connected to the line while the modem is also connected. However, voice and data cannot be transmitted at the same time over the same phone line (as is possible with newer telecommuncation technologies such as ISDN and DSL). When online using a dial-up modem, before telephone services like voice mail were common, incoming callers would experience a "busy signal" as if someone was already talking on the line. This limitation was finally addressed in 2001 with the V.92 modem standard. V.92 includes a "Modem On Hold" capability, especially useful in combination with the phone company's "call waiting" and "caller ID on call waiting" features. A wide variety of modulation and communication techniques can be successfully implemented over a standard telephone line. In order for two modems to communicate, they have to initially successfully negotiate the technical nature of the communications to be used between them. Connection characteristics include modulation technique ("frequency shift keying", "phase shift keying", etc.), operation mode (one-way "half duplex" or bi-directional "full duplex"), synchronization ("asynchronous" data without clock signal or "synchronous" data accompanied by separate clock signal), and bitrate (measured in bits per second). Early modem users had to become familiar with arcane settings such as these in order to establish successful modem to modem communications. In time, modem modulation standards were established and adopted by the industry, allowing for the details to largely become transparent to the user. Newer modems would simply negotiate the fastest and most reliable connection possible between them, given the best capabilities of both modems. Major modem modulation standards: Standard (Year appeared) Top Bitrate Baud(symbols per second) Bell 103 modem (1962) 300 bit/s 300 (V.21 precursor) Bell 212A modem (1977) 1200 bit/s 600 (V.22 precursor) V.22bis (1982) 2400 bit/s 600 V.32 (1986) 9600 bit/s 2400 V.32bis (1991) 14400 bit/s 2400 AT&T V.32ter (1993) 19200 bit/s 3200 ("terbo"; V.34 precursor) Rockwell V.FC (1993) 28800 bit/s 3200 ("Fast Class"; V.34 precursor) V.34 (1994) 28800 bit/s 3200 V.34 (1996) 33600 bit/s 3429 ("V.34 Plus" or "V.34bis") US Robotics X2 (1997) 56000 bit/s 8000 (V.90 precursor) Rockwell K56flex(1997) 56000 bit/s 8000 (V.90 precursor) V.90 (1998) 56000 bit/s 8000 V.92 (2001) 56000 bit/s 8000 At the time, it was very common for modem speed bit rates to be incorrectly referred to as "baud" rates. Other than the early 300 bit/s / 300 baud modulation standard this was never correct usage of the term. Baud always meant "symbols per second" rather than "bits per second." Two additional important modem standards emerged in 1990: V.42 error control and V.42bis data compression. V.42 and V.42bis were implemented in some later V.22bis and V.32 modems, and probably in all modems supporting V.32bis and up. V.92 modems, which appeared in 2001, support V.44 data compression, an improvement over V.42bis compression. In the early 1980s popular early commercial online services reached via dial- up modem included CompuServe Information Service, Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service, and The Source. In addition to CompuServe, later online services popular with Atari users included Delphi and GEnie. Modem users would also dial in to mainframe computer systems at universities, or they would log in to privately-operated Bulletin Board Systems running on other personal computers. As long-distance telephone services were billed by the minute, telephone bill expenses were an important consideration. Atari produced several modems for use with the 8-bit Atari computers. Due to their high technical dependency on the local telephone system, plugs formats, licensing & legal issues, FCC & other equivalent certification requirements, the early Atari modems were not available outside North America. The 400/800 & XL-area European catalogs for instance were translated version of the US catalogs, depicting the same hardware, except that the modems were described as "Not available in this country." Atari 830 Acoustic Modem - Sold separately or as part of the Communicator kit CX484 - Sold by Atari in the USA only - Type: Acoustic modem - Speed: up to 300 baud - Compatibility: Bell 103/113 modem compatible - Additional hardware requirement: Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent - Connectivity: DB25 RS-232 serial port, to connect to the Atari 850 - Made in USA for Atari by Novation - Based on the Novation CAT modem (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novation_CAT) - A stand-alone, acoustically coupled, frequency shift keying (FSK) modem - Top: Ready and Power LED indicator lights - Side (left-to-right): - "O / OFF / A" switch: Originate mode / Power Off / Answer mode - Power input jack - "F / TST / H" switch: Full duplex mode / Test mode / Half duplex mode - Standard 25 pin female D-connector (RS-232-C interface) - Transmitter frequencies - Originate: mark, 1270Hz; space 1070Hz - Answer: mark, 2225Hz; space 2025Hz - Receive frequencies - Originate: mark, 2225Hz; space 2025Hz - Answer: mark, 1270Hz; space 1070Hz - Receive sensitivity: -45dBm - Power: Uses an external power supply that delivers 20V AC @ 400mA, such as the Atari #CA016751-01 / Novation #901017 or equivalent. NOTE: Atari product catalogs variously list the minimum power rating for the 830 at 7 watts or 18 watts) NOTE: Both the 830 box and the 850 Interface Technical Manual indicate that the 830 requires: Input: 117V AC (4 watts) Output: 24V AC @ 150mA Is there an Atari-branded supply like this????? - Shipped with an Atari CX87 Modem Cable - Manuals: - Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C015953 (prelim.; 102 pages) (preliminary version shipped with earlier/most 850 units; 102 p) - Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C017651 (15 pages) - Field service manual: Atari US - 1981 CS 400-800-S00B-B - Atari 850 interface module service manual Atari 835 Direct-Connect Modem - Sold only as part of the Communicator II kit CX488 - Type: Direct-connect modem - Speed: up to 300 baud - Compatibility: Bell 103/113 modem compatible - Connectivity: 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - MPU: Intel 8048 microcontroller (MCU), C060549 - Texas Instruments TMS99532 frequency-shift keying (FSK) modem chip, FC100279 - Made in USA for Atari by Racal-Vadic - No speaker, but telephone sound can be routed to the computer audio output - Pulse dialing only - Power: external power supply that delivers 20V AC @ 330mA, such as the Atari #C060479 or equivalent NOTE: Atari product catalogs list the minimum power rating for the 835 at 18 watts, but Atari's own power supply is only rated for 9 watts) - User's documentation: - C024438 (CO24438) The Communicator II getting started (1982) - C061183 (CO61183) Telelink II owner's guide (1982) - Field service manual FD100268 Rev. 01 March, 1983 Atari 1030 Direct-Connect Modem - Speed: up to 300 baud - Compatibility: Bell 103/113 modem compatible - Connectivity: 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers - Project director at Atari: Sherwin Gooch - Made in USA - Modem electronics by Penril - Communications are possible with both originate-only and answer-only modems - Built-in ModemLink telecommunications software - Accessed via Bootstrapping Operation: When the Atari computer is turned on, it issues a disk request via SIO. If no Drive 1 is present with power ON, the 1030 responds to the disk request. The computer then loads the bootstrapping program from the 1030, as if it were reading from a disk. The bootstrapping program is then run, and it gets the ModemLink program with T: device handler from the 1030, relocates them into the computer's RAM, and executes the program. The T: modem device handler is further described elsewhere in this FAQ list. - Controls, software selectable: - Full and Half duplex operation - Pulse or Tone dialing - Memory buffer on/off - Printer on/off - Box sticker: "Free Time Offer Enclosed: Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service" Shipped with CompuServe IntroPak as well - Receive sensitivity: -43dBm - Indicators: - Power ON/OFF - On-line (carrier detect) LEDs - Included: Owner's guide, Atari SIO cable, Telephone extension cable with RJ-11 clip connectors, Power adapter - Power: external power supply that delivers 9V AC @ 5.4mA, such as Atari #C062195 or equivalent - User's documentation: C061798 (CO61798) The Atari 1030 modem with ModemLink telecommunications program owner's guide (1983) - Field service manual: ????? Atari XM301 Modem - Type: Direct-connect modem - Speed: up to 300 baud - Compatibility: Bell 103/113 modem compatible - Incompatibilities: Cannot be used with an Atari 1200XL (see Power, below). The manual reads "You cannot use the XM301 modem with an Atari 1200XL computer unless it has been modified. Contact your local Atari service center for information on modifying your 1200XL computer." - Additional hardware requirement: (none) - Connectivity: Permanent SIO cable, must be at end of SIO chain - Key engineer/designer: Jose Valdes at Atari - Made in Taiwan - No speaker, but telephone sound can be routed to the computer audio output - Auto-dial and auto-answer capabilities - Dialing capabilities: Tone and pulse (rotary) dialing - Shipped with XE Term Communications Program disk (DX5076) - Developed by Russ Wetmore for Atari - Box sticker: "Free Inside/Special Offer: Money Saving Values from the Source, CompuServe, Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service, Knowledge-Index, and the Official Airline Guide." - Transmitter frequency - Originate: Mark 1270Hz +/- 0.5%; Space 1070Hz +/- 0.5% - Answer: Mark 2225Hz +/- 0.5%; Space 2025Hz +/- 0.5% - Transmit level: -9.0dBm to -16dBm - Receiver frequency - Originate: Mark 2225Hz +/- 30Hz; Space 2025Hz +/- 30Hz - Answer: Mark 1270Hz +/- 20Hz; Space 1070Hz +/- 20Hz - Sensitivity: -13dBm to -46dBm - Carrier detect threshold - On: -44dBm - Off: -45dBm - Bit error rate: No more than 1 in 10E5 bits - Power: 5V @ 60mA, drawn from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready) - User's documentation: C026119 (1985) Atari XM301 Modem - Field service manual: ????? Atari SX212 Modem - Type: Direct-connect modem - Speed: 75-300 and up to 1200 bit/s - Compatibility: Bell 103/113/212A modem compatible - Compatibility: Hayes command set compatible - Incompatibilities: With an 800XL, cannot be used with a tape recorder (reason unknown?????). The manual reads "If you are connecting your SX212 modem to an Atari 800XL computer, you cannot operate the modem and a cassette recorder at the same time. Remove the recorder before using the modem." - Additional hardware requirement: (none) - Connectivity: SIO (Atari 8bits) & DB25 RS-232 serial (Atari ST) ports. Must be at end of SIO chain. - Key engineer/designer: Jose Valdes at Atari - Made in Taiwan - Built-in speaker with adjustable volume for call monitoring - Auto-dial and auto-answer capabilities - Operation: Full duplex and half duplex - Dialing capabilities: Tone and pulse (rotary) dialing - Carrier frequencies - 1200 bit/s; Originate; Transmit 1200Hz, Receive 2400Hz - 1200 bit/s; Answer; Transmit 2400Hz, Receive 1200Hz - 75-300 baud; Originate; Mark 1270Hz, Space 1070Hz - 75-300 baud; Answer; Mark 2225Hz, Space 2025Hz - Receive signal frequency tolerance: +/- 7Hz - Bit error rate: Less than 1 in 10E5 bits for signal-to-noise ratio of 8dB with 300Hz to 3400Hz Gaussian noise over a receive level range of -10dBm to -35dBm - Loss of carrier: Disconnects automatically in 1 +/- 1 second after loss of carrier - Command buffer: 40-character command buffer - Receiver sensitivity: -40dBm - Transmit level: -9dBm - SX Express! sold separately (DX5089) - Package includes Program Disk, User's Manual, and SIO cable - SX Express! Program Disk (DX5089) includes: DOS.SYS DOS 2.5 File Management System (FMS) DUP.SYS DOS 2.5 Disk Utility Package (DUP) AUTORUN.SYS SX Express! Ver. 3.00 by Keith Ledbetter RAMDISK.COM DOS 2.5 130XE RAMdisk utility HANDLER.OBJ R: device handler (by Paul Swanson) HANDLER.DOC SX212 Modem Handler Technical Description - Power: external 500mA 9V DC, such as Atari#C010472/C016353/C018084/CX261 or equivalent. - User's documentation: (1987) C070878 (CO70878) C033506 (CO33506) Atari SX212 Modem - Owner's manual - Field service manual: ????? ------------------------------ Subject: 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari? Some third-party modems were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit computers. All of these are direct-connect modems (plug directly into the phone line) unless stated otherwise. ==> Microconnection A1, by The Microperipheral Corp. (1981) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - (No Auto-Dial, no Auto-Answer) - Requires 850 interface, Atari cable included (Atari CX87 equivalent) - Software included: Tariterm (both cassette and disk, version 1.1, 9/15/81) - Sold separately: TSMART (cassette) ==> Microconnection A1A, by The Microperipheral Corp. (1981) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto-Dial (pulse dialing, not touch tone) / Auto-Answer - Requires 850 interface, Atari cable included (Atari CX87 equivalent) - Software included: Tariterm (both cassette and disk, version 1.1, 9/15/81) - Sold separately: TSMART (cassette) ==> Microconnection A2, by The Microperipheral Corp. (1981) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - (No Auto-Dial, no Auto-Answer) - RS-232 serial printer port included - Connects via SIO, must be at end of SIO chain. Not a smart SIO device. - No software included(?). Sold separately: - Typer-A (M: serial printer device handler on cassette) - TSMART (cassette) ==> Microconnection A2A, by The Microperipheral Corp. (1981) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto-Dial (pulse dialing, not touch tone) / (No Auto-Answer) - RS-232 serial printer port included - Connects via SIO, must be at end of SIO chain. Not a smart SIO device. - No software included(?). Sold separately: - Typer-A (M: serial printer device handler on cassette) - TSMART (cassette) ==> AutoPrint Microconnection, by The Microperipheral Corp. (1983) - For Atari or Commodore computers - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto-dial / auto-answer - Centronics parallel printer port - Hardware ability to route incoming modem text directly to printer port - Connects via SIO, must be at end of SIO chain. - Terminal software listings provided in the user manual. Sold separately: - TSMART (cassette) ==> RS-Coupler 9201, by International Quartz Limited (Interquartz) (1983?) - Acoustic Modem - 300 bit/s, CCITT V.21 - Originate / Answer - Requires 850 interface - Software listings for: IBM PC, Apple II, Atari 800, TI 99/4A, Commodore 64 - http://quartdepomme.fr/quartdepomme/Hardware_Apple_II_Clones/Pages/ RS_Coupler_CCITT_V21.html ==> Signalman Mark II, by Anchor Automation (1983) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto-dial / auto-answer - Requires 850 interface, Atari cable included (Atari CX87 equivalent) ==> Volksmodem, by Anchor Automation (1983) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - (no auto-dial, no auto-answer) - Voice/data switch - Draws its power from the telephone line, with nine-volt battery backup - Sold separately: - C Cable, requires 850 interface (Atari CX87 equivalent) - F Cable (1984), connects to Atari joystick port #2 - Shipped with cassette based terminal software (what software????) ==> Volksmodem 12, by Anchor Automation (1984) - 300/1200 bit/s, Bell 103/Bell 212A compatible - Hayes "AT" command compatible - Auto-dial / Auto-Answer - Voice/data switch - Sold separately: C Cable, requires 850 interface (Atari CX87 equivalent) ==> Q-Modem, by Quantum Microsystems 300 baud, two SIO connectors, QuanTerm disk or cartridge ==> Pocket Modem, by BOT Engineering - 300 baud - Auto-answer - Connects directly to SIO - Pocket Modem cartridge, "Intelligent Terminal Software (c) 1984" contains: - Pocket Modem Software Ver 2.08 By ADCM Systems (C) Copyright 1984 ==> MPP-1000, by Microbits Peripheral Products (1982) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Connects to joystick port #4 (400/800 only) - Smart Terminal tape/disk ==> MPP-1000C, by Microbits Peripheral Products (1983) - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto answer / Auto dial - Connects to joystick port - Smart Terminal cartridge - CompuServe DemoPak ==> 1000E, by Microbits Peripheral Products (MPP) (1985) - Later units sold/supported by Supra - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto answer / Auto dial - Connects to joystick port - Smart Terminal cartridge (by MPP) or disk (by Supra) - CompuServe DemoPak ==> 300AT, by Supra (1986) - Supra-branded replacement for the identical MPP 1000E - 300 bit/s, Bell 103 compatible - Auto answer / Auto dial - Connects to joystick port - Smart Terminal disk - CompuServe DemoPak and Delphi membership ==> 1200AT, by Supra (1987) - Same as: E+E DataComm Avatex 1200 - Low Speed Mode: 0-300 bit/s, binary, serial, asynchronous, Bell 103 compatible - High Speed Mode: 1200 bit/s character-asynchronous, Bell 212A compatible - Command Set: 8 Hayes "AT" commands (other options fixed or not needed) - Auto-answer - Auto dial (tone or pulse) - (No speaker) - Connects to SIO via included SupraVerter interface - Smart Terminal disk - CompuServe DemoPak and Delphi membership ==> SupraModem 2400AT, by Supra (1988) - Asynchronous operation at 300, 1200, or 2400 bit/s - Compatibilities: Bell 103, Bell 212A, V.22, V.22bis - Hayes "AT" command compatible (100%) - Auto-answer - Auto dial (tone or pulse) - Speaker built-in - Connects to SIO via included SupraVerter interface - Smart Terminal disk Beyond the above modem models, most any industry standard (of the time) external RS-232-C serial modem can work well with the Atari. These were commonly sold for PCs for many years. The Hayes Smartmodem more or less defined the market for these, initially. Normally modems featured a DB25F connector for interfacing to the computer. The original, most common, and most trouble-free way to use such a modem with the Atari is to attach it to the #1 RS-232-C serial port (DB9F) of the Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent, using an Atari CX87 Modem Cable or equivalent (DB9M to DB25M). Note that the standard "modem cable" used with PCs of the era was DB9F to DB25M. Such a cable combined with a simple DB9 gender converter creates the equivalent of the Atari CX87 Modem Cable. A less common way to connect a standard external modem with DB25F connector to the Atari is to connect it to the Atari SIO port via an R-Verter Serial Bus Modem Adapter by Advanced Interface Devices (A.I.D.), later sold as the SupraVerter by Supra, or equivalent. Note that the top modem bitrate that can be utilized by the Atari, under ideal circumstances, is 19200 bit/s. Modems capable of faster bitrates work fine, they just can't be operated at their full speeds. Later external modems designed for newer PCs connected to a USB port on the PC instead of the standard DB9M serial port found on earlier PCs. ------------------------------ Subject: 5.3) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's modem/network? These two solutions provide effective means of connecting the 8-bit Atari (indirectly) to the Internet. ==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker - Hardware component: APE Interface Cable (or SIO2PC cable) - Software program features (modem or network): - Full cooperation with real SIO devices, such as disk drives, modems, printers, etc. - Full emulation of the Atari 850 interface, allowing you to use your PC modem or network (Internet) from any Atari application that can use the 850 interface. - Allowing loading of the Atari R: handler from any communications program - Hardware flow control for the PC modem using the R: device. http://www.atarimax.com/ ==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe - Software program: A peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers. Includes 850 Emulation to allow Internet Modem capability. - Hardware components: SIO2PC/APE cable and a selected USB to Serial dongle http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php ------------------------------ Subject: 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari? ==> CSS Deluxe Quintopus Share SIO devices between 2 computers. The Deluxe Quintopus consists of a box with two switched SIO ports and 4 unswitched SIO ports. http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/quintopus.htm ==> Supra MicroNet Supports the connection of one SIO chain of peripherals to up to 8 computers. When one computer accesses a peripheral device, the entire bus is occupied so that the other computers on the "network" must wait. The bus is freed five seconds after a computer finishes interacting with the peripheral. A printer/data buffer can make the MicroNet more practical. Supra also provided a modified Atari DOS 2.5 that would re-try disk accesses repeatedly in response to SIO timeouts. http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n10/productreviews.html ==> CSS Multiplexer ("MUX") Description from the CSS online catalog: The Multiplexer is a collection of cartridge interface boards that allow up to 8 Ataris to read and write to the same drives (typically a hard disk), access the same printer(s), and talk to each other. It is the first practical networking system for the Atari 8-bit computer. One "master" computer (any 8-bit) is equipped with the master Multiplexer interface. Then up to 8 "slave" computers hook up to this master, each having their own slave interface. The slave interface consists of a cartridge that plugs into the cartridge port. It has its own socket on the top so you can use whatever cartridges you desire with the system. The "common" peripherals (things that are to be shared) are connected to the master. On each slave, all disk and printer I/O is routed through the master so no extra disk drives are needed. The master computer can be configured in any manner you wish. You may have certain peripherals local to the slave or routed to a different number on the master. Note that serial ports (R: RS-232 interfaces) are not multiplexed. All slaves are independent and do not need to have the same program running on them. http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/multiplexer.htm ==> GameLink and GameLink-II Two hardware designs by Chuck Steinman of DataQue support the linking of two or more Atari computers. Each supports multiple user head-to-head gaming where each player uses a separate computer (each with separate TV/monitor). (GameLink and GameLink-II descriptions by Andreas Koch) a) GameLink: This hardware was developed in 1989/90. It links two computers together via the joystick ports. It is limited to a maximum of 2 computers and thus 2 or 6 players, meaning one free port per XL/XE computer and 3 free ports per 400/800 computer. However, the few existing games for this hardware merely support 2 players. b) GameLink-II: This hardware was developed in 1991/92. It links 2 to 8 computers together via the SIO ports. One computer will then act as the master and has to boot up the software (from tape, disk, hard disk, etc.) first. Then all other "slave" computers connect to it and boot off of this master computer (one after another of course). In Europe we call this device "Multilink", mostly because of the games written by Bewesoft (Jiri Bernasek) called Multi-Dash, Multi-Race, Multi-Worms. A two computer network can easily be done with one SIO cable, just open the end of the SIO cable and exchange cables number 3 and 5. You now have an easy two computer (2-4 players) network cable. For some available software for hardware such as GameLink and GameLink-II please section 8.16 of this FAQ list, "What programs support Atari computer networking?" ==> AT-Link (Alphasys) Arianne Slaager writes: I was actually surprised to read about the GameLink, as I made a similar cable myself, called the AT-Link. This cable could also be used to communicate with Commodore 64 computers, and I made driver software for both systems at the time. There were 2 drivers. One as relocatable machine code, and another as device driver. Also in the package was a 2 player Battleships type game where Side A had the Atari version, and Side B the Commodore 64 version. ...wasn't more than two old joystick cables in a crosslink configuration, (Pin 1 and 2 linked to pin 3 and 4 of the other cable respectively) ==> EightLink (Alphasys) Arianne Slaager writes: I also made a special high-speed Atari to Atari cable, called the EightLink. This one was cartridge based system, with a PIA inside, which boasted a 8 bit bidirectional, parallel databus, and a 4 bit crosslinked control bus. Transfer speeds were such that two Ataris on opposite ends of a large hall could transfer disk data faster than it could be read or written. The actual cable connecting the two was a flatcable with 33 leads, alternating ground and a dataline across the width to minimise crossover disruption of data. Also for this link system, I made drivers both in relocatable code, as well as a device driver. ------------------------------ Subject: 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network? Two options are presented here: - Option #1 is a generic LAN/RS-232 interface from Lantronix - Option #2 is a native ethernet interface for the Atari Option #1 =-=-=-=-= Marius Diepenhorst has pioneered the following technique. He writes (2004): "Try to get a Lantronix UDS-10 device. It acts like a modem but it is a LAN -> RS-232 converter. So with that device you can have incoming and outgoing 'calls' like modem ones via the internet. I ran my Atari 8bit BBS with such a thing. The Lantronix UDS-10 or MSS100 will do too. But in that case you have to make a custom RS-232 cable (easy job). More info www.lantronix.com this is the info of the UDS-10 www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/uds-10.html Now see the newer model, the UDS1100: www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/uds1100.html It is REALLY a cool thing. Not only for you, but for more Atari fans I guess." Other, similar serial-to-Ethernet interfaces from Lantronix have been successfully utilized, including the MSS100: www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/mss100.html as well as the discontinued MSS1-T. Note that the UDS-10 lacks DNS support, while the MSS100 and MSS1-T include DNS support. Option #2 =-=-=-=-= The Atari 8-Bit Ethernet Project is developing a hardware/software solution that will be able to connect to the internet via an Atari 8-bit Ethernet Cartridge. The hardware and software was originally developed by Chris Martin and tested by Mark Dusko. The software is based on the work already done in the Commodore 64 community, this adapter will allow you to take advantage of telnet, e-mail, web browsing and a web server via the Contiki Operating System and a Ciris Logic CS8900A ethernet controller chip. The main component is called the IP Dragon II; the official cartridge name is the Dragon Cart. Project website: http://www.atari8ethernet.com/ ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module? While the Atari's SIO and controller ports did not conform to established industry standards, Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to address this issue. The 850 connects to the SIO port on the Atari, and provides: - Four 9-pin RS-232-C serial ports - One 15-pin Centronics-type parallel printer port Many "industry standard" (of the time) printers, modems, and various other devices can be used with the Atari computer in combination with an 850 Interface Module. Also, Atari's own 825 printer and 830 modem are connected to the computer via the 850 Interface Module. RS-232-C is a technical standard of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Published in August of 1969, it is titled "Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange." The standard specifies electrical signal characteristics and names and defines the functions of the signal and control lines which make up a standard interface, called RS-232-C. The 850 should be thought of as an RS-232-C "data terminal" (DTE, or Data Terminal Equipment). The 850's RS-232-C serial ports support the following baud rates: 45.5 bit/s*, 50 bit/s*, 56.875 bit/s*, 75 bit/s**, 110 bit/s, 134.5 bit/s, 150 bit/s, 300 bit/s, 600 bit/s, 1200 bit/s, 1800 bit/s, 2400 bit/s, 4800 bit/s, 9600 bit/s * These baud rates are useful for communications with Baudot teletypes, for RTTY (radioteletype) applications. They are more commonly referred to as 60, 67, and 75 words per minute. ** This baud rate is sometimes used for ASCII communications, and may also be used for 5-bit Baudot RTTY. The latter is commonly referred to as 100 words per minute. In order to utilize a device attached to one of the RS-232-C serial ports of the 850, an R: RS-232 serial port device handler must be loaded into memory. The 850 contains an R: handler, supporting devices R1: through R4:, in its ROM. The R: handler of the 850 can be loaded into the computer's RAM via a "Power-On Bootstrapping Operation" as follows: Bootstrapping Operation Without Disk Drive: When the Atari computer is turned on, it issues a disk request via SIO. If no Drive 1 is present with power ON, the 850 responds to the disk request. The computer then loads the bootstrapping program from the 850, as if it were reading from a disk. The bootstrapping program is then run, and it gets the RS-232-C handler from the 850 and relocates it into the computer's RAM. The memory occupied by the bootstrapping program is then freed (but the handler remains). Bootstrapping Operation With Disk Drive: If there is a disk drive attached to the system (Drive 1 only), it responds to the disk request issued by the computer at power-on. The computer then reads a start-up program from that disk, such as a DOS. The 850 does not respond to the disk request if a disk drive responds first; therefore, the program loaded from disk must load the handler from the 850. Many varieties of DOS for the Atari include an explicit provision for loading and executing the bootstrapping program from the 850, such as through the use of an AUTORUN.SYS file. When the 850 bootstrapping program is executed, it gets the RS-232-C handler from the 850 and relocates it into the computer's RAM. The memory occupied by the bootstrapping program is then freed (but the handler remains). R: Handler Bugs and Alternatives Multiple versions of the 850 R: handler ROM exist, as over time Atari attempted to eliminate what were generally minor bugs. The most well-known bug is a system hang caused by pressing the [SYSTEM RESET] key after the 850 R: handler has been loaded. One remedy to this problem is to use a debugged alternative 850 R: handler loaded from disk. DOS XL was distributed with such a handler for the 850, called: RS232FIX.COM The resident P: Printer Handler of the Atari Operating System is able to fully utilize a printer attached to the parallel printer port of the 850 Interface Module. - 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number XL/XE OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P2: PINOUTS ======= 850 Serial Port No. 1 (9-pin female connector): 1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out) 2. Carrier Detect (CRX, In) 5 1 3. Send Data (Out) o o o o o 4. Receive Data (In) o o o o 5. Signal Ground 9 6 6. Data Set Ready (DSR, Ready In) 7. Request to Send (RTS, Out) 8. Clear to Send (CTS, In) Use a cable with the following connections to attach a standard RS-232 modem to an Atari via the 850's Serial Port No. 1 (equivalent to the Atari CX87 Modem Cable): DB25P (RS-232 Modem) | DB9P (850 Interface) 20 1 - DTR 8 2 - CRX 2 3 - XMT 3 4 - RCV 7 5 - GND 6 6 - DSR 4 7 - RTS 5 8 - CTS Frame - to the shield wire | No connection to shield 850 Serial Port Nos. 2 and 3 (9-pin female connector): 5 1 1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out) o o o o o 3. Send Data (Out) o o o o 4. Receive Data (In) 9 6 5. Signal Ground 6. Data Set Ready (DSR, Ready In) 850 Serial Port No. 4 (9-pin female connector): When used with a 1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out)* 20mA loop device: 5 1 3. Send Data (Out) 1. Send data + o o o o o 4. Receive Data (In) 3. Send data - o o o o 5. Signal Ground 7. Receive data + 9 6 7. Request to Send (RTS, Out)* 9. Receive data - 9. - 8V *These pins are not computer-controlled and are always ON (+10V). 850 Printer Port (15-pin female connector): 1. /Data Strobe 2. Data bit 0 3. Data bit 1 8 1 4. Data bit 2 o o o o o o o o 5. Data bit 3 o o o o o o o 6. Data bit 4 15 9 7. Data bit 5 8. Data bit 6 9. Data pins pull-up (+5V) 11. Signal ground 12. /Fault (Must be +5 for printer port to operate) 13. Busy 15. Data bit 7 Use a cable with the following connections to attach a standard Centronics- type parallel printer to an Atari via the 850's Printer Port (equivalent to the Atari CX86 Printer Cable): 36-pin Centronics (male) | DB15P (850 Interface) 1 1 - Data Strobe 2 2 - D0 3 3 - D1 4 4 - D2 5 5 - D3 6 6 - D4 7 7 - D5 8 8 - D6 16 11 - Gnd 32 12 - Fault 11 13 - Busy 9 15 - D7 Frame - to the shield wire | No connection to shield Very early 850s are in an all-black brushed steel case, but most are in a beige plastic case matching the 400/800 computers. Front of unit (left-to-right): - Power In jack - On power indicator light - Power Off / On switch - Two I/O Connectors (Atari SIO) Right side of unit: - Parallel Interface port Rear of unit (left-to-right): - Four Serial Interface ports, 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 850 internals: - 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent), C010745 - 6532 PIA. Two of: - MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent, C010750 - 4KiB X 8 Bit ROM, C012099 Manuals: - Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C015953 (preliminary version shipped with earlier/most units; 102 p) - Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C017651 (later units; 15 p) - Atari 850 Interface Module Technical Manual C017652 (later units; 106 p) - Atari 850 Interface Module Field Service Manual CS 400/800-S004-B 4/81 - Atari 850 Interface Module Field Service Manual FD100036 Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at least 17 watts: Atari CA014748 or equivalent. The 850 was designed by Scott Scheiman at Atari, according to: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/400800/atari850.html The 850 was manufactured by Atari in the USA. Because the 850 was relatively expensive, provided more capabilities than the average user was looking for, and was at times unavailable from Atari despite high demand, there were many 3rd-party interfaces designed to provide some compatible subset of the 850's features. Perhaps the most prominent example of such a product is the P:R: Connection from ICD. ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module? (text from Atari's XEP80 documentation) The XEP80 is a video output device that also supports an 8 bit type parallel port. The video hardware generates an 80 column by 25 line text display through a video connector/cable plugged into a separately purchased monitor. The monitor can be any Composite Video input type, although for the best display a monochrome is strongly advised. Internally, the XEP80 is a 256 character wide by 25 line high storage device with an 80 column wide display window. Characters may be placed anywhere within the device independent of the window location. The window may be scrolled across the 256 column wide field. Optionally, the XEP80 may be placed into Pixel Graphics mode. This mode supports a bit mapped (pixel) screen of 320 dots (40 bytes) horizontal by 200 dots (lines) vertical. The output window displayed is approximately half the size of the text window. Communication to and from the XEP80 is established through a joystick type cable that extends from the back of the unit. This cable will plug into either joystick port (1 or 2) on all Atari 8 bit computers. Through this cable the XEP80 receives commands and data from the computer and sends them to either the screen or the printer. (Pin 1: computer -> XEP80; Pin 2: XEP80 -> computer) The 8 bit parallel port allows Epson, Centronics, etc. type printers to be connected to the XEP80, which means the Atari Computer may now output to these printers. The parallel connector is a female 25 pin D type. Audio may be supplied via a video cable from the Atari computer DIN plug to any suitable audio speaker input. This is required for any SOUND commands or keypresses. Software is provided on diskette in the form of a DOS binary file named AUTORUN.SYS. This file is automatically loaded into memory and initialized by the DOS at boot (power on) time. Contents of the XEP80 Boot Disk: (DX5087) DOS.SYS DOS 2.5 File Management System (FMS) DUP.SYS DOS 2.5 Disk Utility Package (DUP) AUTORUN.SYS XEP80 Handler and Relocator. Substitute versions for three OS-resident device handlers: - S: Display Handler - E: Screen Editor Designed to be compatible with the standard E: device but for the 80-column screen display. - P: Printer. Default configuration supports 8 different printer devices: P1: XEP80 parallel port P2: 850 Interface Module parallel port P3: 1025 Printer P4: 1020 Color Plotter P5: 1027 Printer P6: 1029 Printer P7: XMM801 Printer P8: XDM121 Printer The handler interprets P: (no device number) to mean P1:. RELOC.SRC Relocater in assembly source XEP80HAN.SRC Handler in assembly source DEMO80.BAS Demonstrates overall XEP80 features MAKER.BAS Program to generate an AUTORUN.SYS from a custom-made Handler ATRIBUTE.BAS Demonstrates special text features WINDOW.BAS Demonstrates the 256-character wide window EIGHTY.BAS Displays a spreadsheet-like grid using the full XEP80 display GRAPHICS.BAS Demonstrates graphics capability by drawing a sphere on screen PRINTER.BAS Program to revise the default printer port configuration XEP80.DOC Product Specification For XEP80 hardware and software *********************** The key engineer/designer of the XEP80 was Jose Valdes at Atari. Lane Winner was software developer for the XEP80 at Atari. The XEP80 was made in Taiwan. Editors for the XEP80: (This should someday be expanded into a separate list of XEP80 software. -mc) - AtariWriter 80 by Atari - TurboWord by MicroMiser - Emacs subset by Stan Lackey - MAE and its previous standalone editor ED XEP80 P: Parallel port (female) pinout: 13 1 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 25 14 1. Strobe 2-9. Parallel Data 10. Not Used 11. Busy 12-17. Not Used 18-25. Ground The XEP80 draws 400mA of current from an external power supply. Use a power supply that delivers 500mA 9V DC, such as Atari#C010472/C016353/C018084/CX261 or equivalent. ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.3) What were the 1060 CP/M Module and 1090 XL Expansion System? The Atari CP/M Module was shown at the June 1983 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. Later dubbed the 1060, housed in a case greatly resembling the 1050 disk drive, features were to include: Z-80 Microprocessor, 4.0MHz processing speed, 64KiB RAM, CP/M 2.2 Operating System, 40/80-column video output (switchable), Serial input/output port (Atari SIO), Monitor output. CP/M software in Atari diskette format was to be supplied by Add-On Software, Inc., who expected to initially offer: Wordstar (MicroPro International), dBASE II (Allied Computer Services), Peachpak (Peachtree Software), Pascal/MT+ (Digital Research), CBASIC (Digital Research), SuperWriter (Sorcim), SuperCalc (Sorcim), Multiplan (Microsoft), MBASIC (Microsoft), and perhaps: MicroSort, Supersoft FORTH, Personal Pearl Database Manager. Atari confirmed the cancellation of the unshipped 1060 in January 1984. No more than a handful may exist. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/xlperipherals/1060/1060.html The Atari Expansion Box was first shown at the June 1983 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. Later dubbed the 1090 XL Expansion System, and intended to replace the 850 interface, the 1090 would plug into the PBI on 600XL/800XL/1400XL/1450XLD computers to provide: two standard RS-232-C serial ports, one standard Centronics parallel port, and five internal 8-bit PBI card slots. Three prototype XL Expansion Cards for the 1090 have been identified: the 1066 CP/M card (1090 card version of the prototype 1060 CP/M Module), an 80-column video card (perhaps necessary for the 1066 CP/M card to be usable), and a 64KiB RAM card that by June 1984 was promoted to ship with the 1090. Atari continued to promote the 1090 through June 1984. A handful of prototypes exist, but the 1090 was never shipped. Few if any working prototype XL Expansion Cards for the 1090 exist. http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/xlperipherals/1090xl.html ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.4) How can I use an ISA device with my my Atari? (Background derived from Wikipedia) Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM PC compatible computers introduced with the IBM Personal Computer (1981) to support its Intel 8088 microprocessor's 8-bit external data bus, and extended to 16 bits in 1984 for the IBM Personal Computer/AT with Intel 80286. The ISA bus was further extended for use with 32-bit processors as Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) in 1988. RoBue (Roland Buehler) of the Stuttgart ABBUC Regional Group has produced project plans for an ISA-Bus Interface for Atari 800XL/130XE Computer. http://atariwiki.de/wiki/Wiki.jsp?page=ARGS%20ISA%20PC%20Interface Carsten Strotmann has released source code showing how to access a Hercules video card with the ISA-Bus Interface. http://atariwiki.de/wiki/Wiki.jsp?page= Hercules%20Graphic%20Card%20inside%20the%20ARGS%20PBI-ISA%20Interface ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.5) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari? SCSI background sources include: http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=scsi SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface. Pronounced "scuzzy." SCSI is an ANSI standard for connection peripherals/devices to your computer via a hardware interface, which uses standard SCSI commands. In the early 1980s, Adaptec's founders, while at disk drive manufacturer Shugart Associates, developed a parallel I/O interface called SASI for Shugart Associated System Interface. When this specification was finalized, it was released to several different manufacturers and enjoyed commercial success. In 1982, SASI was presented to ANSI as a basis for standard. Because of the commercial success and widespread market use of SASI, ANSI formalized and extended the SASI specification and changed the name to SCSI (in part to separate the specification from any one vendor in particular). In June 1986, SCSI was formally adopted by ANSI. The following hardware interface devices allow SASI/SCSI devices (such as hard disk drives) to be connected to the Atari: ==> Supra Hard Disk Interface, by Supra, 1986 (earlier units) ==> KPI Hard Disk Drive Interface, by K-Products (later units) - A SASI/SCSI interface - PBI/ECI New Device - Connects to PBI, or Cartridge/ECI with adapter - Includes parallel printer port - Supports one or two (identical) physical hard drives - Have to use a bridge controller and use MFM hard drives - Sold with MYDOS and software utilities supporting: - Write-protect and write-enable the hard disk - Control the flow of linefeeds to the printer - "Park" the drive - Format the hard disk, then check it for bad sectors - See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n6/Supradrivefor8Bit.html ==> BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter, by William Lurie & Associates, 1986 - PBI/ECI New Device - Sold with one of: - BTL 2001 Connector for PBI - BTL 2002 Connector for Cartridge/ECI - Supports one or two physical hard drives - Supplied with MYDOS. SpartaDOS 3.2 also supported. - See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n12/BTLHardDisk.html http://www.atarimagazines.com/v6n9/ShoppersGuide.html ==> Multi I/O board (MIO), by ICD, 1987 - PBI/ECI New Device - Attaches via PBI, or Cartridge/ECI with adapter - Ramdisk: 256KiB or 1 MiB RAM - Printer Interface: "Centronics" type parallel, physical configuration same as on the Atari 850 (15-pin female, Atari CX86 Printer Cable compatible). Accessed as P1: or P2: with or without auto line feed. - RS-232 Interface: for serial printer or RS-232 modem. R: handler built-in. Will handle 19.2kbit/s. - Spooler: Use any amount of RAM as a printer spooler. - Hard Disk Interface: Standard SCSI/SASI interface for connecting up to 8 hard drives. Limited to 256-byte sector size. - Allows booting from RamDisk or Hard Drive. - Allows partitioning of hard drives (up to 16MiB per partition) and RAM for RamDisks (up to 8 total drives). - External AC power supply. - Multi I/O board (MIO) "new series" by Ken Ames / MEtalGuy66, 2006-2009 - Drop-in replacement for the original board in the MIO (1 MiB RAM) - Serial and Parallel ports have been "fixed" in this design, it accomodates standard PC-compatible printer and modem cables - Supports drives with 512-byte sectors - Allows the use of newer SCSI disks (32-bit LBA) - AtariAge thread: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/87015-new-mio-production-run/ ==> Black Box, by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1989 - PBI/ECI New Device - Has both PBI and Cartridge/ECI connectors - RS-232 Serial Modem Port (19.2kbit/s) with hardware flow control - Parallel Printer Port - SASI/SCSI Hard Disk Port - Operating System Enhancements - Optional 64KiB printer buffer - Supports drives with 512-byte sectors - Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/black.htm - Mathy van Nisselroy's Black Box page: http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/blackbox.htm - The ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface) software layer standard (originally developed by Adaptec) has been implemented for the Black Box, as Black Box ATASPI (Atari ASPI). See Mathy van Nisselroy's Atari ASPI page: http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/aspi.htm ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.6) How can I use a PATA (IDE) device with my Atari? (background derived from Wikipedia) Parallel ATA (PATA), previously AT Attachment (ATA) and originally Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks, floppy drives, and optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by X3/INCITS committee. The IDE standard was first used in 1986 in the Compaq Deskpro 396 with integrated Western Digital hard disk drive controller. IDE was based on the IBM PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) 16-bit bus standard. ATAPI is the standard protocol allowing the ATA interface to carry SCSI commands and responses. Common ATAPI devices include CD-ROM drives, DVD-ROM drives, and Zip drives. CompactFlash (CF) is essentially a mass storage device format with a miniaturized ATA interface, normally using flash memory. The format was first specified and produced by SanDisk in 1994. The following hardware interfaces were designed to allow PATA devices to be used with the 8-bit Atari: ==> MIO II, from Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe)(Mike Hohman) - A PBI -> IDE hard drive interface - First announced September 1994, to ship November 1994 - Never shipped. No more than several prototypes may exist. ==> KMK/JZ IDE (1996) and KMK/JZ/IDEa (2004) - Allows you to attach an ATA (IDE) hard drive, a CF (Compact Flash) card or an ATAPI device (e.g. a CD-ROM drive) to your Atari XE computer. Drive must be ATA-1 or later; at least ATA-2 is recommended. Dual drives supported. - KMK/JZ IDE Interface - Hardware design by Jacek Zuk (Simius), 1995-2006 - Plugs into the Cartridge/ECI connector - Available: http://8bit.yarek.pl/interface/atari.kmk/ - KMK/JZ IDEa Interface - Hardware design by Jacek Zuk (Simius) and Michal 'Pasiu' Pasiecznik, 2005-2006 - Plugs into Cartridge/ECI, or can also be mounted inside any XL/XE - Available: http://atarifanstore.selfip.com/idea.htm - Software by Konrad Kokoszkiewicz. Firmware characteristics (10.11.2009): - Maximum drive capacity: 16777215 physical blocks on each device (8 GiB) - Maximum number of partitions: 16 - Maximum capacity of a partition: 16777215 logical sectors (8 GiB) - Logical sector length: 512 bytes (native, same as physical block) or 256 bytes (emulation) or (as of BIOS v.1.8) 128 bytes (emulation) - Average speed (depends on the drive and DOS used): 50-80 kB/s (native mode, R/W), or 20-45 kB/s (emulation mode, reading), or 7-12 kB/s (emulation mode, writing) - 16-bit data transfers - PBI/ECI New Device (automatically found and initialized by the Atari OS) - Fully Atari OS compliant (no Atari OS patches are needed) - Bus ID for the Atari OS configurable with a jumper - Can boot from any partition (of a hard drive or CF card) - Independent partitions can be write-protected - ATAPI support not provided by the BIOS - Utilities, tools and the system software: http://drac030.krap.pl/ ==> SmartIDE, project by Bob Woolley (1996) - Project for the 1200XL - Published as a series of articles in Atari Classics magazine; Web pages by Clarence Dyson - "SmartOS" Sept/Oct 1995, pp. 25-29 http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/smartos-1.html - "Dallas 'ROMs'" Fall 1996, p. 16 http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/smartos-2.html - "Smart IDE" Fall 1996, pp. 17-19 http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/smartide-1.html - "The IDEal Hard Drive" Fall 1996, pp. 20-22 http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/smartide-2.html - "IDE Driver Software" Fall 1996, pp. 23-27 http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/smartide-3.html Software (IDE38.ASM) download: http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/idecode.zip - IDE (IDE_NKH.ASM 12/09/00; based on IDE38.ASM by Bob Woolley) by Nathan Hartwell adds the SIO command GET_CONFIG to the IDE Driver Software http://www.magelair.com/atari_8bit_stuff.html - Extensions of the SmartIDE project: ==> 16-bit IDE, project by Nathan Hartwell (MageX)(2000) - Based on the schematic for SmartIDE by Bob Woolley - SmartIDE Code (IDE_NKH.ASM 12/19/00) is based on IDE38.ASM by Bob Woolley - Project home: http://www.magelair.com/atari_8bit_stuff.html ==> PBI 16-bit IDE, project by Nathan Hartwell (MageX)(2000?) - Heavily modified from the SmartIDE schematic by Bob Woolley - Like SmartIDE, this is still an internal design that plugs into the MPU socket for most of the signals needed. - No PAL/GAL logic is used. - No code has yet been developed. - Project home: http://www.magelair.com/atari_8bit_stuff.html ==> msc IDE, by Stefan Birmanns and Matthias Belitz (1996) - PBI/ECI New Device. - Attaches to the PBI; a Cartridge/ECI adapter can also be used - Up to 240 partitions per hard disk supported - Emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions at one time) - Full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS) - Write protection capability - Supports up to two hard drives (master/slave) - Transfer rate > 30 kB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading) - Transfer rate > 10 kB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing) - Software partially supports CD-ROM and ZIP drives. - Partially software compatible with the KMK/JZ IDE interface - No longer in production - More information: http://www.birmanns.de/atari/ ==> BadSector "A", project by Gary Morton (2001) - Control an IDE hard disk drive using the Atmel AT89S53 processor (or 8031 compatible processor). - Compatible with all models of Atari due to the use of the SIO (serial bus) - Project home: http://www.alma.demon.co.uk/Atari/AtariHwSw.html ==> SIO2IDE, project by Marek Mikolajewski (MMSoft)(2001-2005) Attach any IDE Disk Drive or CF Card (using CF2IDE adapter) to your 8-bit Atari computer. ATARI side: - Uses standard Atari SIO at a speed of 19200 baud - Works with Atari High Speed SIO (US and Happy) at a speed of 52000 baud - Emulates Atari disks D1: to D8: disk D1: can be swapped with Common disk D1: (HD1_ZW jumper, drive D9: in config file) - Can be used with any Atari DOS and OS - Can be used without any problems with other SIO devices (disk drivers, printers, modems, SIO2PC, second SIO2IDE etc) - Can be easy installed inside your Atari with 2.5' laptop HD or CF card - Is easy to configure via special fdisk.com utility software (changing disks sequence and active directory) - It uses ATR files to emulate real floppy disk or hard drive IDE device side: - All IDE ATA/ATAPI devices can be used: Disk Drives (2.5" and 3.5"), Compact Flash cards etc. - Supports PC file systems, FAT16 and FAT32 - Supports CD file system, ISO9660 - Supports ATR disk images (SD, DD up to 16MiB) - Supports directory change (multiconfig) - Is easy to configure, many text configuration files (sio2ide.cfg) can be stored in different directories - Disk configuration can be checked by special checkfs.exe PC utility NOTE: checkfs.exe does NOT work with HDD connected via USB port - Standard system disk utilities can be used (defrag.exe, scandisk.exe etc) - Long File Name (LFN) support for HDD - TEST mode for checking HDD initializations - Supports Master/Slave IDE devices - Disk defragmentation is not required USB port side (SIO2IDE Versions 4.x option): - Interface allows the attached ATA drive to work as USB Mass Storage Class device (removable drive) on a Windows PC - No drivers are needed for Windows 2K, ME, XP. Windows 98 driver available. - SIO2IDE in USB mode is not working with Linux Available, Version 3.3: http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/SIO2IDE33/SIO2IDE33.html Available, latest version: http://afs.atari.org/sio2ide.htm - Options: USB controller, SIO plug SIO2IDE project home: http://www.atariarea.krap.pl/sio2ide/ ==> MyIDE, by Mr.Atari (Sijmen Schouten)(2002) / Atarimax (Steven Tucker) - Originally released as plans, as a cartridge, or as a kit that could either be installed into a cartridge case or inside the computer. Software also included: MyBIOS, the IDE based OS by Mr.Atari - Version 3.1 is an internal or external IDE interface for all Atari 8-bit XL/XE computers (2006) - Version 3.1 project: http://www.mr-atari.com/myide.htm (2006) - Atarimax implementations by Steven Tucker: - MyIDE+Flash Cartridge Interface (XL/XE) - MyIDE Internal Interface (XL/XE) - MyIDE project home: http://www.mr-atari.com/myidehome.htm - MyIDE Interface superceded by the MyIDE-II CompactFlash Cartridge, described elsewhere in this FAQ list. ==> IDE Plus 2.0 (2011) - Allows you to attach an ATA (IDE) hard drive, a CF (Compact Flash) card or an ATAPI device (e.g. a CD-ROM drive) to your Atari XL/XE computer. Drive must be ATA-3 or later. Dual drives supported. - Hardware design by Jacek Zuk (Simius), 1995-2011 - Has conncectors for both PBI and Cartridge/ECI - Provides pass-through Cartridge port - Addresses well known problems with the PHI2 signal not being generated the same across various Atari XL and XE motherboard revisions, and across computers with different hardware extensions installed. - Does not require an external power-supply - Contains 96 KiB ISP Flash ROM and 32 KiB RAM available to the internal PBI BIOS and flashable from the Atari - Contains 512 KiB or 1024 KiB ISP Flash ROM for SpartaDOS X (or any other cartridge of such type), flashable from the Atari. This ROM can be physically disabled using a dedicated switch. - Contains a real time clock circuitry to be used with SpartaDOS X. - Contains a LED flashing during the I/O - AtariAge preorder thread: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/179613-ide-plus-20-preorder-starts-today/ - Software by Konrad Kokoszkiewicz. Firmware characteristics (29.10.2011): - Maximum drive capacity: 268435456 sectors on either device (128 GiB) - Maximum number of partitions: 16 - Maximum capacity of a partition: no practical limit - Logical sector length: 128 bytes (emulation), 256 bytes (emulation) or 512 bytes (native) - Average speed (depends on the drive and DOS used): 50-80 kB/s (native mode, R/W), or 30-45 kB/s (emulation mode, R/W) - 16-bit data transfers - PBI/ECI New Device (automatically found and initialized by the Atari OS) - Fully Atari OS compliant (no Atari OS patches are needed) - Independent partitions can be write-protected - ATAPI support not provided by the BIOS - Utilities, tools and the system software: http://drac030.krap.pl/ - Documentation/BIOS/Software: http://drac030.krap.pl/ or http://drac030.atari8.info/ ==> SIDE, by Sebastian Bartkowicz (Candle), 2011 - Allows the use of a CF card on the Atari, via the cartridge port - Features: - SpartaDOS X cartridge (SDX) - On Board Real Time Clock with appropriate driver inside SDX - CF Card slot capable of handling 3.3V CF cards (that excludes microdrives, but everything else, regardless of capacity should work) - Developer web page: http://spiflash.org/block/16.html - SIDE Driver and APT Software Suite by Jonathan Halliday: http://www.atari8.co.uk/side/default.html - Available: http://www.zaxon.eu/side.html ==> SIDE 2, by Przemyslaw Krawczyk (Lotharek) - Builds on the original SIDE concept by adding CF card hot-swap functionality and enhanced ROM banking capabilities. - Available: http://lotharek.pl/product.php?pid=68 ==> MyIDE-II, by Atarimax (Steven Tucker) / Mr.Atari (Sijmen Schouten), 2012 MyIDE-II CompactFlash Cartridge for Atari XL/XE computers includes: - Compact Flash Hardware Interface (by Atarimax) - Full Software Power Control - Hardware Media Change Detection - Upgradable Hardware Core via Card Edge JTAG Interface - 512KiB On-Board User Customizable Flash Memory - Atarimax Maxflash Studio & USB Programmer Integration - Menu Customizability using Maxflash Studio Workbooks - 512KiB On-Board Application SRAM - Develop advanced applications without requiring internal RAM upgrades - Mr-Atari's MyBIOS Included - New MyIDE-II MyBIOS with Full "Hot Swap" Media Change Support - Upgrade/Change MyBIOS by updating your Maxflash Studio Workbook More features: - Available Atarimax MyIDE-II FAT32 Loader, to access *.XEX and *.COM files directly from FAT32 partitions - Disk mode, to load .ATR files inside MyIDE mode - MyIDE mode, works the same as earlier MyIDE Interface - LED access, and card on/off - Compatible with SD cards with adaptors http://www.atarimax.com/myide/documentation/ ------------------------------ Subject: 6.1.7) How can I use a USB device with my Atari? "Universal Serial Bus Specification Revision 1.0" was published January 15, 1996, with industry participation from Compaq, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM PC Company, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, and Northern Telecom. The specification describes the bus attributes, the protocol definition, types of transactions, bus management, and the programming interface required to design and build systems and peripherals that are compliant with this standard. The USB 1.0 full speed signaling bit rate is 12 Mbit/s; a limited capability low speed signaling mode is also defined at 1.5 Mbit/s. USB 2.0 (2000) added a 480 Mbit/s mode; USB 3.0 (2008) added a 5 Gbit/s mode. Beginning in 1997 USB ports gradually replaced RS-232 serial and Centronics- type parallel ports on modern personal computers, becoming the primary means for connecting external devices such as a keyboard, mouse, joystick, speaker, microphone, modem, webcam, scanner, printer, or mass storage device. The following project aims to provide USB compatibility to the Atari: MicroUSB.org - Microprocessor USB Project, http://microusb.org/ Project USB Cartridge * Project Name : USB Cartridge with two USB Slots * Project Start : Summer 2002 * Project Member: Marc Brings, Thomas Grasel, Harry Reminder, Guus Assmann, Carsten Strotmann http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/MicroUSB//ProjUSBCart In cooperation with the above, Atarimax(Steven Tucker)/ABBUC USB Cartridge: http://www.atarimax.com/usbcart/ ------------------------------ Subject: 6.2) What are the power requirements for my Atari components? Some of the pictures were scraped from various Internet web sites by MC; Some of the pics are originals by: MC (generally, common 120V supplies), Laurent Delsarte (many of the 220V supplies, the 16804, the 9W CX261, the C017945/566T, the C060529), wood_jl ("Black Brick"), Dan of www.southtown-homebrew.com (830 supply), dean_rambler (C062195), E. Turner (C060479) The household "mains" electricity supply is an alternating current (AC) that can be described with two parameters: the voltage (in volts) and the frequency (in Hz). In North America, the standard household wall outlet offers 120V/60Hz power. In some of the rest of the world, the mains is now standardizing to 230V/50Hz. However, other combinations of voltages of 100V-127V or 220V-240V paired with frequencies of either 50Hz or 60Hz remain standard. Here is the Wikipedia article listing current household power outlet standards in use throughout the world: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mains_power_around_the_world In the time of 8-bit Atari computers and peripherals, North America still used 120V/60Hz, most of continental Europe used 220V/50Hz, and the UK used 240V/50Hz. In any case, the household alternating current must be converted to a direct current (DC) for use by electrical devices such as Atari computers and peripherals: o In some cases, the entire conversion is done via an external "power supply" that sits between the wall outlet and the electrical device. Such power supplies both transform the household power to a lower voltage, and they also rectify the current from AC to DC. o In some cases, the external "power supply" is simply a transformer that lowers the household voltage. The lowered AC voltage is rectified to DC inside the device. o In some cases, both the transformer and the rectifier are located inside the computer or peripheral itself. The device plugs directly into the wall outlet, with no external "power supply" needed. The INPUT of an external power supply will indicate: 1) Input voltage in units of volts (120V for N.Am., 220V Euro, 240V UK) 2) Input frequency in units of hertz (60Hz for N.Am., 50Hz Euro) 3) Peak power rating. The power rating is the highest amount of power the unit can supply, according to the manufacturer, but this is only for a very brief time. This peak power rating may be indicated in units of volt-amperes (VA) or in units of watts (W). The OUTPUT of an external power supply will indicate: 1) Output voltage, in units of volts (V) 2) Whether the output voltage is AC or DC 3) Either: - Sustained output current, in units of amperes (A) or milliamperes (mA) - Sustained output power, in units of volt-amperes (VA) or watts (W) Higher-than-specified sustained power and current capacities are entirely usable, and often preferable because such supplies run cooler and last longer. The power units VA and W are not identical: Direct Current (DC): Power (in watts) = current (in amperes) * voltage (in volts) Alternating Current (AC): Apparent Power (in volt-amperes) = current (in amperes) * voltage (in volts) Effective/True Power (in watts) = current (in amperes) * voltage (in volts) * cosine(phase, or angle of lag) cosine(phase) is known as the "power factor" N O R T H A M E R I C A INPUT = 117V-120V AC 60Hz ====================================================== AC supplies (external transformers) Atari#: C061515 "For Use With Atari 1010 Program Recorder" (top) "Plug-In Power Supply" (bottom) UL Listed: 18J5, Made in Japan Input: 120V 60Hz 8 W Output: 9V AC 5 VA Shipped with: 1010(version made in Japan by Sanyo) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61515-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61515-top.jpg Atari#: C061516 "Plug in Power Supply" (bottom) "For Use With Atari Inc. Model 1010 Program Recorder" (bottom) UL Listed: 187Z (08-83) or 34J2 (11-83), Made in Hong Kong Input: 120 VAC 60 Hz 7.5 VA Output: 9 VAC 500 MA Shipped with: 1010(version made in Hong Kong by Chelco) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-bottom-187Z.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-bottom-34J2.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-top.jpg Atari#: C062195 "Power Adaptor" "For Use With 1030 Modem Only" UL Listed: 967Z, Made in Taiwan Type: DV-9750 Input: 120VAC 60Hz 12VA Output: 9VAC 5.4VA Shipped with: 1030 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/62195-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/62195-bottom.jpg Atari#: C014319 (unit & some boxes) / CA014748 (box, USA) "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (boxes) "Use with ATARI 400/800 Computer Systems (C014319 box) "For Use With Atari 400/800 Personal Computer System" (top, early units) UL Listed: 205E, Made in Sunnyvale CA Input (1979-1981): 120 VAC 60 Hz 20W (unit) (OK for early 810 drives) Input (1981-1982): 120 VAC 60 Hz 18.5W (unit) (NOT for 810 drives) Input, according to the boxes: 105-125 V.A.C. 60 Hz Output: 9 VAC 15.3 VA (unit) / 9.5 V.A.C. 1.7 A (boxes) Shipped with (1979-1981 20W units): 400,800,810(no Data Separator),822,850 Shipped with (1981-1982 18.5W units): 400,800,822,850 Also works with: 1010,1020 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-alt-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-alt-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-box.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14748-usa.jpg Atari#: C016804 "Class 2 Transformer" UL Listed: 622T, Made in Taiwan. Known manufacture date range: 6/81-11/81 Input: 120V 60Hz Output: 9V AC 31 VA Shipped with (1981-1982): 810(Pre-Analog units with Data Separator) Use for: 400,800,810,822,850,1200XL,1010,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 1982-1983: Sometimes shipped by Atari in place of C014319/CA014748 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16804-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16804-top.jpg Atari#: C017945 (unit) / CA017964 (box, USA) "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (box) "For Use With Atari 400/800 Personal Computer System" (top, 566T units) UL Listed: 566T (uncommon/rare) or 771K (very common), Made in Taiwan Input: 120V 60Hz 50W (unit) / 105-125 V.A.C. (box) Output: 9V AC 31 VA (unit) / 9 V.A.C. 3.4A (box) 771K units shipped with: 810(Analog),1200XL,1050,XF551,PCF554 566T units shipped with: 1020 Recommended for: 400,800,810,822,850,1200XL,1010,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 1982-1983: Shipped by Atari in place of C014319/CA014748 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-566T-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-566T-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17964-usa.jpg Atari#: C061636 (CO61636) (unit) "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (box) UL Listed: 566T, Made in Japan Input: 120V 60Hz 60W Output: 9.5V AC 40VA Shipped with: 1027 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-alt-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-alt-top+box.jpg Atari#: C061636 (CO61636) (unit/box) "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (box) UL Listed: 771K, Made in Taiwan Input: 120V 60Hz 53W (unit/box) Output: 9.5V AC 4.2A (unit/box) Use with: 1027 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-top+box.jpg Atari#: C060479 (CO60479) (unit) / Atari#: CA060535 (box) Box: "Power Adaptor" Top: "Use with 835 Modem Only" Bottom: "Power Supply For Use With Modem" UL Listed: 51B9, Made in U.S.A. Input: 120 VAC 60 Hz 9 watts (unit) / 120 V.A.C. 60 Hz (box) Output: 20 VAC 330 mA (unit) / 20 V.A.C. 164 M.A. (box) Shipped with: CX488 Communicator II kit http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60479-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60479-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60535.jpg Novation#: 901017 (unit) / Atari#: CA016751-01 (box) Top: "Use with 830 Modem Only" Bottom: "Novation AC Adaptor" UL Listed: 883K, Made in Taiwan Type: DV 2040 Input: 117V AC 60Hz 15W Output: 20V AC 400 mA Shipped with: 830 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/901017-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/901017-top.jpg DC power supplies (external adapters) Atari#: C070042-01 (CO70042-01) (nickname: "Logo") Atari logo molded into case, at lower-left of top "Power Supply" ; "For Use With Atari Computer" UL Listed: 13JS, Made in Singapore Input: 117V 60HZ 22VA Output: 5VDC 1A Shipped with: 65XE(most),XE System console(later) Recommended for: 65XE,XE System console (stock 64KiB RAM and no ECI) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-01-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-01-top.jpg Atari#: C070042-011 (nickname: "Mini") "Power Supply" UL Listed: 94H6, Made in Taiwan Type: DV-51AAT Input: 120V AC 60Hz 17W Output: +5V DC 1A Shipped with: XE System console(most) Works with: 65XE,XE System console (stock 64KiB RAM and no ECI) Considered not as rugged as the C070042-01 "Logo" unit. http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-011.jpg Atari#: C061982 (nicknames: "White Brick" or "Beauty Queen") XL colors (light top, dark bottom), "ATARI Power Supply" on top "Power Supply" UL Listed: 34J2, Made in Hong Kong Input: 120V AC 60Hz 30W Output: 5V DC 1.5AMP Shipped with: 600XL(early),800XL(early). Rare! Recommended for: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-White_Brick-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-White_Brick-top.jpg Atari#: C061982 (nicknames: "Ingot" or "Ugly Klunker") "Power Supply" UL Listed: 94H6, Made in Taiwan Type: DV-512CM Input: 120V AC 60Hz 40W Output: +5V DC 1.5A Shipped with: 600XL(most),800XL(most),65XE(some),130XE(some) Works with/NOT recommended for: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE System console NOTE: This unit is known for its ability to fail in such a way that it can damage your computer. While the 600XL/800XL are somewhat immune, the XE computers are particularly vulnerable to such damage. http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Ingot.jpg Atari#: C061982 (nicknames: "Black Brick" or "Black Beauty") all black; top up-left: "For Use On Atari 600XL Atari 800XL" or Atari logo "Power Supply" UL Listed: 94H6, Made in Taiwan Type: DV-512CM Input: 120V AC 60Hz 40W Output: +5V DC 1.5A Shipped with: 600XL(later),800XL(later). Rare! Recommended for: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-bottom-label.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-top-alt.jpg Atari#: C061982 (nicknames: "Box" or "Peanut") "Power Supply" UL Listed: 771K, Made in Taiwan Type: SA R05-18 Input: 120V~60Hz 25W Output: 5V-1.5A 7.5VA Shipped with: 130XE(most) Recommended for: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Box.jpg Atari#: C016353-101 (CO16353-101) (unit) / CX261 (box) "Plug-In Power Supply For Use With Models 2600, XEP80 or SX212" (unit) "Power Adapter" (box) "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game, XEP80 or SX212" (box) "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game" (alt box) UL Listed: 17J2, Made in Taiwan Type: SPA-4190-1 Input: 120V 60Hz 12W Output: 9V DC 500mA (center positive) Shipped with: 2600,XEP80,SX212 Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,XEP80,SX212 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16353-101-12w.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-back.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-front.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-alt.jpg Atari#: C016353-101 (CO16353-101) (unit) / CX261 (box) "Plug-In Power Supply For Use With Models 2600, XEP80 or SX212" (unit) "Power Adapter" (box) "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game, XEP80 or SX212" (box) "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game" (alt box) UL Listed: 20J8, Made in Taiwan Type: SA 9500-1 Input: 120V 60Hz 9W Output: 9V DC 500mA (center positive) Shipped with: 2600,XEP80,SX212 Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,XEP80,SX212 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16353-101-9w.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-back.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-front.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-alt.jpg Databyte#: DV-9319A "Power Supply" UL Listed: 883K, Made in Taiwan Input: 120V AV 60Hz 33W Output: 11.5V DC 1.95AMP (center positive) Shipped with: Indus GT Also works with: 5200 (unit is equivalent to Atari#C018187) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/DV-9319A-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/DV-9319A-top.jpg U K and E U R O P E INPUT = 216~264V 50Hz ============================================= AC supplies (external transformers) Atari#: C061516-34 "A.C. Mains Adaptor" "For Use Only With Atari 1010 Program Recorder" "Disconnect The Mains Plug From The Supply Socket When Not In Use" Made in the U.K. Input: 240v~ 50Hz 5VA Output: 8.5v~ 4.25VA Shipped with: 1010 (UK) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-34.jpg Atari#: C061516 (CO61516) "AC/AC Adapter" Type: FW6399 Input: 220V~/50Hz/7VA Output: 9V~/0.5A Shipped with: 1010 (Europe) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-6399-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-6399-top.jpg Atari#: C061516-11 "AC/AC Adapter" Type: FW6399 Input: 220V~/50Hz/7VA Output: 9V~/0.5A Shipped with: 1010 (Europe) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-11-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-11-top.jpg Atari#: C061516-13 Input: (220v 50Hz) Output: 8.52vac 4.26VA Shipped with: 1010 (New Zealand) Tadmod TM4498 (supplied for Atari# CA014748) "Power Supply" Type M 5496 Input: 240V ~50Hz Output: 9.5V - 1.5 AMP Shipped with: 400,800,822,850 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/tm4498-box.jpg (box) PICTURE OF THIS UNIT STILL NEEDED! Atari#: CA014748 (box, Europe) 9.3V AC 15.44VA (1,66A) Max:? FW 6799 Shipped with: 400,800,822,850 PICTURE OF THIS UNIT STILL NEEDED! Atari#: C060592-34 (unit) / CA017964 (box, UK) Type: TM 7498, Made in United Kingdom Input: 240V ~ 50Hz 0.037Kw (unit) / 216~264V 50Hz (box) Output: 9V - 50Hz 27VA (unit) / 9V.A.C. 3.4A (box) Shipped with: 810,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 Use for: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1025(240V),1050,XF551,PCF554 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-34.jpg (unit) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17964-uk.jpg (box) Atari#: C060592 (most units) or C060529 (rare? units) / CA017964 (box, Europe) "AC/AC Adapter" Type: FW6699 Input: 220V~/50Hz/42VA Output: 9V~/3A Shipped with: 810,1020,1050,XF551 Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60529.jpg Atari#: C060592-11 / CA017964 (box, Europe) "AC Power Supply" Type: PL028, Made in U.K. Input: 220v~37W 50Hz Output: 9v~27VA Shipped with: 810,1020,1050,XF551 Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-11-PL028.jpg Atari#: C060592-11 / CA017964 (box, Europe) "Power Supply" Type: DV-9034A UP, Made in Taiwan Input: 220V~ 50Hz 35W Output: 9V~ 3A 27VA Shipped with: 810,1020,1050,XF551 Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551,PCF554 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-11-DV-9034A.jpg Atari#: C061605-11 "AC/AC Adapter" Type: FW6699 Input: 220V~50Hz/50VA Output: 9V~/4,2A Use with: 1027 http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61605-11-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61605-11-top.jpg Atari#: 14750 "AC/AC Adapter" Type: 102501 Input: 220V~/50Hz/38VA Output: I 29V~/600mA II 8,6V~/1A Use with: 1025 (220V version) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14750-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14750-top.jpg DC power supplies (external adapters) Atari#: C061763-34 (CO61763-34) Type: T40/E, Made in U.K. Input: 240V~50Hz 24W Output: 5V-7.5VA Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-34-alt-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-34-alt-bottom.jpg Atari#: C061763-34 Type: DV-515UK, Made in Taiwan Input: 240V~50Hz 0.11A Output: +5V - 1.5A Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-34.jpg Atari#: C061763-24 "Power Supply" Type: DV-515SAA, Made in Taiwan Input: 240V ~ 50Hz Output: 5V - 1.5A, 7.5VA Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-24-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-24-bottom.jpg Atari#: C061763-11 (CO61763-11) Type: DV-515UP, Made in Taiwan Input: 220V~50Hz Output: 5V=/1.5A 7.5VA Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-DV-515UP.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-DV-515UP-top.jpg Atari#: C061763-11 "AC/DC Adapter" Type: FW1599 Input: 220V~/50Hz/26VA Output: 5V-/1.5A Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-FW1599-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-FW1599-top.jpg Atari#: C061763-11/T "Stromversorgungsgeraet" Type: PS40, Made in Singapore by Magpower Manufacturers Pte Ltd Input: 220V~, 50Hz 32VA Output: 5V - 2A Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE system console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-T-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-T-top.jpg 5V DC 1.8A (9.0W) Atari#: C061763-107 (Poland) 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console Atari#: C070045-01 "Power Supply" Type: DV-51AUP, Made in China Input: 220V~50Hz 19VA Output: 5V - 1A 5VA Shipped with: 800XE Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System console http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70045-01-bottom.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70045-01-top.jpg Atari#: n/a "Tadmod Mains Adaptor Model 6498" "For Use Only With Model 410 Tape Recorder" Type: BS415, Made in England Input: 240v ~ 50Hz Output: 6v - 1.8VA Shipped with: 410P version of 410 (UK) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/6498.jpg Atari#: n/a "AC/DC Adapter" Type: FW3199 Input: 220V~/50Hz/5,5VA Output: 6V-/300mA Shipped with: 410P version of 410 (Europe) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/3199-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/3199-bottom.jpg Atari#: C018084-117 (CO18084-117) "AC/DC Adaptor" "For use with models CX2600 XEP80 or SX212" Input: AC 220V 50Hz 9W Output: DC 9V 500mA (center positive) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117-top.jpg http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117-bottom.jpg Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,SX212,XEP80 Atari#: C018084-117/A (CO18084-117/A) "AC/DC Adaptor" "For use with models CX2600 XEP80 or SX212" Input: AC220V 50Hz 9W Output: DC9V 500mA (center positive) http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18184-117-A.jpg Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,SX212,XEP80 9V DC 500mA (4.5VA) Max:9W Input: 240V 50Hz (UK) Atari#C018084-309/C018084-306? Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,SX212,XEP80 9.5V DC 650mA (6.2VA) Max:15W Input: 220V 50Hz (France) Atari#C016507 Use with: C-380,C-450,2600,CX42,SX212,XEP80 M O R E I N F O ================ Draw their power from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready): XM301(60mA),XC11,XC12,P:R: Connection,MIDIMax,R-Verter/SupraVerter,MPP-1150 Draws power from the 600XL PBI: 1064 These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the wall): 410(120V versions),815,820,825,1025(120V version),1029,XMM801,XDM121 OTHER: Multi I/O board (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and DC supplies, BUT: stick to voltages of at least 6.2V-7.2V. On 2003.09.01 James Bradford wrote: "Doesn't matter what polarity the centre is, the MIO has a fullwave bridge rectifier in it. AC would be better because the diodes would be used half the time." Rana 1000: 9V AC 3.4A (30.6VA) MPP-1000C modem: 9V DC 200mA (1.8W) References: - "Secrets of XL/XE Power Supplies" by Benjamin L. Poehland, Current Notes, Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 42-49. http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/poehland.pdf - http://www.best-electronics-ca.com/power%20guide.htm - B&C ComputerVisions http://stores.ebay.com/Atari-Sales-and-Service ------------------------------ Subject: 6.3) What accessories/kits did Atari make for their 8-bit computers? (Thanks Laurent Delsarte for pics of: CX404, CX481, KX7097, CX484) This should be a complete list of Atari "CX" or "KX" accessories or kits intended or usable with 8-bit Atari computers. Controllers/Accessories ======================= Controllers marketed by Atari for the 2600 VCS and/or the 7800 also work on the 8-bit computers. CX10 Joystick Controller (X-Y Controller) - Introduced June 1977 (for the Atari VCS) - Greatly resembles the later iconic CX40, but identified by "ATARI" label on top of stick (or indentation at top of stick where the "ATARI" label belongs), and by the lack of the small "TOP" label at the base of the stick toward the up/forward position - Internally, contains 5 large spring-loaded buttons - Two units shipped with 1977 VCS systems - Never sold separately - Sears version: has "Sears" logo instead of the "ATARI" label; shipped with 1977 Sears Cartridge Tele-Games System Video Arcade systems before being replaced by the CX40 CX10 Joystick PCB replacement (for the CX40; Europe only) CX11 Joystick plastic insert replacements (for the CX40; Europe only) CX12 Joystick cable replacement (for the CX40; Europe only) CX20-01 Driving Controllers: One Pair - Introduced June 1977 (for the Atari VCS) - Box contains two Driving Controller units - Single unit attaches to single controller port - Two CX20 units also shipped with Atari Indy 500 and Sears Tele-Games Race for the VCS - Early units have Atari logo on base; most units have the word "driving" instead of the Atari logo - Sears version of early units has "Sears" logo instead of Atari logo - Manuals: - Atari 2600/2600A VCS Domestic (M/N) Field Service Manual FD100133 - Atari 2600-2600A PAL B/G Field Service Manual FD100047 CX21 Video Touch Pad - Introduced June 1982 (marketed for the Atari VCS) - Shipped with Star Raiders for the VCS, and also sold separately - Compatible with the earlier CX50 and the later CX23 - Made in Taiwan CX22 Trak-Ball controller - Introduced January 1983 (marketed primarily for the Atari 2600) - Shipped domestically only - Identified by round buttons - Two versions: 1) Single mode version (uncommon; 15,000 unit initial production run) - A joystick emulator; no mode select switch; no true trackball mode - Unit colors: black top and bottom housings, white cue ball - Unit label: "Atari 2600 Pro-Line Trak-Ball" (prototype: "Atari 2600 Trak-Ball") - Manual: Atari Trak-Ball Controller Owner's Manual Model No. CX22 - Marketing/box also carry the "Pro-Line" brand - Box mentions Atari Consumer Division - Box mentions the Atari 400/800, but Owner's Manual does not - Manufactured by Atari, Inc. in El Paso, Texas, USA 2) Dual mode version (common) - Mode select switch at rear of unit, labeled T and J, selects Joystick emulation or true Trackball operation - Trackball mode is compatible with that of the CX80 Trak-Ball - Unit colors: dark brown top housing, buff white bottom housing, buff white cue ball (prototype: dark brown cue ball) - Unit label: "Atari Trak-Ball" - Manual: Atari Trak-Ball Controller Owner's Manual Model No. CX22 C024237 (CO24237) - Unit/box/Owner's Manual do not carry the "Pro-Line" brand - Box/Owner's Manual both mention Atari Home Computers - Made in Mexico - Manual: Atari CX22 Trakball Field Service Manual FD100660 CX23 Kid's Controller - Introduced January 1983 (marketed for the Atari 2600) - Blue; and rather large - Usually used with CCW Sesame Street Library titles for the 2600 - Sold separately only - Compatible with the earlier CX50 and CX21 CX24 Pro-Line Joystick / Super Controller / Deluxe Joystick - Introduced January 1983 as CX60 Pro-Line Joystick (marketed domestically for the 2600) - Introduced June 1983 as CX60 Super Controller (for home computers and international markets) - One or two units shipped with 1984-1985 European 2600 systems - Two units shipped with all NTSC 7800 systems (1984, 1986-1991) - Also sold separately - Marketed as Pro-Line Joystick until 1989 - Marketed as Deluxe Joystick beginning 1989 CX30 / CX30-04 Paddle Controllers: One Set Standard / One Pair - Introduced June 1977 (for the Atari VCS) - Dual controllers attach to one controller plug - Early units have Atari logo on base; most units have the word "paddle" instead of the Atari logo - Sears version of early units has "Sears" logo instead of Atari logo - One set/pair shipped with 1977-1982 VCS/2600 systems - Manuals: - Atari 2600/2600A VCS Domestic (M/N) Field Service Manual FD100133 - Atari 2600-2600A PAL B/G Field Service Manual FD100047 - Atari 400-800 Home Computer Field Service Manual FD100001 - Atari 400/800 PAL-UK field service manual FD100002 CX40 Joystick Controller / Standard Joystick (X-Y Controller) - Introduced January(?) 1978 (for the Atari VCS) - The iconic Atari joystick, completely replaced the original CX10 - Greatly resembles the earlier CX10, but identified by lack of "ATARI" label on top of stick (or lack of indentation at top of stick where the "ATARI" label would belong), and by the small "TOP" label at the base of the stick toward the up/forward position. - Normally black stick and base with red button. Units marketed for use with the XEgs specifically have an XE matching gray base. - Internally, contains only one small spring, under the fire button - Two units shipped with 1978-1984 VCS/2600 systems and with 1984-1985 NTSC 2600 systems; single unit shipped with all 1986-1991 2600 systems - Units also shipped with a variety of kits/packs marketed for 8-bit Atari computer or XEgs users - Manuals: - Atari 2600/2600A VCS Domestic (M/N) Field Service Manual FD100133 - Atari 2600-2600A PAL B/G Field Service Manual FD100047 - Atari 400-800 Home Computer Field Service Manual FD100001 - Atari 400/800 PAL-UK field service manual FD100002 CX40-04 Joystick Controllers: One Pair - Box contains two CX40 Joystick controllers CX41 Joystick Repair Kit - For the CX40 Joystick - Includes: 1 Printed Circuit Board, 3 Springs, 1 Insert, 1 Boot, 1 Retaining Ring, Joystick Repair instructions C020484 (CO20484) CX42 Remote Control Wireless Joysticks - Introduced January 1983 (marketed primarily for the Atari 2600) - Introduced June 1983 for Atari computers - Package contains: - Remote Control Receiver - Two Remote Control Joysticks (Left Controller, Right Controller) - Installation Instructions C021059 (CO21059) - Receiver is designed to share the AC power adapter (Atari#C010472/C016353/C018084/CX261 or equivalent) with the 2600 VCS, so the required power adapter is not included in the package. - Despite early marketing, unit/packaging/documentation do not carry the "Pro-Line" brand - Made in Korea by Cynex for Atari - Prior to the Atari version, released by Cynex as: Game Mate 2 CX43 Space Age Joystick - Introduced June 1983 (marketed for the Atari 2600) - Marketing/packaging also carry the "Pro-Line" brand CX50 Keyboard Controllers: One Set - Introduced April 1978 (for the Atari VCS) - Box contains two units - Compatible with the later CX21 and CX23 - Manuals: - Atari 2600/2600A VCS Domestic (M/N) Field Service Manual FD100133 - Atari 2600-2600A PAL B/G Field Service Manual FD100047 CX70 Light Pen - Introduced June 1980 - RARE - Only offered by Atari for a few months in 1981 (InfoWorld 12/26/83-1/2/84) - Shipped with CX4124 demonstration program cassette - Manual: Atari Light Pen Operator's Manual Model CX70 C016367 (CO16367) CX75 Light Pen - Previewed June 1983, introduced with AtariGraphics January 1984 - Shipped with RX8054 AtariGraphics cartridge - Developed by Gibson Laboratories / Steve Gibson for Atari CX77 Touch Tablet - Previewed June 1983, introduced with AtariArtist January 1984 - Shipped with RX8053 AtariArtist cartridge and CX8104 DOS 2.0S disk (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, Atari Touch Tablet version) - The Atari Touch Tablet With AtariArtist Software Owner's Guide C061794 CX78 Joypad Controller - Introduced June 1988 - Two units shipped with all European 7800 systems (1989-1992) - One or two units shipped with 1991-1992 European 2600 systems CX80 Trak-Ball controller - Introduced June 1983 (for home computers and international markets) - Shipped internationally only - Identified by large triangular buttons - Mode select switch at rear of unit, labeled JS and TB, selects JoyStick emulation or true TrackBall operation - Trackball mode is compatible with that of the CX22 Trak-Ball - Unit colors: dark brown top housing, dark brown bottom housing (prototype: buff white bottom housing), dark brown cue ball - Unit label: "Atari Trak-Ball" - Manuals: - Atari Trak-Ball Owner's Manual CX80 C061761 - Atari CX80 Trakball Field Service Manual FD100750 - Box/Owner's Manual by Atari, Inc. International Division - Made in USA CX81 Atari I/O Data Cord (5 ft.) CX82 B & W Monitor Cable. Package includes (thanks Laurent Delsarte): - Connection instructions - Phono (RCA-type) adapter, part no. C016828 - BNC adapter, part no. C016829 - UHF adapter, part no. C016830 CX85 Numerical Keypad - Introduced June 1982 - Included with the CX419 Bookkeeper Kit; also sold separately - Package includes: - CX8139 Numerical Keypad Handler Master Program Diskette - Keyboard overlay for use with additional programs - User's Guide C060488 (CO60488) - Technical Reference Notes C061037 (CO61037) - Atari CX85 Numeric Keypad Field Service Manual FD100176 - Made in Hong Kong CX86 Printer Cable (included with 825 printer) CX87 Modem Cable (included with 830 modem) CX88 Terminal Cable (null modem cable) CX89 Color Monitor Cable Track & Field Arcade Controller (CA025462-001) - Introduced June 1984 - Shipped with Atari/Atarisoft Track & Field (Atari 2600, Atari home computers, Commodore 64, and Apple II versions) - Apple II version requires/shipped with Apple II Game I/O port adapter STM1 Mouse - Introduced January 1985 (for the Atari 130ST/520ST) - Atari ST/XE matching gray - Right mouse button cannot be read by Atari 8-bit computers - Shipped with Atari ST/Mega/STe/Falcon desktop computers PCM1 Mouse - Introduced January 1987 (for the Atari PC1) - Physically/functionally identical to the STM1 - Early units: Atari PC1 matching gray - Later units: Atari PC/ATW/TT matching white - Right mouse button cannot be read by Atari 8-bit computers - Shipped with Atari PC/ATW/TT computers (except laptops) XG-1 Light Gun - Previewed January 1987, introduced February 1987 - Shipped with various XEgs packages Kits (actually marketed as kits: CX418,CX419,CX481,CX482,CX483,CX484,CX488) ==== CX404 Atari Word Processor (Atari 810 Version) * Easel-Back Notebook CA017717 * Training Manual * Reference Manual * Program Master Diskette CX8119 (2 duplicate disks) * Training Data Diskette CX8120 * Audio Master Cassette CX4122 * Reference Card CX405 PILOT (Educators' Package) * PILOT Programming Language cartridge CXL4018 * PILOT Primer: The PILOT Programming Language Instruction Manual C017809 (CO17809) (c1980 DYMAX) * Student PILOT: Reference Guide C017811 (CO17811) * Pocket Reference Card C017812 * 2 Demonstration Program Cassettes - CX4113A Side 1: PILOT Programs for Children Side 2: A PILOT Teaching Program - CX4113B Side 1: PILOT "Turtle Graphics" Demonstration Side 2: PILOT Do-It-Yourself Slide Show * PILOT Demonstration Programs: Users Guide C017810 * binder CA017805 CX406 Personal Financial Management System (details incomplete?) * P.M.F.S. System Diskette I CX8113 o Create (???) o Record Keeper o Checkbook Balancer * P.F.M.S. System Diskette II CX8114 o Budget Manager o Budget Analyzer o Budget Forecaster * Formatted Diskette II CX8111 CX412 Dow Jones Investment Evaluator [package details go here] CX414 The Bookkeeper * Data Entry Diskette CX8131 * Reporting Diskette CX8133 * Sample Data Base Diskette (Benson) CX8134 * Data Base Diskette CX8132 * The Bookkeeper User's Guide * Simplified Guide CX415 The Home Filing Manager * The Home Filing Manager Program Diskette CX8129 * Formatted Diskette II CX8111 * Users Guide C060153 CX418 The Home Manager Kit or The Home Manager v.1: Personal Financial Management System + The Home Filing Manager v.2: The Home Filing Manager + Family Finances CX419 The Bookkeeper Kit (box# CA060294 G-C060295) * CX414 The Bookkeeper * CX85 Numerical Keypad * Bookkeeper Kit Manual CX421 Family Finances * 2 Diskettes. [package details go here] CX481 The Entertainer v.1, box style 1: (thanks Bill Demian) Text on the box indicates Computer Chess as the second game complementing Star Raiders. The illustration on the box actually shows a Music Composer box underneath the Star Raiders box. v.1, box style 2: (thanks Laurent Delsarte) Text on the box correctly indicates Missile Command as the second game complementing Star Raiders. One illustration on the box shows an unidentified box underneath the Star Raiders box; another illustration (in color) shows a Music Composer box underneath the Star Raiders box. v.1 contents: Star Raiders + Missile Command + CX40-04 joystick pair + The Entertainer Owner's Guide C017995 v.2: Same box as v.2 but features round black on yellow sticker: "Includes Pac-Man & Star Raiders". Contents: Star Raiders + Pac-Man + CX40-04 joystick pair + The Entertainer Owner's Guide C017995 CX482 The Educator * 410 Program Recorder * CXL4002 Atari BASIC cartridge * CX4112 States & Capitals cassette * The Educator Owner's Guide C017997 CX483 The Programmer v.1: * Atari BASIC CXL4002 * BASIC Reference Manual C015307 * Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) book C014385 * The Programmer Owner's Guide C017996 v.2: * Atari BASIC CXL4002 * BASIC Reference Manual C015307 * Inside Atari BASIC book C060992 * The Programmer Owner's Guide C017996 * $5 rebate coupon for An Invitation to Programming 1, 2, or 3 CX484 The Communicator * TeleLink I CXL4015 * 850 Interface Module * 830 Acoustic Modem * One free hour access to each of: - Dow Jones Information Service - The Source Telecomputing - CompuServe Information Service - Sold by Atari in the USA only CX488 The Communicator II * 835 Direct Connect Modem - Power Adaptor C060479 (CO60479) (unit) / CA060535 (box) * TeleLink II Computer Communcations cartridge CXL4016 - Telelink II Owner's Guide C061183 (CO61183) * SIO cable and phone cable * The Communicator II Getting Started C024438 (CO24438) and information from CompuServe Information Service, Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service, and The Source - Sold by Atari in the USA only ROM/RAM Modules (used with the 800 only) =============== CX801 10K ROM Operating System (NTSC version) CX801-P 10K ROM Operating System (PAL version) CX852 8K RAM Memory Module CX853 16K RAM Memory Module Kits, including Add-A-Pak and All-In-One-Pak kits ================================================= KX7097 Logo ("Full Pac" / consumer package) "16K Cartridge And User Manuals" Consists of two boxes plastic-wrapped together (both were also sold separately): - Programming Language Cartridge (RX8032) "Economy Pac" box contains: * Atari Logo Computer Program cartridge RX8032 * Atari Logo: Quick Reference Guide C061583 - Atari Logo User Manuals (BX4208) "Manual Pac" box contains: * Atari Logo: Introduction to Programming Through Turtle Graphics C061590 * Atari Logo: Reference Manual C061589 KX7099 BASIC Tutor I Add-A-Pak (An Invitation to Programming 2: Writing Programs One and Two + An Invitation to Programming 3: Introduction to Sound and Graphics + Inside Atari BASIC book + 101 Programming Tips & Tricks book/cassette) http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari_basic_tutor.html KX7102 Arcade Champ Add-A-Pak Pac-Man + Qix + 2 CX40 joysticks + cartridge storage case http://www.rhod.fr/pages/the-arcade-champ.html KX7110 AtariWriter System All-In-One-Pak (pre-release: The Writing System) 600XL + 1027 + AtariWriter + paper stock + writing guide http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/hardwarewriterpackkompleet.jpg KX7114 Programming System All-In-One-Pak 600XL + 1010 + Inside Atari BASIC book + Programming Exercise Book + Sample Programs cassette http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/8001010.JPG KX7400 Game Kit (Donkey Kong cartridge + two CX40 Joysticks) http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/kx7400.html Atari 65XE Home Computer Outfit (Dixons/Currys special offer) 65XE + XC12 + CX40 Joystick + 10 games on two cassettes (Compilations A & C) http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/65xehomeoutfit.jpg http://www.binarydinosaurs.co.uk/Museum/atari/65xe.php http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/currys.JPG 130XE Starter Pack (UK) 130XE + XC12 + CX40 Joystick + software http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/130xestarter.JPG 130XE + 1050 disk drive http://www.rhod.fr/images_recherches/frenchpack.jpg XE game system kits: XES 2001 / XES2001 XG-1 Light Gun + Bug Hunt http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/xesystemgun2.jpg http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/C100449.html Some packages (Chile) shipped additionally with Barnyard Blaster: http://www.retrogames.cl/imagenes/varios/zz/pistola.jpg Some of these packages were shipped in G1 Light Gun boxes: http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/hardwarelightgun.jpg (The actual G1 never shipped. It was to be the same as the XG-1 but orange instead of gray, and to be marketed for use with the 2600/7800.) XES 2002 (?????) (Europe) XE Keyboard + Flight Simulator II www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/xesystem3toetsenbord.jpg http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/xesystem3.jpg XE 2012 (France) XE Keyboard + XC12 + Flight Simulator II http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/XEkeyboard.html XES 3001 (Europe) XE Console + CX40 Joystick http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/xesystem1.jpg http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/xesystem1.jpg XES 4001 / XE4001 XE Console + XE Keyboard + XG-1 Light Gun + CX40 Joystick + Flight Simulator II + Bug Hunt http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/systems/xegamesystem.jpg http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/xegamesystem.jpg XE 5001 (France) XE Console + XG-1 Light Gun + Bug Hunt + CX40 Joystick http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/XE1.html 65XE + XG-1 Light Gun + CX40 Joystick (Mexico?) http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/65xepack.JPG ------------------------------ Subject: 6.4) What graphics tablets were produced for the Atari? According to Wikipedia, a graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet, graphics pad, drawing tablet) is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphics, similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper. At the time of the Atari computer the more popular term was: touch tablet Several graphics tablets were produced and marketed for the Atari 8-bit computers: o Animation Station by Suncom - Shipped with DesignLab disk (Suncom version of Blazing Paddles) - Fully compatible with the earlier, popular KoalaPad - Work surface is about the same size as the one on the Atari Touch Tablet - about 50% larger than the KoalaPad's - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list. o Atari Touch Tablet CX77 - Shipped with AtariArtist cartridge RX8053 (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, Atari Touch Tablet version) - Also shipped with CX8104 Atari 810/1050 Master Diskette II disk (DOS 2.0S) - Similar to the popular, earlier KoalaPad, but returns reversed y-position values compared to the KoalaPad/Animation Station tablets - Device measures 7.5" x 9.5" x 1.25" - Drawing surface measures 5" x 6.5" - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list. o KoalaPad Touch Tablet by Koala Technologies - Koala Model 004 for use with Atari computers - Atari version shipped with one of: - Micro Illustrator (disk) by Steven Dompier for Koala, c1983 (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, KoalaPad version) - KoalaPainter (cartridge) (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, KoalaPad version) - Device measures 8.5" x 6.5" x 2" - The square drawing area is 4.25" on each side. - Very popular - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list. o Kurta Graphics Tablet by Kurta Corporation - Very early device - 400/800 only: requires controller ports 1, 2, and 3 - Device measures 13" x 15.5" - Shipped with Kurta Demo Disk - Kurta Atari Graphics System, sold separately, includes software: o Road Map Distance Analysis o Length o Area - Calculation of areas (any shape) o Sound - display pen location by means of sound o Drawing o Graphics - See ANALOG #1 for a review (p. 16) and an ad (p. 17) o PowerPad by Chalk Board, Inc. - A unique and very large device - Device measures 17" x 19" x 1.5" - 12" x 12" square drawing area - Shipped without software - Cartridges released separately by Chalk Board for the PowerPad: - BearJam - Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush - LogicMaster - MicroMaestro - Micro Illustrator (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, PowerPad version) o Super Sketch by Personal Peripherals, Inc. (PPI) - Atari version - Shipped with Graphics-Master cartridge - A 10" X 14" tablet - Similar to the earlier VersaWriter - trace or freehand a drawing into the computer. - Planned Atari software from PPI for used with Super Sketch (released???): - In-Store Demo (disk) - Printer Utility (disk) - Business Presentor (disk) - Master Home Planner (disk) - Super Music Box (cartridge) o VersaWriter Drawing Tablet by Versa Computing, later by Peripherals Plus - Shipped with Graphics Software (2 disks) - Trace or freehand a drawing into the computer - Dimensions: 12" x 13.5" - See ANALOG #4 (1981) p. 46 for ad, p. 47 for review - See Creative Computing vol. 8 no. 4 April 1982 p. 79 for another ad. - Reviewed: SoftSide #45, November 1983, pp. 90-91 - Reviewed (with picture) in Atari Classics June 1993 pp. 26-28 ------------------------------ Subject: 6.5) What light pens were produced for the Atari? A light pen or light gun requires a cathode ray tube (CRT) television or monitor. Only one light pen or light gun may be used on the Atari at a time. Controller Jacks 1-3 on the 400 do not support a light pen / light gun. - Atari Light Pen CX70 (1980, shipped 1981) - Shipped with CX4124 demonstration program cassette - Symtec Light Pen by Symtec (1982) - The Light Pen by Programmer's Institute / Futurehouse (1983) - Tech-Sketch LP-10 Light Pen (ad: Compute Aug83p117) - sold with Demo Cassette - Tech-Sketch LP-15 Light Pen (ad: Compute Aug83p117) - sold with Demo Cassette - Tech-Sketch LP-10S Light Pen (ad:CC Jan84p.230) Shipped with one of: o Paint-N-Sketch Level I o Micro Illustrator diskette (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, light pen version) - Atari Light Pen CX75 (1983, shipped 1984) - Shipped with AtariGraphics cartridge RX8054 by Gibson Laboratories / Steve Gibson for Atari - Stack Light Pen by Stack Computer Services (1984) - Edumate Light Pen by Futurehouse (1984) - Improved version of The Light Pen by Programmer's Institute / Futurehouse - Sold with 5 or 6 programs for the Atari - Some later units sold with Peripheral Vision program by Futurehouse - Hoyt Light Pen by Hoyt Corporation (ad: Compute#49Jun84p48) - released???? - McPen light pen by Madison Computer (1984) - Came with a disk with 4 BASIC programs - Koala Light Pen by Koala Technologies (1984, fall) - Box: "for Commodore 64" - Box sticker: "Contents work on Atari and Commodore 64 Computers" - Sold with KoalaPainter (light pen version) flippy disk for Commodore 64 and Atari (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, light pen version) ------------------------------ Subject: 6.6) What light guns were produced for the Atari? Just two: - Atari XG-1 Light Gun (1987) - Best Electronics "The Best" Video Light Gun (1989) A light pen or light gun requires a cathode ray tube (CRT) television or monitor. Only one light pen or light gun may be used on the Atari at a time. Controller Jacks 1-3 on the 400 do not support a light pen / light gun. ------------------------------ Subject: 6.7) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the Atari? This section started by Andreas Koch. - Voice-Box II by The Alien Group (a software and hardware package); - Talk is Cheap by Ed Stewart, Antic Volume 2 Number 4, July 1983, pages 64-66; hardware schematics only (a test/demo program is mentioned in the text, but not printed in the magazine!); - Cheap-Talk by Lee Brilliant, ANALOG #29, April 1985, pages 59-67; hardware schematics and software demos, for example "First Words"); - Many other voice synthesizers (mostly self-made and based on a chip by National Semi Conductor); ------------------------------ Subject: 6.8) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari? This section started by Andreas Koch. - Parrot (2-Bit) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos; - Parrot-2 (2-Bit or 4-Bit?) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos; - Replay cartridge (4-Bit) by 2 Bit Systems - Related software by 2 Bit Systems: Digidrum, Digisynth - Sound N'Sampler (2-Bit) by Ralf David; - Sound Digitiser (2-Bit) by Ralf David; - Sound-Meister (2-Bit) by Irata; - Sound-Digitizer (2-Bit) by Irata; - Digitales Mikrofon (2-Bit) by Compy-Shop; - Voice-Master (2-Bit) by Covox Inc.; - Analog-Sample-Processor (2-Bit) by Steven Lashower (ANALOG Magazine); - Atari-Sound-Sampler (2-Bit) by Andreas Binner and Harald Schoenfeld (German AtariMagazin 1/1989, pages 44-49, complete with schematics, documentation, sample-program and assembler-source); - Alphasys Sample Cartridge (8-Bit) by ANG/Mirage; Accompanied software, made by Solarsystems, only used the upper 4 bits; Cartridge also has a "Replay Cartridge compatibility mode" so people could use it with the software by 2 Bit Systems. - ARGS-XE-Sampler (8-Bit) by ABBUC regional group ARGS (only one or two prototypes exist, alas the hardware was never released due to lack of (sampling/digitizing) software; maybe a good idea for the hardware and software experts out there!); - And many others ... ------------------------------ Subject: 6.9) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari? This section started by Andreas Koch. a) Enhancements for 2- or 3-channel sound: - POPS, polyphonic POKEY sound by Lee Brilliant (3-channel support with one POKEY!); refer to ANALOG #66, november 1988, pages 54-60; only 1-2 programs exist for this modification, see: 8.14 stereo- software for the Atari; Lee Brilliant writes: (2006.08.09) In reality, the POPS device was only a set of connections to the Atari. The internal circuitry (Simple to build) was used ONLY to control the volume of the sound and to add amplification to power speakers. One could do without the amplifiers if they have their own. But the POPs did not give just two channel sound, it gave THREE. My design allowed for left, center, and right amplifiers and speakers. It always caused a stir at Atari conventions and user groups. The software I used with it was Pokey Player which was commonly available then. One had to get that separately and then modify it slightly to drive the three channels separately. At the time there was a lot of support for that program and lots of music for it. - Stereo with two Ataris (and thus 2 POKEY chips); use computer/POKEY 1 for the left channel and computer/POKEY 2 for the right; no special hardware required for this trick (but specially programmed software!); see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari; - Stereo with 2 POKEY chips (in one Atari!); refer to an article written by Chuck Steinman (which probably appeared in Atari classic?) on how to upgrade your Atari internally with a second POKEY chip; or ask Freddy Offenga for a deluxe-stereo-version, that uses a PCB instead of the piggy-back method. For a list of software that supports this modification see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari; - Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser by Portronic/AMC-Verlag, these were hardware add-ons that connected via the monitor port to the Atari and gave you "another" monitor port and 2 cinch connectors to connect to the monitor and/or the hifi-system; various small paddles (4-10, depending on the model you have) make it possible to change amplitudes, frequencies, etc. and thus generate a "pseudo-stereo" sound. These add-ons also amplified the sound and thus made quality recordings of Atari sounds much easier. Alas, these hardware add-ons were quite expensive and thus not many (less than 100) were sold. Therefore no special software is required, every 8-bit Atari computer sound can be changed or enhanced to "simulated-stereo"... - Stereo-Blaster-Pro, a hardware add-on by Portronic/AMC-Verlag similar to Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser, but programmable! This add-on had only 1 small paddle, to amplify the sound-volume; the stereo-sound could be generated via two simple Poke-Statements, a demo-disk therefore was included. Alas, not many items were sold and as far as I know no-one else programmed stereo-software for it. See also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari... b) Other sound enhancements: - Covox Sound enhancement, originally developed in Poland; digital to analog (DAC) converter, uses a PIA and a resistor ladder to produce 8-bit sound playback. (A viable way to reproduce the 8-bit samples captured from the Alphasys Sample Cartridge.) - SID-upgrade, the SID is the standard sound-chip in the C64 computers. Some Polish freaks/nerds have found a way to include it into an 8-bit Atari computer, but although I have seen quite a lot of pictures (for example at atariarea.nostalgia.pl) with this modification and already found 1 or 2 programs that detect it (for example System Info 2.x by Draco), I have not yet found any schematics for this upgrade. Anyway, it exists, and with some programming skills it would surely be possible to write programs then, that playback SID sounds on those Ataris which have this upgrade installed... - AMY sound-chip, the AMY sound-chip was originally produced by Atari and installed into the 65XEM computer. Alas, it was never available to the public and only very few prototypes of this 65XEM (maybe less than 10?) do exist. Besides of that RUMORS say, that Atari had quite some problems with this sound chip and never finished it completely/successfully. If the rumors are true, then this sound chip provided many more sound channels, more octaves and even more and better sound power than two POKEYs together (for more infos take a look at this URL: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html ) - Guess there are dozens of other sound enhancements, for example sound cards (like Adlib, etc.), sound-chips, MIDI interfaces, etc. that could be attached or converted to the 8-bit Atari computer; I won't name them all here...(A.K.) ------------------------------ Subject: 6.10) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari? This section started by Andreas Koch. From Wikipedia (10.28.2012): MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an electronic musical instrument industry specification that enables a wide variety of digital musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. It is a set of standard commands that allows electronic musical instruments, performance controllers, computers and related devices to communicate, as well as a hardware standard that guarantees compatibility between them. Several MIDI interfaces have been designed for the 8-bit Atari computers: - MIDIMate, by Hybrid Arts (1983) MIDI IN+OUT and SYNC IN+OUT ports, but lacks a second SIO port. Software by Hybrid Arts for MIDIMate: - MIDITrack (requires 48KiB RAM) - MIDITrack II (requires 48KiB RAM) - MIDITrack III for the 130XE (requires 128KiB RAM XL/XE) - MMS (MIDI Music System) is a MIDI version of AMS, also sold by Hybrid Arts and comes with AMS to MMS converter software... - MIDI Master, by 2 Bit Systems (UK), comes with hardware+software. Features MIDI IN+OUT ports, but no SYNC ports. See also reviews and ads in (New) Atari User... http://www.page6.org/pd_lib/page6/pd_midimaster.htm - MIDIMax, by Wizztronics (Steve Cohen), comes with hardware and software. Features MIDI IN+OUT ports and a second SIO port. The MIDI Music System (MMS) software that comes with MIDIMax requires 48KiB RAM and is fully compatible with the Hybrid Arts hardware+software. This means, one can use the software with both MIDI interfaces or use the interfaces with the software of both vendors... - Atari MIDI Interface, by Karlheinz Metscher (appeared in the German magazine Computer Kontakt June/July 1986, pages 69-75, complete with documentation, schematics and its first program "MIDI Receiver"; in Computer Kontakt October/November 1986 appeared the second program, called "MIDI Disk" - a MIDI Recorder and Player program); - MIDI Interface for Atari XL/XE, by Ireneusz Kuczek (appeared in the German ABBUC magazine, issue 65, pages 3-6); the paper-mag. includes a schematic for the interface and some translated descriptions for the software (translated from Polish to German language), whereas the disk-magazine contains the MIDI programs "MIDIPlay Version 1.3" by I. Kuczek, "MIDI Recorder Version 1.2" by I.Kuczek, "Rec to Mid" by I. Kuczek (a converter program for the IBM-PC!), "MIDI Sequencer V.1.15" by Maciej Sygit and "MIDI Pattern Editor MPE V.2.3" by Radek Sterba. These programs and many additional demo sounds are also available in the ABBUC PD library (PD numbers 625-632). - Guess there are several other (self-made) MIDI interfaces for the Atari 8Bit available, alas they also require a keyboard or synthesizer and self-created (or downloaded) MIDI sounds can only be played back via such a MIDI interface and the aforementioned keyboard/synthesizer. As of yet, it seems there exists no MIDI player program, that can playback any MIDI sound via the Atari POKEY chip, nor any converter program, which can convert *.MID sounds into other Atari sound formats (that could be played back on the Atari then)... ------------------------------ Subject: 6.11) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari? Full-View 80, by Bit 3 Computer Corporation (1982) - Plugs into RAM slot 3 of the Atari 800 - Composite video output; Recommended: Display monitor having a minimum bandwidth of 10MHz - 80 x 24 character display (no graphics modes) - Characters are in a 8 x 10 matrix with full lowercase descenders - Total screen resolution: 640 x 240 pixels Austin 80, by Austin Franklin Associates (1983) - Video Processor Board plugs into RAM slot 3 of the Atari 800; Console Software cartridge plugs into right cartridge slot of the Atari 800 - Composite video output; Recommended: Display monitor having a minimum bandwidth of 10MHz - 4 RGBI color output bits - Optional: RGBI Adapter Board for use with (color) RGB monitor - 80 x 25 character screen (no graphics modes) - 7 x 9 character size in a 8 x 10 block, with full descenders XEP80 Interface Module, by Atari (1986) - Plugs into joystick port 1 or 2 - Composite video output (high resolution monochrome recommended) - Software driver on diskette - 80 x 25 character screen (internal 256 x 25 character storage area) - 7 x 10 character cells - 320 x 200 Pixel Graphics mode - See XEP80 section of this FAQ list for additional details VBXE - VideoBoard XE (2008) - Version 1 by Tomasz Piorek (Electron) - Version 2 by Tomasz Piorek (Electron) + Sebastian Bartkowicz (Candle) - External graphics card - RGB output - Up to 1024 colors on screen from 21 bit palette - Graphics resolution up to: - 640x480i (640x240p) in 64 colors - 320x240p in 1024 colors - 160x240p in 1024 - True 80 char mode for text display - Blitter with 7 modes of operations capable of zooming displayed data, transparency, collision detection and many other features - Full downward compatible with GTIA chip - See: http://vbxe.atari8.info/download.html (version 1) - See: http://spiflash.org/block/15.html (version 2) - Software: http://gury.atari8.info/vbxe.htm ------------------------------ Subject: 6.12) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari? Thanks to Andreas Koch for his earlier extensive work on RAMdisk versions. This section attempts to list all commercial or hobbyist project upgrades to the amount of (volatile) random access memory (RAM) installed in the 8-bit Atari. Devices that use non-volatile mass storage media would be listed elsewhere in this FAQ list. The 8-bit 6502 and ANTIC processors can directly address 64KiB distinct memory locations, addressed 0-65535 or $0-$FFFF. Any upgrade providing more total system RAM than 64KiB must use a bank-selection scheme to allow a range of logical memory addresses to refer to more than one range of physical memory locations. 400/800 Memory Upgrades ----------------------- As designed by Atari, memory management in the 400/800 is accomplished entirely in hardware, via the presence of ROM cartridges, RAM memory modules in the 800, or internal memory present in the 400. The design supports up to 48KiB of RAM (with no ROM cartridge present). Of the remaining 16KiB of the total 64KiB of 8-bit address space available to use with the 6502 and ANTIC, 10KiB is taken up by the Operating System, 2KiB is occupied by hardware registers, and 4KiB was unused/reserved for future use. Any ROM cartridges occupy either 8KiB or 16KiB of address space, disabling either 8KiB or 16KiB of RAM in a computer with 40KiB or 48KiB RAM installed. - 8KiB boards Normally used in any 800 RAM slot, but also compatible with the 400. - Atari CX852 - 16KiB boards/upgrades Normally used in any 800 RAM slot, but also compatible with the 400. - Atari CX853 - Microtek AT-16 - Intec 16K - Tiny Tek 16K - Bontek 16K - Mosaic 8K to 16K RAM Expansion Kit (400) - 32KiB boards/upgrades A 32KiB board with complete bus compatibility (Mosaic, Intec, Austin) may be used in either of the first two RAM slots in the 800, or in the 400. Less sophisticated designs offer more limited bus compatibility. - Mosaic 32K Ram (400 or 800 first two RAM slots) - Optional Companion Board for use in the 800 without another RAM board - Mosaic Expander is the same but shipped with 16KiB and sockets for 16KiB RAM chips taken from a 16KiB board - Mosaic Adapter is the same but shipped with no memory but sockets for 32KiB in RAM chips taken from two 16KiB boards. - Microtek AT-32 (400 or 800 middle RAM slot) - Axlon RamCram / Rampower 32 (400 or 800 middle RAM slot) - Intec 32K (400 or 800 first two RAM slots)(early release: 800 only) - Tiny Tek 32K (400 or 800) - Bit 3 32K Memory Plus (400 or 800 middle RAM slot) - Tech-Data (TD) 32K (400 or 800) - Austin Franklin 32K Austin Board (400 or 800 first two RAM slots) - Optional 32K Loopback for use without another RAM board - Bontek 32K (400 or 800) - High Country MicroSystems (HCMS) Ram-Page 32K (400 or 800) - Tara Computer Products Atari 32K RAM - HardStuff 32K RAM Board (400 or 800) - 48KiB boards/upgrades Because Atari did not anticipate more than 32KiB installed in a 400, these must add RAM deselect logic to the 400 in order to maintain the ability to load ROM program cartridges. If designed for the 800, these are used with no other RAM boards installed. (Later designs may actually contain 64KiB on the board for cost-savings.) - Intec 48K (400) - Dynamic Technologies 48K Memory Expansion Kit (400) - Axlon RamCram Plus / Rampower 48 (400) - Sar-An Computer Products (SCP) 48K (400) - Neotechnic Industries (NTI) 48K Ram Kit (400 or 800) - Micro Systems Exchange (MSX) 48K Upgrade Kit (400) - Austin Franklin 48K Austin Board (400 or 800) - Optional 48K Loopback card required for use in the 800 - Mosaic 48K Ram Kit (400) - Essence Peripheral 48K - Polly Products 48400 (400) - Xtra HardWare XTRA48 (400 or 800) - Tara Computer Products 48K RAM for the Atari 400 - A 48K Upgrade For Your 400, project by Claus Buchholz, MACE Newsletter, (Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts), 9/82 - Atari 400 48K Memory Modification Instructions, by Gary A. Crowell with Steven P. Davies - Atari 48K RAM Expansion Kit (400) (June 1983) - 52KiB boards/upgrades These have the same features/capabilities as 48KiB boards/upgrades but make an additional 4KiB available to the computer in the 4KiB of memory address space, unused by the 400/800 hardware or Operating System, directly beyond the normal 48KiB RAM address range. The result is 52KiB of continuous, non- banked RAM available while still running the Atari OS in memory as well. - Tiny Tek 48K/52K (400) - Newell 48/52K Ram Board (400 or 800) - Xtra HardWare XTRA52 (400 or 800) - The Gap, by Computer Support (48KiB 400 or 48KiB 800). Adds 4KiB. - 64KiB and up boards/upgrades Surpassing the limit of 52KiB continuous RAM address space available in the 400/800 requires a memory-banking scheme for using software-selectable memory banks that share a range of memory addresses within the normal 52KiB RAM address range. Several different schemes emerged. > "Axlon" bank-selection type Banks are 16KiB, visible at 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF. Location $CFFF (53247) is used as a bank control register. A value of 0 means the main/ normal bank is active, and values from 1 to 255 cause an extended bank to be selected. Scheme supports up to 4080KiB of banked RAM (255 banks of 16KiB each) for a total system RAM potential of 4128KiB (4080KiB + 48KiB). - Axlon RAMDISK 128K Memory System / Rampower 128 (1981) (800 middle RAM slot). Provides 8 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB. With a total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system potential is 160KiB RAM. Can provide a 112KiB RAMdisk. - Axlon 256 Memory System. (1981) Expansion cable connects via 800 middle RAM slot. Accepts up to 8 8KiB, 16KiB, or 32KiB 400/800 RAM boards. Shipped with 2 Axlon RamCram (32KiB) boards. Provides up to 16 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB. With a total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots in the 800, the total system potential (8 32KiB boards in the 256 Memory System) is 288KiB RAM; can provide a 240KiB RAMdisk. - Magna Systems Ramcharger 256K (800 middle RAM slot)(1986) Provides 16 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB. With a total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system potential is 288KiB. Can provide a 240KiB RAMdisk. - Magna Systems Ramcharger 512K (800 middle RAM slot)(1986) Provides 32 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB. With a total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system potential is 544KiB. Can provide a 496KiB RAMdisk. - Magna Systems Ramcharger 1Mb (800 middle RAM slot)(1986) Provides 64 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB. With a total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system potential is 1056KiB. Can provide a 1008KiB RAMdisk. > "Mosaic" bank-selection type Banks are 4KiB, visible at 49152-53247 or $C000-$CFFF. Writes to 65472- 65507 or $FFC0-$FFE3 enable specific banks (65472 or $FFC0 = bank 0, 65473 or $FFC1 = bank 1, etc.). Writes to 65280-65471 or $FF00-$FFBF, or to 65508-65535 or $FFE4-$FFFF, disable all banks. Scheme supports 36 banks, for a total system potential of 192KiB (48KiB + 36 banks of 4KiB). - Mosaic 64K Ram Select (400 or 800 any RAM slot) (early release: 400 only) (1982) - Single board provides 48KiB "hard-wired" plus 4 banks of 4KiB addressed directly beyond the normal 48KiB limit, for 52KiB of continuous memory available to the computer. - In the 800, may be used in combinations including two 16KiB boards, one 32KiB board, one 16KiB board and one 32KiB board, or with one or two additional Mosaic 64K Ram Select boards (total of 10 possible configurations). Each 64K Ram Select allows the computer to see all the memory of the other boards, makes enough of its own memory available to the computer to reach the continuous RAM limit of 52K, and makes the rest of its memory available to the computer in banks of 4KiB addressed directly beyond the normal 48KiB limit. Total system potential with three 64K Ram Select boards is 192KiB (48KiB + 36 banks of 4KiB). - Cable Kit/Cable Connectors #1 required in 400 or with first 64K Ram Select in 800; Cable Kit/Cable Connectors #2 required with 2nd or 3rd 64K Ram Select in 800; use of one 64K Ram board with one 32KiB board requires Companion Board in middle RAM slot in 800 - Software sold separately by Mosaic: - Handyman by Holiday Software - SuperDrive by Starship Enterprises (c)1983 H.V. Stacey (Stace) (modifies Atari DOS 2.0S into a "Virtual DOS") > Other bank-selection types Banks are 16KiB, visible at 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF. Location $CFFF (53247) is used as a bank control register. A value of 0 means the main/ normal bank is active, and values from 1 to 255 cause an extended bank to be selected. Scheme supports up to 4080KiB of banked RAM (255 banks of 16KiB each) for a total system RAM potential of 4128KiB (4080KiB + 48KiB). - A 48K Upgrade For Your 400, project by Claus Buchholz, MACE Newsletter (Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts), 9/82, including "Suggestions for a 64K Modification." ("MACE Mod") Provides one 16KiB bank of memory, bank-switched with the "middle" 16KiB of the 48KiB RAM, visible at 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF, for a system total of 64KiB RAM. Write a 1 to a memory location between $D700 and $D7FF (55040 to 55295 decimal) to enable the banked memory; write a 0 to the same location to disable banked memory. - The WindHover Atari 400 SuperRam Modification, project by Jay Torres and Jerry Rombert, is a clone of the 48/64K MACE Mod by Claus Buchholz - Atari 800 Plus 256K, project by David G. Byrd. 1983 original (WHERE???) July 1985 S.N.A.C.C. Newsletter (Southern Nevada Atari Computer Club); Revision A - Oct 1985. Provides 48KiB of normal user memory and 240KiB of "extended memory". Used with GENEMDE by H.V. Stacey, to extend DOS 2.0S to produce EMDE/OS with 240KiB RAMdisk support. - The Windhover Project memory upgrades for the 800, by Jay Torres. 96KiB/160KiB/288KiB version appeared in the Manitoba Atari Computer Club, October 1985; Windhover DOS sold separately. Essentially the same as the Byrd upgrade. WindHover 288K SuperRam version 1986 > TYPE TO BE DETERMINED!!! - High Country MicroSystems (HCMS) Ram-Page 64K (400 or 800) - "For the 800 provides up to 96KiB". - Xtra HardWare XTRA64 (400 or 800). - Intec 64K (400). Characteristics???? Clues: neither Axlon nor Mosaic compatible; supported by later versions of MachDOS. - HardStuff 64K RAM Board (400 or 800) XL/XE Memory Upgrades --------------------- In Atari XL/XE computers, the available 64KiB of mmemory address space includes 48KiB of "main" RAM addresses (analogous to the 400/800 design maximum, including 8KiB or 16KiB of address space occupied by any ROM cartridge present), and there is an additional 14KiB RAM available in the same 14KiB of address space as the XL/XE Operating System. In the 130XE, there are four "extra" 16KiB RAM banks that can be accessed using the "middle" 16KiB of main memory address space (analogous to the middle RAM slot in the 800). Memory location 54017 ($D301), known as PIA Port B or PORTB, is used by the programmer to manage access to portions of built-in ROM and RAM that share ranges of memory addresses: Bit Meaning if value set to 1 --- ------------------------- #0 OS ROM enabled / RAM disabled (16KiB, 49152-65535 or $C000-$FFFF, except 2KiB range of hardware addresses, 53248-55295 or $D000-$D7FF) #1 BASIC ROM disabled / RAM enabled (8KiB, 40960-49151 or $A000-$BFFF) #2 1200XL LED 1 off; 130XE bank selection least significant bit (LSB) #3 1200XL LED 2 off; 130XE bank selection most significant bit (MSB) #4 130XE CPU Bank /Enable (CBE) (1=disabled, 0=enabled) (16KiB, 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF) #5 130XE Video Bank /Enable (VBE) (1=disabled, 0=enabled) (16KiB, 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF) #6 XE System Console Missile Command disabled / RAM enabled (8KiB, 40960-49151 or $A000-$BFFF) #7 Self Test ROM disabled / RAM enabled (2KiB, 20480-22527 or $5000-$57FF) XL/XE memory upgrades to more than 128KiB RAM use additional PORTB bits as bank-selection bits, beyond the two (bits 2-3) used in the 130XE. "True ANTIC banking" describes the ability, as in the 130XE, for the 6502, ANTIC, both, or neither, to access the currently-selected bank of "extra" memory, based on the settings of PORTB bits 4-5 (CBE and VBE). 32KiB system total, for the 600XL - RC Systems AM2, plugs into the PBI, 1984 - W.E.Electronics 16KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985 - Card could be upgraded from 16KiB to 32KiB 48KiB system total, for the 600XL - RC Systems AM1, plugs into the PBI, 1984 - FirstWare 48K Expander (internal), 1984 - Upgrade Kit upgrades 48K Expander to 64K - W.E.Electronics 32KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985 64KiB system total, for the 600XL - Atari 1064, plugs into the PBI, 1984 - MPP MicroRam 64K Memory Board, plugs into the PBI, 1984 - RC Systems AM64, plugs into the PBI, 1984 - FirstWare 64K Expander (internal), 1984 - W.E.Electronics 48KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985 - 600XL 64K Kit, by Computer Service Land (internal), 1986 - Atari 600XL to 64K RAM project by Ken Sumrall, 1987 - 64K Upgrade for 600XL project by Don Neff, February 1988 issue of Michigan Atari Magazine - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 64K (600XL 16KiB to 64KiB internal) 128KiB system total (Atari 130XE standard) PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3 2 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^2 = 4 16KiB memory banks. - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XL to XE (800XL/600XL 64KiB to 128KiB) - True ANTIC banking - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 128K (65XE 64KiB to 128KiB) - True ANTIC banking - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE-GM1 (XEgs 64KiB to 128KiB) (1987) - True ANTIC banking 192KiB system total PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6 3 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^3 = 8 16KiB memory banks. - Compy-Shop 128K for 600XL - No separate ANTIC banking. (Question: Is 6502/ANTIC banking simultaneous, or does ANTIC have no access to banked memory?????) - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 192K (130XE 128KiB to 192KiB) - True ANTIC banking - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE-GM2 (XEgs 128KiB to 192KiB). Upgrade for XEgs with IC's XE-GM1 128KiB upgrade already installed. - True ANTIC banking 256KiB system total 4 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^4 = 16 16KiB memory banks, but there are only 12 "extra" banks available because these REPLACE the computer's main 64KiB RAM. > "Newell" bank-selection type PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6 (only 12 banks available) PORTB Bit 5 use is inverted relative to the later "Rambo" type. - Newell 256KXL for 800XL, ANTIC 'E' recommended. - ANTIC has no access to banked memory; optional switch installation allows 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banked memory access via PORTB bit 4 - Main memory is protected from bank-selection. - NOTE: After the RAMBO XL gained strong marketplace acceptance, the Newell 256KXL was replaced with the Newell 256KXLE, see below. > "Rambo" bank-selection type PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6 (only 12 banks available) PORTB bit 5 use is inverted relative to the earlier "Newell" type. - 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K Upgrade, project by Claus Buchholz - Revision of his "Quarter-Meg Atari 800XL" project, Byte 9/85, (which used 32KiB banks and was not 130XE-compatible) - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 - Main memory can be bank-selected. - Ramaster, by ABC Consulting, for 800XL - Commercialized version of the Buchholz 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 - Main memory can be bank-selected. - RAMBO XL by ICD, for 800XL or 1200XL, 1986 - Commercialized version of upgrade of same name by Madison Area Atari Users Group (MAAUG) published Oct-Nov 1985, itself a close derivative of the Buchholz 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K Upgrade. - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 - Main memory can be bank-selected. - 800XE PLUS, by Triple "C" Computer, for 800XL or 1200XL, 1986 - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 "It's entirely compatible with the 130XE" - Wizztronics 256K for 800XL (by Steve Cohen) - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 - Magna Systems Ramcharger 256K for 800XL or 1200XL, 1987 - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Newell 256KXLE, for 800XL/1200XL - Marketed in Poland by TOMS - NOTE: Replaced the earlier Newell 256KXL - True ANTIC banking - CSS Power Plus, 800XL or 65XE installation - True ANTIC banking - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XL (800XL 64KiB to 256KiB) - True ANTIC banking - Atarimax 256k Memory Upgrade for 800XL and 1200XL - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 320KiB system total 4 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^4 = 16 16KiB memory banks. These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM. > "AtariMagazin" bank-selection type Bank-selection is the same as the "Rambo" type but with 16 banks available. PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6 - Scott Peterson 130XE/320K project, 1986 - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Scott Peterson 65XE/320K project - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Magna Systems Ramcharger 320K for 130XE, 1987 - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - AtariMagazin "320 KByte im Eigenbau" for 800XL, by Rolf Schmidtke, issue 1987n2p56; bugfixes/updates 1987n3p54, 1988n4p62, 1988n5p86 - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 320K (65XE 64KiB to 320KiB) - True ANTIC banking - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE (130XE 128KiB to 320KiB) - True ANTIC banking - CSS Power Plus, 130XE installation - True ANTIC banking - Yorky, design by Dave Malham for York Computer Centre, then Richard Gore, PBI board for 800XL - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - RAM 320XL, by ctirad, PBI board for 600XL or 800XL. (2010) - Standard mode ADDS 256KiB of expansion memory. This gives a 16KiB 600XL 272KiB system total, while a 64KiB 800XL has 320KiB system total. - Remapped base RAM mode DISABLES internal RAM, makes 64KiB main memory available from the RAM 320XL device, for 320KiB total - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - http://atariage.com/forums/topic/162420-ram-320xl/ > "Compy-Shop" bank-selection type PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6,7 - Compy-Shop 256K, versions for 800XL or 130XE (versions for any others?) - True ANTIC banking - Megaram XL/XE (Version 1, Version 2, or Version 3 256KiB installation), by Klaus Peters, for 800XL, 800XE, 65XE, 130XE, or XE System Console. - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Fixes for refresh errors: http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/doku/BugFix/bugfix.html > Multiple bank-selection types supported - 256 kByte im 800XL project by Bernhard Pahl - Two modes: AtariMagazin and Compy-Shop - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xl_1/800xl_1.html - 256 kByte im 800XLF / 65XE / 800XE / XEGS project by Bernhard Pahl - Two modes: AtariMagazin and Compy-Shop - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xe_1/800xe_1.html - 256 kByte im 130XE project by Bernhard Pahl - Two modes: AtariMagazin and Compy-Shop - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/130xe_1/130xe_1.html - RAM-Erweiterung 256kB fur 130XE, by Heuser Family (2005). Two modes: - Rambo/AtariMagazin mode with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - Compy-Shop mode with true ANTIC banking - http://www.asselheim.de 512KiB system total 5 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^5 = 32 16KiB memory banks, but there are only 28 "extra" banks available because the computer's main 64KiB RAM has been REPLACED. - 512K Atari 800XL/1200XL V1.1, by Dan Schmidt. For computers that already have a 256K RAMBO XL or Claus Buchholz upgrade installed. - NOTE: The original non-V1.1 version does not work! - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,7 - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4 576KiB system total 5 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^5 = 32 16KiB memory banks. These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM. - Scott Peterson 130XE/576K project (1986). Two modes: - 576KiB mode: PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6 - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1) - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - 130XE mode: 192KiB RAM, PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6 - "100% compatible 130XE" - Magna Systems Ramcharger 576K for 130XE (1987) - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,7 - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7) - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Irata Verlag 512K card plugs into the 800XL PBI (1987) - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,??? - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 576K (130XE 320KiB to 576KiB). - Upgrade for 130XE with IC's 130XE 320KiB upgrade already installed. - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,??? - True ANTIC banking - 512 kByte im 800XL / 800XE project by Bernhard Pahl - Two modes: AtariMagazin and Compy-Shop - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xl_2/800xl_2.html - 512 kByte im 130XE project by Bernhard Pahl - Two modes: AtariMagazin and Compy-Shop - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/130xe_2/130xe_2.html - 512k SRam Extended Memory for XL/XE, project by Bernd Herale (BigBen) and Wolfram Fischer. (2007?) Internal upgrade with four modes: - 512KiB using PORTB bits 2,3,5,6,7; 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - 256KiB Compy-Shop mode with true ANTIC banking - 256KiB Rambo (AtariMagazin) and 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - Extended RAM off - http://www.abbuc.de/~bernd/selfmade-hardware/512k-memory-extension/ - 512k SRAM extension for Atari XL/XE, project by Matthias Reichl, v1.3, (2006-2010), and Wolfram Fischer. Internal upgrade with four modes: - 0KiB / off - 256KiB Compy-Shop with true ANTIC banking - 256KiB Rambo/AtariMagazin with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - 512KiB using PORTB bits 2,3,5,6,7; 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/#sram512k - http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/512K/512k.html 1088KiB system total 6 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^6 = 64 16KiB memory banks. These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM. - Scott Peterson 1088XE project for the 130XE (Version 2.0, June 1986) - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7 - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7) - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1) - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Magna Systems Ramcharger 1088K for 130XE. (1987) - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7 - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7) - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1) - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Newell Meg130 for 130XE, Meg65 for 65XE, MegXL for 800XL/1200XL (three different boards with identical specifications), 1MiB installation option - Marketed in Poland by TOMS? - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7 - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1) - Installation option: Toggle switch to select internal BASIC - True ANTIC banking - Megaram XL/XE (Version 3 1024KiB installation, Super-Megaram), by Klaus Peters, for 800XL, 800XE, 65XE, 130XE, or XE System Console - Bank-selection bits: PIA Port B bits 2,3,6,7 and memory location 54784 ($D600) bits 0,1 - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. - Fixes for refresh errors: http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/doku/BugFix/bugfix.html - Satantronic 1MB SIMM RAM expansion project for 800XL, 800XE, 130XE, XEgs, by Dodo (Jozef Friedmansky). (2002) Internal upgrade, with or without switches, with or without GAL chip. - 1MiB mode uses PORTB bits 1,2,3,5,6,7 - 256KiB Compy-Shop mode - 256KiB Rambo/AtariMagazin mode - 64KiB 130XE mode - http://satantronic.atari.sk/?str=xe_1mbram - 1024 kByte im 800XL project by Bernhard Pahl - PORTB bits: 1,2,3,5,6,7 - Two modes: 1024KiB without BASIC, or 512KiB with BASIC - 1MiB SIMM project for 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE, by Pasiu/SSG. (2004?) Internal upgrade works in two modes: - 512KiB Compy-Shop with true ANTIC banking - 1024KiB with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - http://hardware.atari8.info/simm.php - mega-mem 1024KB for 800XL, 800XE/65XE, 130XE, 1200XL, by Matthias Reichl and Wolfram Fischer, 2009. Internal upgrade with 8 modes: - 0KiB (off) - 64KiB 130XE compatible (true ANTIC banking?) - 128KiB (true ANTIC banking?) - 256KiB Compy-Shop compatible (true ANTIC banking?) - 256KiB Rambo or AtariMagazin and 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - 512KiB with ANTIC access (simultaneous only?) - 512KiB without ANTIC access - 1024KiB (built-in BASIC not available) (no ANTIC banking?) - http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/1024K/1mb.html - Ultimate1MB, by Sebastian Bartkowicz (Candle'O'Sin), for 65XE/130XE or 800XL/600XL/1200XL, 2011. Interal upgrade with 4 modes: - disabled - 320KiB "Rambo" (AtariMagazin) with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - 578KiB "Compy-Shop" with true ANTIC banking - 1088KiB "Rambo" with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking - http://spiflash.org/block/19.html 4MiB system total 8 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^8 = 256 16KiB memory banks. These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM. - Newell Meg130 for 130XE, Meg65 for 65XE, MegXL for 800XL/1200XL (three different boards with identical specifications), 4MiB installation option - Marketed in Poland by TOMS? - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banked memory access is ALWAYS enabled - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1) - Installation option: Toggle switch to select internal BASIC - 16KiB of main memory access is lost (banked memory is ALWAYS selected) - 16KiB RAM accessed under the Operating System is also lost - Installation option makes RAM under the OS available, but only usable if OS is first moved to RAM ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.1) What is the Atari Operating System? "An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function." (Wikipedia 8/15/2012) Atari 8-bit computers were supplied with the proprietary Atari Operating System contained in Read Only Memory (ROM) as an integral feature of the computer. Major design elements of the Atari OS (derived here from De Re Atari): MONITOR Executed upon system power (Coldstart) or [System Reset] keypress (Warmstart). Sets up memory management, initializes I/O Subsystem, sets up System Vectors, boots (loads software into RAM) from cassette or diskette if present, selects and launches program execution environment INTERRUPT PROCESSING STRUCTURE The OS processes 6502 interrupts as generated by events including: keyboard keystrokes, the [Break] key, some serial bus events, system timer timeouts, and the vertical blank interval on the television/monitor. An Interrupt ReQuest (IRQ) Handler and a NonMaskable Interrupt (NMI) Handler are both provided. SYSTEM VECTORS Design consideration allows for: - User programs to directly utilize OS routines - User programs to substitute for OS routines INPUT/OUTPUT SUBSYSTEM Multi-layered provision for user program access to hardware peripherals. Device Handlers may be added by user programs. Includes a complete Cassette Handler and a rudimentary Diskette Handler, but notably does not include a complete Disk Operating System. Described in greater detail in a separate section of the FAQ list. REAL TIME PROGRAMMING Hardware timers and system software timers are provided to facilitate predictable and controllable speeds of software routine execution. ROM CHARACTER SET Atari ASCII, or ATASCII. May be substituted by user programs. Described in greater detail in a separate section of the FAQ list. FLOATING POINT PACKAGE Set of mathematical software routines. Thomas Richter contributes (16 Jan 2004): It is interesting to note that no [OS System Vectors] exist for the math- pack ($d800 to $dfff). It is not really part of the OS, but looks more like a part of the BASIC interpreter that didn't make it into the BASIC cartridge because there was no room left. Thus, direct jump-ins have to be used here that are documented in the De Re Atari (for example). Atari never changed them, but it seems likely that this documentation happened more or less as an accident since the same source also lists some mathematics-related jump- ins into the BASIC (namely, to compute SIN and COS and related) that are only valid for the Rev. A BASIC. Thus, the math pack might be a couple of routines that have been originally intended for "private use" of the BASIC ROM, but then have been found "too useful" by many others to remain "closed". Otherwise, it is hard to explain why the otherwise pretty cleaned-up OS comes with a construction like this. In the Atari 800 only, the OS ROM is contained in the CX801 10K ROM Operating System Module. The OS module must be installed in the first (front) of the four internal memory slots. The memory slot design of the 800 allows the user to upgrade or replace the OS by replacing the internal OS Module. In all other 8-bit Atari computer models the OS ROM is contained on one or more chips inside the machine, and was not intended to be upgraded or replaced by users. Thus, revised versions of the Atari OS were not offered as upgrades for existing machines, but rather as built-in features of new-production computers. Software can reliably determine the version of the Atari Operating System running as follows. (primary source: OS Manual XL Addendum, p.28) First, determine whether the system is running a 400/800 OS version or an XL/XE OS version by checking the value of memory location $FCD8. In Atari BASIC, PEEK(64728) is the equivalent test. Read Result Means $A2 (162) 400/800 OS $4C (76) XL/XE OS Then, if running a 400/800 OS version as determined above, now check the values of BOTH memory locations $FFF8 and $FFF9. In Atari BASIC, PEEK(65528) and also PEEK(65529) and interpret the results as follows: $FFF8 (65528) $FFF9 (65529) 400/800 OS Rev. Rev. Date ------------- ------------- --------------- --------- $FF (255) n/a --> Operating System 255 1979-04 (VERY RARE) A pre-production demo unit release, possibly a few thousand once existed. For more info see http://mcurrent.name/os255/410insert-os255.htm and http://mcurrent.name/os255/softside.htm and the 17-Nov-79 essay Atari_CASSETTE_TAPES.pdf found in post #2 in: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/204930-some-early-atari-a8-development-docs/ $DD (221) $57 (87) --> Rev.A/NTSC 1979-06 (uncommon) $D6 (214) $57 (87) --> Rev.A/PAL 1979-06 (common) $F3 (243) $E6 (230) --> Rev.B/NTSC 1981-09 (common) $22 (34) $58 (88) --> Rev.B/PAL 1981-09 (NOT SHIPPED?) Or, if running an XL/XE OS version as determined above, the Revision number of the XL/XE OS is available at memory location $FFF7. In Atari BASIC, PEEK(65527) for the XL/XE OS Revision number. XL/XE OS Revisions shipped: XL/XE OS (Dec.) Hex Rev. Date Shipped in Rev.A (10) $0A 1982-10-26 1200XL (most) Rev.B (11) $0B 1982-12-23 1200XL (rare--via service centers only?) Rev.1 (1) $01 1983-03-11 600XL(all)/800XL(early) Rev.2 (2) $02 1983-05-10 800XL(most)/65XE(most)/130XE(most) Rev.3 (3) $03 1985-03-01 65XE(later)/130XE(later)/800XE(all) Rev.4 (4) $04 1987-05-07 XE System console (all) Rev.3B (59) $3B 1987-07-21 Arabic Atari 65XE Najm (all) OS manuals from Atari: - Operating System User's Manual - (c)1980 edition - GREEN title page (printings with line-printed title page include printing date imprint; printing with Atari logo on title page lacks printing date) - 215 numbered pages - Table of contents lacks page numbers - Contents of pages numbered 191 and 192 are reversed - The last two sections are: pp. 177-199 Appendix K. OS Database Variable Functional Descriptions pp. 200-215 Appendix L. Equate File (400/800 OS Rev.A source excerpt) - Included in earlier printings of C016555, entitled: Atari Personal Computer System Operating System User's Manual and Hardware Manual (official nickname: "Technical User's Notes"), including printings dated: November 1980 (orange cover page), August 1981 (cover page??) - (c)1980 Rev. 0.2 edition - GREEN title page (line-printed) - 261 numbered pages - Identical to the earlier (c)1980 edition through page number 191 - Confusingly, this includes the portion of the superceded version of Appendix K from the earlier edition on pages numbered 177-191 - Pages marked 192 through 261 marked: "C016555 - Rev. 0.2" - Pages 192-197: Appendix K. Device Characteristics (content not included in the earlier edition) - Pages 198-261: Appendix L. OS Database Variable Functional Descriptions (complete revision of the Appendix K. from the earlier edition) - The Appendix L. Equate File content from the earlier edition is not included. - Included in January 1982 printing of C016555, entitled: Atari Personal Computer System Operating System User's Manual and Hardware Manual (official nickname: "Technical User's Notes") (yellow cover page) - (c)1982 edition - GRAY title page (with Atari logo) - 273 numbered pages - Completely revised table of contents, including page numbers - Completely revised layout; content is heavily revised in some places - Includes Index (pages 271-273) - Included in C016555 Rev. A (1982) entitled: Technical Reference Notes (blue cover page with Atari logo) - De Re Atari: A Guide to Effective Programming APX-90008/ C060070 (CO60070) http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/ (c1982) - XL Addendum: Operating System Manual: Supplement to Atari 400/800 Technical Reference Notes C024515 (38 pages; covers changes from the 400/800 OS to the XL/XE OS) OS Source Code published by Atari: - Operating System Source Listing C017893 (APX author's guide gives: CA016557), August 1981, c1981 - Complete 400/800 OS Rev.A source code - Operating System Source Listing, c1982, 129 numbered + 24 un-numbered pages - BLUE title page (with Atari logo) - Complete 400/800 OS Rev.B source code (numbered pages) - Cross Reference section (un-numbered pages) - Included in C016555 Rev. A (1982) entitled: Technical Reference Notes (blue cover page with Atari logo) - According to Mapping the Atari, Revised Ed. by Ian Chadwick, page 212, or http://www.atariarchives.org/mapping/appendix12.php : "Atari did produce a listed source code for the XL/XE OS, although for some reason it was never published for public sale as it was intended...It is an excellent 500+ page resource document." OS DEVELOPER CREDITS AT ATARI 400/800 OS Rev.A David Crane - OS design & programming Alan Miller - OS design & programming (also wrote: Basketball) Larry Kaplan - OS design & programming (also wrote: Video Easel, Super Breakout) R. Bob Whitehead - OS programming Harry B. Stewart - OS design consultant Gary Palmer - Worked on the I/O portion Ian Shepard - Disk drive functions Rev.B Michael P. Mahar - Fix several problems R. Scott Scheiman - Fix several problems XL/XE OS Rev.A Harry B. Stewart - External Reference Specification Lane Winner - ? R. Scott Scheiman - Handler Loader Y. M. (Amy) Chen - Relocating Loader; International Character Set Mike W. Colburn - Self Test Richard K. Nordin - ? Rev.B R. Scott Scheiman - Fix several problems Rev.1 R. Scott Scheiman - Support for PBI and on-board BASIC Richard K. Nordin - Support for PBI and on-board BASIC Y. M. (Amy) Chen - Support for PBI and on-board BASIC Rev.2 R. Scott Scheiman - Fix several problems Richard K. Nordin - Bring closer to Coding Standard (object unchanged) Rev.3 ? - Self Test updated; Fix one problem Rev.4 ? - Support for detachable keyboard and on-board game Rev.3B ? - Arabic character set and right-to-left text entry Source code and further details for all known shipped and prototype versions of the Atari OS, based on disassembled ROM images combined with published source listings, was (amazingly) published by Tomasz Krasuski at http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/201133-os-source-code-all-revisions/ ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.2) What other operating systems have been produced for the Atari? This section started by Arianne Slaager (Alphasys). Args OS 3 CRC32: 0x5B1EADF3 - Mostly a copy of the REV 2 XL rom, but boasts a ROM disk driver by Ralf David that activates by holding Select while resetting. How this works, I have no clue. ARGS stands for Atari Regional Gruppe Stuttgart. Need extra info on this one. Bibomon V2.1 (c) 1084/85 E. Reuss CRC32: 0x41B80C28 - Option + Reset enters a built in machine language monitor. Also some colors have changed. Looks like BASIC is disabled by default, and no way to enable it. Highchip (c) Irata GmbH 1985 V.1.9 CRC32: 0x41BB4047 - Mostly a copy of REV 2 XL rom, but includes Happy Warp Speed boot and changed colors. Special options menu can be initialised by pressing Option + Select + Reset. Pressing Select + Start while booting, boots from casette. Booting while holding Start tries to initialise Warp speed before booting. Oldruner CRC32: 0x10ABFD80 - A copy of the OS-B for the 800, but tweaked to function with the XL/XE line of computers. Makes the XL/XE line able to run 400/800 software. Omnimon 87 CRC32: 0x9B4F8FAD - Byte Eaters OMNIMON V_r 1987: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time. Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom. Omnimon XL CRC32: 0xBFA09B66 - David Young OMNIMONXL (C)1984: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time. Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom. Omnimon XE CRC32: 0x64B77137 - David Young OMNIMONXL (C)1984: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time. Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom. Omniview 5 CRC32: 0x5987F5D8 - (c) 1985 David Young. Based on rev B 800 rom. The extra 6KiB holds the main feature: A 80 column E: handler that can be invoked from most programs including BASIC. This mode uses a Graphics 8 screen, with a 4-bit wide font. Not the best readability. Manual includes patches for (at the time) well known word processor software: Speedscript 3.0. Omniview 6 256KiB CRC32: 0xEB0C62EB - Only difference with Omniview 5 is a change of tagline. David Young tagline is replaced by the message " OS-80+ ext.256K rev.(C)1986". There is no extra support for additional ram. I suspect it's a rip-off. Omniview XE CRC32: 0xE4BF5B98 - (c) 1985 David Young. Very alike Omniview 5. Same base, same feature, but with a reworked character set, which is a slight bit easier on the eyes. Minor changes in the code. Pud CRC32: 0x95EC9329 - Proof of concept rom for a Power-Up display, made by Aegaeis Softscape. There might be many versions of this now, because it was advertised to sell, tailored to suit anyone with a name to stick in. Has no Self Test, since that area is replaced with custom graphics/routines for the power-up display. Based on XE rom. Fully compatible. - If booted with Select, the startup screen will be skipped. If left by its own devices, the startup screen will show for about 2.5 seconds. If Select is pressed in that time short time, it'll continue to show until Select is released again. Q-Meg V2 CRC32: 0x51939D37 - Q-Meg OS versions incorporate a Machine language monitor, support for ramdisks, including BOOTING from them, without the need for a separate ramdisk driver. HIO (high speed SIO for Speedy extended drives) is built in aswell. - Compatible with the XL/XE roms for normal use. Not recommended for emulators for all versions. - Lower versions can adress drive 1-4 and 8, later ones can adress drive 1-8. Configurable ramdisks with 256KiB of memory can be either 2 single density drives, 1 enhanced drive + one small x-drive, or one double density drive. - Ramdisks may be filled from disk directly from the menu, aswell as written to disk, including formatting. They can also be protected from being overwritten by other software. Also BASIC can be turned on/off. Q-Meg V2.3 CRC32: 0xA1FB9BFA Q-Meg V3.0 CRC32: 0xBE14E47E Q-Meg V3.2 CRC32: 0x8CD48719 Q-Meg V3.8 CRC32: 0x78F2C102 Q-Meg V4.2 CRC32: 0x64CCFC53 Q-Meg V4.3 CRC32: 0xBE2442DA Q-Meg V4.4 CRC32: 0x0547F499 Speedos CRC32: 0xA991769B - I totally have no clue what this does, it just makes my computer crash like there's no tomorrow. I get the feeling this has Happy extensions that my drives just don't like, or something like that... Supermon '85 CRC32: 0xBBD8A8BD - All Supermon versions are based on the 800 rom, as far as I've noticed so far. - Machine language monitor through Select+Reset. Supermon 2.0 CRC32: 0xFFDC4372 - This one is probably a rip off of the '86 version, as only the monitor tagline differs. Supermon '86 (BRD) CRC32: 0x28DD9BE4 - Same as Supermon 2.0, just gives a german header when invoking the monitor. Supermon HTT CRC32: 0x1101FF93 - Same as Supermon '85, with different colors and charset. Modified build for the High-Tech Team, a demo/developer group from the Netherlands. Warpcopy CRC32: 0x21A89311 - Warp speed Happy extension included. Need extra info on this one. Xos CRC32: 0x196C9B00 - Never found out how to get into special functions on this one yet. Need extra info on this one. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.3) What is the ATASCII character set? ASCII is an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Pronounced ask-ee, ASCII is a code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. For example, the ASCII code for uppercase M is 77. Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another. The 8-bit Atari computers use a modified version of the ASCII character set called Atari ASCII, or ATASCII. The character set is provided as part of the Operating System. David Moeser produced this nice translation table. ASCII TRANSLATION TABLE -- IBM & ATARI 8-BIT (ATASCII) ====================================================== SECTION ONE: CONTROL CHARACTERS =============================== DECIMAL ATARI IBM <----> ATARI ASCII -HEX NAME KEY GRAPHICS CHARACTER FUNCTION ======= ==== === ====================== ======== 0 00 NUL ^, none heart Null 1 01 SOH ^A smiley |- Start of header 2 02 STX ^B [smiley] right | Start of text 3 03 ETX ^C heart (9:00) End of last text 4 04 EOT ^D diamond -| End of transmission 5 05 ENQ ^E club (9:30) Enquiry 6 06 ACK ^F spade / Acknowledge (handshake) 7 07 BEL ^G rain dot \ Bell 8 08 BS ^H doorbell L triangle Backspace 9 09 HT ^I o low-R-sq. Horizontal tab 10 0A LF ^J [doorbell] R triangle Line feed 11 0B VT ^K Mars hi-R-sq. Vertical tab 12 0C FF ^L Venus hi-L-sq. Form feed 13 0D CR ^M note high bar Carriage return 14 0E SO ^N 2 notes low bar Shift out 15 0F SI ^O sun low-L-sq. Shift in 16 10 DLE ^P R pennant club Data link escape (break) 17 11 DC1 ^Q L pennant (3:30) Device #1 (P:) 18 12 DC2 ^R V arrows -- Device #2 19 13 DC3 ^S !! cross Device #3 (deselects P:) 20 14 DC4 ^T paragraph cloudy Device #4 (stop) 21 15 NAK ^U section low block Negative acknowl. (error) 22 16 SYN ^V short - left | Synchronous idle 23 17 ETB ^W base-V-arrs.low T End of block 24 18 CAN ^X up arrow hi perp. Cancel memory (in buffer) 25 19 EM ^Y DN arrow left half End medium (tape drive) 26 1A SUB ^Z R arrow (3:00) Substitute 27 1B ESC EE L arrow escape Escape 28 1C FS E^- (3:00) up arrow File separator 29 1D GS E^= ice needles DN arrow Group separator 30 1E RS E^+ up triangle L arrow Record separator 31 1F US E^* DN triangle R arrow Unit separator 32 20 SPC bar space space Space SECTION TWO: SPECIAL CHARACTERS =============================== 127 7F DEL ETB home plate R pennant Deleted 155 9B EOL RETURN box, etc. ATASCII end of line (newline) 13,10 CR/LF ENTER ^M^J Windows,DOS,CP/M newline 10 0A LF ENTER ^J UNIX,Mac OS X,Amiga newline 13 0D CR ENTER ^M Apple II,MacOS (pre-X) newline KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS: ==================== ^ = control key L = left hi = upper S = shift key R = right low = lower E = escape key UP = points up [ ] = inverse BS = backspace DN = points down V = vertical TB = tab key sq = square perp = perpendicular (time) = position of hands on a clockface Where possible, descriptions of graphics characters are taken from standard symbols used in mathematics, weather, astronomy, etc. Note: Different computer platforms, operating systems, programs, printers, etc. will produce different graphics characters. SECTION THREE: KEYBOARD CHARACTERS ================================== DECIMAL IBM ATARI DECIMAL IBM ATARI -HEX KEY CHAR. KEY CHAR. -HEX KEY CHAR. KEY CHAR. ======= === ==== === ==== ======= === ==== === ==== 32 20 bar space bar space 80 50 P P P P 33 21 S1 ! S1 ! 81 51 Q Q Q Q 34 22 S' " S2 " 82 52 R R R R 35 23 S3 # S3 # 83 53 S S S S 36 24 S4 $ S4 $ 84 54 T T T T 37 25 S5 % S5 % 85 55 U U U U 38 26 S7 & S6 & 86 56 V V V V 39 27 ' ' S7 ' 87 57 W W W W 40 28 S9 ( S9 ( 88 58 X X X X 41 29 S0 ) S0 ) 89 59 Y Y Y Y 42 2A S8 * * * 90 5A Z Z Z Z 43 2B S= + + + 91 5B [ [ S, [ 44 2C , , , , 92 5C \ \ S+ \ 45 2D - - - - 93 5D ] ] S. ] 46 2E . . . . 94 5E S6 ^ S* ^ 47 2F / / / / 95 5F S- _ S- _ 48 30 0 0 0 0 96 60 ` ` ^. ` 49 31 1 1 1 1 97 61 a a a a 50 32 2 2 2 2 98 62 b b b b 51 33 3 3 3 3 99 63 c c c c 52 34 4 4 4 4 100 64 d d d d 53 35 5 5 5 5 101 65 e e e e 54 36 6 6 6 6 102 66 f f f f 55 37 7 7 7 7 103 67 g g g g 56 38 8 8 8 8 104 68 h h h h 57 39 9 9 9 9 105 69 i i i i 58 3A S; : S; : 106 6A j j j j 59 3B ; ; ; ; 107 6B k k k k 60 3C S, < < < 108 6C l l l l 61 3D = = = = 109 6D m m m m 62 3E S. > > > 110 6E n n n n 63 3F S/ ? S/ ? 111 6F o o o o 64 40 S2 @ S8 @ 112 70 p p p p 65 41 A A A A 113 71 q q q q 66 42 B B B B 114 72 r r r r 67 43 C C C C 115 73 s s s s 68 44 D D D D 116 74 t t t t 69 45 E E E E 117 75 u u u u 70 46 F F F F 118 76 v v v v 71 47 G G G G 119 77 w w w w 72 48 H H H H 120 78 x x x x 73 49 I I I I 121 79 y y y y 74 4A J J J J 122 7A z z z z 75 4B K K K K 123 7B S[ { ^; spade 76 4C L L L L 124 7C S\ | S= | 77 4D M M M M 125 7D S] } E^< left-turn 78 4E N N N N 126 7E S` ~ EBS L pennant 79 4F O O O O 127 7F none house ETB R pennant A graphical Atari / ASCII Table made by Florian Dingler is available at: http://www.akk.org/~flo/ATASCII.pdf ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.4) How can my program detect keypresses directly? modified slightly from text by JB in Atari Customer Service Demopac #3, 5/82 For reading keypresses of most keys on the Atari keyboard, one can look directly at the memory location where the keycode for the last key pressed is stored. To read directly from the keyboard buffer, check the value of memory location CH (decimal 764; hex $2FC). This location returns a keycode, rather than a letter or ATASCII value. The keycode is an arbitrary code which is unique for each key. It reflects whether SHIFT or CONTROL is pressed, and in some cases whether SHIFT and CONTROL are both pressed. If you use this method, you must translate the keycode in your own program. There is a translation table on page 50 of the Operating System User's Manual, or you can PEEK the location and create your own table. This method is useful if you are simply checking for a particular keypress, i.e. PRESS "C" TO CONTINUE. The Atari BASIC program code for this would be: 10 PRINT "PRESS C TO CONTINUE" 20 If PEEK(764)<>18 THEN GOTO 20 Checking CH, the keyboard buffer, bypasses the K: keyboard handler altogether. A disadvantage is that you have to interpret the keycode yourself. An advantage is that you don't have to press RETURN, and in bypassing the handler, you also bypass the keyboard beep. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.5) How is the Input/Output subsystem of the Atari OS organized? Derived primarily from the Operating System User's Manual and De Re Atari. The Input/Output (I/O) subsystem of the Atari Operating System (OS) comprises a collection of software utilities/routines, offered at three different levels of abstraction, that allow for user communication with local system and peripheral devices. Communications between adjacent levels of the I/O subsystem are carried via one of the three types of I/O system control blocks. Presented in order from the highest level (user programs) to the lowest level: 0. USER PROGRAM A. Input/Output Control Block (IOCB) Carries communications between a user program and Central I/O (CIO) - 8 IOCBs (#0-#7) are provided by the OS. - Each IOCB can be assigned to control any device/file. - IOCB #0 is assigned by the OS to the E: Screen Editor at power-up and system reset. - Software programming environments may reserve other IOCBs for internal use. For example, Atari BASIC uses IOCB #6 to interact with the S: device when using graphics modes other than zero, and uses IOCB #7 for I/O with the printer, disk drive, and cassette. (Patchett/Sherer, Master Memory Map, http://www.atariarchives.org/mmm/iocbs.php) 1) Central I/O (CIO) utility/routine Intended for user program access to system and peripheral devices. A device consists of one or more "files" where each file consists of a sequential collection of data bytes. Files are optionally organized into "records" which are delineated by the End Of Line character/byte ($9B). 8 basic functions provided by CIO: OPEN, CLOSE, GET CHARACTERS, PUT CHARACTERS, GET RECORD, PUT RECORD, GET STATUS, Special (handler-specific) Additional CIO features: - Device independence - Single entry point for all devices (and for all operations) - Device-independent calling sequence - Uniform rules for data transfers, regardless of actual device storage block sizes - Data access methods - Byte-aligned. Any number of bytes can be read or written, and the next operation will continue where the prior one left off. - Record-aligned. A single record of bytes can be read or written, and the next operation will continue at the beginning of the next record. - Multiple device/file concurrency - Up to 8 device/files can be accessed concurrently, each operating independently of the others. - Unified error handling - Device expansion: while the OS supplies several device handlers in ROM, CIO also supports the loading of additional CIO-compatible device handlers into RAM. B. Zero-Page I/O Control Block (ZIOCB) Carries communications between higher-level CIO and lower-level device handlers. There is a single ZIOCB only. 2) Device Handlers Device-specific communication. Handlers provided by the Atari OS: - K: Keyboard Handler (read only) - S: Display Handler (read/write) Offers the special CIO commands DRAW and FILL. - E: Screen Editor (read/write) - Uses the K: Keyboard Handler and the S: Display Handler to provide "line-at-a-time" input with interactive editing functions, as well as formatted output. - C: Cassette Handler (read/write) - P: Printer (write only) - 400/800 OS: Supports a single printer device; any device number is ignored. All powered printers attached via SIO or the 850 parallel port respond to all print commands. - XL/XE OS: Supports 8 different printer devices: P1:-P8: P: (no device number) is interpreted to mean: P1: Printer devices are associated with specific models of Atari printers as follows: P1: All printers attached via SIO or the 850 parallel port P2: 850 Interface Module parallel port P3: 1025 Printer P4: 1020 Color Plotter P5: 1027 Printer P6: 1029 Printer P7: XMM801 Printer P8: XDM121 Printer Tomasz Krasuski contributes (May 2011): This feature is buggy in XL/XE OS Rev.A/Rev.B/Rev.1. Behavior was fixed to reliable operation as of XL/XE OS Rev.2. - Diskette Handler, Resident - Not a full device handler; not CIO-compatible - Except for Atari DOS I, normally only used to load a full File Management System from disk Nonresident Handlers can be added to the system environment in several ways: - Loaded from diskette or cassette - Resident in a cartridge or PBI/ECI device - From the ROM of an SIO device via Power-On Bootstrapping Operation (850 interface, 1030 modem, P:R: Connection interface) C. Device Control Block (DCB) Carries communcations between higher-level device handlers and lower-level Serial I/O (SIO). There is a single DCB only. - Also used by the OS-resident Diskette Handler 3) Serial I/O (SIO) utility/routine Low-level communication with serial bus peripherals - Control of all Serial bus I/O, conforming to the bus protocol - Bus operation retries on errors - Return of unified error statuses on error conditions - Used by the OS-resident P: handler - Not used by the OS-resident K: S: and E: handlers (non-SIO devices) - While the the OS-resident C: handler uses the SIO bus hardware, it does not use the SIO utility/routine. Any lower level (lower than CIO) access to a device by a user program involves the direct reading and writing of the hardware registers associated with the device. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.6) What is attract mode? From the Atari Operating System User's Manual p. 215: Attract mode is a mechanism that protects the television screen from having patterns "burned into" the phosphors due to a fixed display being left on the screen for extended periods of time. When the computer is left unattended for more than 9 minutes, the color intensities are limited to 50 percent of maximum and the hues are continually varied every 8.3 seconds. Pressing any keyboard data key will be sufficient to remove the attract mode for 9 more minutes. Laurent Delsarte contributes: To launch the attract mode from BASIC, use a "POKE 77,128" To disable the attract mode from BASIC, use a "POKE 77,0" ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.7) What is the Atari cassette utilization/filesystem? (Section sources include: De Re Atari, OS Users Manual, XL Addendum) The following are characteristics of the cassette utilization/filesystem as implemented by the Atari Operating System. - Mark = 5327Hz (audible sound frequency) - Space = 3995Hz (audible sound frequency) - Bit = space(0) or mark(1) - Byte = 10 bits: - 1 start bit (space) - 8 data bits - 1 stop bit (mark) - Record = 132 bytes: - 1st Marker byte for tape speed measurement = $55 (hex) - 2nd Marker byte for tape speed measurement = $55 (hex) - 1 Control byte - 128 Data bytes - Read at baud rate derived from the record's tape speed measurement. Input baud rates ranging from 318 to 1407 can theoretically be handled. (De Re Atari C-3) - 1 Checksum byte. One of three values: 1) $FC = record is a full data record (128 bytes) 2) $FA = record is a partial data record, and the next record should be an end-of-file record. The actual number of data bytes (1-127) is stored in the last (128th) data byte. 3) $FE = record is an end-of-file record. This is followed by 128 zero bytes - Pre-Record Write Tone (PRWT) = pure mark tone - Post-Record Gap (PRG) - Record Frame = PRWT + Record + PRG - Inter-Record Gap (IRG) = PRG + PRWT - Normal IRG Mode: Tape comes to stop after each record frame - Short IRG Mode: Tape is not stopped between record frames. (Short IRG Mode is supported by the Atari BASIC commands CSAVE and CLOAD.) - Normal IRG PRWT = 3 seconds of mark tone - Short IRG PRWT = 0.25 second of mark tone - Normal IRG PRG = Up to 1 second of unknown tones (motor stop/start time) - Short IRG PRG = pure mark tone, duration set by user program (may be zero) - File consists of: 1) 20-second leader of mark tone 2) Any number of record frames 3) End-Of-File record frame - Files are written in fixed-length blocks at 600 baud (physical bits/second) ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.8) What programs run only on the 400 or 800, and why? The following programs are reported as incompatible with models other than the original Atari 400/800. Many can nevertheless be made to run on XL/XEs using the Atari Translator (or equivalent) which is described in another section of this FAQ list. Apple Panic Broderbund Aquatron Sierra On-Line Astro Chase (by First Star Software) Parker Bros. Atari Word Processor Atari Atlantis (early only?) Imagic (at least most copies OK on XL/XE) Attack at EP-CYG-4 (by Bram) Romox Bacterion! Kyle Peacock/Tom Hudson/ANALOG#20 patch for XL/XE available: http://www.cyberroach.com/analog/an20/bacterion_patch.htm Bandits Sirius Software Chicken Synapse Crossfire Sierra On-Line (keyboard doesn't work on XL/XE) Dancing Feats (by Softsync) Romox Demon Attack Imagic (Activision re-release fixed for XL/XE) Disk 50 Star Soft International (SSI) Dreadnaught Factor, The Activision Drelbs Synapse File Manager 800+ Synapse Forbidden Forest (early only?) Cosmi (at least most copies OK on XL/XE) Fort Apocalypse -- cartridge Synapse (all disk/tape releases OK on XL/XE) Galahad And The Holy Grail APX Go Hayden Gorf Roklan Jawbreaker II Sierra On-Line Jet Boot Jack (early only?) English Software (at least most OK on XL/XE) Juggler IDSI K-Razy Antiks CBS Software (c) Kay Enterprises Co. for K-Byte K-Razy Kritters K-Byte (c) Kay Enterprises Co. K-Razy Kritters CBS Software (c) Kay Enterprises Co. for K-Byte K-Star Patrol CBS Software (c) Kay Enterprises Co. for K-Byte Kangaroo (prototype) (Atari) Letter Perfect (before v6) LJK (all version 6.x releases OK on XL/XE) Mac/65 [ver. 1.00, orange] OSS (all releases after 1.00 OK on XL/XE) Maze Epyx Monkey Wrench Eastern House Monster Maze Epyx Ms. Pac-Man Atari (glitches with late-production XE units) M.U.L.E. (early only?) (by Ozark Softscape) Electronic Arts (most copies/releases OK on XL/XE) Nautilus Synapse XL/XE workaround: hold down START to skip the title screen, which is where it locks up. --Scott Stilphen, 6 Jun 2007 Picnic Paranoia Synapse Pool 1.5 IDSI Pool 400 IDSI Protector II Synapse QS Forth James Abanese / [QS] Quality Software Rack 'Em Up Rocklan Shamus Synapse XL/XE workaround: hold down START or SELECT to skip the title screen, which is where it locks up. A re-release by Americana/Synsoft corrects the incompatibility problem. (http://www.atarimania.com/game-atari-400-800-xl-xe-shamus_6174.html) --Scott Stilphen, 6 Jun 2007 Slime Synapse Snapper Silicon Valley Systems Space Dungeon Atari Squish 'Em Sirius Story Machine -- cartridge Spinnaker (disk release OK on XL/XE) Synassembler Synapse Text Wizard Datasoft VT-10-Squared Dave Bailey Zaxxon (early 32KiB release) Datasoft (most copies of 32KiB disk release OK on XL/XE; earlier 16KiB Datasoft cassette and later 16KiB Sega cartridge both also OK) Konrad M.Kokoszkiewicz writes: XL/XE software won't work on 400/800 if: 1) It uses shadow RAM at $C000-$CFFF and $D800-$FFFF 2) It uses RAM expansions at $4000-$7FFF controlled by PORTB $D301 3) It uses specific XL/XE OS functions (like JNEWDEVC) 4) It uses illegal XL/XE OS addresses. 5) It uses European Charset :) Thomas Richter contributes further details (16 Jan 2004): There are a couple of reasons why some games don't run on the XL/XE models. I try to order them by "likeliness", of course biased by my personal observations: i) The printer buffer of the XL Operating System in page 3 is a couple of bytes shorter. The additional bytes are used for extended OS variables not available in the 800 series. Most prominent is the $3FA location, holding a shadow register of GTIA's TRIG3 signal. While a true joystick trigger line in the 400/800 series, this signal is used as "cartridge inserted" signal for XL/XE models. Unfortunately, the OS compares GTIA TRIG3 with the shadow register at $3FA in each vertical blank, running into an endless loop if the register contents don't match. This causes hangs for games using page 3 either as copy-buffer or for player-missile graphics. (Hangs by Ms. Pac-Man and Bacterion! are caused by this, and many others...) This is "fixable" either by the translator disk, or by a quick hack into the game, replacing the OS vertical blank or poking TRIG3 frequently into its shadow. The reason for the OS behavior might be that Atari wanted to prevent crashes if the cartridge is inserted or removed while the machine is running. The 400/800 is powered down when a cartridge is inserted, the XL/XE lacks the cover of the older models that triggered a little switch to interrupt the power line. ii) Similar to the above, writes to $3f8. This OS equate defines whether on a warm start, the BASIC ROM shall be mapped back in. If its contents are altered, a program triggering a reset as part of its initialization will find itself then with 8KiB less RAM occupied by a BASIC ROM, making it crash. Similarly, writes to the cartridge checksum $3eb could cause a cold-start on a "reset initialization". This is fixable by the translator disk. iii) Some games use a four-joystick setup, or at least initialize PIA itself. If this happens inadequately, PIA Port B, bit 0 gets changed, disabling the ROM, and thus crashing the machine. This is not fixable by the translator since it is a hardware issue. iv) Direct jumps into the OS ROM, not using the documented vectors in the $e450 area. Interestingly, this fault is not as common as it may sound since games hardly ever use the OS. It causes failures of some "serious applications", most notably "QS Forth" and applications compiled by it. This is fixable by the translator disk. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.1.9) How can I run older programs using the Atari Translator? While each later revision of the Atari Operating System (OS) was designed to be backward compatible with earlier versions, software incompatibilities were sometimes introduced. In particular, a number of programs written for the 400/800 OS versions do not run correctly or at all under the XL/XE OS versions. In order to allow many "400/800-only" programs to be run on an XL (or later, XE) computer, Atari sold the Atari Translator on disk. The auto-booting Translator diskette installs the 400/800 OS in RAM "under" the ROM-based XL/XE OS in an XL/XE Atari computer. Once this disk has been loaded, the user is prompted to remove it and insert the application diskette (or cassette) and press the [SELECT] key. When this occurs the system undertakes a COLD START in the new, RAM-based 400/800 OS environment. The Translator disk is a two-sided disk, providing two slightly different versions of the Translator. The Side A Translator provides a version of the 400/800 OS that is slightly modified to allow the [RESET] key to be pressed without reverting to the XL/XE OS on ROM. The Side B Translator provides an even higher degree of compatibility, including support for programs that boot the 850 interface, but the 400/800 OS in RAM would be disabled if the [RESET] key is pressed. Atari shipped two versions of the Translator disk: - Atari Translator DX5063 NTSC version: 400/800 OS Rev.B/NTSC - Atari Translator FK100807 PAL version: 400/800 OS Rev.A/PAL Translator programmers at Atari: - Greg Riker: Original version 83-03-20 - Joe Miller: Added graphics and code for [RESET] 83-09-15 Atari Translator partial source code: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/78381-xl-translator-source/ Similar "translator" programs from 3rd parties include: - OldOper ver. 1.0 by MasterSoft, April 1984 - The FIXXL by Belathiel (widely distributed by Antic magazine), 6/11/84 - The Emulator by ATCO int. systems (ATCO-IS) Stuttgart, version 4.0, 1984 - "Home-Made Translator" by Angelo Giambra, ANALOG July 1985 p.28-34 - Follow-up by D.D. Davids II to above article, ANALOG Sept. 1985 p. 6 - Ultrafix/XL, 400/800 OS Rev.B or Rev.A choice, v.2.2 1986, by Tim Patrick ------------------------------ Subject: 7.2) What is Atari BASIC? (Thanks to Laurent Delsarte for cartridge variation pics and testing.) BASIC is an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Developed by John Kemeney and Thomas Kurtz in the mid 1960s at Dartmouth College, BASIC is one of the earliest and simplest high-level programming languages, incorporating components of FORTRAN and ALGOL. In October 1978 Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) to create a version of BASIC for the upcoming Atari personal computers. The following worked together on the project at SMI, resulting in Atari BASIC: Paul Laughton - Project leader Kathleen O'Brien - Major contributor Bill Wilkinson - Preliminary specifications for the language, floating point scheme design Mike Peters - "Keypuncher, computer operator, junior programmer, troubleshooter" Paul Krasno - Implemented the math library routines Bob Shepardson - Modified IMP-16P cross-assembler to handle the syntax table pseudo-operations Before Atari shipped the 400/800 computers and Atari BASIC, the 2KiB "Floating Point Package" part of the 10KiB, ROM-based BASIC delivered to Atari by SMI ended up being shifted by Atari from the planned BASIC ROM cartridge to the Atari OS ROM. The decision extended the 400/800 OS ROM from 8KiB to 10KiB, but also allowed the Atari BASIC cartridge ROM to fit within 8KiB, the standard size for early Atari computer cartridges. Revision A ---------- - Shipped with the 400 computer systems from 1979-1981 - Shipped with the 800 computer systems from 1979-1982 Atari BASIC Rev. A was produced by Atari on cartridge (CXL4002), standard 400/800-style brown label, which reads either "BASIC Computer Program" (early) or "BASIC Computing Language" (most). The cartridge was produced in mass quantities before SMI had finished debugging it. One place these bugs are documented is in this article by Steve Hanson from Compute! magazine, Oct. 1981: http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue17/171_1_DOCUMENTED_ATARI_BUGS.php On February 25, 1981, the source code to Atari BASIC was purchased from SMI by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by former SMI employees Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters. The Atari BASIC Source Book (Compute! Books, 1983, 0-942386-15-9), authored by Bill Wilkinson, Kathleen O'Brien and Paul Laughton, made the source code to Atari BASIC (Rev. A) available to the public. Available: http://users.telenet.be/kim1-6502/6502/absb.html Revision B ---------- When the 600XL/800XL computers shipped in the fall of 1983 they included a newly debugged Atari BASIC Rev. B built-in on ROM. Unfortunately, while most existing bugs were fixed, Rev. B introduced a new bug more serious than any of the earlier problems. In his article in the June 1985 issue of Compute!, Bill Wilkinson writes: Each time you LOAD (or CLOAD or RUN "filename") a program, rev B adds 16 bytes to the size of your program. If you then save the program, the next time you load it in it grows by ANOTHER 16 bytes, and so on. http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue61/323_1_INSIGHT_Atari.php The problem can be alleviated by periodically, if not exclusively, using LIST instead of SAVE or CSAVE to save your programs. Atari never produced Atari BASIC Rev. B on cartridge. "Revision C Converter: Type-in fix for buggy BASIC revision B" by Matthew Ratcliff was published in the September 1985 issue of Antic: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n5/revisioncconverter.html Revision C ---------- Atari BASIC Rev. C is the final "fully debugged" version. Rev. C was first shipped on cartridge (CXL4002) by Atari, Inc. in June 1984 according to Antic (http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n5/revisioncconverter.html). The silver label on the first Rev. C cartridges reads "(c)1982 Atari, Inc." and "Made in U.S.A." Atari Corp. also produced Rev. C on cartridge, using two different silver labels designs, both of which read "(c)1985 Atari Corp." and "Made in Taiwan". Rev. C was also built-in on ROM in late-production 800XL computers as well as the 65XE, 130XE, 800XE, and the XE System console. Determining Revision version ---------------------------- When running Atari BASIC, memory location 43234 ($A8E2, BASIC ROM) indicates which Revision of BASIC is running. At the READY prompt, enter: ? PEEK(43234) If the result is: You have Revision: Atari Part#: 162 A C012402+C014502 96 B C060302A 234 C C024947A All 3 versions of Atari BASIC may be available for download here: http://www.ataripreservation.org/websites/freddy.offenga/atari_dev.htm Manuals from Atari: - Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) C014385 by Albrecht/Finkel/Brown c1979, 332 pages (see: http://www.atariarchives.org/basic/) - Shipped with the 400 computer systems from 1979-1981 - Shipped with the 800 computer systems from 1979-1982 - BASIC Reference Manual (400/800 ed.), C015307, c1980, 120 pages - Shipped with the 800 computer systems from 1980-1982 - Inside Atari BASIC, C060992, Carris for Reston, c1983, 183 pages - Atari BASIC Reference Manual Update, C061038, c1982, 6 pages - BASIC Reference Manual (400/800/1200XL ed.), C061456 / BX4211, c1983, 126 pages - Atari BASIC Reference Guide For Experience Programmers, C061570, c1983, 14 pages - Atari BASIC Reference Guide, C061948, c1983, 61 pages (6 languages) ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.1) What is Atari DOS, and what versions did Atari release? This FAQ section describes the various DOS versions produced by Atari for use with their 8-bit computers: DOS I, DOS 2.0S, DOS 3, DOS 2.5, DOS XE, DOS XLE On the Atari, a complete Disk Operating System (DOS) consists of a complex, flexible combination of software components provided in the Atari OS on ROM with software components loaded into RAM from disk: 1) SIO (Serial I/O bus Utility) routine - Component of the Atari OS - Generalized low level communications with SIO bus devices, including disk drives - Utilized by the Resident Diskette Handler - Normally utilized by the FMS 2) Resident Diskette Handler - Component of the Atari OS - Utilizes SIO for communications with disk drives - Supports just five functions (four on the 400/800): 1. GET SECTOR - Read a specified sector 2. PUT SECTOR WITH VERIFY - Write sector; check sector to see if written 3. STATUS REQUEST - Ask the disk controller for its status 4. FORMAT - Issue a format command to the disk controller 5. PUT SECTOR WITHOUT VERIFY - Write sector (don't check sector to see if written) - Available on XL/XE; not available on 400/800 - 400/800: Uses 128 byte sectors XL/XE: Can read/write disk sectors having variable length from 1 to 65536 bytes. Default=128 bytes - Normally only used to load the FMS from disk. Exception: Atari DOS I uses the OS-resident Diskette Handler for all disk communications. 3) FMS (File Management System) - Must be loaded from disk (using the Resident Diskette Handler) - Normally utilizes SIO for disk drive communications - Does not utilize the Resident Diskette Handler. Exception: Atari DOS I uses the OS-resident Diskette Handler for all disk communications. - Normally provides a D: Disk File Manager device handler that is compatible with CIO 4) CIO (Central Input/Output Utility) routine - Component of the Atari OS - Generalized high level, device independent access to device handlers, including any disk drive device handler provided by a FMS 5) DUP (Disk Utility Package) or equivalent software program(s) - Optionally provided with a FMS - Must be loaded from disk using the FMS - Typically a DOS menu program, but could take any form of software that provides a user interface to FMS management functions - Normally utilizes CIO for carrying out disk management operations In practice, those DOS components loaded into memory from disk, that is, a FMS and any additional programs distributed with that FMS (such as a DUP), are normally collectively described as a "DOS" on the Atari. DOS I ----- DISK OPERATING SYSTEM 9/24/79 COPYRIGHT 1979 ATARI - Developed at Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) for Atari. Team at SMI: Paul Laughton - Project leader (had earlier authored Apple DOS) Kathleen O'Brien - Major contributor Mike Peters - "Keypuncher, computer operator, junior programmer, troubleshooter" Bob Shepardson - Modified IMP-16P cross-assembler to handle the syntax table pseudo-operations - Shipped with early 810 disk drives from 1980-1981. - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is loaded into memory with the FMS - Uses the OS-resident Diskette Handler for all disk communications via SIO - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810 - Disk utilization/filesystem: "DOS I" - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address the next sector - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 11 sectors used for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager. - Data capacity per diskette: 709 sectors x 125 bytes/sector = 88,625 bytes/disk - Requires a 1 sector boot - Cannot read disks written with DOS II, which require a 3 sector boot - 11 special sectors: 1 FMS Boot record 360 Volume Table of Contents 361-368 File Directory 720 unused by Disk File Manager - Maximum of 64 files for any volume - Uses binary file format unsupported by any other DOS version for the Atari - D: Disk File Manager can address drives up to 4, D1: through D4: - AUTO.SYS can be used to automatically poke data in RAM locations on system startup. - Files copied or duplicated in small buffer - Must redisplay menu before issuing new command - Can only write DOS system file to drive 1 - Can open 3 files simultaneously (default setting) - N. DEFINE DEVICE menu option: "The full implementation of this selection is not supported, so use it with caution." --DOS Reference Manual p.39 - DOS I is not compatible with the 850 Interface Module R: device handler - Disk File Manager Master Copy (CX8101) disk contains: DOS.SYS both the FMS with D: Disk File Manager and DUP with DOS Menu, loaded by OS-resident Diskette Handler on system startup - Manual: Disk Operating System Reference Manual C015200 DOS 2.0S -------- DISK OPERATING SYSTEM II VERSION 2.0S COPYRIGHT 1980 ATARI - FMS (DOS.SYS) developed by Paul Laughton at Shepardson Microsystems for Atari, based on Atari DOS I. - Shipped with most 810 and early 1050 disk drives manufactured from 1981-1983. Master Diskette also shipped with the Atari Touch Tablet. - Does not use the OS-resident Diskette Handler once the FMS is loaded. - Utilizes SIO for disk drive communications - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is separate from the FMS, and optional for use of the FMS, freeing up memory for user programs when the DUP is not needed. - MEM.SAV file can be employed to preserve the contents of memory to disk when DUP.SYS is loaded. - Introduces support for AUTORUN.SYS binary file launch upon system boot (replaces AUTO.SYS of DOS I) - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810 - Disk utilization/filesystem: "DOS 2.0 Single Density" - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address the next sector - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 13 sectors used for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager. - Data capacity per diskette: 707 sectors x 125 bytes/sector = 88,375 bytes/disk - Requires a 3 sector boot (provision for double density version) - 13 special sectors: 1-3 FMS Boot record 360 Volume Table of Contents 361-368 File Directory 720 unused by Disk File Manager - Maximum of 64 files for any volume - Backward compatible with DOS I disk utilization/filesystem - Established standard binary file format supported by ALL other DOS versions for the Atari (exception: Atari DOS I) - CIO-compatible D: Disk File Manager can address drives up to 8, D1: through D8: - Files copied or duplicated into buffer which can be as large as user memory area - SAVE BINARY FILE has "/A" option allowing two files to be appended together - Can create load-and-go type file which enables you to select a file and have it automatically run without entering a RUN address - Diskette with bad sectors detected cannot be formatted - Screen margins are reset when DUP is entered - DUP: May enter another command or resdisplay menu after a command - Can write DOS files to any drive - Can have up to 8 files open simultaneously (default setting) - NOTE/POINT are available for random file access - Atari 810 Master Diskette II or Atari 810/1050 Master Diskette II (CX8104) disk contains: DOS.SYS FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident Diskette Handler on system startup DUP.SYS Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) AUTORUN.SYS Loads the R: device handler from an 850 Interface Module - Shipped with one Atari CX8111 Formatted Diskette II - Manuals: - Disk Operating System II Reference Manual C016347 - Disk Utilities Listing, February 1981 C016558 (DUP.SYS source code, preliminary release) - DOS Utilities Source Listing (DOS II), August 1981 C017894 (Disk Utility Programs (DUP) ver 2.9 11/18/80 source code) - Atari 810 Disk Drive: An Introduction to the Disk Operating System C060054 (CO60054) - Atari 1050 Disk Drive: An Introduction to the Disk Operating System C061529 - On February 25, 1981, the source code to the Atari DOS 2.0S FMS (DOS.SYS) was purchased from SMI by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by former SMI employees Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters. - Inside Atari DOS (Compute! Books, 1982, 0-942386-02-7), authored by Bill Wilkinson, made the source code to the Atari DOS 2.0S FMS (DOS.SYS) available to the public. See: http://www.atariarchives.org/iad/ - Modified versions of DOS 2.0S were widely created and exchanged among Atari users. Also notably, the first 3rd-party disk drive for the Atari, the Percom RFD40-S1, was initially (1982) distributed with a program ("BLD") to build Percom DOS 2.0P (double density support) from a copy of DOS 2.0S. DOS 3 ----- Atari DOS 3 Copyright 1983 - Shipped with 1050 disk drives manufactured in 1984. - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) Atari 1050 3) Atari 1450XLD built-in (double-sided, enhanced/dual density) Minimal support only: A single 1450XLD disk drive appears to DOS 3 as two Atari 1050 drives. That is, side 1 is accessed as D1: and side 2 is accessed as D2:. - Disk utilization/filesystems: 1) "DOS 3 Single Density" - Sector = 128 bytes - Block = 8 sectors = 1024 bytes - Track = 18 sectors = 2304 bytes - Disk contains 40 tracks, or 720 sectors, or 90 blocks; 2 blocks are used for booting the system; 1 block is used by DOS 3 for the index file - Data capacity per diskette: 87 blocks x 1024 bytes/block = 89,088 bytes/disk 2) "DOS 3 Double Density" (enhanced/dual density) - Sector = 128 bytes - Block = 8 sectors = 1024 bytes - Track = 26 sectors = 3328 bytes - Disk contains 40 tracks, or 1040 sectors, or 130 blocks; 2 blocks are used for booting the system; 1 block is used by DOS 3 for the index file - Data capacity per diskette: 127 blocks x 1024 bytes/block = 130,048 bytes/disk -- Smallest unit of disk utilization is the 1024-byte "block". -- Maximum disk size filesystem could support is 128KiB (limited by the index file size of 1 block) - Keyboard Command Processor (KCP) is separate from the FMS, and optional for use of the FMS, freeing up memory for user programs when the KCP DOS subfunctions and the DOS menu are not needed. - KCP Overlay (DOS menu) is separate from the FMS and KCP, and optional for use of the FMS and KCP, freeing up memory for user programs when the DOS menu is not needed. - MEM.SAV file can be employed to preserve the contents of memory to disk when the KCP Overlay (DOS menu) is loaded. - Supports AUTORUN.SYS binary file launch upon system boot - File manager and buffers now take up less space than the DOS 2 equivalents. All utilities, such as COPY, INIT, DUPLICATE (all UTL files) are called into memory only as needed. Each is maintained in a separate file. - Provides a direct method for the user to modify the FMS parameters - Provides an online HELP feature - Compared to DOS 2: The NOTE and POINT commands return a pointer number relative to the start of a file (byte 0) rather than an absolute sector and byte location within the sector. - Master Diskette 3 (DX5052) contains: FMS.SYS FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident Diskette Handler on system startup. Contains subfunctions: ERASE FILE, RENAME FILE, PROTECT FILE, UNPROTECT FILE, LOAD KCP.SYS Keyboard Command Processor, loaded on system startup if a cartridge is present. Contains subfunctions: SAVE, GO AT HEX ADDRESS, TO CARTRIDGE, COPY FILE, INIT DISK, DUPLICATE DISK, ACCESS DOS 2 KCPOVER.SYS KCP Overlay, displays the DOS menu and process commands COPY.UTL COPY/APPEND utility DUPDISK.UTL DUPLICATE utility INIT.UTL INIT Disk utility CONVERT.UTL ACCESS DOS 2 utility, use to copy files from a DOS 2.0S disk to a DOS 3 disk HELP.UTL HELP utility HELP.TXT Text information displayed by the HELP utility HANDLERS.SYS Loads the R: handler from an Atari 850 Interface Module during system boot up, if this file is on the drive 1 diskette. - Manuals for DOS 3: - Atari Disk Operating System Reference Manual C062287 (100 pages) (makes no mention of the 1450XLD built-in disk drive(s)) - An Introduction to the Atari Disk Operating System C062288 (29 p) (makes extensive mention of the 1450XLD built-in disk drive(s)) - Atari DOS 3 Reference Manual Errata, 05/01/84 "Early versions of DOS 3 used a random access method that was incompatible with large files. To determine if you have an early version, boot your copy of DOS 3 with Atari BASIC, and execute the following BASIC command: PRINT PEEK(1816) If the value returned is '53', your copy of DOS 3 is the latest released. If the value returned is '51' or '56', Atari Customer Relations offered a program to update DOS 3 to the latest revision level." - Atari 1050 Disk Drive: An Introduction to the Atari Disk Operating System C024323 (international / 6 languages)(144 pages) DOS 2.5 ------- DISK OPERATING SYSTEM II VERSION 2.5 COPYRIGHT 1984 ATARI CORP. - Shipped with later 1050 and earlier XF551 disk drives from 1985-1988 - Developed by Optimized Systems Software (OSS - Bill Wilkinson) for Atari - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) Atari 1050 3) Atari 130XE RAMdisk (65,408 bytes) - Disk utilization/filesystems supported (detected automatically): 1) DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) "DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density" (or just "DOS 2.5") - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address the next sector - 40 tracks * 26 sectors/track = 1040 total sectors, with 30 sectors used for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager. - Data capacity per diskette: 1010 sectors x 125 bytes/sector = 126,250 bytes/disk - 30 special sectors: 1-3 FMS Boot record 360 Volume Table of Contents 361-368 File Directory 720 unused by Disk File Manager 1024 Extended Volume Table of Contents 1025-1040 unused by Disk File Manager - Maximum of 64 files for any volume - Backward compatible with DOS 2.0 Single Density 3) "DOS 2.5 130XE RAMdisk" - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address the next sector - 511 total sectors, with 12 sectors used for software control - Data capacity per diskette: 499 sectors x 125 bytes/sector = 62,375 bytes/disk - 12 special sectors: 1-3 FMS Boot record 360 Volume Table of Contents 361-368 File Directory - Maximum of 64 files for any volume - Backward compatible with DOS 2.0 Single Density - DOS 2.5 (DX5075) disk contains: DOS.SYS FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident Diskette Handler on system startup DUP.SYS Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) RAMDISK.COM If present on startup disk on an XL/XE with 128KiB RAM or more: 1) Displays a message that it is initializing the RAMdisk 2) Sets up a 64KiB RAMdisk as D8: 3) Copies DUP.SYS to D8: and establishes MEM.SAV on D8: SETUP.COM External utility has 3 functional options: 1) Change current drive number 2) Change system configuration. 3 configurable options: i) Active drives numbers (1 to 4) ii) Max number of simultaneous files (1-7) iii) Disk writes with or without verify 3) Create an AUTORUN.SYS that does either one or both of: - Load the R: handler from an Atari 850 Interface Module - Load and RUN a BASIC program from the boot disk COPY32.COM Utility to copy files from a DOS 3 disk to a DOS 2.5 or to a DOS 2.0S disk DISKFIX.COM DiskFix Utility can be used to: - Unerase a file (under certain circumstances) - Verify the soundness of every file on a disk - Rename a file by number (solves problem of files with duplicate names) - Manuals: - Atari DOS 2.5: 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C072033 - Atari DOS 2.5: XF551 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C033537 DOS XE ------ DOS XE DISK OPERATING SYSTEM COPYRIGHT 1988 ATARI CORP. VERSION 01.00 - Shipped with XF551 disk drives starting in 1989 - Developed by Bill Wilkinson for Atari. Known as "ADOS" prior to release - Requires an XL/XE; does not run on the 400/800 - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is loaded into memory with the FMS - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) Atari 1050 3) Atari XF551 -- XF551 high-speed supported 4) Atari 130XE RAMdisk (64KiB) 5) SSDD 5.25" Single-Sided, Double Density - Disk utilization/filesystems: 1) "DOS XE" via the native D: Disk File Manager: - All disks are addressed in 256 byte sectors. Simulates 256 byte sectors on 810 and 1050 disk drives, which have 128 byte sectors, by reading and writing sector pairs. - Up to 65536 sectors can exist on a single disk (65536 sectors x 256 bytes/sector = 16MiB) - Sector labels feature data, including a randomly-generated two-byte volume number, useful for restoring damaged files - Five different types of sectors: 1) Boot sectors - 3 sectors, always disk sectors 1-3 - Contain a 32 byte Drive Table describing the physical and logical layout of the disk. RAM disk has no boot sectors. 2) Volume Table of Contents (VTOC) sector(s) - Starts in sector 4. Contained entirely in sector 4 for supported drive types 3) Directory sectors The first directory block immediately follows the VTOC sectors. Additional directory blocks are allocated as needed and may be scattered throughout the disk. (linked by pointers) 4) File Map sectors 2-bytes long, holding pointers to the data blocks 5) Data sectors - Subdirectories - Date-stamping of files - Files can be up to 8MiB long. 2) DOS 2.0 Single Density via the optional DOS 2.x A: Disk File Manager 3) DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density via the optional DOS 2.x A: Disk File Manager - Disk File Managers can address drives up to 8 (D1: to D8:, A1 to A8:). - Hybrid interface is both menu driven and command driven, including stacked command entry - Batch files can be used to automate tasks; AUTOEXEC.BAT run automatically when DOS XE is booted. - DOS XE Master Diskette (DX5090) contains: DOSXE.SYS FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident Diskette Handler on system startup DOS2.SYS A: Disk File Manager for DOS 2.x filesystem support SETUP.COM External setup utility. Configures: - The number and type of drives - The number of file buffers - Installation of the 130XE RAMdisk - Whether the RS-232 handler should be loaded automatically on system startup - Whether a BASIC program should be run automatically on system startup RDRIVER.SYS Used by DOS XE to load R: handler from 850 interface COPY3_XE.COM DOS 3 to DOS XE copy program WELCOME.BAS Sample program provided for experimentation with SETUP.COM - Manual: Atari DOS XE: XF551 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C300557 DOS XLE ------- DOS II Version XLE ("DOS XLE") (P) 1990 Atari (Germany) Andreas Koch writes (January 2010): "programmed by Reitershan in 1990 (as requested by Atari Deutschland then for the XF551 drive), it is not only similar, but fully compatible to Turbo-DOS XL/XE (also by Reitershan). It uses the well-familiar DOS 2.5 DUP-menu, with a few enhancements, like e.g. 1-8 for Dir. of drive 1-8, formats 90KiB-360KiB and RAMdisks up to 256KiB; there is even an option (P) to switch back to standard DOS 2.5; this DOS has been written with the source-code of DOS 2.5 (made available for Reitershan by Atari Deutschland), so it is as compatible as possible to DOS 2.5 but still offers some enhancements; luckily all Turbo-DOS XL/XE utilities can be used with this DOS (e.g. the RAMdisk-driver from Turbo-DOS!); ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.2) What are RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS? The continuing development of various modern mass storage options for the 8-bit Atari computers has necessitated ongoing development of supporting disk operating systems. This section describes full-featured disk operating systems (DOS) for the Atari that remain actively developed today. RealDOS ======= RealDOS v1.0a Build 0031 (November 2012) - Shareware from Integrated Logic Systems (ILS, Stephen J. Carden) - Disk utilization/filesystem: SpartaDOS - XL/XE with 64KiB RAM required. Also designed to run on APE software and hardware, or with an emulator. - RealDOS contains both the MUX- and non-MUX SIOV. This DOS will realize how it is being called and will load the proper SIOV handler for your needs. RealDOS will configure itself by detecting your hardware configuration. - Fully supports: Black Box (all versions), ICD MIO, Ken Jones MIO, KPI interface, Supra Interface, IDEa, SIO2PC, APE Registered Version, SIO2SD, SIO2IDE, SIO2USB, S-Drive and The Multiplexer. - RealDOS was also designed to work with the Atari800Win emulator. - RealDOS does not support at this time the cartridge version of the MyIDE product. Old version/Release history: RealDOS (or Real.DOS) shares its development heritage with disk-based SpartaDOS version 3.2c from ICD (which is described elsewhere in this FAQ list). The features and capabilities of RealDOS may thus be further described in terms of changes and improvements made since ICD SpartaDOS 3.2c... (NOTE: Prior to Real.Dos Build 0026, distribution of RealDOS was private. Exception: the Video 61 SpartaDOS 3.3C cartridge described below.) -- SpartaDOS Ver 3.2p "30-Jan-86 Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc." o Support for the CSS Multiplexer ("MUX") in the form of a MUX-specific SIOV o Being based on SpartaDOS 3.2c, does not have the open file/directory bug/error found in later official SpartaDOS versions (3.2d, 3.2f, 3.2g, 3.2gx), a problem known to be capable of trashing a hard drive o What was privately distributed as SpartaDOS 3.2p was initially developed from SpartaDOS 3.2c source code that was privately shared by ICD. During the development process all new/modified sources were lost, so new sources were then reverse-engineered (by Ken Ames for Steve Carden) from surviving working executables and from memory, leading finally to SpartaDOS 3.2p. o Date of distribution unknown -- unreflected in the Version info -- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3a 3-Nov-94 "Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe" o Support for a Drive 9 o MS-DOS work-alike command set -- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3b 25-Dec-95 "(S)hareware 1995 by IFYB, Inc." o Same as 3.3a but includes the Sparta High Speed SIOV (for US Doubler & compatible) instead of the MUX SIOV as in 3.3a. -- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3c 19-Dec-97 "(S)hareware 1997 by IFYB, Inc." o Same as 3.3a or 3.3b, but includes both SIOV versions, auto-selected based on hardware detected -- Sparta DOS 3.3C "(c) 1998 Video 61" o Same as Ver 3.3c 19-Dec-97 but modified by Video 61 to operate from a 16KiB ROM cartridge. Available: http://www.atarisales.com/ o According to Lance Ringquist of Video 61: K-Products (Bob Klaas) contracted with FTe (Mike Hohman) to develop SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 for exclusive use and distribution with K-Products' BBS Express! Pro. When Video 61 purchased all rights associated with BBS Express! Pro from K-Products, the rights to SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 were included. o According to Stephen Carden: The SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 versions were developed privately as hacks to ICD SpartaDOS 3.2c, the rights to which remain with FTe to this day. -- SpartaDOS Ver 3.3d 1-Jan-98 "(S)hareware 1998 by IFYB, Inc." o Same as 3.3c, but further debugged for use with the ICD MIO -- Real.dos Build 0003 10/21/2002 sjc o Added NTSC/PAL Control o Added KPI detection o Cleanup of lables -- Real.dos Build 0004 10/22/2002 sjc -- Real.dos Build 0005 10/27/2002 sjc o Deciphered all the look up tables -- Real.dos Build 0006 10/30/2002 sjc -- Real.dos Build 0007 11/03/2002 sjc o Changed some zpage definiation -- Real.dos Build 0008 06/08/2003 o Jeff Williams added Documentation to file. -- Real.dos Build 0009 07/28/2003 sjc -- Real.dos Build 0010 04/16/2004 sjc o Added some stuff for the BBS ack -- Real.dos Build 0011 12/28/2004 sjc -- Real.dos Build 0012 2/16/2005 sjc o Fixing bugs -- Real.dos Build 0013 2/17/2005 SJC o Added APE Detection -- Real.dos Build 0014 7/01/2005 sjc o Fixed a MIO bug -- Real.dos Build 0015 8/07/2005 sjc o Put a mux override need to use the Select key -- Real.dos Build 0016 8/22/2005 sjc o Added some code not to lock up kpi -- Real.dos Build 0017 11/19/2005 sjc o Corrected a date problem -- Real.dos Build 0018 01/11/2006 sjc o Added ape warp + and My ide detection -- Real.dos Build 0019 02/18/2006 sjc o Added detection for IDE interface 4.1 and changed default -- Real.dos Build 0020 02/20/2006 sjc o Ciov handler to none high speed -- Real.dos Build 0021 03/03/2006 sjc o Starting to convert to xasm.. got a lot to map out -- Real.dos Build 0022 03/31/2006 sjc o Resolving a few parms and doing cleanup. Has bugs. -- Real.dos Build 0023 09/30/2006 sjc o Resolving a few parms and cleanup with support for pbi,mux,my-ide -- Real.dos Build 0024 10/02/2006 sjc o Trying to get a bit of memlow back added SIOV menu -- Real.dos Build 0025 01/04/2009 sjc o Fixing bugs -- Real.dos Build 0026 02/12/2010 sjc o Put a switch function for upcase and unify -- Real.dos Build 0027 08/23/2010 sjc o Abbuc Build for contest -- Real.dos Build 0028 tried to convert to xasm turned out bad -- Real.dos Build 0029 12/02/2010 sjc o Fix the PBI calls o Removed the APE call.... And All PBI Calls -- Real.dos Build 0029a 02/20/2011 sjc o Removed PBI calls at boot up. Mask out Option key during bootup. -- Real.dos Build 0030 03/20/2011 sjc o For the people who are running the MyIDE interface with a real ROM solder a on/off switch pin 3 and 10 of GTIA. If the switch is ON then the SIOV from the OS will always be used! -- Real.dos Build 0031 11/21/2012 sjc o Created a bit table to keep Track of Drivers Available: - http://www.realdos.net/ SpartaDOS X =========== SpartaDOS X 4.46 with Toolkit (2 Jan. 2013), by DLT Ltd. - Often abbreviated: SDX - 48KiB RAM required; more recommended - A 128KiB ROM cartridge (v.4.40+ ; earlier versions 64KiB) Can be hosted on the following hardware: - intSDX128 - Maxflash 1Mbit and 8Mbit - IDE Plus 2.0 interface - Ultimate1MB - SIC! Cartridge - Turbo Freezer 2005 - SIDE HDD cartridge - Maxflash MyIDE+Flash - an upgraded SpartaDOS X cartridge from ICD - SDX 128 "flash" cartridge - AtraX SDX 128 cartridge - Proprietary kernal does not rely on the Central Input/Output (CIO) portion of the Atari OS to communicate with devices. Standard Atari CIO communcation is also supported for full software compatibility.) - Disk utilization/filesystems: 1) SpartaDOS 2) Atari DOS 2 - Can read MYDOS subdirectories (but cannot create, delete, or set working MYDOS subdirectories) - Can read extended sectors of DOS 2.5 (but cannot write to them) - Filesystems explicitely NOT supported include: - Atari DOS 3, Atari DOS XE, OSS OS/A+ Version 4 - Support for up to 15 disk drives (v. 4.40+) - Supports subdirectories: - Up to 1423 entries of files and other subdirectories per directory - Supports disk sectors of 128, 256 and 512 bytes (v.4.40+) per sector - Supports disks formats of up to 65535 logical sectors - Maximum total disk size of 32MiB (v.4.40+ ; 16MiB in earlier versions) - Support for up to 16 open files at the same time - Supports high speed disk I/O with US Doubler, Atari XF551, and Synchromesh 68.2kbit/s (via INDUS.SYS) - trub wrote (3/29/2012): As of SDX 4.45 INDUS.SYS contains three versions of Synchromesh code (all 68kbit/s): INDUS GT 1.1, INDUS GT 1.2 (most common), CA-2001 atariage.com/forums/topic/189872-spartados-x445/page__st__100#entry2492162 - No source code in common with any version of disk-based SpartaDOS or RealDOS. - RS232.COM provided for loading the R: handler from the 850 interface ROM Old versions/release history: SpartaDOS X was originally developed by Mike Gustafson for ICD. ICD SpartaDOS X release history: (version numbering started with 4.0) - SpartaDOS X 4.17 ??-??-88 - SpartaDOS X 4.18 10-29-88 - SpartaDOS X 4.19 1-16-89 - SpartaDOS X 4.20 2-06-89 - SpartaDOS X 4.21 7-10-89 The rights to SpartaDOS X were purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe, Mike Hohman) in 1993 (November?). FTe SpartaDOS X release history: - SpartaDOS X 4.22 11-05-95 A group of SpartaDOS X enthusiasts calling themselves DLT Ltd. have taken it upon themselves to carry the development of SDX forward. DLT SpartaDOS X release history: - SpartaDOS X 4.39RC (1 Oct. 2006) - SpartaDOS X 4.41 (8 Feb. 2008) - SpartaDOS X 4.42 (25 Dec. 2008) - SpartaDOS X 4.43 (updated 14 Apr. 2011; first released 10 Apr. 2011) - SpartaDOS X 4.45 (4 Nov. 2011) - SpartaDOS X 4.46 with Toolkit (2 Jan. 2013) Developer's website: http://sdx.atari8.info/ or http://spartados.com or http://spartadosx.com Manufacturers: - Atarimax http://www.atarimax.com/ - Candle http://spiflash.org/ - Lotharek http://lotharek.pl/ - Zaxon http://www.zaxon.eu/ XDOS ==== XDOS 2.43 (c) 2009 by Stefan Dorndorf - "Extended Disk Operating System" - A compact yet more capable alternative to Atari DOS 2.5 - Two versions: 1) XDOS 2.4N supports all standard Atari drives (810, 1050, XF551), and supports XF551 and Hyper-XF high speed input/output. 2) XDOS 2.4F adds high speed input/output with: SIO2USB, SIO2SD, Speedy 1050, Happy 1050, Turbo 1050 - Disk utilization/filesystems: 1) DOS 1 (not append) 2) DOS 2.0 3) DOS 2.5 4) DOS 2.2/2.3 (931 sectors format) 5) DOS XL 6) (Happy) DOS II + / D (All versions) 7) BIBO-DOS (except Quad-format) 8) Turbo-DOS (except Quad-format) 9) MyDOS (except sub-directories, disks with more than 1040 sectors, and append to MyDOS files) - RAM disks: 14KiB-256KiB - Command driven - Can use batch files - D: Disk File Manager supports D1: through D9: - H: device of Atari800Win emulator is supported Old versions: - Happy-Computer DOS II+/D V:4.5M Copyright 1985 by Stefan Dorndorf - Commonly known as "Happy-DOS" - Published in issue 3/1986 of Happy Computer magazine - DOS II+/D - Version 6.1 Copyright 1987 by Stefan Dorndorf - DOS II+/D - Version 6.4 (c) '87 by S.D. - XDOS 2.3 (p) 1990 S.Dorndorf - Adds DOS 2.5/MYDOS enhanced density compatibility Available: http://std.gmxhome.de/atari/system.atr Documentation: http://std.gmxhome.de/atari/xdos24.pdf ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.3) What are MyPicoDOS and Micro-SpartaDOS? A "miniature DOS" / "gameDOS" / "microDOS" is a DOS version that is designed to provide minimal capabilities. Typically, this type of DOS makes the disk bootable, and supports the launching of files on the disk. This section describes current miniature DOS versions for the Atari. MyPicoDos ========= MyPicoDos 4.05 (C) 1992-2010 by Matthias Reichl A "game-DOS" for DOS 2.x/MyDOS compatible disks with the following features: - It supports loading of COM/EXE, BIN (boot image) and BAS files. - It works with single and double density (hard-) disks from 720 up to 65535 sectors. - Drives D1: to D8: can be accessed. - It supports MyDOS style subdirectories. - It supports Bibo-Dos style long directories (128 files per disk). - It supports XF551 format detection. - Builtin highspeed SIO code: compatible with ultra speed (Happy, Speedy, AtariSIO/SIO2PC/APE/...), Happy 810 Warp Speed, XF551 and Turbo 1050, up to 126 kbit/sec (POKEY divisor 0) - It supports displaying long filenames and a disk/directory title. - On XL/XE-type computers MyPicoDos can automatically switch BASIC on when loading a BASIC program, and switch BASIC off when loading a COM/EXE/BIN file. - Joystick support: either use arrow keys or a joystick to select the file. - Optional builtin atariserver (AtariSIO) remote console. - Separate "barebone" version without highspeed SIO support and remote console support (for those who want to save space) - Separate boot-sector-only version "PicoBoot" supporting a single COM file on a disk - Separate "SDrive" version which configures the SDrive to use 110 or 126 kbit/sec transfer speed. Old versions/Changelog: MyPicoDos V2.1 1992-03-15 - Only supports DD disks with more than 1023 sectors! MyPicoDos V3.0 2003-02-23 - Initial GPL release. - Support for 128-bytes-per-sector disks. - Support for disks smaller than 1024 sectors. MyPicoDos V3.1 - Rewrote density-check code to fix XF551 density recognition bug. - Fixed manual density selection code. - Added drive number selection to MyPicoDos initializer program. - Fixed old-OS bug in initializer program. - Added support for "large" Bibo-Dos directories (128 Files). - Fixed DOS2.5-format file display bug. MyPicoDos V4.0 - Added support for long filenames in PICONAME.TXT. - Many changes in the internal structure to lower the memory usage of the BAS and COM loader. - Created separate "highspeed" and "standard SIO" versions. The highspeed version now contains a built-in Happy/Speedy/ AtariSIO/SIO2PC/APE/... - compatible highspeed-SIO routine - Added long filename editor to init-program with support to read existing long names and with an option to alphabetically sort the long filenames, - "PICODOS.SYS" and "PICONAME.TXT" are excluded from the directory listings. - Internal BASIC can be automatically switched off when loading COM/EXE/BIN files, and switched on when loading BAS files. - Added "smart" highspeed mode: the built in highspeed code is automatically disabled in case a drive doesn't support highspeed SIO. - Used memory is now fully cleared before loading a file. - Fixed system crash with some BASIC programs. - Fixed XF551 boot problems with QD disks. MyPicoDos V4.01 2004-10-28 - Bugfix: Write protected directories were not displayed. - Pressing reset will now result in a cold-start instead of activating the Self Test/Memo Pad. MyPicoDos V4.02 2004-11-02 - Fixed corrupted screen in standard SIO version. MyPicoDos V4.03 2005-03-01 - Added joystick support. - Bugfix: Fixed KMK/JZ IDE interface problems in initializer program. MyPicoDos V4.04 2007-08-11 - Added support for Turbo 1050, XF551 and 810 Happy highspeed SIO - Added atariserver remote console support - Fixed MyIDE density recognition problems - New "standalone" .COM version of MyPicoDos (can be loaded from DOS) - In AUTO disk format mode the file status bit 2 is used to activate 16-bit sector links - APE PC-Mirror subdirectories are now handeled properly - Changed screen layout so that the file display is 15 instead of 12 lines, added arrow indicators if more files are available by scrolling up/down - Major code cleanup to reduce the size of MyPicoDos - Added configurable "autorun" feature: if enabled and only one file is present, it will be loaded automatically - Added "barebone" version without highspeed SIO and remote console MyPicoDos V4.05 2010-11-25 - Added boot-sector-only version "PicoBoot" - Updated highspeed SIO code to latest version (1.30) - Added option to enable highspeed SIO while booting MyPicoDos - Added fallback to OS SIO in case of highspeed SIO errors while booting MyPicoDos - Added SDrive version MyPicoDOS is developed by Matthias 'Hias' Reichl. Available: http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ Micro-SpartaDOS =============== Micro-SpartaDOS 4.6 (MSDOS.COM), 2010-09-07 Micro-SpartaDOS 4.5 (MSDOS.COM), 2010-06-12 - Versions through 2.2: by Jiri Bernasek (BEWESOFT) Versions 2.3+ by Tomasz Pecko ('pecus') and Pawel Kalinowski ('pirx') - Disk allocation/filesystem: - SpartaDOS - Maximum number of directories entries is only limited by available RAM Old versions/Changelog: MSDOS22.COM - original BEWESOFT version - by Jiri Bernasek - BEWESOFT (Prague, 93-05-03) - Version 2.2 supports also a high speed SIO for Speedy 1050, XF551 and the HDI. Pecus & Pirx modifications: MSINI2.COM - Pecus & Pirx variation on the menu editor. MSDOS23.COM - Pecus modified version with milti disc operation. - Keys 1-8 - select working drive and read the main directory. MSDOS30.COM - This version supports XF551 drives with HS, Happy Warp/ US-Doubler drives with High Speed, and Speedy HS (only in US-Doubler mode). - Version 3.x+ are compatible with the SIO2IDE interface - MSDOS43.COM - Warsaw, 2010-05-26 - Version 4.3 of MSDOS is a serious rewrite, done primarily by Pecus. It uses a novel approach to mapping index sectors. - Version 4.3 supports quadruple sectors (512 bytes long); expands the available partition size to 32MiB. - Version 4.3 contains only the most popular Happy / UltraSpeed routines. - Holding [SHIFT] during booting turns off HS I/O entirely. - This version detects BASIC and QMEG. With QMEG the High Speed I/O is turned off as QMEG handles HS I/O by itself. MSDOS45.COM - Warsaw, 2010-06-12 - Several bug fixes - Screen colors and TURBO mode configurable per directory. - Supports drives 1-15. Available: http://pecus.pigwa.net/pliki/Atari/ ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.4) What other 3rd-party DOS versions were released for the Atari? This section attempts to list all released 3rd-party "full-featured" DOS versions, beyond RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS (which are described in another section of this FAQ list). This list is presented in chronological order by date of first (known) release. OSS OS/A+ - ATARI version 1.2 Copyright (C) 1981 OSS OSS OS/A+ - ATARI version 1.2e Copyright (C) 1981 OSS OSS OS/A+ - ATARI version 2.00 Copyright (C) 1982 OSS,Inc. OS/A+ version 2.1 (1982 - MC is still looking for a copy of this version) OS/A+ version 4.0 (1982 - MC is still looking for a copy of this version) OSS OS/A+ - ATARI version 4.10 Copyright (C) 1982 OSS OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.20 Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30 Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30C Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30X Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL Atari v2.30 Axlon RamDisk Copyright (C) 1984 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL Atari v2.30C Axlon RamDisk Copyright (C) 1984 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL Atari v2.30 Mosaic RamDisk Copyright (C) 1984 OSS,Inc. OSS DOS XL Atari v2.30C Mosaic RamDisk Copyright (C) 1984 OSS,Inc. FTe DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30 Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe FTe DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30C Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe FTe DOS XL - ATARI version 2.30X Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe --------------------------------- - Developed by Optimized Systems Software (OSS) - Direct successors to Atari DOS 2.0S, from the developers of Atari DOS I and Atari DOS II. Original version of the Console Processor and the original version ("version 2") of the File Manager System (identical with Atari's DOS 2.0S) were written by Paul Laughton. Other portions primarily by Mark Rose, with collaboration of Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters. - Command line driven, with optional menu available - Version 1 - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810 - Disk allocation/filesystem: Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density - Version 2 - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) SSDD 5.25" Single-Sided, Double Density - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) "Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density" - Format developed with Atari & Percom for Atari 815 and Percom single-sided, double density disk drives - 256 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address the next sector. Exception: sectors 1-3 are single density, 128 bytes/sector. - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 13 sectors used for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager. - Data capacity per diskette: 707 sectors x 253 bytes/sector = 178,871 bytes/disk - 13 special sectors: 1-3 FMS Boot record (single density sectors, 128 bytes/sector) 360 Volume Table of Contents 361-368 File Directory 720 unused by Disk File Manager - Maximum of 64 files for any volume (same as DOS 2.0S) - Supports any mixture of up to 8 single and/or double density disk drives - No smart density switching. Drive 1 acquires the density of the booted master disk. DOS XL automatically asks each drive what density it is during the boot process. From then on, may use the CONFIG command to manually change a disk drive's density. - STARTUP.EXC batch file of DOS XL commands (ATASCII text) runs at system boot (after AUTORUN.SYS) - RS232.COM provided for loading the R: handler from the 850 interface ROM - RS232FIX.COM provided as a debugged alternative to the R: handler contained in the ROM of the Atari 850 interface. - Version 2.20 can save 5KiB of user RAM by occupying memory which is bank- switched with an OSS SuperCartridge, via DOSXL.SYS - Version 2.30C is Version 2.30 with DOSXL.SUP enabled as DOSXL.SYS, which saves 5KiB of user RAM by occupying memory which is bank-switched with an OSS SuperCartridge - Version 2.30X is Version 2.30 with DOSXL.XL enabled as DOSXL.SYS, which saves 3KiB of user RAM by occupying memory available under the Atari OS (requires an XL/XE computer with at least 64KiB RAM). - BitWedge (BIT3.COM) Version 1.1 - 20DEC83 Copyright (c) 1983 by Harald E. Striepe - Provided by OSS for use with the Bit 3 Full-View 80 on the Atari 800. - For use under DOS XL Version 2.30 and up - v2.30 Axlon RamDisk. Version by Harald E. Striepe and OSS. - Version 2.30 with RAMdisk support with the Axlon 128K Ramdisk on an Atari 800. 883 single density sectors. - v2.30C Axlon RamDisk. Version by Harald E. Striepe and OSS. - v2.30 Axlon RamDisk with DOSXL.SUP enabled as DOSXL.SYS, which saves 5KiB of user RAM by occupying memory which is bank-switched with an OSS SuperCartridge - v2.30 Mosaic RamDisk. Version by Harald E. Striepe and OSS. - Version 2.30 with RAMdisk support with Mosaic 64K RAM Select boards installed on an Atari 800. From 371 sectors (64KiB plus 32KiB of standard RAM) to 896 sectors (two 64KiB boards plus a 32KiB board). - v2.30C Mosaic RamDisk. Version by Harald E. Striepe and OSS. - v2.30 Mosaic RamDisk with DOSXL.SUP enabled as DOSXL.SYS, which saves 5KiB of user RAM by occupying memory which is bank-switched with an OSS SuperCartridge - OSS/Indus DOS XL 2.35 is OSS DOS XL 2.30 plus GTSYNC.COM, the Indus GT Synchromesh Engager. Copyright (C)(P) 1984, Indus Systems. Two versions of DOS XL 2.35 were released by Indus: - OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.35I1 Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. - GTSYNC.COM VID: 01.02\01.01\01.01\01.21\01.21. - Supports Synchromesh 38.4 kbit/s on: Indus GT, LDW Super 2000, CA-2001 - OSS DOS XL - ATARI version 2.35I2 Copyright (C) 1983 OSS,Inc. - GTSYNC.COM VID: 01.10\01.01\01.10\01.30\01.30. - Supports Synchromesh 68.2 kbit/s on: Indus GT, LDW Super 2000, XFD601, XFD602 - DOS XL 2.35I1 and DOS 2.35I2 were often (always?) distributed with RAM130.COM, written by Joseph Segura in 1985: a 64KiB RAMdisk for the 130XE. Synchromesh (GTSYNC.COM) must be disabled in order to use RAM130 -- effectively, RAM130 is for DOS XL 2.30. - "DOS XL 2.35L" is described in the manuals for the LDW Super 2000 and CA-2001 disk drives. However, original disks shipped with these drives are reported to be identical to DOS XL 2.35I1 (including RAM130.COM). - Version 2.30p is a patched Version 2.30 that fixes two bugs: 1) A boot disk created from the DOS XL menu couldn't boot unless the MENU.COM file was the disk. 2) A boot disk initialized in a drive other than 1 would always boot up with that drive number as the working drive at the initial command line prompt. - OSS published a patch to convert version 2.30 to version 2.30p in their Spring 1984 Newsletter. OSS then published a corrected version of the 2.30p patch in their Fall 1986 Newsletter. See: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/178943-dos-xl-230-bugs-and-fixes-230p/ - Shipped with disk drives/devices including: Percom AT88-S1, Percom AT-88S1PD, Astra 1620 (earlier), Indus GT, Amdek Amdisk III AMDC, LDW Super 2000, CA-2001 - Version 4 - Requires minimum of 32KiB RAM to run - Disk allocation/filesystem: - Random access to data files - Disks with 128, 256, or 512 bytes per sector - Drives ranging in storage size from 128KiB to 32MiB - Shipped with: Percom RFD44-S1, Percom RFD40-S2 - Also sold by Software Publishers/SWP for use with ATR8000, 1982-1983 - Rights purchased from OSS by ICD in January 1988 (but ICD discontinued DOS XL in favor of their own SpartaDOS) - Rights purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) in 1993 - FTe DOS XL 2.30 (including 2.30C and 2.30X) released on 6/22/94. They are identical to the OSS releases of the same versions. K-DOS By K-Byte Copyright 1981 Kay Enterprises Co. --------------------------------------------------- - By Kay Enterprises Co. (John Mathies, K-Byte general manager) (the makers of K-Razy Shoot-Out and K-Razy Kritters) - Disk drive types supported: Atari 810 - Disk allocation/filesystem: Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density - Command line driven - Memory resident DOS-MOD (1983) (c) 1984 R.K.Bennett TOP-DOS v1.1 (c) 1984 R.K.Bennett TOP-DOS v1.20 TOP-DOS 1.4 (1984) TOP-DOS 1.5 (c) 1985 R.K.Bennett TOP-DOS 1.5a (c) 1985 R.K.Bennett TOP DOS 1.5 Plus (1986) TOP DOS Professional (1986) --------------------------- - Developed by R.K. Bennett for Sunny Software / Eclipse Software - Sold commercially by Sunny Software (original DOS-MOD release) or Eclipse Software (later DOS-MOD release and all releases of TOP-DOS) - DOS-MOD: Enhances Atari DOS 2.0S o Menu-driven, Full screen use o Command files o Expanded wildcard capability o Fixes 11 bugs in DOS 2.0S o Single and Double Density versions o DD version supports HELLO command file option on startup o DD version supports cartridge-bypass feature on startup o DD version can also run in the SD mode - TOP-DOS: Standalone product, includes all the features of DOS-MOD o Uses Atari DOS 2 single and double density filesystems, or proprietary variations on the DOS 2 filesystem. The TOP-DOS unique filesystem is not supported by any other DOS for the Atari. o 1 to 8 disk drives o Alphabetization and compression of the disk directory o Drive support: 5.25": SD, DD, DSDD. 8": DD o Specify the number of sectors desired, up to 944 per side in single density and up to 1968 in double density o Reformat only the VTOC, on a previously formatted disk o RAMdisk support: Axlon and Mosaic o Shipped with: Astra "Big D" (later), Astra "The One" - TOP-DOS 1.5: o RAMdisk support: 130XE Extended o 1050 Enhanced Density Support o "WISE" Density Control o High Speed Data Transfer (Happy Warp Speed support) o Improved Status Display o Hex-Decimal Conversion o 90KiB buffer for one-pass disk duplication o Four-level command file nesting o Ad: Antic v4n9 Jan86 p.44 - TOP DOS 1.5 Plus: o Allows multiple RAM disks, SD or DD o Accesses Atari DOS 2.5 files o Supports other RAM boards o New sector number display and tone control o Better warp speed and group autorun control o BASIC enable/disable for XE/XL with built-in BASIC - TOP DOS Professional: o Up to 16MiB disk capacity o Sub-directories o Sector read, write & compare o File compare - 1.5 Plus / Professional ad: Antic v5n2 Jun86 p.27 - Apparently released into the public domain, approximately 2005: http://www.abbuc.de/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=420 MYDOS 3.07 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK (August 16, 1983) MYDOS 3.08 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.010 - copyright 1983,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.12 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett MYDOS 3.011 - copyright 1984,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.013 - copyright 1984,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.18 -- copyright 1984,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett MYDOS 3.014 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK (February 18, 1985) MYDOS 3.19 -- copyright 1985,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett MYDOS 3.016 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.216 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK ATR8500 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett MYDOS 4.0 --- copyright 1985,WORDMARK MYDOS 4.2 --- copyright 1985,WORDMARK MYDOS 4.2C -- copyright 1985,WORDMARK MYDOS 3.216A--copyright 1986,WORDMARK ATR8500 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett MYDOS 4.3B -- copyright 1986,WORDMARK MYDOS 4.50 -- Copyright 1988,WORDMARK (11/28/88 release from Bob Puff) MYDOS 4.50T - Copyright 1988,WORDMARK MYDOS 4.51 -- copyright 1989,WORDMARK (6/14/89) MyDOS 4.53/3 and 4.53/4 (David R. Eichel rel.ver.1/1/90) MyDOS 4.55 Beta (Lee Barnes March 17, 2003) ----------------------- - Primarily developed by Charles W. Marslett - Menu driven, modelled after Atari DOS 2 - Uses Atari DOS 2 single and double density file systems, with added support for smart density changing, subdirectories, and higher capacity floppy and hard disk drives. - Version 3 variations: - 3.0 versions are the main releases - 3.1 versions shipped with the SWP ATR8000 - 3.2 versions shipped with the SWP ATR8500 - Versions 4.x have full read compatibility with the Atari DOS 2.5 format, but will only write to the first 720 sectors of the disk. (MYDOS has its own format for enhanced density disks that allows full access.) - Version 4.50 includes: - ATARI850.AUT - for loading the R: handler from the 850 interface ROM - ATR232.AUT - RS232 driver for the ATR8000. - ATR232HD.AUT - RS232 driver for the ATR8500 used with hard disk drive - MYDOS shipped with: Astra 1620 (some), Astra 2001 (some), Astra "Big D" (earlier), ATR8000 (later), ATR8500, SupraDrive, Supra Hard Disk Interface, BTL Hard Disk System, BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter, TOMS 720, Karin Maxi - Bob Puff/Computer Software Services offers version 4.50: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/MYDOS45M.ARC - Charles Marslett/Wordmark Systems makes version 4.51 source code available: http://www.wordmark.org/mydos.html - MyDOS 4.53 was released by David R. Eichel on 1/1/90, making minor changes from the released 4.50 and 4.51 source code. - Supports multiple AUTORUNs at boot up (*.AR0 through *.AR9). (Support for the traditional AUTORUN.SYS is removed.) - Fixes broken Axlon RAMdisk support - Version 4.53/3 gives 3 character file length/free sector count instead of MyDOS's normal 4. - Version 4.53/4 is the same as 4.53/3, but uses a minimum of four characters in the sector count just like most versions of MyDOS. - More recent work on MyDOS by Lee Barnes is available, along with many earlier MYDOS versions, from Mathy van Nisselroy's MyDOS page: http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/mydos.htm DOS 4.0 (1984) -------------- - Developed at Atari. Known before its release as "QDOS" - Copyright 1984 Atari, published 1984 by Antic Magazine - Copyright 1984 Michael Barall, published 1984 by Antic Magazine - Supports "a variety of different disk drives, single density or double density, and single-sided or double-sided" - Disk drive types supported, by bus connection: 1) internal (1450XLD) 2) external (parallel bus) 3) external (serial bus) - Filesystem could support disks up to 384KiB (drac030, AA Forums 2010.07.21) - Filesystem uses logical sector size of 1.5KiB (drac030, AA Forums 2010.07.21) - Supports 8 physical drives (1-8), and 10 logical drives (D0:-D9:) - DOS 2 to DOS 4 Conversion Program - DOS 3 to DOS 4 Conversion Program SmartDOS Beta Test Version 1.5R (C)1984 John Chenoweth & Ron Bieber SmartDOS (C)1984 John Chenoweth & Ron Bieber distributed by Rana Systems 6.1D SmartDOS (C)1984 John Chenoweth & Ron Bieber for The Programmer's Workshop 8.2D -------------------- - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) SSDD 5.25" Single-Sided, Double Density - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density - Menu additions that allow sector copying, drive speed checking, bad sector testing, write verify on/off, and drive reconfiguration - Shipped with: Rana 1000, Astra 1620 (many), Astra 2001 (most), Astra 1001 Mach DOS v2.1 XL (c) 1984 stace Mach DOS v2.6 XL (c) 1984 stace MachDOS v3.7a (c) 1985 stace -------------------- - Released directly into the public domain by H. V. Stacey (stace) - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) SSDD 5.25" Single-Sided, Double Density - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density 3) DOS 2.0 Double-Sided, Double density - Intelligent detection and support for double density and double-sided disks - v.3.7a RAMdisk types supported: 130XE, Axlon, Mosaic, Intec boards as well as the 800+ and MACE modifications - [SELECT] key toggles menu on-screen - Distributed with the 810 Turbo (810 drive upgrade from NCT) SpartaDOS Version 1.1 Copyright (C) 1984 by ICD, INC. SpartaDOS Version 2.3b D Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC. SpartaDOS Version 2.3b C Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC. SpartaDOS Ver 2.3e 1-Nov-85 D Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC. SpartaDOS Ver 2.3e 1-Nov-85 C Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC. SpartaDOS Ver 3.2c 30-Jan-86 Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc. SpartaDOS Ver 3.2d 17-Feb-86 Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc. SpartaDOS Ver 3.2f 25-Feb-94 Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe SpartaDOS Ver 3.2g 04-Jun-94 Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe SpartaDOS Ver 3.2gx 04-Jun-94 Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe --------------------------------------------------------------- - SpartaDOS was developed by Mike Gustafson for ICD. - Native SpartaDOS file system, supporting: o Subdirectories, up to 128 files per directory o Time/date stamping o Disks have volume names o Up to 16MiB per drive - Includes AT_RS232 R: handler for ATR8000 support - Version 1.1: o Requires 32KiB RAM 400/800/XL/XE o Not Atari DOS 2 compatible - Several flavors of Version 1.1: o SPEED.DOS - RAM resident full powered DOS; UltraSpeed supported o STANDARD.DOS - RAM resident full DOS; no UltraSpeed support o NOCP.DOS - No command processor; tries to load an AUTORUN.SYS file before it passes control onto the cartridge; UltraSpeed supported o NOWRITE.DOS - Can only read from disk, very low memory usage, UltraSpeed supported; useful as a game loader - Changes for Version 2.3: o Requires a 64KiB XL/XE o An enhanced Atari DOS 2 handler: Can read, write, and run Atari DOS 2 formatted diskettes in both single and double density o Supports 8 disk drives (as opposed to 4) o UltraSpeed High Speed built in o 14 new internal command processor commands o 8 new XIO functions o Extra 4KiB program area - Two flavors of 2.3 (2.3b, 2.3e) versions: o XD type (XD23B.DOS or XD23E.DOS) is the full powered DOS; recognizes the STARTUP.BAT file when booted and priority is given to DOS (rather than the cartridge). o XC version (XC23B.DOS or XC23E.DOS) is the same as XD versions except AUTORUN.SYS is recognized when booted and control priority is given to the cartridge. - Changes for Version 3.2: o Better time and date support (internal TD, TIME, DATE commands) o Internal R-Time 8 interface o Internal JIFFY clock interface (for non-R-Time 8 users) o Internal 32 character keyboard buffer (and KEY command) o Automatic mini-buffer system for fast byte PUT and GET functions o New vectors added for machine language support o Control returned to DOS if DOS was active during RESET o Supports both a STARTUP.BAT and an AUTORUN.SYS file o Compatible with BASIC XE, 1200XLs and many modified Operating Systems o BASIC ON/OFF command operation from within a batch file (not end only) o NOISY I/O flag recognized o Support for the Supra Hard Disk Interface o All command entry in upper or lower case o Full read capability for Atari DOS 2.5 type enhanced density format - Several notable patches to SpartaDOS 3.2d have been developed, such as: o Bob Woolley created a patch utility program that will modify SpartaDOS 3.2d to support the XF551's high speed I/O o "SpartaDOS 3.2z" was the result of a patch developed and distributed by Computer Software Services (CSS, Bob Puff) for SpartaDOS 3.2d to allow SpartaDOS to support the CSS Multiplexer (MUX). See: http://nleaudio.com/css/products/Mux_docs.htm - Rights purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe, Mike Hohman) in 1993 (November?). - FTe SpartaDOS 3.2g changes included: o Support for a ninth drive, D9: o D: means current working drive, instead of D1: o Full support for upper/lower case o CWD, CREDIR, DELDIR commands changed to CD, MD, RD o TDLINE Y2K bug fixed o 1200XL function keys work properly SpartaDOS 3.2gx differs only in that it locates the disk buffers under the OS to save RAM. 3.2gx is intended for use in systems that include a PBI device (MIO, Black Box); it is not compatible with BASIC XE nor any other programs using RAM under the OS. - Many disk-based SpartaDOS versions are available for download from Thunderdome, kept by SysOp Fox-1: http://thunderdome.atari.org/ or http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/sdsys.htm Warp Speed DOS V 2.0 Warp Speed 7 (1985) ------------------- - From Happy Computers (USA) - For use with Happy 810 Enhancement or Happy 1050 Enhancement - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density - Supports Warp Speed read and write with verify SuperDOS V2.9 (C) 1986 Paul Nicholls SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I. SuperDOS V4.3E(C) 1986 Paul Nicholls SuperDOS V4.3T(C) 1986 Paul Nicholls SuperDOS V4.4 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls SuperDOS V5.0 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls SuperDOS V5.1 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls SUPERDOS V5.2 (C)2012 JAMES BRADFORD ------------------------------------ - Developed by Paul Nicholls for Super Products (Australia), Happy Computers (USA), Technical Support (USA), Antic Arcade Catalog (USA) - Disk drive types supported: 1) Atari 810 2) Atari 1050 3) SSDD 5.25" Single-Sided, Double Density 4) Supermax Highspeed (versions 4.x and up) 5) XF551 Highspeed (versions 5.x) 6) US Doubler UltraSpeed (versions 5.x) - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density 3) Atari DOS 2.5 4) "Atari DOS 2 Skewed Sectors" for Supermax drives Antic: "Skewed sector disks read and write much faster than standard format disks (while Atari DOS 2.0 and 2.5 can still read and write them). - Menu driven. Density-smart: Automatic density detection. - Fully RAM-resident. Highly configurable. - Supports four floppy disk drives and assumes that any drive reference above 4 is a RAMdisk. - RAMdisk support is provided for the Atari 130XE and upgrade formats including 128KiB and 256KiB Axlon, 256KiB XL and 320KiB XE. - V5.0 changes: 1. Full support for the Atari XF551 disk drive, including Double- sided/Double density and high speed transfer. 2. Complete XF551 compatibility with previous disk drives. Double density drives can read files on Double-sided disks (just as Single density drives can read Enhanced density disks). 3. High speed transfer and skewed sectors for US Doubler, XF551, and SUPERMAX. 4. Full sector count displayed, no more 999+. 5. Full support for Newell 256KiB memory upgrade for 800XL. 6. Hold down [Esc] during boot up to reserve the 130XE memory banks for your program. 256KiB and 320KiB computers can use BASIC XE and a RAMdisk. 7. Bug in RAMdisk reboot (coldstart) routine fixed. 8. The right margin is no longer set to 37. - Rights and source code purchased by James Bradford (1994?) - V5.2 changes: - Modded slightly to increase the RAMdisk speed - Disabled the Axlon banking access - Available: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/197622-superdos-ramdisk-speed/ BiboDOS V 5.1N (p) E.Reuss (c) 1987 COMPY SHOP BiboDOS V 5.2F (p) E.Reuss (c) 07/1987 Compy-Shop BiboDOS 5.4RF (p) E.Reuss (c) 06/1988 Compy-Shop BiboDOS 6.4RF (p) E.Reuss (c) 06/1988 Compy-Shop BiboDOS 5.4AN Turbo-BASIC-Version/R-Disk Jan/89 Bibo-DOS 7.0 (p) E.Reuss (c) 1990 by J.Kruszona -------------------- - Densities supported: single, medium, double - Disk allocation/filesystems: 1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density 2) Atari DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density ("Medium Density") 3) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density 4) "Atari DOS 2.0 Quad Density" (XF551 DSDD 360KiB) - Version 6 and up only - Extension to above standards: Long/large directories (128 files per disk) - F-versions support high speed with the Speedy 1050 and Happy Enhancement XF-DOS (date of release???? MC is still looking for a copy of this!) Turbo-DOS XL/XE 1.5 (1988) Turbo-DOS XL/XE 1.7 (1988) Turbo-DOS XL/XE 2.0 (1989) Turbo-DOS XL/XE 2.1 (1990) -------------------------- - Developed by Martin Reitershan, Herbert Barth, and Frank Bruchhaeuser for Martin Reitershan Computertechnik - Supports a wide range of relatively advanced hardware while maintaining a very high degree of compatibility with Atari DOS 2.5. - According to Andreas Koch, Reitershan worked with Atari Germany to gain access to the DOS 2.5 source code for development of XF-DOS and Turbo-DOS. - Master-Disk produces 4 different versions: 1) Normal Version 2) HS: Version for 1050 with Happy Enhancement or Speedy 1050 3) XF: Version for XF551 highspeed 4) EX: Full version (all three versions) - Andreas Koch contributes: supports 256KiB Xtra RAM / RD and supports use of batchfiles; has converter for DOS 3 and DOS 4; supports 4 formats, up to 360KiB; does not use RAM under OS ROM; DUP uses a Command Processor; all commands are available via HELP key; works with XL/XE computers only, does not load/boot on Atari 400/800. - Atari DOS XLE (1990), developed by Reitershan, was built upon Turbo-DOS. BW-DOS Ver. 1.00 (C) BEWESOFT 1994 (Jiri Bernasek)(94-06-16) BW-DOS Ver. 1.10 (C) BEWESOFT / ABBUC 1994 (94-07-14) - Update #1 Released: 4/95 BW-DOS Ver. 1.30 (C) BEWESOFT 1995 (Jiri Bernasek)(95-12-17) - Update #2 Released (with Ver. 1.30): 95-12-17 ------------------ Another popular, powerful DOS is BW-DOS (it is pronounced "Bay Vay Dos"), freeware by Jiri Bernasek - BEWESOFT. Andreas Koch writes: "SpartaDOS compatible. Does not use any speeder internally, but comes with external XF551 speeder. Supports 4 drives and RAMdisk, comes with RAMdisk driver for XE compatible RAMdisks up to 1MiB; supports 4 densities: a) Single (90KiB), b) Enhanced/Medium (130KiB), c) Double (180KiB) and d) DSDD (360KiB); does not use any RAM under OS ROM (so it works on an Atari 800 and with Turbo-BASIC XL); unlike SpartaDOS most commands are external, thus the DOS is only 5KiB short; supports a PAL clock (made by ABBUC regional group "ARGS"); comes with many great utilities (which can also be used with SpartaDOS)." - Ver. 1.10 distributed by ABBUC as the "Jahresgabe" 1994 - BW-DOS Update #1 Released: 4/95 - New versions of: MENU, RAMDISK, DIRMAST. - New commands: MOVE, RTIME8, ARGSRTC - New driver: ARGSPRN - New program: BWDFUNCT.BAS - New in BW-DOS 1.30: - Reading the last byte of a file is now indicated by status 3. - Installation of new "E:" drivers is now allowed. - The command "TYPE" is no more limited to 64 characters per line. - The method of handling the allocation pointers (positions 18 and 20 in sector 1) was changed. The new method provides much better protection of the directory-area on disk, and so the directories are not mixed between data sectors as often as under older BW-DOS versions or SpartaDOS. This results in faster access to directories. 100% read/ write compatibility with every SpartaDOS versions 2.x and later retained. - BW-DOS Update #2 Release: 12/95 with BW-DOS 2.30 - New versions of: BACKUP, COPY, UNERASE - New commands: DOSDRIVE, NEWED - New driver: RAMBOX Available: http://wiki.strotmann.de/wiki/Wiki.jsp?page=BEWE%20DOS%201.30%20Manual ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.5) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives? When running Atari DOS II and compatibles, memory location 1802 ($70A, DRVBYT) indicates the number of disk drives allocated. At the Atari BASIC READY prompt, enter "? PEEK(1802)" to read the value of this location. Possible values include: 1 = Drive 1 only 3 = Drives 1 and 2 (default value) 7 = Drives 1, 2, and 3 15 = Drives 1, 2, 3, and 4 The value of DRVBYT can be changed with the Atari BASIC POKE command. For example, "POKE 1802,7" to set DOS to support drives 1-3. To save a changed value for DRVBYT that will be in effect when the computer starts up, go to the DOS menu (enter "DOS" at the READY prompt), then choose menu option H, Write DOS Files. This disk will now boot with support for the number of disk drives of your choosing. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.3.6) What should I know about filenames and filename extensions? Atari disk operating systems generally support file specifications in the form of a filename of 1 to 8 characters, with an optional filename extension of zero to 3 characters. Valid characters for use in filenames/filename extensions: (varies somewhat by DOS version) - The letters 'A' to 'Z' - The digits '0' to '9' (many DOS versions do not permit filenames to start with a digit) - The underscore character ('_') (DOS XE,SpartaDOS,RealDOS) - The "at" symbol ('@') (DOS XE) Spaces and other characters are generally not permitted. Filenames and filename extensions are generally arbitrary, but file naming conventions can be helpful. The most common method is to reserve specific extensions for certain types of files. The following list contains some of the more commonly used extensions and their typical corresponding file types. Filenames reserved by Atari DOS, SpartaDOS, RealDOS, or XDOS are listed as well. File formats are binary unless described below as "text" where: - Binary format files are made up of a sequence of bytes of any value from 0-255. - Text format files (technically, a special-case of binary files) are limited to printable/displayable alpha-numeric characters and symbols, organized into lines. .ACT Action! program source code .ALF AlfCrunch archive file containing one or more compressed files .AMS Atari Music System song file .ARC Archive file containing one or more compressed files, compatible with the multi-platform SEA ARC format. On the Atari, best supported by SuperARC/SuperUnArc or the SpartaDOS X ARC external command. .ASM Assembler Editor program source code, LISTed. ATASCII text. .ASC ASCII text file .ATA ATASCII text file .BAS BASIC SAVEd program .BAT Batch file of DOS commands (DOS XE,SpartaDOS,RealDOS). ATASCII text. - AUTOEXEC.BAT batch file runs at system boot (DOS XE,SpartaDOS,RealDOS) .BIN File transferred using CompuServe CIS 'A' Protocol. Fully supported on the Atari by TSCOPE/MSCOPE/RSCOPE; also download support by Express! 3.x (filenaming convention used on CompuServe before February 1987) .BXL BASIC XL SAVEd program .BXE BASIC XE SAVEd program .CMD Batch file of DOS Commands (XDOS). ATASCII text. .COM DOS external Command (DOS 2.5,DOS XE,SpartaDOS,RealDOS,XDOS) .CTB Compiled Turbo-BASIC XL program .DAT Data file (typically created/used by another program) .DCM Disk Communicator 3.2 disk image file. Less common: .DSK or .DC3 .DOC Documentation text file (perhaps ASCII or ATASCII) .DOS DOS system file (SpartaDOS,RealDOS) .EXE Executable ('Load and Go') machine language (object code) program .HLP Help text file (perhaps ASCII or ATASCII) .LST LISTed BASIC program. ATASCII text. Less common: .LIS .M65 MAC/65 SAVEd program source code .MIC Micro-Painter picture file ("uncompressed"; 62 sectors under DOS 2.0S). Format, minus color data, also supported by Illustrator versions using the filename PICTURE and [Insert] to save file or [Clear] to load file. .OBJ Object code (machine language) file (not 'Load and Go') .OBX Modern naming convention for an executable ('Load and Go') machine language (object code) program. Used to discourage modern computers from thinking that Atari .EXE files might be MS-DOS/MS-Windows executable programs. More common: .XEX .PIC Micro Illustrator/KoalaPainter/AtariArtist "compressed" picture .PRN Text file formatted for copying to Printer (perhaps ASCII) .SAV File named MEM.SAV may be employed by DOS to preserve the contents of memory to disk when DUP.SYS (DOS 2.0,DOS 2.5) or KCP.SYS (DOS 3) is loaded into memory. .SCP SpartaDOS SCOPY disk image file. Used with SCOPY, an external command distributed with SpartaDOS 3.2. .SFX Self-Extracting archive file. Created with the CTH SFX program. .SYS DOS System file or driver - AUTO.SYS can be used to automatically poke data in RAM locations on system startup (DOS I) - AUTORUN.SYS binary file is launched on system boot (DOS 2.0,DOS 3,DOS 2.5,RealDOS,XDOS) - AUTORUN.SYS batch file of DOS commands runs at system boot (XDOS) .TUR Turbo-BASIC XL SAVEd program. Less common: .TBS .TXT Text file (perhaps ATASCII or ASCII) .UTL A DOS external utility program (DOS 3) .XEX Modern naming convention for an executable ('Load and Go') machine language (object code) program. Used to discourage modern computers from thinking that Atari .EXE files might be MS-DOS/MS-Windows executable programs. Less common: .OBX .XMO Binary file, uploaded/download using XMODEM file transfer protocol (filenaming convention used on CompuServe before February 1987) Additional file extensions associated with Atari graphics image formats are listed at the website for FAIL (First Atari Image Library), an image file viewer: http://fail.sourceforge.net/ File extensions associated with Atari disk image, cassette image, or cartridge ROM formats normally used with Atari emulators, rather than on the Atari itself, are described elsewhere in this FAQ list. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.4) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari? Much of this section by: Andreas Koch Other contributors: Mathy van Nisselroy, Kathleen Ferrante - G.O.S. by Total Control Systems (David Sullivan) - Unfinished demo released 1986 - RAOS (Rat Actuated Operating System) by Zobian Controls, 1986/1987 o Z-DOS desktop (DUP.SYS replacement) included - GOE, developed by Total Control Systems (David Sullivan) (co-marketed by Merrill Ward & Assoc. / Shelly Merrill as "ST Jr." early 1988) Demo disk version(s?) released 1988, full cartridge version unreleased. - Diamond GOS, developed by Reeve Software / ReeveSoft (Alan Reeve) (co-marketed by USA Media / Shelly Merrill as "ST Jr." Aug 1988 - Apr 1989) - Supports: DOS 2.5 and compatible, SpartaDOS, DOS XE o Diamond GOS version 1 (1988) - Diamond DeskTop 1.0 (disk) DUP.SYS replacement o Diamond GOS version 2 (1989) package: - Diamond DeskTop 2.0 (cartridge) + Utility Diskette - Diamond Programmer's Kit (Programmer's Manual) - Diamond Paint (disk) o Diamond GOS version 3 (1991) package: - Diamond DeskTop 3.0 (cartridge) + utility diskette - Diamond Paint (disk) - Diamond Write (disk) - Screen Aided Management (SAM) by RaindorfSoft for Power Per Post (Germany) - It is available in two different versions: a) AtariMagazin type-in listings or Lazy Fingers disks (public domain) b) Commercial version 2.0 which has many add-ons - Supports: Atari DOS 2.5 - V1.25i, 1994 is available from DGS, http://www.dgs.clara.net/ DGS SAM page: http://www.dgs.clara.net/sam.htm - BOSS-XL by Mirko Sobe (MS Software) - Requires 64KiB XL/XE - Supports: ATARI-DOS, Turbo-DOS - Current Version: v4.5 Edition 2000 (primary development 1993-1997) - System Software: - File Manager (Desktop was the BOSS-XL V2.0) - BOSS-font editor (XE-version) - Icon Editor (XL-/XE-Version) - Written in Turbo-BASIC XL - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/ - BOSS-XE by Mirko Sobe (MS Software) - Requires 64KiB XL/XE, 128KiB or more recommended - Supports: ATARI-DOS, Turbo-DOS - Current Version: v8.1 Edition 2000 (developed 1997-2000) - Written in Turbo-BASIC XL - System Software: - BOSS parameter - BOSS-font editor (XE-version) - Icon editor (XL / XE version) - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/ - BOSS-X by Mirko Sobe (MS Software) - Requires 128KiB XL/XE, 256KiB or more recommended - Supports: MYDOS 4.50 and above; Atari ST Mouse - Current Version: 10:33, 2003 (developed 2000-2003) - Written in Turbo-BASIC XL - System Software: - File Manager - BOSS parameter - BOSS-font editor (X version) - Icon editor (X version for colored symbols) - BOSS-X framework - multiple screen savers - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/ - XL-TOS a small and "cheap" GUI version from AtariMagazin (i.e. a type-in listing; the BASIC file, which consists of many data lines creates a short object code file); unfortunately this GUI only looks good, it loads almost nothing... - ST-TOS a small BASIC program, that looks like a GUI; it can merely load BASIC files and do a few DOS commands, like lock, unlock, delete and such... - BASIC desktop, a GUI written in BASIC just as a sample, what can be done with an 8-bit computer; this one loads BASIC and text files (maybe also ML files); - DCS, the desktop construction set from Tom Hunt; there are 3 different versions available, a) for DOS 2.5, b) for MyDOS and c) for Sparta-DOS; I have tested the Sparta DOS version, which worked with batchfiles and could easily load some ML files, text files and BASIC files (which were already on the DCS disk); it also works with high densities and/or hard disk partitions up to 16MiB and supports subdirs of course; hmm, freeware or shareware ?!? - ATOS - GUI by Tom Hunt/Closer To Home. 1) Lets you use any demo or intro as a screen saver!! 2) Works with all Atari hardware, BB, MIO and Hard drives, SpartaDOS support 3) Lets you run files like full games and demos and then return back to the desktop. It uses Overlays. - Atari Desktop by ABC software (Poland), includes editors, converters, file copiers, sector copy, tape+turbo tape copy, small games, CMC finder and player and much much more; works with 64KiB RAM and keyboard input; disk manuals only in Polish language... - Windows XL a Turbo-BASIC XL GUI with some nice add-ons, like calculator, editor and other things. Written in 1986-1988 by Joerg Forg. - TRS Desktop by Tristesse. A graphic user interface for SpartaDOS X to be used with hard drives. http://www.atari8.info/trsdesktop.php http://trub.atari8.info/sdx_files/TRS_desktop_v09d_alfa.zip - There are a lot more GUI programs, however many of them are written in BASIC or Turbo-BASIC XL and are very restricted; most of them merely look like a GUI but need too much memory for everyday use. That's why most users still prefer those DOS or GameDOS (Gameloader, Multiloader, etc.) programs... ------------------------------ Subject: 7.5.1) What should I know about R: and T: modem device handlers? The Atari computer Operating System does not provide a modem device handler. Modems can be connected to the Atari in several different physical ways: via an 850 interface or equivalent, via a joystick/controller port, or via the SIO port. For each way a modem can be connected to the Atari, application software code specific to that type of modem must be utilized by the computer to communicate with the modem. Some Atari programs, especially commercial telecommunications programs, simply support one or several specific modem types, incorporating the necessary modem-specific software routines internally. Some programs, especially earlier public domain/freeware/shareware programs, were released in several versions, each dedicated to a particular modem or modem type. Finally, as multiple modem types gained popularity, public domain/freeware/ shareware authors started abstracting the modem device handling software routine from the rest of their telecommuncation programs, allowing for a single version of the main program to work with one or more separately- distributed modem handler routines. Users were then expected to combine an application with an appropriate modem handler in order to create a complete, working telecommunications software package. This section attempts to list all Atari modem device handler files that can be used in combination with telecommunications programs requiring such a handler. ==> R: modem device handler on 850 interface ROM The Atari 850 interface, as well as the compatible ICD P:R: Connection, contains an R: handler in ROM. This R: handler supports any RS-232-C modem, including the Atari 830 and Atari SX212, connected to one of the serial ports on the interface. The handler is loaded into computer RAM by the "bootstrapping program" which is also stored in the interface ROM. An extended beep is emitted through the computer's audio signal while the 850 R: handler is loaded into memory by the bootstrapping program. The bootstrapping program then clears itself from memory, leaving the R: handler in memory. The 850 bootstrapping program can be executed by the Atari Operating System without an Atari disk drive. With no powered disk drive #1 connected to the system, at system startup the powered 850 interface appears to the Atari OS to be drive #1. In this situation, the operating systems's attempt to boot from disk drive #1 actually causes the 850 bootstrapping program to be executed. Utilities that can run the 850 R: handler bootstrapping program after operating system boot include: - AUTORUN.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS 2.0S (1980) - RS232.COM, distributed with OS/A+ and DOS XL by OSS (1982-1984) - RS232FIX.COM, distributed with DOS XL by OSS (1982-1984). Attempts to correct some of the known bugs in the 850 R: handler. - HANDLERS.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS 3 (1983) - AUTORUN.SYS, as generated by the Atari DOS 2.5 SETUP.COM utility (1984) - RS232.COM for SpartaDOS, distributed with ICD SpartaDOS and with the ICD P:R: Connection (1986) - RS232.SYS for Atari DOS 2, distributed with the ICD P:R: Connection (1986) - BOOT850.COM, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5 by Trent Dudley (1987) - RDRIVER.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS XE (1988) - ATARI850.AUT, distributed with MYDOS 4.50 - X850.COM, distributed with ANSITERM by Robert Sinclair (1992) - PR.COM, distributed with ANSITERM by Robert Sinclair (1992) - RS232.COM, part of RealDOS - RS232.COM, part of SpartaDOS X Special to the P:R: Connection: - PRC.SYS is an R: handler "translator" distributed with the P:R: Connection by ICD (1986). Allows some telecommunications programs (such as HomePak HomeTerm) with integrated support for 850-based modems, but that do not load or use the internal 850 R: handler, to work with the P:R: Connection. ==> R: modem device handlers for MPP-1000/1000C/1000E and Supra 300AT modems - MPPHAND.AUT, Version 1.0, by John S. DeMar, 1983(?) 'Smartmodem and "R:" Device Emulator, for the MPP-1000C Modem' - MPP 1000C Modem/850 Emulator by Jordan Chilcott. Three versions: - MPP850.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0 (c) 1984 Jordan L. Chilcott, Standard version tested with: AMODEM, AMIS, FORUM. (alias MDRIVE.XMO) - SMARTMPP.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0S (c) 1984 Jordan L. Chilcott Also supports "Smartmodem" features of MPP modems. (alias SMDRV.XMO) - HOMEMPP.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0H (c) 1985 Jordan L. Chilcott For use with HomePak HomeTerm. (aliases HMDRVE.XMO, HMDRV.XMO) - MPPHNDLR.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987. "I have rewritten this MPP R: handler to make its relocation routine compatible with SpartaDOS." - MPP850.HAN, by James Dillow (author of DeTerm MPP), 1988. - MPP.COM, by Bob Puff, modified version of MPP850.HAN by James Dillow, distributed with BobTerm 1.10 (6/89), 1.20 (4/1990), & 1.21 (4/27/1990) ==> T: modem device handler on 1030 modem ROM In addition to the ModemLink software program, the 1030 modem ROM also contains the T: modem device handler that can be loaded and utilized by user programs apart from ModemLink. The T: device handler does not use the SIO protocol for data transmission with the computer, creating potential conflict with other devices connected via SIO that also don't use the SIO protocol, including the C: cassette handler built into the Atari OS. Consequently, there should be no program recorder attached to the system when using a T: modem device handler. The handler supports tone dialing, but is not self-relocating, and thus must be loaded before Atari BASIC is initialized. Extensive T: handler details published by Russ Wetmore: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n4/1030modem.html Utilities to load the T: handler from the 1030 ROM include: - AUTO1030.SYS, by Russ Wetmore for Antic, August 1985 (alias THANDLR1.030) - BOOT1030.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987 ==> T: modem device handlers for both 835/1030/XM301 and 850-based modems - '835/850 Handler' (alias AUTO1030.OBJ) by AMODEM author Jim Steinbrecher, distributed with his Atari MODEM-835/850 Ver. 4.2, 01-15-84 - TSHANDL.OBJ, by Ken Fowkes, is the T: handler code extracted from his DiskLink program (1984). ==> T: modem device handlers for the 835/1030/XM301 modems - HANDLER.OBJ, by Atari, distributed with the XM301 modem on the XE Term disk. A slight superset of the 1030 ROM T: handler; it too supports tone dialing but is likewise not self-relocating. Shipped fall 1985. - THANDLER.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987. A self-relocating version of the Atari XE Term T: handler. ==> R: modem device handlers for both 850-based and 835/1030/XM301 modems - R.BIN, by Joe Miller and Russ Wetmore for Star Systems Software, 1984/5(?) "A combined handler for 850-based and 835/1030 modems...an extensive modification of Joe Miller's original handler from his...TSCOPE. While TSCOPE uses a "T:" handler (standard for 835/1030 modems), R.BIN is installed as an "R:" device." Self-relocating. Does not support tone dialing on the 1030. - RHANDLR1.030 is identical to R.BIN but also executes RUN "D:MENU" after loading (perhaps for a disk of the month for an Atari user group). - 'RHANDLER2' (RHANDLR2 or RHAND2.BIN or RHAND2.AUT) is a slightly modified version of R.BIN which also executes the BASIC command RUN"D:*.RUN" after loading. - RHAN1030.AUT and RHAND3.BIN are two different derivatives of 'RHANDLER2' where the provision to RUN"D:*.RUN" after loading has been removed. - ATARISRS.232, by JM/RW, is the R.BIN driver code extracted from VT-10-Squared, and then distributed with OmniCom, 1986-1987 - RBIN1030.BIN / RHANDLER.COM / R1030.XMO, by JM/RW/MG, are derivatives of ATARISRS.232, possibly/probably modified for SpartaDOS compatibility by Mike Gustafson. Distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987 ==> R: modem device handlers for the 835/1030/XM301 modems - SMARTT.COM, V7.14.86 by Joe Hitchens (author of VTERM) - HANDLER.XM, by James Dillow (author of DeTerm XM301) (1988?) - XM850.HAN, by James Dillow, based on his HANDLER.XM (1988?) - XM.COM, by Bob Puff, modified version of XM850.HAN by James Dillow, distributed with BobTerm 1.10, 6/1989 - XM.COM (re-written), by Bob Puff, distributed with BobTerm 1.20 (4/1990) and 1.21 (4/27/1990) ==> R: modem device handlers for the R-Verter/SupraVerter Modem Adapter (SIO) Note that handlers designed for the Atari SX212 modem via SIO may also work with the R-Verter/SupraVerter. - The A.I.D. R-Verter was distributed with 4 different R: handler versions, originally written by Royce W. Powell, (c) April, 1984 by A.I.D.: - RHAND1.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & RD - nearly identical: RVDOSXL.COM (version for DOS XL?) - RHAND1C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD - RHAND2.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & RD and translation tables - RHAND2C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD and translation tables - RVHAND.XMO or RVHAND.OBJ, by Ron Hodges, for use with HomePak HomeTerm. A re-assembly of the file RHAND1C.SRC supplied with the R-Verter, but starting at a lower address ($1D00). - BOB-Verter 2.4 Fast Handler (RVERTER.COM), by Robert Puff, 10/16/89. Explicitly supports both the SX212 modem (via SIO) and the R-Verter/ SupraVerter interface cable. Distributed with BobTerm 1.20 & 1.21 ==> R: modem device handlers for the DataTari / Datari interface cable The DataTari / Datari (what is the correct spelling???) interface cable was produced by Miracle Technology of the UK, 1985. It sounds similar to the R-Verter/SupraVerter. - BTDATARI.COM, by ABBUC ev, specifically for use with BobTerm ==> R: modem device handlers for the SX212 modem connected via SIO Note that handlers designed for the Atari SX212 modem via SIO may also work with the R-Verter/SupraVerter. - The SX-212 Companion!, by Marc Ingle and Tom Neitzel of S*P*A*C*E, based on the R-Verter R: handler, specifically to bring SX212 support to 850 Express! version 3.00p by Keith Ledbetter. Modifications by Tom Neitzel and Marc Ingle. December, 1987. Two versions: - LOADER.LOW (aliases: SX212A or SX212A.COM) This version loads at $1D00 and works with most DOSes in their standard configuration (generally 2 or 3 drives, with a LOMEM of $1D00 or lower). - LOADER.HI (alias: SX212A.HI) This version loads at $2000 and allows more memory for drive buffers but will reduce your terminal buffer by about 750 bytes. - SX_RHAND.COM, author/distribution unknown - SX212HND.COM (alias SX212HND.OBJ), SX212 R: Handler V1.0 by Trent Dudley, 1987? - HANDLER.OBJ, by Paul Swanson, distributed with Atari SX Express!, 1988 - SX.COM, by James Dillow (author of DeTerm SX212), 1988. (Also distributed with BobTerm 1.10, 6/1989) - BOB-Verter 2.4 Fast Handler (RVERTER.COM), by Robert Puff, 10/16/89. Explicitly supports both the SX212 modem (via SIO) and the R-Verter/ SupraVerter interface cable. Distributed with BobTerm 1.20 & 1.21 - SX.COM, by Robert Sinclair, distributed with ANSITERM, 1992 ==> R: modem device handlers for the ATR8000 interface by SWP - MYDOS 3.1 versions have an integrated ATR8000 R: handler - ATR232.AUT, distributed with MYDOS 4.50 - SpartaDOS from ICD (disk versions) shipped with an R: handler for the ATR8000 called: AT_RS232 ==> R: modem device handlers for the ATR8500 interface by SWP - MYDOS 3.2 versions have an integrated ATR8500 R: handler - ATR232HD.AUT, distributed with MYDOS 4.50, for use in combination with a hard disk drive ==> R: modem device handlers for the Multi I/O board (MIO) by ICD The MIO includes its own 850 R: handler emulator in ROM, which does not need to be loaded into computer RAM in order to function. Depending on the ROM version, this handler may or may not fully support the hardware flow control capability of the MIO hardware. - HYPERSPD.MIO HyperSpeed RS232 accelerator Version 1.3a for Multi I/O, Copyright 1995, 1997 by Lenard R. Spencer. Full 19200-bit throughput with hardware flow control. ==> R: modem device handlers for the Black Box interface by CSS The Black Box includes its own 850 R: handler emulator in ROM, which does not need to be loaded into computer RAM in order to function. This handler supports the hardware flow control capability of the Black Box. - HYPERSPD.BB HyperSpeed RS232 accelerator Version 1.3a for Black Box, Copyright 1995, 1997 by Lenard R. Spencer. Full 19200-bit throughput with hardware flow control. ------------------------------ Subject: 7.5.2) What should I know about using fast modems with the Atari? While Atari never marketed a modem faster than the 1200 bit/s SX212, the Atari is capable of supporting modem bitrates of up to 19200 bit/s, depending upon circumstances described here. Several factors come into play in using modems faster than 2400 bit/s with the Atari. Firstly, the top bitrate supported by a given software application on the Atari can be the determinative limiting factor. Many programs on the Atari may not support, or may not be able to keep up with, bitrates greater than 1200 bit/s or 2400 bit/s. Assuming the use of an Atari program that supports higher speeds, it will be useful to have an understanding of data flow control. Here is a definition of flow control from www.modems.com: Often, one modem in a connection is capable of sending data much faster than the other can receive. Flow control allows the receiving modem to tell the other to pause while it catches up. Flow control exists as either software (XON/XOFF) flow control, or hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control. With software flow control, when a modem needs to tell the other to pause, it sends a certain character, usually Control-S. When it is ready to resume, it sends a different character, such as Control-Q. Software flow control's only advantage is that it can use a serial cable with only three wires. Since software flow control regulates transmissions by sending certain characters, line noise could generate the character commanding a pause, thus hanging the transfer until the proper character (such as Control-Q) is sent. Also, binary files must never be sent using software flow control, as binary files can contain the control characters. Hardware, or RTS/CTS, flow control uses wires in the modem cable or, in the case of internal modems, hardware in the modem. This is faster and much more reliable than software flow control. Some/later 2400 bit/s modems, and probably all modems with 9600 bit/s speed capabilities and up, normally use V.42 standard error correction and V.42bis standard data compression. Subjectively, V.42/V.42bis are nice at 2400 bit/s, important at 9600 bit/s, and essential at any speeds beyond 9600 bit/s. V.42bis requires hardware flow control (and V.42 error correction). But with Atari equipment (except the MIO and Black Box) hardware flow control is not supported so V.42bis cannot be used and should be disabled. Standard Hayes modem command to disable V.42bis data compression: AT&C0 While V.42 error correction can technically work with either software or hardware flow control, for reasons described above it is typically only used when hardware flow control is available. Since Atari equipment (except the MIO and Black Box) does not support hardware flow control, V.42 should generally be disabled. Standard Hayes modem command to disable V.42 error correction: AT&K0 Note that disabling V.42 also has the effect of disabling V.42bis. Finally, hardware ports on the Atari have their inherent top bitrate limits. The serial ports of the Atari 850, ATR8000, and ATR8500 support a top bitrate of 9600 bit/s. Other modem interfaces for the Atari may support bitrates of up to 19200 bit/s. Clay Halliwell offers a tip on achieving 9600 bit/s through the 850 Interface: On 11 Feb 1996, Marc G. Frank said: > I'm having problems getting a modem attached to my Atari 850 to > communicate at 9600 baud. When I set my communications program to 2400 > baud, everything works fine. However, when I set it to 9600 baud, the > modem echoes my characters but doesn't act on them. The problem with the 850 is that some of them (like mine) don't produce a PERFECT 9600 baud signal. As a result modems can't train on it, and while they will echo characters back, for some nitpicky reason they won't pick up on the "AT" attention code. The solution is to do all your dialing at 2400 baud, but set the S37 register to force the modem to try to connect at 9600. Then switch your Atari to 9600 after connecting. ------------------------------ Subject: 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari? Freddy Offenga has compiled a comprehensive list of programming languages produced for the 8-bit Atari. Please visit: http://www.ataripreservation.org/websites/freddy.offenga/langlist.txt ------------------------------ Subject: 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800? This should be a complete list of commercial cartridges produced for use in the Right Cartridge slot of the Atari 800. - ACE-80 by Claus Buchholz for Amiable Computer Enhancements / TNT Computing (80 column editor, compatible with Atari BASIC, and patches available for: OS/A+, EASMD, Letter Perfect v.6, Data Perfect, Atari Logo) - Austin 80 Console Software by Austin Franklin Associates (for use with the Austin 80 Column Video Processor Board) - Block (first right cartridge; first "backup" program hardware device) - Cartridge Maker by Radical Systems (EPROM burner) - KISS by Eastern House - Magic Dump by Geminisoft/Eric Wolz for Sar-An Computer Products (SCP) - Magic Dump II by Geminisoft/Eric Wolz for Sar-An Computer Products (SCP) - Monkey Wrench by Eastern House - Monkey Wrench II by Eastern House - R-Time 8 by ICD (battery-backed clock, for left or right cartridge slots) - Real Time Cartridge by Sunmark ------------------------------ Subject: 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players? Section started by Andreas Koch; See also this thread at AtariAge: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/155696-4-player-simultaneous-games/ a) The following games support 4 joystick head-to-head play: (Only possible on the 400/800 since only these computer models have 4 controller ports) - Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves by Stuart Smith for Quality Software - Aliens a public domain game by ??? using an altered Dandy program (the Dandy font and thus the graphics were changed, however, the levels remain the same and can be used in both games) - Asteroids by Tod Frye for Atari - Basketball by Alan Miller for Atari - Battle Room (CIA vs. KGB) a public domain game by SNACC - Dandy disk by John H. Palevich for APX - Depth Warrior by ??? for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n7 *** - Floyd of the Jungle by MicroProse (1982 and 1983 releases) - GEM by Joel Gluck - Killa Cycle by Simon Goodwin & David Muncer - Hockey by Gamma Software - Major League Hockey by Thorn EMI - Major League Soccer by Thorn EMI - Maze War by ??? - Mouse Party by Bill Halsall for New Atari User #39 Aug/Sep 1989 - M.U.L.E. disk by Electronic Arts - The Return of Heracles by Stuart Smith for Quality Software - Road Block / Roadblock by Brian Holness for Compute! v5n7 #38 July 1983 - Silicon Warrior, developed by The Connelley Group for Epyx - Sky Warrior by Jack Chung for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n6 - Soccer by Gamma Software - Survivor by Richard Carr for Synapse - Tank Battle by Fred Pinho from Antic magazine: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n2/animate.html - Volleyball by ??? (public domain game written in Atari BASIC) - Yellow-Brick-Road by ??? for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n2 *** *** these programs are reported to be 4-player programs, I'm not sure if they are meant to be 4-players simultaneously or 4-players - one after another (try to find out!); b) The following games support 4 paddle head-to-head play: - Castle Crisis by Bryan Edewaard, 2004 - IQ by David S. Maynard for CRL, 1987 (same game as "Worms?") - JunkYard Racing (Tim Gearin, 1999) - Space Arena by Fandal, 2009 - Warlords by ?, year? (public domain version, unlicensed) - Worms? by David S. Maynard for Electronic Arts, 1983 c) The following game supports 4 players on all machines, using special 4-button keypad controllers linked together with RJ-11 jacks (standard phone jacks) to a box with 2 joystick port connectors: - PQ: The Party Quiz Game by Suncom d) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra hardware called Quadrotron (from the German AtariMagazin 2/1989): - test program for 4 joysticks (and assembler source); - Quadro-Tron by H.Schoenfeld (4-player Tron-clone); e) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra hardware called Multijoy (multijoy4 for up to 4 players, multijoy8 for up to 8 players and multijoy16 for up to 16 players) which was developed by Radek Sterba / Raster & Atariklub Prostejov, see: http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/multijoy.htm or http://raster.infos.cz/atari/english.htm#MULTIJOY or https://www.return-magazin.de/ausgaben/return-ausgabe-16/ - Asteroids M4 by Tod Frye for Atari, patch by Matthias Luedtke - Astro4 Road by Frantisek Houra, Radek Sterba - Astrowarriors M4 by Apogee Software, patch by Fandal - Atari Tennis M4 by Sean Hennessy for Atari, patch by Matthias Luedtke - Basketball M4 by Alan Miller for Atari, patch by Matthias Luedtke - Battleroom M4 by Steven Martin, patch by Fandal - Bremspunkt by Thorsten Butschke, Rouven Gehm - Card Grabber by Florian Dingler - Cervi by Radek Sterba - Cervi 2 by Radek Sterba - Dandy Dungeon M4 by John Palevich for APX, patch by Matthias Luedtke - Dynakillers Unchained by Marek Chorvat, Robert Pecnik, and Marian Vybostok, patch by MatoSimi - Floyd of the Jungle M4 by Sid Meier for MicroProse, patch by Fandal - Fujiama Run by Matthias Luedtke, Stefan Niestegge - Gem M4 by Joel Gluck, patch by Fandal - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler (2008) - Helicops by Nils Feske, Frantisek Houra, Radek Sterba, Adam Wachowski - Hockey M4 by Gamma Software, patch by Fandal - Ice-Hockey by Florian Dingler - Impact M4 by David Buehler, patch by Fandal - Killa Cycle M4 by Simon Goodwin, David Muncer, patch by Fandal - Killer 'Thello M4 by Mark Price, patch by Fandal - Major League Hockey M4 by Brian Belson for Thorn EMI, patch by Fandal - Mashed Turtles by Zdenek Eisenhammer, Frantisek Houra - Maze War M4 by Mark Price for ANALOG, patch by Fandal - Mouse Party M4 by Bill Halsall, patch by Fandal - Mule M4 by Bill Bunten, Dan Bunten, Jim Rushing, Alan Watson, for Electronic Arts, patch by Matthias Luedtke - Multris by Radek Sterba - Proto Basketball M4+ by ? for Atari, conversion from 5200 & patch by Fandal - Quadrotron M4 by Oliver Redner, Stefan Wiegmann, patch by Radek Sterba - Sheep-Race by Florian Dingler - Shot'em All by Radek Sterba - Silicon Warrior M4 by The Connelley Group for Epyx, patch by Fandal - Soccer (Gamma Software) M4 by ?, patch by Fandal - Soccer M4 by Brian Belson for Thorn EMI, patch by Fandal - Survivor M4 by Richard Carr for Synapse, patch by Fandal - Table Football M4+ by Anthony Wilson, patch by Fandal - Tank Battle M4, by Dan Pinal for the Arrays, Inc. book "Atari Graphics and Arcade Game Design", patch by Fandal - Wingman M4 by Sid Meier for MicroProse, patch by Fandal - See also Fandal site search for games that use a Multijoy: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=multijoy&butt_details_x=x ------------------------------ Subject: 8.4) What programs use a light pen or a light gun? Contributor to this section: Bertrand M. (LEXX), Andreas Koch The Atari computer reads the horizontal and vertical positions of a light pen or a light gun in the same way. Consequently, while software programs may be intended for one or the other, these two types of controllers may often substitute for each other. A light pen or light gun requires a cathode ray tube (CRT) television or monitor. Only one light pen or light gun may be used on the Atari at a time. Controller Jacks 1-3 on the 400 do not support a light pen / light gun. Programs designed for a light gun: Alien Blast, Richard Gore for DGS, 1993 Alien Invaders (TB-XL or CTB) disk by R.Gore (available from DGS); Barnyard Blaster, James V. Zalewski for Atari, 1987 Bembel Wo by Thorsten Butschke for Foundation Two, 1998 Bug Hunt, Alan Murphy and Rob Zdybel for Atari, 1987 Cementerio, Pelusa Software, 1989 Click!, Chris Martin, 2008 Crime Buster, Ron Andrzejewski & James Zalewski for Atari, 1988 Crossbow, Sculptured Software for Atari, 1988 Flyshoot by Kemal Ezcan for Zong 2/93 Gangsters by Houra, Pesout, Stefek, Sterba, Svoboda, 2007 Gangstersville, Emanuele Bergamini for Lindasoft, 1988 Geisterschloss, KE-Soft, 1992 Guntris by Richard Gore, 1996 Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 Hit the Mole by Carsten Strotmann, 2004 Invasion, Pelusa Soft Light Gun Blaster, Andre Willey, Atari User Feb. 1988 Light Gun Blaster (enhanced) by Pedrokko Messe Hanau, Kemal Ezcan, 1995 Operation Blood (light gun) by Bulkowski & Kalinowski for ANG, 1992, light gun conversion by The Missing Link/John Maris Operation Blood II - Special Forces disk, ANG/Mirage Pajaki II, Arkadiusz Lubaszka for ArSoft, 1996 Schiessen, L. Franzky (Abbuc magazine) Sharp Shooter, Matthew Ratcliff, 1989 Sniper, Premysl Stefek, Radek Sterba, Petr Svoboda and Fandal, 2007 Special Forces (light gun) by Mirage, light gun conversion by Homesoft - See also Fandal site search for games that use a light gun: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=light+gun&butt_details_x=x - See also AtariMania list of games that use a light gun: www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-gun_control_5_8_G.html - See also http://atari.panprase.cz/?action=lg-hry Programs designed for a light pen: - Alien Blast, Richard Gore for DGS, 1993 - Alphabet Construction Set (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Animal Crackers (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - AtariGraphics by Steve Gibson for Atari, c1984 (RX8054, shipped with Atari Light Pen CX75 only) - Blazing Paddles by Baudville, 1986 - Computer Crayons (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Concentration by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Crossword Twister by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Demonstration program cassette by Atari, 1980 (CX4124, shipped with CX70) - Draughts by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Go by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Hit the Mole by Carsten Strotmann, 2004 - KoalaPainter by Koala for Commodore 64/Atari (diskette) (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, light pen version) - Language Skills - Alphabet Recognition by Futurehouse, 1982 - Language Skills - Different Symbol Discrimination by Futurehouse, 1982 - Language Skills - Letter Sequences by Futurehouse, 1982 - Language Skills - Like Symbol Discrimination by Futurehouse, 1982 - Letter Tutor by Edgework for Atari, 1984 prototype - Life by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Light Pen Doodle by John and Mary Harrison for Antic, 1984 - Little Red Riding Hood (Playground Software) by Futurehouse, 1983 - Lost in the Labyrinth by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Math Fun for the Young - Level I by Tech-Sketch, 1983 - Math Fun for the Young - Level II by Tech-Sketch, 1983 - Matrix by Dave Oblad, 1985 - Micro Illustrator by Tech-Sketch (diskette) (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, light pen version) - Othello by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Paint-N-Sketch Level I by Tech-Sketch, 1983 - Paint-N-Sketch Level II by Tech-Sketch, 1983 - Peripheral Vision by Futurehouse, 1984 - Seek and Destroy by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Shape and Color Recognition by Tech-Sketch, 1983 - Shuffler by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - Simon by Stack Computer Services, 1983 - See also AtariMania lists of games and utilities that use a light pen: www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-pen_control_6_8_G.html www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-pen_control_6_8_U.html ------------------------------ Subject: 8.5) What programs are designed for a true trackball controller? The following programs have a trackball mode designed for use with the the Atari CX22 or CX80 Trak-Ball controllers in true trackball mode. - Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew - Centipede 5200 by Atari with trak-ball support by Peter Meyer, 2009 ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode) - Final Legacy by Atari, 1984 (optionally used in controller port 2 in the game's Sea-to-Air mode) - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew - Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992 - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew - Missile Command by Atari ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode) - Missile Command+ by Paul Lee, 2005 ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode) - Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990 - Othello by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew - Slime by Steve Hales for Synapse, 1982 (press [T] for trackball mode) - See also AtariMania list of games that use CX22/CX80 trackball mode: atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-trak-ball_control_23_8_G.html - See also Fandal site search for games that use the CX22/CX80 trackball mode: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=trak-ball&butt_details_x=x ------------------------------ Subject: 8.6) What programs are designed to work with a mouse? Programs that use the Atari STM1 Mouse or compatible (which includes the RAT and the SuperRAT, both marketed for the 8-bit Atari by Zobian Controls): - 8Bit-Mouse (BPAUG) - Accu-Draw by Vision software (shipped with the RAT and SuperRAT, 1986-1987) - AMC calculator - Artist Unleashed by MTS Software, "RAT-compatible" version exists??? - Artprog - AtariArtist "RAT-compatible version" exists??? - Black Magic Composer by Sven Tegethoff for Ulf Petersen, 1991 - Bomb Down by The Roemer (Markus Roemer)/U.N.O. - BOSS-X by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, 2003 - The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993 - The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994 - Business Manager by Reeve Software, 1986 - CardStax 2.1 by David A. Paterson, 1993 - Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew - Celebrity Cookbook by U.S.A. Media - Click! by Chris Martin, 2008 - Control by Zobian Controls (shipped with the RAT and SuperRAT, 1986-1987) - Copy F'n'F by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X - Datenbank by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X - Diamond GOS by Reeve Software - Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Enigmatix! by Stephen A. Firth for Page 6, 1993 - EORoid by Daniel Kolakowski for Wolf Software Ltd, 1994 - Faecher Patience by Kemal Ezcan for Zong mag, 1993 - Fig-Forth by Matt Symonds for Pulsar Software, 1988 - FireBall (a Breakout game, requires SAM) - GOE by Total Control Systems - Guntris by Richard Gore, 1996 - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Hong Kong by KE-Soft / Kemal Ezcan (ZONG mag.), 1993 - KE-Mouse drivers by KE-Soft - Klony 2010 by Arkadiusz Lubaszka for ArSoft, 2010 - Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew - Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992 - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew - Macao XL by KE-Soft (ZONG mag.) - Master Disk Directory II by Zobian Controls, 1986 - Mau Mau X by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X - Minesweeper by Harald Schoenfeld for PPP, 1992 - Mine Sweeper by Raindorf Soft - Mine Sweeper 3 - M.O.S. (from Abbuc mag.) - Mouse-DOS by KE-Soft (ZONG mag.) - MS-Copy 1.1 by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X - Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990 - Multi-Player by Madteam - Multi-DOS - Numblines by Jaroslaw Kucisz & Tomasz Kucisz for Utopia Software, 1997 - Othello by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew - Pad 1.2 (Padnoid) by Nelson Ramirez / New Age, 1995 - Patience by Kemal Ezcan for KE-Soft, 1993 - P-Graph(s) by ??? - QUICK Ed Character Editor by PPP - RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout, "RAT-compatible version" exists??? - RAOS (Rat Actuated Operating System) by Zobian Controls (shipped as part of the SuperRAT/RAOS system), 1987 - RAT Control, same as Control by Zobian Controls - RAT Trace by Zobian Controls, same as Accu-Draw by Vision software - SAM (Screen Aided Management) by Power Per Post & Raindorf Soft (a GUI!) - SAM Budget (80 column spreadsheet program, requires SAM) - SAM Convert (text files to/from the SAM Texter format, requires SAM) - SAM Creator (SAM Painter files to/from Micro-Painter format, requires SAM) - SAM Designer (drawing and design / desktop publishing, requires SAM) - SAM Memobox (card filing program, requires SAM) - SAM Monitor (view and change memory, requires SAM) - SAM Painter (128 color paint program, requires SAM) - SAM Texter (80 column word processor, requires SAM) - Shanghai by Peter Sabath for Activision, 1987 - Special Forces by Mirage Software, 1993 - Sprint XL (from Abbuc) - Super 3-D Plotter by Elfin Magic, "RAT-compatible version" exists??? - Tommingi by Tomek Borygo - TRS Desktop by Tristesse, 2006 - Unriagh II by Uwe Hartwig, 1986 - UPN calculator - Vanish by Kemal Ezcan for KE-Soft, 1993 - Vier gewinnt - Write 80 by MTS Software, "RAT-compatible version" exists??? - Z-DOS by Zobian Controls (requires and shipped with RAOS), 1987 - See also Fandal site search for games that use the Atari mouse: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=mouse&butt_details_x=x - See also AtariMania lists of programs using the Atari mouse: www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-mouse_control_4_8_G.html www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-mouse_control_4_8_U.html Programs that use the Amiga mouse: - Black Magic Composer by Sven Tegethoff for Ulf Petersen, 1991 - Bomb Down by The Roemer (Markus Roemer)/U.N.O. - Global War by P.M.M. Elfinger & D.J. Garbowski for L.K. Avalon, 1993 - Klony 2010 by Arkadiusz Lubaszka for ArSoft, 2010 - Multi-Player by MadTeam - Najemnik - Powrot by LK APM for Krysal Software - Operation Blood by Pawel Bulkowski & Pawel Kalinowski for Mirage, 1992 - Samurai's Game by Rafaell Soft for Krysal Software, 1992 - TRS Desktop by Tristesse, 2006 - See also Fandal site search for games that use the Amiga mouse: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=amiga+mouse&butt_details_x=x Programs that use the Commodore 1351 mouse (mouse for Commodore 64/128): - Klony by ArSoft, 2006 ------------------------------ Subject: 8.7) What programs use paddle controllers? - AE (Jun Wada & Makoto Horai for Broderbund) - Arkanoid (Taito)(Mike Hutchinson for Imagine, 1987; for The Hit Squad, 1987) - Arkanoid II (Prof Soft Amsterdam, 1987) - Asteraxis 2k (Waldemar Pawlaszek & Remigiusz Zukowski, 2001) - Avalanche (Dennis Knoble for APX, 1980) - Balloon Game (Kelly Jones & Bill Williams, 1984) - Balloon Pop (White Bag Software, 1986) - Bird-Man-3D demo (AMC-Verlag) - Blazing Paddles (Baudville, 1986) - Block Buster (Bradshaw & Griesemer for APX, 1981; Quality Software, 1981) - Body Parts (Dominick A. Scalzo for PartlySoft Software, 1983) - Breakout / Breakout!!! / brkwall.bas (public domain, author unknown) - Burgers! (Douglas Crockford, 1983) - Bust Out (Dennis Debro, 1989) - Cascade (F. Neil Simms for ANALOG #28, March 1985) - Castle Crisis (Bryan Edewaard, 2004) - Checkers (David Slate for Odesta, 1982) - Chess 7.0 (Larry Atkin for Odesta, 1982) - Chicken (Mike Potter for Synapse, 1982) - Chiseler (public domain, author unknown) - Clowns and Balloons (Frank Cohen for Datasoft, 1982) - Comment Compter ("Counter" by Al P. Casper for Atari France) - Computer Quarterback (Dan Bunten for SSI, 1983) - Counter (Al P. Casper for APX, 1982) - David's Midnight Magic (David Snider for Broderbund, 1982) - Descente a Ski ("Downhill" by Mark Reid for Atari France) - Diamond Drop (Matthias M. Giwer for Compute!, 1983) - Downhill (Mark Reid for APX) - Dragonriders of Pern (Jim W. Connelley for Epyx, 1983) - Etch-1 (public domain, author unknown) - Frog (Stan Ockers 5/82 for A.C.E. Newsletter, July 1982) - Frog (Stan Ockers 6/82 for Antic, Oct/Nov 1982) - Golden Oldies Volume 1 v2.2 (Mike Fitch for Software Country, 1985) - Golden Oldies Volume 1 v2.3 (Mike Fitch, The Software Toolworks, 1987 c1985) - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Horse of a Different Color V1.0 (Gus Makreas, 3/1/81) - Insomnia (Bob Fraser for APX, 1981) - IQ by David S. Maynard for CRL, 1987 - Kaboom! (Larry Kaplan & Paul Willson for Activision, 1983) - JunkYard Racing (Tim Gearin, 1999) - Landing Simulator (by Jake Jacobs for Creative Computing magazine, written for Apple, Atari translation by Bruce Jordan) - Laser Game (public domain, author unknown) - Laser Wars (Mike Potter for Crystalware, 1981) - Lie Detector (Michael Krueger for Antic, 1986) - Livewire (Tom Hudson - ANALOG #12) - Livewire 2 (Tom Hudson - ANALOG #12 - Modified by Wolf) - Lunar Lander (Wes Newell) - Midnight Strip (M. L. Clayton, 1982) - M.U.L.E. (Ozark Softscape for Electronic Arts, 1983; for Ariolasoft, 1985) - Night Driver (Dudek, Szpilowski, Ziembik, 2008) - Nineball (Jay M. Ford for ZiMAG, 1982) - One on One! (Chris York for Compute!, 1983) - Paratroop Attack (David Plotkin for Compute!'s Second Book of Atari, 1982) - "Perfected Pong" see: Pong! ("Perfected Pong") below - Personal Fitness Program (Dave Getreu for APX, 1981) - Pinball Construction Set (Electronic Arts) - all pinball games created with Pinball Construction Set - PlatterMania (Michael Farren for Epyx, 1982) - Pong ("Super Pong")(Gary Domrow/Summit Software Group, ANALOG #39 Feb.1986) - [Pong] ("Pong 2", pong2.com, public domain, author unknown) - Pong! ("Perfected Pong") (Bob Ayik for Antic, May 1988) - Pool 1.5 (Howard De St. Germain for IDSI, 1981) - Popcorn! (Cathy Sloatman, Mark Sloatman) - Prisonball (John Scarborough for Compute!, 1986) - Probe One - The Transmitter (Lloyd Ollmann for Synergistic Software, 1982) - Safe Cracker (Mike Starnes) - Space Arena (Fandal, 2009) - Space Bombs (John Y. Hsu, 1984) - Space Eggs (Dan Thompson for Sirius, 1981) - Speedblaster (Pinball Construction Set Game by MR Datentechnik) - Spy's Demise (Robert Hardy & Alan Zeldin for Penguin Software, 1983) - Stardust (MR Datentechnik) - Starshot (Matthias M. Giwer for Compute!, 1983) - States and Capitals (David J. Bohlke for SoftSide, 1980) - Stereo 3-D Graphics Package (Clyde Spencer for APX, 1982) - Super Ball (Compy-Shop) - Super Ball 2 (Compy-Shop) - Super Ball 3 (Compy-Shop) - Super Ball 4 (Compy-Shop) - Super Breakout by Larry Kaplan for Atari, 1979 - "Super Pong" see: Pong ("Super Pong") above - Stretch (public domain Gr. 15 pict. stretcher, author unknown) - Superski (AMC, 1994 - patch for paddles by HOMESOFT) - Tilter (public domain, author unknown) - Uranium Core (Martin Stiby for Computer & Video Games mag, 1982/11) - Warlords (The Webbed Sphere BBS) - Wavy Navy (Rodney McAuley for Sirius, 1983) - Wayout (Paul Allen Edelstein for Sirius, 1982) - WildWest (Stan Ockers for ACE Newsletter, 1983) - Word Radar (Jerry Chaffin & Bill Maxwell & Barbara Thompson for DLM, 1984) - Worms? by David S. Maynard for Electronic Arts, 1983 - See also AtariMania lists of games & utilities that use paddle controllers: www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-paddles_control_2_8_G.html www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-paddles_control_2_8_U.html - See also Fandal site search for games that use paddle controllers: http://a8.fandal.cz/search.php?search=paddle&butt_details_x=x Note that the Atari Touch Tablet, the KoalaPad Touch Tablet and the Suncom Animation Station are read by the computer in the same way that the computer receives data from paddle controllers, making software designed for these graphics tablets at least somewhat usable with paddles as well. See a separate section in this FAQ list for a list of programs supporting these graphics tablets. ------------------------------ Subject: 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode? This section started by Andreas Koch. - Bomb Down by The Roemer/U.N.O. - The Bookkeeper (Atari); - Ball Harbour (Zong 8/1992); - The Big Quest (Zong 7/1992); - Blob (Zong 2/1992); - Bomb Down by The Roemer (Markus Roemer)/U.N.O. - Bomber Jack (KE-Soft); - The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993 - The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994 - UPN calculator - Catch (Zong 6/1992); - Click! (Chris Martin 2008); - Code table (Zong 11+12/1993); - CX-85-Driver (Zong 7+8/1994); - CX-85-Keycode-driver (Zong 7+8/1995); - Donald (by KE-Soft); - Drag (by KE-Soft); - Dragon Fire (Zong 1/1993); - FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51 by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell) - Gravitar (Zong 4/1992); - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Hungry Goblin (Zong 5/1992); - Invaders (Zong 5+6/1993); - Joshi (Zong 3+4/1993); - Lasermaze (by KE-Soft); - Lost in the Antarctic (Zong 2/1992); - Mampfman (Zong 8/1992); - Minipac (Zong 3/1992); - Minipac 2 (Zong 6/1992); - Money Raider (Zong 2/1992); - Monster Tracking (Zong 9/1992); - Numerical Keypad Handler Master Program Diskette CX8139 (Atari, 1982) - Oblitroid (by KE-Soft) - Pac-Man (Zong 11/1992); - Schlumpf/Smurf (Zong 5/1992); - Slurp (Zong 3/1992); - Super ReeveKey (Reeve Software); - Techno Ninja (by KE-Soft) - Transsylvania (Zong 3+4/1993); - Viro-Mania (Zong 2/1993); - Zador XL (by KE-Soft) - Zador II (by KE-Soft) - Many more games from KE-Soft and Powersoft; (forgot their names, help needed!) ------------------------------ Subject: 8.9) What programs use: Touch Tablet or KoalaPad/Animation Station? Thanks to Andreas Koch for the initial version of this section, and for providing copies of some of the rare programs listed here. The Atari Touch Tablet and the KoalaPad/Animation Station tablets, while very similar, are slightly incompatible with each other in that y-position values are reversed. The following programs use the Atari Touch Tablet: - AtariArtist by Atari (cartridge) (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, Atari Touch Tablet version) - Shipped with the Atari Touch Tablet - Atari Rechner Simulation mit UPN (bin/oct/dec/hex calculator) - CardStax 2.1 by David A. Paterson, 1993 - Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew - Chopin 2010 by Krzysztof Dudek (xxl), 2010 ("mouse cmi08" mode) - Click! (Chris Martin, 2008) - Colour Enhancer by David Blackshaw, (c) 1986/1987 Hillside Software - Desktop Performance Studio (Virtuoso) - Diamond GOS by Reeve Software - Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - DigiPaint 1.0 by Volker Eloesser - ECKN+ by Christian Krueger for Berlin Softworks, 2008 - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Hit the Mole by Carsten Strotmann, 2004 - Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew - Koala Cursor Demonstration Program by Karl E. Wiegers for Antic, Jan. 1985 (article name: "Touch Tablet Cursor" ; original filename: KOALA.BAS) - Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992 - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew - Macro Edit / EDMAC (character set/screen editor) by John Oakley - Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990 - Musorqa by Ron Torborg for ANALOG #34, Sept. 1985 - Othello by Simon Trew, 1991 - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew - Pixel Artist Deluxe version 1.3 by Art Horan, 1988 - The Print Shop (Broderbund) - The Print Shop Companion (Broderbund) - QUICK Ed Character Editor by PPP - RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout - Rubber Stamp (XLEnt) - Smart Art II by Sean Puckett, 1984? - includes SMARTTAB.BAS patch for Touch Tablet/Koala support - includes TTCALIB.BAS Touch Tablet Calibration utility - Typesetter (XLEnt) - See also AtariMania lists of games & utilities using the Atari Touch Tablet: http://www.atarimania.com /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-touch-tablet_control_21_8_G.html http://www.atarimania.com /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-touch-tablet_control_21_8_U.html The following programs use the KoalaPad or the Animation Station: - Alphabet Contruction Set (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Animal Crackers (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Blazing Paddles (Baudville) - The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993 - The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994 - Click! (Chris Martin, 2008) - Computer Crayons (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Desktop Performance Studio (Virtuoso) - DesignLab (Suncom version of Blazing Paddles; Distributed with the Suncom Animation Station) - Diamond GOS by Reeve Software - Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS - DigiPaint 1.0 by Volker Eloesser - Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008 - Hong Kong by KE-Soft / Kemal Ezcan (ZONG mag.), 1993 - Koala Cursor Demonstration Program by Karl E. Wiegers for Antic, Jan. 1985 (article name: "Touch Tablet Cursor" ; original filename: KOALA.BAS) - KoalaPainter (cartridge) (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, KoalaPad version) - Shipped with many KoalaPad units for Atari computers - Koala Sketch by Charles F. Johnson - Little Red Riding Hood (Playground Software) by Futurehouse - Macro Edit / EDMAC (character set/screen editor) by John Oakley - Micro Illustrator (disk) by Steven Dompier for Koala, c1983 Island Graphics (Illustrator product by Island Graphics, KoalaPad version) - Shipped with many KoalaPad units for Atari computers - News Station (Reeve Software) - Pixel Artist Deluxe version 1.3 by Art Horan, 1988 - Planetary Defense (Charles Bachand and Tom Hudson for ANALOG #17 March 1984) - The Print Shop (Broderbund) - The Print Shop Companion (Broderbund) - RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout - Reader Rabbit (The Learning Company) - Rubber Stamp (XLEnt) - Smart Art II by Sean Puckett, 1984? - includes SMARTTAB patch for Touch Tablet/Koala support - includes TTCALIB.BAS Touch Tablet Calibration utility - Trails! - Typesetter (XLEnt) - Word Search (original author unknown) - upgrade, screen output and Touch Tablet support by Warren Lieuallen 10/86 - See also AtariMania lists of programs using the KoalaPad/Animation Station: http://www.atarimania.com /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-koala-pad_control_12_8_G.html http://www.atarimania.com /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-koala-pad_control_12_8_U.html Note that the Atari Touch Tablet, the KoalaPad Touch Tablet and the Suncom Animation Station are read by the computer in the same way that the computer receives data from paddle controllers, making software designed for paddles at least somewhat usable with these graphics tablets as well. See a separate section in this FAQ list for a list of programs that use paddle controllers. ------------------------------ Subject: 8.10) What programs support more than 64KiB RAM? This section by Andreas Koch -- Version 3.6 from June 2008 The following Atari 8Bit programs support more than 64KiB RAM, but still work alright (with multiple loads / disk-swaps) on standard 64KiB machines: a) "TOOLS" that support more than 64KiB RAM: A-Base (???, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Alphasys-Sample Software (Mirage/ANG, 64KiB XRAM, block E), A-Text (???, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Atari Writer 80 (Atari, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Atari Writer Plus (Atari, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), BASIC XE (OSS/ICD/FTE, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Bewe-DOS 1.x (Bewesoft, up to 1024KiB RD, all banks), Bibo-DOS 5.x (Compy-Shop, up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE), Bibo-DOS 6.x (Compy-Shop, up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE), Datei 4.x (N. Schlia, up to 256KiB XRAM, E/AE/26AE), Desktop Atari (HBSF, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Diskworker (Petsoft, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Diskcommunicator 3.x (Robert "Bob" Puff, if there is more than 64KiB RAM, answer the startup question with "Y" to use it as XRAM or with "N" to use it as RAMdisk; up to 256KiB XRAM: E/AE/ACE/8ACE; RD = DOS depend.), DOS 2.5 (Atari, original driver = 64KiB RD, block E; other drivers: up to 2x 128KiB RAMdisks, E/AE/8ACE), DOS II+D Version 6.x (S. D., up to 2x 128KiB RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), DOS XE 1.x (Atari, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Extended Atari BASIC (???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Extended Turbo BASIC (???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Fampy 2.3 (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128KiB XRAM, E/AE), Fampy 6.1 (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128KiB XRAM, E/AE), Howfen DOS 3.x (???, up to 128KiB XRAM, E/AE), Howfen Tape to Disk (???, up to 128KiB XRAM, E/AE), Inertia 2.x (MadTeam, up to 256KiB XRAM, E/AE/8ACE), Inertia 3.x (MadTeam, up to 256KiB XRAM, E/AE/(ACE) Inertia 4.x (MadTeam, up to 1024KiB XRAM, all combinations !) MIDITrack II (Hybrid Arts, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MIDI Pattern Editor (Raster, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MIDI Player (I. Kuczek, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MIDI Recorder (I. Kuczek, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MIDI Sequencer (M. Sygit, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MSC-IDE-Software (M. Belitz + S. Birrmanns, 64KiB XRAM, block E), My-DOS 3.x (Wordmark, up to ???k RAMdisk), My-DOS 4.x (Wordmark, up to 1024KiB RAMdisk, all banks), Paperclip II (Batteries Included, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Super DOS 2.x (P. Nichols, up to 2x 128KiB RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE), Super DOS 5.x (P. Nichols, up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), The [Sparta DOS] Browser (Tom Hunt, up to 1024KiB RAMdisk, RD-driver dep.), The Sound Utility (Tom Hunt, up to 1024KiB XRAM?, bug-free only under Sparta/Bewe-DOS, one can choose between 64KiB/ 128KiB/256KiB/576KiB/1088KiB RAM, alas all setups with more than 64KiB RAM produced some strange sound noises on my 576KiB XL when playing waves or samples...), Theta Music Composer 2.x (Jaskier, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Turbo DOS 1.x (Reitershan, up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), Turbo-DOS 2.x (Reitershan, up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), Top-DOS 1.x (R.K. Bennett, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), Top DOS Plus (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k RAMdisk), Top DOS Prof. (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k RAMdisk), Typesetter (XLent, 64KiB XRAM, block E), X-DOS 2.x (S. D., up to 256KiB RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), X-RAM 0.21 (Satantronic, tests up to 4 MiB!, all banks!) and most Text-Editors (e.g. Speedscript, Antic Writer, T-Edit, Page 6 Writer, Compy-Shop Editor, Textpro, etc.) as long as they are running under a DOS 2.x (meaning a DOS 2 derivative) or Sparta / Bewe DOS and the appropriate RAMdisk driver...; b) "Games" that support more than 64KiB RAM: Adalmar (Falk Buettner, 64KiB RAMdisk, block E), A.R. - The Dungeon (Philipp Price, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Bop N'Wrestle (Mindscape, 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Brundles (KE-Soft, up to 256KiB XRAM, E/AE/26AE), Human Torch & the Thing (Questprobe, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Johnny's Problem (ANG, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Megablast 1 (Thorsten Karwoth, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Mental Age (???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Problem Jasia (Mirage, 64KiB XRAM, block E), [The Amazing] Spiderman (Questprobe, 64KiB XRAM, block E); c) "Demos" that support more than 64KiB RAM: ABBUC Magazine Intro 52 (Heaven, 64KiB XRAM, block E), ABBUC Magazine Intro 55 (Heaven, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Anime 4ever (Sente Software Group, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE), Grafik + Sound Demo (Peter Sabath, 64KiB XRAM, block E), I. K. Plus Demo (???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Sweet Fantasy (Tight, 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Top 3 Demo (WFMH, "Veronika Part", 64KiB XRAM, block E); Thanks and credits for this subject go to: Bernhard Pahl, Russ Gilbert, Ron Hamilton, Mathy van Nisselroy and Miker for sharing some information with me. - Andreas Koch ------------------------------ Subject: 8.11) What programs require more than 64KiB RAM? This section by Andreas Koch -- version 3.6 from June 2008 The following Atari 8Bit programs require more than 64KiB RAM, and thus do not work at all (or not alright/bug-free) on standard 64KiB machines: a) "Tools" that require more than 64KiB RAM: 128KiB Memory Testers (quite many programs, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Bank/Mem.-Testers (quite many programs, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Sectorcopiers (quite many programs, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Utilities (HAPS PD 0031, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 192KiB Memory Testers (some public domain programs, 128KiB XRAM, blocks AE), 256KiB Memory Testers (Newell, ICD, etc., 192KiB XRAM, blocks ACE), 320KiB Mem. Testers 8ACE (AtariMagazin, TOMS, etc., 256KiB XRAM, blocks 8ACE), 320KiB Mem. Testers 26AE (Compy-Shop, etc., 256KiB XRAM, blocks 26AE), 576KiB Memory Testers (Peterson, TOMS, etc., 512KiB XRAM, blocks 8ACE), 1088KiB Memory Testers (Newell, TOMS, etc., 1MiB XRAM, blocks 02468ACE), 4160KiB Memory Tester (Newell, 4MiB XRAM, blocks 0123456789ABCDEF), APC Archiver 1.x (LBS/APC, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only!), APC Packer 1.x (LBS/APC, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only!), A. W. P. Super Menu (Ken Siders, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), A. W. P. XE Super Menu (Ken Siders, min. 192KiB XRAM, blocks ACE), Audio/Studio Master (Mirage/ANG, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only?), Boot Majster (Electron, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Boss X [Vers. 10.x] (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64KiB RAMdisk, block E; with MyDOS 4.x it supports up to 1MiB RD, subdirs and up to 16MiB HD part.), Boss XE [Vers. 8.x] (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64KiB RAMdisk, block E; with Turbo-DOS or MyDOS 4.5x it supports bigger RAMdisks, but no subdirs!), CAD XE (HAPS PD 0350, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Diskettenverwaltung XE (ABBUC PD 86, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Draw XE (ABBUC PD 387, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Dream Vision (ABBUC PD 480, 192KiB XRAM, blocks ACE?), Fraktale & Colorprint (P. Woetzel, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Grafik Zeilen Editor (HAPS PD 0296, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Hires Dump (ABBUC PD 113, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Inertia 3.x (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 256KiB XRAM, AE/ACE/26AE/8ACE with almost any DOS), Inertia 4.x (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 1024KiB XRAM - all possible bank combinations!), Macro Assembler XE (T. Karwoth, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Macro Assembler XE+ (T. Karwoth, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 1024KiB XRAM - all possible bank combinations!), Masher XE (???, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 256KiB XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE), Menu 130 (Les Howarth, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MIDITrack III (Hybrid Arts, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Monitors, Debuggers, ... (HAPS PD 0109, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Multi DOS 130 (Kuchera/Excellent, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Multi DOS 320 (Kuchera/Excellent, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only!), Multi Tasking OS (???, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), MTOS 256 (Tom Hunt, 192KiB XRAM, blocks ACE), MTOS XE (Tom Hunt, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Neo-Tracker 1.x (Epi, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; under MyDOS 4.5x or Sparta DOS X cartridge; it supports up to 1MiB XRAM, all bank combinations!) Newspaper Editor (HAPS PD 0294, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Protracker 1.5 (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 256KiB XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE), Rechnen fuer Kinder (ABBUC PD 85, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Rund um die RAMdisk (ABBUC PD 383, HAPS PD 1084, contains info texts and programs for upgrading the 800 or XL/XE and testing its XRAM up to 1 MiB; the docs use English language and provide detailed information for Axlon compatible 800 XRAM and Newell/Buchholz/Peterson compatible XL/XE XRAM), Sample Art XE (Mozart/WSL, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 1024KiB XRAM, all bank combinations, alas the program is faulty/buggy!), Shrink XE (P. Fitzsimmons, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Snapshot (???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Tape RAMdisk Drivers (Pokey, SAG, etc., 64KiB XRAM, block E), Text 130 (B. Russmann, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Textpro "+" [e.g. 4.54+] (Ronnie Riche, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Textpro 5.x (Ronnie Riche, 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Code Cruncher 2.x (Soused Teat, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Code Cruncher 3.x (Soused Teat, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Cruncher 5.x (MSL/Magnus, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), The Small Printery (W. Lojek, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 1024KiB XRAM, all bank combinations!), The [Sparta DOS] Wedge (Ed Bachmann, 64KiB XRAM, block E, sep. Antic!), The Works (Tom Hunt, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), Wuerttemberger Disk (ABBUC PD 361, HAPS PD 1050, 64KiB XRAM, block E; mainly/only because side 2 contains the XE version of Gizmo's castle), XL-2 (J.K. Picken, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; under MyDOS or Sparta DOS it supports up to 1024KiB XRAM !), Zeitungsredakteur (ABBUC PD 121, 64KiB XRAM, block E); b) "Games" that require more than 64KiB RAM: Castle of Blackthorne (T. Graef, 64KiB RD, block E), Cavepack XE (XE-version by K. Ezcan, 64KiB RD, block E), Computer Baseball (D. Blackwell, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Der Neffe (XE-version by ???, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Gizmo's Castle (XE-version by M. Kugler, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Kaiser II (128KiB version by C. S., 64KiB XRAM, block E), Kaiser II (320KiB version by C. S., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE), Minesweeper 1-4 (4 versions by J.R. Chicko, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Mister X (S. Soelbrandt, 64KiB RD, block E), Oelbaron (XE-version by ???, 64KiB RD, block E), Space Harrier (C. Hutt, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Strategy Baseball (HAPS PD 0302, 64KiB XRAM, block E), T-34 the Battle (ANG, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Yie Ar Kung Fu (???, 256KiB XRAM, blocks ???, get the latest versions from Fandal's or Homesoft's homepage...), Zargon XE (ABBUC PD 611, HAPS PD 0485, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Please note, that hackers, crackers and pirates also made file versions of (most of) the XE / XEgs 64KiB and 128KiB cartridges available. Due to cartridge bankswitching, a 64KiB XL/XE was enough for these super-cartridges; not so with the file versions, they do (mostly) require more than 64KiB memory... Next, there are also "un-official" (pirated, hacked, cracked, patched) cartridge versions of former disk-based games, that require XRAM, which they originally did not (example: Conan, the multi-stage disk-version by Datasoft requires 64KiB RAM, whereas the single-stage version of the Sunmark Multicart req. 128KiB RAM). It is quite likely, that more games will occur in the Atari scene with the same behavior... c) "Demos" that require more than 64KiB RAM: 130XE Artshow (HAPS PD 0013, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Autoshow (HAPS PD 0637, ABBUC PD 191, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Demo (S.A.G., 64KiB XRAM, block E), 130XE Impossible Demo (R. Haegemann, 64KiB XRAM, block E), 3D Scroll (Jaskier/TQA, 64KiB XRAM, block E), American Natives (Fox-1, 192KiB RD, RAMdisk = DOS dependant), Amiga Boink XE (B. Armour, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Animkom. meet B. V. (Animkomials + B.V., 64KiB XRAM, block E), (The) Asskicker (Shadows, 64KiB XRAM, block E; hold Select!), Back to Life 2 (Jaskier/TQA, 256KiB XRAM, auto-setup!), Base 33 (AIDS, 256KiB XRAM, hold SHIFT for setup!), Bill Pie Demo (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 256KiB XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames), BMW Animation (Mirko Sobe, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Brull (Pin/Trs, 1MiB XRAM for a sample demo), CES XE Demo (full 580 sectors version by XANTH, 64KiB XRAM, block E; includes the Swan-, Fuji-Boink- and Robot- Demo all in one file!), Cogito Demo (AIDS, uses blocks 8C, thus 8ACE only!), Critical Sounddemo (Innovative, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Danielle (Gr.9) Ani (B. Kendrick, 64KiB XRAM, block E), DoXEpin (AIDS, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Edelweiss Demo (A.R.+C.S.S.+S.V.L., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Ergo Bibamus (Quasimodos, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Extract Slideshow (Replay/Bit Busters, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Fat Bottomed Girls (???, 64KiB XRAM block E for a Queen sample), Forever 1ktro (New Generation, 64KiB XRAM block E for a 1KiB demo), Forsaken Love (New Generation, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE; simply delete "BANKS.DAT", reboot and create a new one for your kind of XRAM!), Glasshead Demo (A.R.+C.S.S., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Halle 1994: The Wormhole (Magic Arts, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Hardware Demo (A.R.+C.S.S., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Igor Demo (Side A) (MadTeam, 64KiB XRAM, block E - use 128k.BAT), Igor Demo (Side B) (MadTeam, 128KiB XRAM, blocks AE - use 192k.BAT), Igor Demo (Side A+B) (MadTeam, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only - use 320k.BAT), Imperial Sounddemo (Innovative, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE), Impossible but Real (MacGyver, 192KiB XRAM, auto-setup!), Incredible (Excellent, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Inside Out (Taquart, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Isolation Demo (M.E.C., 64KiB XRAM, block E), Journey Demo (Boot version by Polynomials, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 256KiB XRAM: AE/8ACE), Journey Demo (File version by MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E; supports up to 192KiB XRAM: AE/ACE), Journey into Sound (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Khai Et (AIDS, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, SHIFT for Setup!), Killer Whales Ani (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E, supports up to 256KiB XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames!), Landscape-XE Demo (Karl Pelzer, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Manga Ani (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), Megablast Sounddemo (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64KiB XRAM, block E), MTV's Danielle = Danielle (Gr.9) Ani, Nascar Ani (M. Sobe, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Nonjm Demo (Tight, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Numen Demo (Taquart, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup!), Ogluszacz Sounddemo (AIDS, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Owca Demo (Animkomials, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Owca 2 Demo (Animkomials, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Pacem in Terris (Quasimodos, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup), Parrot XMAS Demo (A. Ramos, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Pedrokko Sounddemos (a collection of 10 disks / 20 sides by Pedrokko, the player program assumes a 64KiB RD, block E), Raytracing Ani/128k (K. Pelzer, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Raytracing 320k (Elsni / S. Elsner, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only!), Raytracing 1088k (Solocoder of A.C.E., 1024KiB XRAM, works only on K.P. 1MiB Megaram III, 8 bootdisks, loading time approx. 17 minutes !!), Reditus Demo (Zelax, 192KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup), Render Ani (MadTeam, min. 64KiB XRAM, block E), Revenge of Hacker (Rasero Team, 128KiB XRAM, blocks AE), Running Cow ASCII Ani (MadTeam, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Sheol Demo (Bit Busters, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only!), Shiny Bubbles (XE version by B. Paul, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Stash 98 Demo (Rasero Team, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE via a buggy setup: 1) for 8ACE XRAM press A in the 1st or 2nd menu, 2) for 26AE press B in the 1st menu and C in the 2nd menu; don't use the CS auto-setup!), Starwars Demo (A.R.+C.S.S., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), The Wormhole (Magic Arts, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Timekeep(er) (New Generation, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE only! wait!), Tit Demo (Mad Team, 192KiB XRAM, auto-setup!), Too Hard 3 Demo (Animkomials, 128KiB XRAM, blocks AE), Too Hard 4 Demo (Animkomials, 256KiB XRAM, auto-setup!), Total Dazed (Tight, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Trabant Demo (A.R.+C.S.S., 256KiB XRAM, 26AE only!), Trip 6 (Shadows, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Turtles Demo (Ultra Software, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Ultra Demo (Taquart, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Ultra 2 Preview (Taquart, 64KiB XRAM, block E, unfinished!), Vengeance (Excellent, 64KiB XRAM, block E), Vent XE (Exc.+Pentagram, 64KiB XRAM, block E), WAF-Demo (W.A.F., diskside B = 64KiB XRAM, block E), Worms Demo (Datri, 256KiB XRAM, 8ACE otherwise buggy!), X-Demo (MadTeam, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE), X-Files Ani (MadTeam, 64KiB XRAM, block E), X-Files 2 (TV-Ani) (MadTeam, 256KiB XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE), Xyberscape XE (XE version by Bill Le Masurier, 64KiB XRAM, E), Zero Demo (New Generation, 64KiB XRAM, block E); Thanks and credits for this subject go to Russ Gilbert, Bernhard Pahl, Ron Hamilton, Mathy van Nisselroy, Stephan Pollok and Miker for sharing their information with me. Any corrections and/or updates are welcome... --Andreas Koch ------------------------------ Subject: 8.12) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari? This section by Andreas Koch. - S.A.M. - the Software Automated Mouth by Don't Ask Software (a software package; you can find it at Don's / the author's homepage: http://www.retrobits.net) - Softsynth (creates sounds and sound effects via modulation of the tv/monitor speaker; available from the ABBUC library); - MOD-Sounds (sound-MODulation, although I do not know any software to create such sounds on an 8-bit Atari computer, some programs to edit (Protracker) and playback (Inertia, Modplayer, Neotracker, etc.) these sounds do exist); ------------------------------ Subject: 8.13) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound? Section updates by mc: - POPS info updated 8/15/06 thanks to Lee Brilliant - Gumby Pokey Player info 10/27/2012 This section by Andreas Koch. There is already a lot of stereo software for the upgraded Atari computers available, of course most of these programs are limited to certain/special upgrades and merely perform their stereo effects on these items (with otherwise upgraded or non-upgraded Ataris, the sounds or programs will only play in mono): a) Software for the various stereo-upgrades: - 3 channels with one POKEY (POPS-software): As far as I know for this kind of upgrade, there merely exists a patched version of the Pokey Player program, I am not sure if there is anything else for it; anyway, refer to ANALOG #66, November 1988, pages 54-60; - Stereo with two computers (thus two POKEYs): As far as I know for this simple trick there merely exist two programs, they are "Perestroyka" and "Sky Network" by T.Liebich. In order to achieve the stereo effect, you have to boot/load one of these demos on two computers (connected to different TVs or monitors, there is no need to connect the computers to each other!). When done, press 1-5 on the first computer while pressing Shift-1-5 on the second computer. Meaning, if you want to hear the first sound in stereo then press 1 on computer 1 and press Shift-1 on computer 2 simultaneously (that's a little tricky, I know). If you want to hear sound 5 in stereo, then press 5 on computer 1 and Shift-5 on computer 2 simultaneously. Tricky at first, but sooner or later you will get the hang of it. Of course you can also connect the two Ataris to a hifi-system, using the sound output of one Atari for the left channel and the sound output of the other Atari for the right channel... - Stereo-sound with Stereo-Blaster Pro (Portronic/AMC): As far as I know there was at least one demo disk (early version was single-sided only, later versions were double-sided), that contained some demo-software, namely the simple "Stereo-demos" (by AMC, side 1) and the "Stereoblaster-Demo" (by HU-Soft, side 2 if available). The Stereoblaster demo was written in Turbo-BASIC and played back via Compiled-Turbo-BASIC, it uses Chaos Music-Composer Sounds (*.CMC) and a few of these provide stereo effects, if equipped with a stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system. The simple stereo-demos included some programs written in Atari BASIC, for example a (pong-like) bouncing ball and a flying helicopter. Equipped with a stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system, one could see the ball bouncing left and right and simultaneously hear the sound fx on the left or right channel. The helicopter started at the left side and produced a loud sound on the left channel, when it was flying to the right side, the sound faded on the left channel and got louder on the right channel, until the helicopter disappeared (and the sound completely faded away). There were some more of these simple demos available, but I don't remember them anymore. - Stereo with two POKEYs: There already exist dozens of sounds and demos, that support this upgrade, most of these programs were made in Poland, but a few sound-demos were also made in other countries. Anyway, the following programs support stereo via two POKEY chips: - Alf-Demo by the Unknown Base (Netherlands); - Alpha-Demo by GMG (Slovakia); - AMS-Stereo player by ??? (author unknown), USA; (there are at least two AMS-stereo-players, that let you play *.AMS sounds in true stereo or at least simulated stereo!); - Ballada sound by DJ V / BK (Poland); - Base 33 by AIDS (msx by Greg, Poland); - Chaos Music Composer version x.x patched by ??? , Poland; (=> the original version by Janusz Pelc / LK Avalon is only mono, but there is a stereo-patch available, as well as various patched CMC stereo-versions on the internet); - (many) *.CMC sounds created by one of the many stereo-versions of Chaos Music Composer; - Cogito-Demo by AIDS (Poland) - Do you see the light? sound-demo by Roemer of UNO (Germany); - Draconus, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK) (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!); - Dynakillers (Game) by GMG, Slovakia; - First of All (sound) by Raster, Czech Republic; - Gumby Stereo Player by Chuck Steinman - Patch of Pokey Auto-Player by Bob Retelle, itself a patch of Pokey Player by Craig Chamberlain (=> thus all Pokey Player / *.V sounds can be heard in stereo!); - Impossible but Real Demo by MacGyver (Poland); - King of Aggregat by X-Ray / Slight (Poland); - Megaplayer Versions 1.6 and 2.0 by MacGyver (Poland) (=> and thus all *.CMC, *.MPT, *.TMC, etc. sounds played with this sound-player tool can be heard in true or simulated stereo!); - Multi-Pro-Tracker 2.4s by Jaskier/Taquart, (original mono version by SoTE; thus *.MPT sounds can be generated in stereo!), Poland; - (many) *.MPT sounds created by the stereo-version of Multi Protracker; - Nazebany by DJ V / BK (Poland); - Overload sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland); - Raster Music Tracker 1.x by Raster, Radek Sterba (a PC program that creates mono or stereo *.RMT sounds that can be played back on the 8-bit Atari computer or any Atari 800/XL/XE emulator); - *.RMT stereo-sounds created by Raster Music Tracker; - Stereo-Patch for Softsynth by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands) (=> thus Softsynth will create stereo-sounds!); - Stereo Patch for World of Wonders by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands) (World of Wonders is a great Softsynth sound-demo!); - Still Alive (TMC-sound) by Greg, Poland; - Time sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland); - Theta-Music-Composer version 1.x by Jaskier/Taquart (=> thus *.TMC sounds can be generated in stereo!); - Theta-Music-Composer version 2.x by Jaskier/Taquart (supports 1, 2 or even 4 POKEY sound-chips !) - (most) *.TMC sounds created by Theta Music Composer; - Vanity sound by Kuchara / Excellent (Poland) ; - Worms (320KiB-Demo) by Datri, Czech Republic; - Zybex, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK) (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!); - that's all what I found so far... b) Software for other sound enhancements: - Enhanced-sound with Covox: As far as I know this upgrade will playback digitized or sampled sound in 8Bit resolution rather than in 4Bit resolution. The following programs support the Covox-Upgrade: - Inertia 2.x, a MOD-player by MadTeam; - Inertia 3.x, a MOD-player by MadTeam - Inertia 4.5, a MOD player by MadTeam; - Protracker 1.5, a MOD-editor and player by MadTeam; - NeoTracker 1.x, a MOD+NEO+SMP player by EPI/Allegresse; - That's all I have found so far; note that all these programs will still work with POKEY... ------------------------------ Subject: 8.14) What games support online action via modem? - Commbat, by Robert Schilling for Adventure International, 1981 - Computer Battleship, by John Babson and Bill Cleis - JellyBeans, by Chris Martin, 2004 - MIDI Maze, by Michael Park for Xanth F/X (prototype for Atari, 1989) - Also supports Hybrid Arts MIDIMate interface - Modem Chess, by Gary Heitz, 1986 - Tele-Chess, by Thomas McNamee and Pete Goodeve for Antic, May 1983 ------------------------------ Subject: 8.15) What programs support Atari computer networking? This section started by Andreas Koch. There are two different hardware add-ons which provide a "computer- network" (two or more Ataris linked together). Thus, there is software that supports either one or the other hardware (namely GameLink or GameLink-II). The following software supports the networking hardware: - GameLink (by DataQue, 1990): - Computer Battleship, by John Babson and Bill Cleis, as patched by Rick Detlefsen for GameLink - Tic-Tac-Two (a tic-tac-toe clone) by DataQue, 1990 - GameLink-II (by DataQue, 1993) / Multilink (by Bewesoft): - Maze of Agdagon (full version, 2-8 players) by The AGDA Group, 1993 - Multi-Dash (2-8 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft; - Multi-Race (2-16 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft; - Multi-Worms (2-8 or 2-16? players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft; - "Starter-kit" module to use in your own networking-games by Bewesoft (free use of this module is granted by Bewesoft/Jiri Bernasek); - Speed-Up by Radek Sterba - Speed-Up Gold by Radek Sterba ------------------------------ Subject: 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari? ARC.EXE for MS-DOS was released by System Enhancement Associates (SEA) around 1985. It will compress and store groups of files as one file, making it easier and quicker to download programs and support files at once. Because of the ease of use and availability of this program, it quickly became the de facto standard for file archives on Intel-based IBM machines. Files compressed and stored with ARC or a compatible utility are normally given the filename extender ".arc". The 8-bit Atari computers have several software utility options that are fully compatible with ARC.EXE, the most important being: Super UnArc 2.4 and Super Arc 2.4 - shareware by Bob Puff, released 01/31/89 Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/superarc.arc (complete package + docs) Also, SpartaDOS X includes a fully compatible ARC command for both creating and extracting .arc files. ------------------------------ Subject: 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there? It is now common, especially when working on Windows PCs or Macs, to work with Atari software as files or "images" containing the data from an entire disk, data cassette, or cartridge as duplicated from the native media for the Atari. Here is a list of file formats, arranged by their associated filename extensions. These are all filename extensions used to name files containing entire 8-bit Atari floppy disk images, cassette tape images, or cartridge images. .ATR -Image format invented by Nick Kennedy, for his SIO2PC project. Very similar to .XFD but with an added 16 byte header. This is the most common image format, used with most 8-bit Atari emulators running on other computer platforms. SIO2PC is at http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm .ATX -Image format invented by Jorge Cwik, for VAPI project. Goal of Vapi is the preservation of Atari software in its original unmodified form, including custom format or copy protection. http://vapi.fxatari.com/ .BIN -Same as .ROM, see below. .CAR -Cartridge ROM image file. Format includes information about cartridge type. Contains the 'CART' signature at the beginning of the file. .CAS -Cassette image format invented by Ernest R. Schreurs, for his Digital Cassette Image system (includes CAS2SIO, WAV2CAS, and CAS2WAV MS-DOS utilities. See: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/ The .CAS format was extended by Tomasz Krasuski, for his A8CAS system. See: http://a8cas.sourceforge.net/ More .CAS tools: http://sdq.czweb.org/atari/projects/tapeproj.html .DCM -Image format invented by Bob Puff for his Disk Communicator 3.2 utility. Used when working with native Atari hardware, but also supported by some Atari emulators. A compressed data format. DISKCOMM is at http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/DISKCOM.ARC .DCM specs at: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/diskcomm.zip .DD -Early filename extension used with double density disk images for use with the Xformer emulators. Replaced by the .XFD extension. .DI -Image format invented by Kolja Koischwitz & Christian Krueger for 800XL DJ, their 1050/XF551 disk drive emulator for the Atari ST/TT/Falcon. 800XL Deejay: http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/Emulators/800xldj.lzh .IPF -Interchangeable Preservation Format invented by the Software Preservation Society (SPS), http://www.softpres.org/. A platform agnostic format that is extremely low-level, representing the information as it would have been read by a drive head. Images are created on a modern computer using the KryoFlux USB-based floppy controller: http://www.kryoflux.com/ .PRO -Proprietary image format invented by Steven Tucker, for his APE ProSystem. http://www.atarimax.com/ .ROM ROM dump file, raw. Typically a cartridge ROM dump, but also used for an operating system ROM dump. .SCP -Image format invented by ICD, for SpartaDOS. Used with the external SpartaDOS command SCOPY, distributed with SpartaDOS 3.2. Used when working with native Atari hardware. A compressed data format. .SD -Early filename extension used with single density disk images for use with the Xformer emulators. Replaced by the .XFD extension. .XFD -"Xformer Floppy Disk" image format invented by Emulators, Inc. (Darek Mihocka) for the Xformer emulators (ST, PC). Known earlier, before support for arbitrary disk sizes was added, as .SD or .DD depending on the density of the imaged disk. The format consists simply of a raw sector dump of a disk. Used with ST Xformer, PC Xformer, and Xformer 2000 emulators. Xformer emulators are at http://www.emulators.com/ See also: Atari Disk Image FAQ (Steve Tucker) http://www.atarimax.com/ape/docs/DiskImageFAQ/ ------------------------------ Subject: 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software? This section by Russ Gilbert. Almost all commercial software for the 8-bit Atari computer is/was copy protected. For boot disks, this usually involved a large number of special formatting that couldn't be copied using ordinary sector copiers. Usually the boot process involved checking to see if a certain sector error occurred, then proceeding. If the error did not occur, the disk was a copy and would not work. Alphasys adds (2009.03): Some protection schemes involved special sector skewing, which involved special timing during loading, duplicate sector numbers with differing content, or tracks with more or less than the usual number of sectors. With duplicate sector numbers, I mean physical duplication, involving sector header code that is read by the drive only, not any part of the sector data transferred to the computer. For cartridges, usually the method of protection was to write to the cartridge area of memory and see if the value changed. If the value changed, the cartridge program was in RAM, not ROM and would fail to operate. For tapes, again a fair number of schemes were used. Some varied the speed at which the tape loaded. I'm not familiar with tape protection schemes. With all software media (cart, tape, disk), there may be program encryption, which must be decrypted before the program can run. This to make more difficult disassembly of the program. There were/are a number of products to defeat copy protection/allow copying of protected software for the 8-bit Atari computer. The most common way to defeat copy protection was to disassemble the software and revise sections of code so that the copy protection was defeated. A software with defeated copy protection is called a 'cracked' software. The basic procedure is to understand how cart/tape/disk software initializes, loads and runs. Usually make a file out of the software and 'follow the code', starting with loading of the program, to decryption to the actual running of the program. Today, it is unnecessary to copy original commercial 8-bit Atari computer software because it has already been defeated and may be found at a few FTP sites. Besides 'cracking' software, there were/are hardware devices to copy commercial protected software. The Happy 1050 and the Archiver, and probably other modifications to the 810, or 1050 allowed 'bit image' copying and reproduction of the special formatting that copy protected disks had. Alphasys (2009.03): For the Speedy, there is a special program called Speedy Backup, which can copy about 80% of the protected disks. Using these archiving disk drives, a copy of the original disk, including all special formatting and the original code is copied, thus making a copy protected copy, not cracked, just like the original. For cartridges, copying could involve cracking or again there were/are products to reproduce the cartridge and simulate a ROM. Or the cartridge might be copied and burned on the correct type of EPROM, to make a plug-in cartridge. 'The Impersonator' and the 'Pill' are two cartridge copy schemes that copy the cartridge to a file, then don't change the code, but use a 'dummy cartridge' to fool the software into thinking there is a ROM present. Basic tools for copying, then cracking, cartridges and disks are a sector editor and disassembler. Cartridges are usually most easily dumped using a special OS, like Omnimon, to interrupt the cartridge and dump memory to disk. There are a few public domain cartridge copiers that have the user plug the cartridge in when the program is running, I don't believe these public domain cartridge copiers are very good or very wise to use. So, the basic answer to 'how do I make a copy of my copy protected commercial software' is don't bother. Find it on the net. There is one exception, in that this 'solution' involves a minimum of effort and is relatively safe. I refer to 'Chipmunk' and 'Black Patch' software to make cracked boot disk copy of commercial disks. HOWEVER, even if you use these two commercial archival tools, be sure you write protect your originals, and be careful not to accidentally write to the original disk. Finally, I'll mention a very modern (I mean 1997) product. The APE ProSystem, by Steven Tucker, in the registered version of this shareware allows making disk images called 'Pro' images. APE (Atari Peripheral Emulator) requires a cable, called the SIO2PC cable, that connects the 8-bit Atari computer 13 pin serial port to a serial port on the IBM PC clone. To make 'Pro' images, a special adapter cable is needed, not just the 'standard' SIO2PC cable. The 'Pro' image can 'capture' the copy protection of an original commercial disk. The 'Pro' image can then be loaded into an 8-bit Atari computer using the APE registered version software, thus backing up your original disk software. Note the 'Pro' image will only be of use to person(s) owning registered APE software and 'Pro' adapter cable. ------------------------------ Subject: 10.1) What noncommercial telecommunications programs are there? This section lists widely-used or notable noncommercial telecommunications programs for the Atari. These programs could be used for accessing dial-up online service providers, or for connecting to a dial-up bulletin board system (BBS) hosted by another home computer. Such activities were very popular on the Atari computer, especially from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s. AMISTERM, by Craig Chamberlain and Jim Steinbrecher, 3/17/82 - Early recommendation for accessing an AMIS BBS - Upload/download (text only) - Requires R: handler JTERM, by Frank C. Jones, 1982-1984 - Originally based on a short BASIC program by Henrique Veludo published in Compute! #9, Feb81 - Developed in cooperation with ARMUDIC BBS author Frank Huband - Upload/download (text only) - Requires R: handler - Version 3.1, June 19, 1982 - Version 3.2, July 10, 1982, published in Compute! #32, Jan83 - Version 3.8 published in Compute! #56, Jan85 - Added support for 1200 bps modems ATERM, by Marshall Abrams, 10/1982 - Simple terminal simulator (no specific terminal emulation) - Upload/download (text only) - Requires R: handler AMODEM, by Jim Steinbrecher, 1982-1984 - Designed for accessing RCP/M and Atari bulletin board systems, and as a replacement for AMISTERM. - XMODEM file transfers (standard protocol by Ward Christensen) - Early releases: the major versions <2.0, 3.0, 4.0> were released by the author, while the "sub-versions <3.1, 3.2, 4.1...> were mostly prepared as personal modifications by others. 4.0 was released in 10/82. - Atari MODEM Ver. 4.2 - AMODEM4.BAS:VER 4.2; 11-24-82 (AMODEM42.BAS) - Requires R: handler - Atari MODEM-835/850 Ver. 4.2 - AMODEM42.835:VER 4.2;01-15-84 (AMOD1030.BAS) - Requires T: handler; distributed with the author's 835/850 Handler (alias AUTO1030.OBJ) - Unofficial release "SUPERTERM 835/1030 MODEM" distributed with slightly modified version of the Steinbrecher 835/850 Handler (SUPRTERM.AUT) - "AMODEM Plus" -- various versions released by others based on AMODEM 4.2 TSCOPE / MSCOPE / RSCOPE, by Joe Miller, 1983-1986 - "This (limited-feature) telecom program was designed to be used with the CompuServe Information Service." - Supported some CompuServe VIDTEX terminal program functions, including: - UPL and DOW commands for file transfers using the CIS 'A' Protocol - Online color graphics - TSCOPE original release, 25 Dec 83 - Integrated T: handler supports both 850-based and 835/1030 modems - Does not work with the P:R: Connection interface - MSCOPE, 18 May 85 - Features of TSCOPE, but integrated modem driver is for MPP modems - RSCOPE, 15 Apr 86 - Features of TSCOPE without integrated modem driver, requires R: handler Kermit for the Atari Home Computer, 1983-1984 - Kermit upload/download file transfers, DEC VT52 terminal emulation - v1.1 by John Howard Palevich (1984/01/09) - Official port of the Columbia University Kermit Project software - Released as Action! source code, compiles into one of two versions: - For the Atari 850 and the DC-Hayes Smartmodem, with auto-dial support - For the Atari 1030 modem - Requires R: or T: handler as appropriate - Available: http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/archive.html#atari - v1.2 Kermit/1030 release by John Howard Palevich, 1984 (aliases: KERMIT1030 or KBIN.HEX) - Requires T: handler - v1.3 Atari/850 Kermit release by Jim Dahlberg, 1984 - Requires R: handler TERM1030, by Matthew S. Arrington, 1984-1985 - XMODEM upload/download - Version 2.0 (1984?) requires T: handler - Distributed with TERM1030.AUT, a version of Steinbrecher's 835/850 Handler as slightly modified to automatically load and run a file named ".RUN" from disk after the driver is loaded. - Version 3.0 (1985) requires T: handler - Distributed with "Antic's T-handler for: TERM1030" (THANDLER.OBJ) which is a version of Steinbrecher's 835/850 Handler modified to work as AUTORUN.SYS on a DOS 2 disk with MEM.SAV created, in combination with TERM1030.BAS on that disk. - Ver. 4.2R by Rich Schmitt, 5/1/85 - Requires R: handler; R.BIN or 'RHANDLER2' recommended. DiskLink, by Ken Fowkes, 1984 (alias: Disk 'o Link) - Supports file transfers between two Atari computers running this program in 2 modes: ASCII text and modified XMODEM protocol. - Thanks to nonstandard XMODEM implementation, allows two users to type back and forth (in a somewhat halting fashion) DURING file transfer. - Integrated T: handler supports both 850-based and 835/1030 modems VT-10-Squared (VT10^2 or VT10SQ), by Alexander M. Stevens and David L. Bailey - DEC VT100 terminal emulation, 80-column screen (software handler) - Version 0.6, 1984? (VT100.OBJ) - Both 850-based and 835/1030 modems supported via integrated handler derived from R.BIN. - Instructions include a program to remove the integrated R.BIN to create VT10SQ.OBJ, either with an integrated MPP R: handler (distributed as the separate file MYHAND.OBJ), or without integrated R: handler to be used with the A.I.D. RHAND.OBJ R: handler for the R-Verter. - Version 0.7, 1985? - VT10SQ.XMO with integrated R.BIN, or VT10NH.XMO without R: handler - Adds some VT-100 features and corrects some bugs in order to facilitate operation with UNIX and the vi editor. - Adds a capability to transmit even or odd parity. - Version 0.7 modified for XL by K. Knutson - Earlier releases require 400/800 OS or OS translator - VT100 Terminal Emulator, modified and revised version by Alec Benson, 1986 (VT100.OBJ or VT100NR.OBJ) - Added VT52 emulation AMODEM 7, by Trent Dudley, 1985-1987 - Rewritten from AMODEM 4.2 and AMODEM Plus releases - Requires R: or T: handler - AMODEM 7.0 (5/85) features joystick input, SHIFT-CTRL key macros, adjustable delay rate, XMODEM transfers. Exclusive R: handlers: - AMOD70.AUT loads the 850 R: handler - AMODMPP.OBJ R: handler for MPP modems. Derived from the DeMar handler. - AMODEM 7.1, 8/12/85 Exclusive modem device handlers: - R850.ATR (executable, not a disk image) loads the 850 R: handler - MPP.ATR (executable, not a disk image) R: handler for MPP modems. A modified version of the MPP Rev. 1.0 MINI R: handler which is compatible with XL/XE computers - T1030.ATR (executable, not a disk image) loads the 1030 T: handler - RBIN.ATR (executable, not a disk image) version of R.BIN combined R: handler for 850-based and 835/1030 modems - AMODEM 7.2, 12/1/85 Exclusive modem device handlers: - MPPHANDL.A72 R: handler for MPP modems (essentially identical to MPP.ATR) - AUTO1030.72 loads the 1030 T: handler - AMODEM 7.3 XE, requires BASIC XL or BASIC XE, 12/85 - AMODEM 7.2R, for the R-Time 8 cartridge, 2-Feb-86 Exclusive modem device handler: - MPPHANDL.AM7 R: handler for MPP modems (essentially identical to MPP.ATR) - AMODEM 7.4, 15-Mar-87, features XMODEM/CRC and YMODEM file transfers, word wrapping, an edit window, improved autodial scanning and macros; support for: SpartaDOS, R-Time 8, BASIC XE. - Distributed with modem device handlers: BOOT850.COM, MPPHNDLR.COM, BOOT1030.COM, THANDLER.COM, RHANDLER.COM - AMODEM 7.50, 14-Jun-87 (final release) - Distributed with modem device handlers: BOOT850.COM, MPPHNDLR.COM, BOOT1030.COM, THANDLER.COM, RHANDLER.COM Express!, by Keith Ledbetter, 1985-1986 - Strengths: auto-dialer and reliable XMODEM transfers - Version 3: XMODEM/CRC, ability to download .BIN files on Compuserve using XMODEM, VIDTEX mode for CompuServe cursor positioning, R-Time 8 support - Each version includes an integrated modem handler - Original version: 1030 Express! (September 1985) - Integrated T: handler - 850 Express! 3.0 release date: 9/24/86 (earlier releases include 1.1) - Integrated R: handler - 1030 Express! 3.0 release date: 11/1/86 (earlier releases include 2.0, 2.1) - Integrated T: handler - MPP Express! 3.0 release date: 12/1/86 (earlier releases include 1.1) - Integrated R: handler is Chilcott MPP handler - Also the basis for SX Express! from Atari (1988) and for the Express! cartridge from Orion Micro Systems (1990) VTERM V10.4.86, by Joe Hitchens, 1986 - DEC VT52 terminal emulation, 80-column pannable (40-column visible) screen, capture, Upload/download (text only) - Requires R: handler OmniCom, by CDY Consulting (David Young), 1986-1987 - VT10SQ was used as an early model - 80-column screen (software handler), VT100 emulation, XMODEM, Kermit, ASCII send, capture mode, screen dump - Requires R: handler. Distributed with the ATARISRS.232 variation of R.BIN as extracted from VT-10-Squared. - 1986 (Nov/Dec) release required OmniView Operating System (chip) installed - 4/1987 release requires no special OS Kermit-65, by John R. Dunning, 1987-1990 - Kermit file transfers, VT100 or VT52 terminal emulation (or none), Atari standard screen, 80-column pannable (40-column visible) like VTERM, or 80-column graphics like VT10SQ - Port of Kermit-65 for Commodore 64 - Two versions of each release: - K65.COM or KERMIT.COM: Integrated 850 R: autoloader - K65NR.COM or KERMITNR.COM : Requires R: handler - Releases: 3.1 8/6/1987, 3.3 10/20/1987, 3.5 4/1990, 3.6 4/1990, 3.7 5/1990 DeTerm, by Jim Dillow, 1987-1988 - XMODEM file transfer, full Telenet PC Pursuit support, Breakout game playable while uploading, downloading or waiting for a connection - Several versions: DeTerm XM301 (DTXM) / DeTerm MPP (DTMPP) / DeTerm SX212 (DTSX) each have a built-in modem handler; DeTerm 850 (DT850) is to be appended to an 850 R: autoloader; DeTerm (plain) requires R: handler PC-Term, by Rick Hunter, 1988 - Designed espeically for Telenet PC Pursuit - XMODEM, XMODEM/CRC, YMODEM, or CMODEM (CMODEM protocol by Jerry Horanoff of Carina Software Systems) file transfers - Dialer, capture, print-screen - 850-based or SX212 modem required (integrated SX212 handler by Jim Dillow) - Version 3.1, 10/14/88 BobTerm 1.2x, 1990-1993, shareware by Bob Puff - XMODEM, XMODEM/CRC, XMODEM-1k, CIS Fast XMODEM (BobTerm exclusive for use only on CIS), YMODEM, FMODEM (YMODEM but with 4KiB block size) file transfers - VT52 terminal emulation (odd or even parities) with CompuServe VIDTEX cursor positioning - Floating buffer size (depending on machine and DOS), chat window with recall, online/real-time clock, R-Time 8 support, dialing system - Modular design: distributed with an XEP80 driver and with a command processor module for SpartaDOS 3.2 or SpartaDOS X - Integrated 850 R: autoloader; also supports and distributed with separate R: handlers for most possible modem options, most written by Bob Puff - Version 1.21 final full release, 4/27/1990: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/ - Version 1.22 05/1990 executable, final version update for real hardware: ftp://ftp.pigwa.net/stuff/collections/holmes%20cd/Holmes%203/LACE/LACE021A.ATR ftp://ftp.pigwa.net/stuff/collections/holmes%20cd/Holmes%203/LACE/LACE021B.ATR - Version 1.23 03/1993 executable, updated version for use with emulators: http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/datacom/bobt123.lzh or http://members.chello.nl/becotel/atari/software.html - Earlier releases: v.1.02 4/1989, v.1.10 6/1989, v.1.20 4/1990 VT850, by Curtis Laser, 1991 - VT100 terminal emulation, with select VT102 features and VT200 series keyboard support. Capture file function. - Supports the XEP80 (joystick port 1) and the CX85 (joystick port 2) - Display is either 39 columns in GR.0 with custom character set, or 80/132 columns (authentic VT100 horizontal scrolling for >80 columns) on the XEP80 - Requires R: handler - Release versions: B0, B1 ANSITerm, by Robert Sinclair, 1991-1992 - IBM terminal emulation program with VT100 mode - ATARI, ASCII, or ANSI modes - XMODEM send/receive, dump, capture, dialer - Requires R: handler. Distributed with handlers for: 850, P:R: Connection, SX212 - Version 1.0 released 24-JUN-92 FlickerTerm 80, by Clay Halliwell, 1993-1995 - High-speed ANSI terminal emulator - ASCII, IBM PC, or VT100 modes - 80-column screen uses two alternating Graphics 0 screens - Print-screen, Joystick/CX85 Keypad, macros - Requires R: handler - Releases: v0.37 07/07/94; v0.381 11/04/94; v.0.51 6/27/1995 Ice-T, by Itay Chamiel, 1994-2013 - Complete VT102 and ANSI-BBS emulation, including boldface/blink support - Supports up to 19,200 baud, with no data loss - 80-column screen (GR.8 software handler) - XMODEM/CRC, XMODEM-1k, YMODEM, YMODEM-g, ZMODEM download protocols - ASCII upload, 16KiB capture buffer, 16KiB scrollback buffer - Auto-dialer, with a directory of up to 20 numbers - Text file viewer, Fine scroll, Print screen - Requires R: handler - Ice-T 800 v1.1, October 1994: - Reduced features, but only requires 48KiB 400/800 - Ice-T XE 2.72, February, 1997 - Full feature set, requires an XL/XE with at least 128KiB RAM - Ice-T XE 2.73, April 14, 2012 - Available: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/196599-ice-t-xe-273-released/ - Ice-T XE 2.74, September 24, 2013 - Available: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/217052-ice-t-xe-274-released/ - Ice-T XE 2.75, October 1, 2013 - Available: www.atariage.com/forums/topic/217539-ice-t-xe-276-released/ - Ice-T XE 2.76, October 10, 2013 Term-80 / Term80, by Tom Hunt, 1995-1996 - (Not to be confused with the unrelated Term 80 by Mark Gamber, 12/1/88) - Designed for calling IBM ANSI bulletin boards at the highest speeds supported by the MIO and Black Box. Default 14,400 baud. - Hyperspeed R: handler by Len Spencer recommended for MIO users - Requires one of: 1- Modem connected to a Black Box or MIO 2- Either a hard drive (connected to a Black Box or MIO) or a RAMdisk (modem connected to a P:R: Connection, 850, or similar interface) 3- Both a (hard drive or RAMdisk) AND modem connected to a Black Box or MIO - Requires SpartaDOS (3.2d or 3.2g/gx) - 80-column screen (GR.8 software handler) - Dialer, YMODEM receive/send - Modular design, distributed with modules for: XMODEM/CRC and XMODEM-1k receive, capture, change baud rate - Releases: 8.15.95 Version 1.4 was 1st general release; 8.19.95 Version 1.5; 8.25.95 Version 1.6 - 5.24.96 Version 1.9 BETA was distributed to testers with several modules for use with Internet email and lynx servers via a dial-up telnet service. (Direct access to a telnet server is (was) sometimes provided as part of a dial-up SLIP/PPP account from an Internet service provider.) - Available: http://atariage.com/forums/topic/180427-term80/#entry2257913 ------------------------------ Subject: 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari? Contributors to this section include: Winston Smith, Steven Sturza, Chad Hendrickson, Don Fanning, Matt Singer, Pete Davis, Jeff Williams, Rod Roark "A BBS, plain and simple, is some hobbyist setting up their own computer to answer incoming calls from other hobby computers. The visiting person leaves messages on this computer for other visitors, plays games while visiting, sends and receives files, and all that." -- Greg Goodwin, 2005 The 8-bit Atari was popular for hosting a dial-up Bulletin Board System (BBS). This section attempts to list all BBS programs for the Atari. For most programs listed, a link is provided to the corresponding section at http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ which is a comprehensive collection of BBS information, screenshots, and downloads collected by Jason Scott. o AMIS (Atari Message & Information System) AMIS by Tom Giese was the first BBS program for the 8-bit Atari, released either fall 1981 or some time in 1982. Written in BASIC. It included designs for a ring-detector. You needed a sector editor and had to allocate message space by hand, hex byte by hex byte. The AMIS BASIC source code proved a popular starting point for a number of popular AMIS variations: * AMIS ("Standard AMIS"), by Tom Giese, 1981 or 1982 Public domain from CLAUG (Chicago) For Hayes Smartmodem connected via 850 interface http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/AMIS/ * MACE AMIS, by Larry Burdeno and Jim Steinbrecher Public domain from MACE (Michigan) http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/MACEAMIS/ * Fast AMIS, by Stan Subeck & Susie Subeck Public domain from Valley Girl BBS (Chicago) According to Antic v3n9Jan85: - Built-in modem commands for a Hayes Smartmodem. - Requires some modification to run with an MPP, Signalman Mark 7 or Mark 12 modem. - Requires a different method of auto-answer than other BBS programs, and demands a different setting of the modem's internal DIP switches. - Message files compact automatically. http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FASTAMIS/ * Carnival BBS, by ??????? - "essentially AMIS with an overlay to allow for private messages and passwords." --Antic v3n9Jan85 - "demands a large amount of disk space and requires every bit of memory your system has." --Antic v3n9Jan85 http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARNIVAL/ http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n4/communications.html http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n9/communications.html * Reed Audio BBS, by Todd Gordanier, 1986 - A modified version of Carnival BBS that added multiple forum support & support for the Atari 1030 modem by way of a hardware ring detector (relay). (wikipedia) * Comet AMIS, by Matt Pritchard and Tom Johnson http://bbslist.textfiles.com/704/oldschool.html - Home was Comet AMIS of Algonic, MI - Originally MPP AMIS by Matt Pritchard, for MPP modems only (John DeMar of New York State wrote the MPP drivers), then modified to be used with other types of standard modems. - Some heavy involvment of Trent Condellone in certain features - The final version featured many automated tasks, usage logs, passwords, private mail, multiple message bases and support for hard drives and MYDOS, and was on the cutting edge of AMIS/Atari 8-bit BBS technology. (wikipedia) * AMIS XM301, by Mike Olin and Mike Mitchell (Catspaw Software Systems) - Written in BASIC XE (wikipedia) * TODAMIS 1.0, by Trent Dudley, 1986 - for 1030/XM301 o ADCM BBS - Version 1.00 (C) 1985 ADCM Systems - (C) ADCM Systems Version 1.35 - January 15th, 1986 - For use with the Pocket Modem by BOT Engineering - jacobus writes (11/2010): "Features a command driven interface, private mail, public message board, upload and downloads. Handles up to 255 users up to 500 baud." "The author is Julius Oklamcak" - Info & download: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/172034-adcm-bbs/ o ARMUDIC, by Frank Huband http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ARMUDIC/ From the Downtown Washington Atari Users Group of Washington, D.C. Greg Leslie writes "It was written (in BASIC with machine language subroutines) by Frank Huband, and the name came from the numbers used to dial the original BBS (276-8342). o ATABBS - Atari Bulletin Board System Rod Roark writes (3/12/03): This is really straining my memory -- don't recall exactly when I wrote the thing (maybe '80 or '81), but as far as I know ATABBS was the world's first BBS for the Atari 400/800. I ran it out of my condo in Atlanta on a 48KiB 400 with a 90KiB floppy drive and a 300 bit/s Hayes Smartmodem. The 48KiB memory module was a third party add-on, not Atari's. It was written in Atari BASIC with a few bytes of machine language thrown in. o AtariLink -- by Pab Sungenis. From his blog at http://atari8programming.blogspot.com/ on 3/20/06: In 1985-1986 I wrote and eventually released the AtariLink BBS software. This came out of necessity, since most Atari BBS programs at the time (especially FoReM and its bastard children) didn't fully support the 1030 modem that I used (or the XM301 that followed afterward). I eventually adapted the program to work with Atari's 1200 bit/s SX212 modem when that was released, and in the process threw the program open to just about every modem out there. AtariLink floated in the wild, passed from BBS to BBS for a while, before an Atari magazine (I forget which one) distributed the software as its disk of the month. o ATKeep -- An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS, by Brent Barrett http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ATKEEP/ ATKeep is a Citadel-like BBS system for eight-bit Ataris. ATKeep runs under SpartaDOS and requires BASIC XE and 128KiB of RAM. Originally "MBBBS (Message Base Bulletin Board System) 1.0, March 24th, 1986" MBBBS was changed to Atari Keep, or, ATKeep for short, around version the time version 4.0 was released (June 15, 1986). ATKeep 7.0 finally took the aide and cosysop commands out of a menu section and put them into extended commands, where they belonged. It also added a SYSOP level command set. Users were no longer "users" "aides" or "cosysops," they had become level "A" (SYSOP) through level "Z" (READ ONLY). The system had become extremely complex. Public, hidden OR password protected PRIVATE rooms. Each room now had its own access level (thus keeping people of lower level from getting in EVEN if they knew the room name). Each room was assigned a RWRT (or Read WRiTe status), which determined who could enter messages in it, and whether or not public or private messages, or both were to be allowed. Before version 7.0, ATKeep only worked with the Atari 1030 or XM301 modems. ATKeep 7.0 was rewritten to accommodate the 850 or PRC interface allowing use of any Hayes compatible modem. ATKeep version 7.50 was released (1987), was version 8 released? o BBCS -- Bulletin Board Construction Set, by Scott Brause/Antic, 1985 http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ABBCS/ A machine language program, developed as the Jersey Atari Computer Group (JACG) BBS system. BBCS was known for its great flexibility. The sysop was offered easy customization by the use of menus. Many BBSes before it required that you had to actually change the BASIC code in order to customize your BBS. Unfortunately, it also suffered from a reputation for stability problems. o BBS Express! -- 1986-1989, Keith Ledbetter/Orion Micro Systems http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/BBSEXPRESS/ Written in compiled Action!. 835/1030/XM301 and 850 versions. o BBS Express! Professional ("Pro!")--6.0b 1999, Lance Ringquist/Video 61 http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/BBSEXPRESSPRO/ Originally released in 1988 by Keith Ledbetter and Chris King from Orion Micro Systems. bf2k+ wrote (May 2010) that version 2.1a was the last version compiled by Keith Ledbetter before he sold it. Version 5.0 Copyright 1995 by K-Products (Bob Klaas) credited to: Stephen J. Carden, Keith Ledbetter, and Chris King Currently owned by Lance Ringquist/Video 61. Written in 100% machine language. Requires XL/XE, SpartaDOS 3.2+, hard drive highly recommended, or at least a large RAMdisk. R-Time 8 is fully supported. o Carina BBS, Jerry Horanoff http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARINA/ o Carina II BBS -- v2.7 (1995), David Hunt/Shadow Software http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARINA/ Originally developed by Jerry Horanoff; a complete re-write of Carina BBS. Requires an XL or XE computer, at least 500KiB of storage capacity (including RAMdisk and drives), and SpartaDOS version 2.3 or greater. Recommended: 192KiB RAMdisk or greater, and an R-Time cartridge. Fully supported: An MIO interface and a hard drive. Pete Davis writes (15 Aug 2002): Carina was a pretty powerful BBS system. Though it was written in BASIC (with a number of machine language routines), it was expandable and was able to load new BASIC programs with the BBS running. In fact, it was quite modular and would load different sections of the BBS at runtime. I actually used it when I ran a BBS some time back. o FoReM BBS -- Friends of Rick E. Moose BBS. Developed/sold by Matthew R. Singer. http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FOREM/ Versions that operate with the Atari 850, the ATR 8000 CP/M interface, and other configurations. Written in Atari BASIC. Matt Singer writes: FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS. When multiple message areas were added the name was extended to FoReM 26M. Then, When OSS released BASIC XL the program was rehacked and called FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most of the Assembler routines (where is he now?). o FoReM MPP BBS -- developed by Matt Singer, sold by MPP FoReM BBS version for the MPP direct-connect modems. o FoReM 26M BBS -- developed/sold by Matt Singer. FoReM BBS updated to support multiple message area. o FoReM XL BBS -- developed/sold by Matt Singer. FoReM 26M updated to take advantage of BASIC XL from OSS. o FoReM XE BBS -- developed by Matt Singer This version of FOREM BBS requires the commercial BASIC XE cartridge in order to run. It is in the public domain and can import and export messages from the Atari PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only, control ATASCII graphics are reserved for message data-structure bytes). o FoReM XE Professional BBS / FoReM XEP BBS -- by Len Spencer http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FOREMXE/ A re-write of FoReM XE BBS, last version was 5.4, Jan 5 1993. FXEP requires an XL/XE computer with at least 128KiB of memory, the BASIC XE cartridge from OSS/ICD, SpartaDOS 3.2 (this program will NOT work with any other version), and at least 500KiB of storage. FXEP is available at: http://www.lenardspencer.com/Lenspencer/fxep.html o Marsh BBS -- written by Matt Arrington http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/MARSH/ Primarily written in machine language. "very structured and very customizable at the same time" - Brian A. Diaz o MBBBS (Message Base Bulletin Board System) -- early name for ATKeep, see above o NITE-LITE BBS -- Paul Swanson's BBS with RAMdisk. http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/NITELITE/ Paul Swanson was a programmer from the Boston, Massachusetts, USA, area. "1983: Nite-Lite B.B.S. goes on the air. (Was it running A.M.I.S. ?) It is called "Nite-Lite" because the computer monitor casts an eerie glow about the room. 1984: Paul Swanson writes his own BBS hosting software for the Atari 8-bit computer. He names it "Nite-Lite". The Nite-Lite BBS hosting software goes on to be the most successful commercial BBS software ever written for the Atari 8-bit computer. 1989: Nite-Lite BBS puts in a second line. (MichTron boards eventually take the place of all of the Atari Nite-Lite boards.)" - Winston Smith This BBS was the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul Swanson called a "V:" device for "virtual disk". This BBS was written in Atari BASIC and required a joystick hardware "dongle" device. This was notable as being one of the first Atari 8-BIT BBSs that could actually go for a week without having to be rebooted. Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari "very long string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous). The BBS would only have problems (for the most part) if this string became corrupted. o OASIS (the commercial version) / OASIS Jr. (the public domain version) http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/OASISIV/ http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/OASISJR/ The original OASIS BBS System was written by Rich Renner and Ralph Walden with tech support and input from Leo Newman. It was first published by OASIS BBS Systems (Renner/Walden/Newman) in 1986, and distributed by Leo Newman. Later, the rights were transferred to Glenda Stocks/Z INNOVATORS, then later (1991) to Jeff Williams ("Alf"). All machine language. OASIS is very crash-resistant and comes with a "dial out" screen so that the Sysop can use the BBS as a terminal program to call and fetch files without having to bring the BBS down and reload a terminal program. OASIS supports "Door programs" which it refers to as "OASIS PAL modules". An excellent message system, and a complex file system. It consists of "file libraries" with suites of "file types". There is quite a bit of overhead involved in performing a download (which may be a good thing, as it discourages file hogs). OASIS IV performs networking. SpartaDOS 3.2x recommended, but any DOS supported. R-Time 8 clock cartridge supported. Glenda Stocks writes at http://world.std.com/~snet/glenda.htm : I purchased the source code rights to OASIS and began marketing the BBS software to Atari 8-bit enthusiasts around the world. I felt that I had the superior BBS software because I had programmed in the ability to run external programs, including online games and user surveys. I also had added color prompts for IBM clone users who called Atari boards running my OASIS software. Sometime in 1991...I sold the rights to OASIS to a man in Canada.. Jeff Williams ("Alf") writes: (12/6/02) OASIS was around prior to either PRO or BBS Express! IIRC. I don't know when exactly it showed up, version 3.09 was the first one I remember seeing. What made it nifty was it was very fast, being all assembler, and having some different features that things like Forem & Carina didn't have. Compared to something like Forem MPP at the time, it was kind of amazing. Ralph Walden sold it to Glenda Stocks, who chopped it up into modules and sold it as ver 4.7. PRO was out by then, and was a much more complete offering imo. Glenda wrote some modules for 4.7, but it never really went anywhere because the architecture was so cramped with her changes. Eventually she gave up and sold me the source. I looked it over and realized it was a mess and nothing was going to happen with it. I worked on a version 5 for a while, but never made much progress. o Puff BBS -- by Robert (Bob) Puff http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/PUFFBBS/ "came with a hardware component to both provide ring detect for the Atari (none existed in the modem) and to serve as a hardware key/dongle associated with the software." o SMART BBS -- by Marco Benton http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/SMARTBBS/ This program is written entirely in BASIC. It expects to be running under a SpartaDOS environment. This BBS program uses a "modem clock string" rather than an R-Time 8 cartridge in order to retrieve the current time. It also comes with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage". o TART-BOARD -- by Bob Alleger Early Atari BBS. o TCPIP Express -- by ILS - Integrated Logic Systems - Stephen J. Carden http://www.realdos.net/prodtcpip.html This upgrade is to the BBS Express Professional. This version is designed to function on the Internet and Multiplexer, though neither is required. Targeted at the serious, big-system Internet SysOp. Will ONLY run on SpartaDOS 3.2x or greater or RealDOS. TDLINE must be installed, and the R-Time 8 is fully supported. Written in 100% machine language. o XeBBS+ -- by Jonathan Taylor http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/XEBBS/ for the Atari 130XE / Expanded 800XL, required BASIC XE, designed to work with the SupraDrive hard disk. "used the Automatic Modem Processor (AMP) code from FoReM XE, but was otherwise written from scratch." - Jonathan Taylor o 835 & 1030 Modem Bulletin Board -- by Gardner Computing (earlier) / Duplicating Technologies (DT)(later) Auto answer, XMODEM upload/download, sold with ring detector. Ads: ROM #9 Dec84/Jan85 p. 37; Antic v4n10 Feb 86 p. 44 ------------------------------ Subject: 10.3) How can I read/write Atari diskettes with my other computer? There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work with an Atari-format 5.25" diskette. Most of these work with the Atari SS/DD 180KiB format. There is also a device, detailed below, that allows an external 5.25" floppy disk drive to be connected to a modern PC via a USB port, and which supports reading Atari DOS 2 SS/DD 90KiB floppy disks. Atari-Link PC (AtariDsk) V1.2 (c) 95-12-09 ========================================== by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl) Ataridsk is a program for MSDOS-PCs that allows you to access Atari floppy disks in double density (180KiB). All you need is a PC (XT or 286 should be sufficient) and a 5.25" floppy drive. Features of this tool: * Menu driven user interface * Read, write and format Atari disks on the PC * Small size (only 35KiB) http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ WriteAtr V0.92b =============== by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl) With WriteAtr you can write double density ATR-images to Atari floppy disks on your MSDOS-PC. You can also create ATR-images of double density floppy disks! All you need is a PC and a 5.25" and/or a 3.5" floppy drive. Version 0.92b added experimental support for the enhanced density (1040 sectors/128 bytes per sector) format. Please note: this format doesn't work with a lot of floppy controllers - use it at your own risk! http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ MyUTIL ====== - By Mark K Vallevand - Based on Charles Marslett's UTIL. - http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/myutil.zip - Includes SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to access 180KiB SpartaDOS disks ATARIO ====== - By Dave Brandman with Kevin White - Reads SS/DD 180KiB Atari disks. - www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Unverified/Diskutils-redist/atario21.arc SpartaRead ========== - By Oscar Fowler - Reads SS/DD 180KiB SpartaDOS disks. - http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/sr.arc UTIL ==== - By Charles Marslett - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180KiB Atari disks. http://www.wordmark.org/ =============================================================== Here's some advice on using the above utilities from Hans Breitenlohner: There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between DD Atari drives and PC drives. 1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 RPM instead of 300 RPM). If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors on the PC, it is possible that the header of the next physical sector will be overwritten, making that sector unreadable. (The next physical sector is usually the current logical sector+2). The solution to this is to format all disks on the PC. (Aside: Does anybody know how this problem is handled on the XF551? Is it also slowed down?) Konrad Kokoszkiewicz answers: "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are spinning 300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with read/write disks formatted and written on normal Atari drives (288 rot/min), the main crystal frequency for the floppy disk controller is 8.333MHz (not 8MHz, as in 1050, for example)." 2. If the PC drive is a 1200KiB drive there is the additional problem of the track width. The following is generally true in the PC world: - disks written on 360KiB drives can be read on either drive - blank disk formatted and written on 1200KiB drives can be read on either kind - disks written on a 360KiB drive, and overwritten on a 1200KiB drive, can be read reliably only on a 1200KiB drive. - disks previously formatted on a 360KiB drive, or formatted as 1200KiB, and then reformatted on a 1200KiB drive to 360KiB, can be read reliably only on a 1200KiB drive. (All this assumes you are using DD media, not HD.) Solution: Use a 360KiB drive if you can. If not, format disks on the Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank disks on the PC for PC to Atari transfers. Jon D. Melbo sums it up this way: So a basic rule of thumb when sharing 360KiB floppies among 360KiB & 1200KiB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1200KiB drive to a disk that has been previously written to in a 360KiB drive....UNLESS... you only plan on ever using that disk in the 1200KiB drive from then on out. Of course a disk can be reformatted in a particular drive any time for use in that drive. As long as you follow that rule, you can utilize the backward compatible 360KiB modes that most 1200KiB drives offer. AnaDisk + DeAna =============== While the above mentioned utilities work with SS/DD 180KiB Atari-format disks or SS/DD 180KiB SpartaDOS disks, the following combination of utilities has been used successfully to read SS/SD 90KiB Atari-format disks. So if you only have standard Atari 810 and/or Atari 1050 drives, you could look into: AnaDisk -- now a product of New Technoligies Inc. (NTI) See: http://www.forensics-intl.com/anadisk.html The current version is "not made available to the general public" (!) Previously a product of Chuck Guzis @ Sydex, http://www.sydex.com/ Older versions available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/ - Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" diskette DeAna by Nate Monson Available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/ - converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari format See http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/ for tips on using this combination of utilities. Preston Crow writes: "As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to read FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), then you can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the contents to a file with AnaDisk, and then using Deana.com to convert the dump file into a usable format. For enhanced density disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first portion of each sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for a PC drive to read enhanced density disks." FC5025 USB 5.25" floppy controller ================================== - By Device Side Data - Plugs into any computer's USB port and enables you to read data from an external 5.25" floppy drive. - Sold as a controller board only without a drive mechanism. It has been tested to work well with the TEAC FD-55GFR drive and should also work with most other 5.25" drives. - The FC5025 is read-only. It cannot write to floppies. - The FC5025 may be unable to read disks that are damaged or copy-protected. - The FC5025 is intended for 5.25" disks only, not 3.5" or 8" disks. - The FC5025 may be unable to read the second side of "flippy" disks, depending on the drive it is attached to. - The included software works on: Linux, Mac OS X, Windows - The included software supports types of disk including: Atari 810 - Available: http://www.deviceside.com/ OmniFlop ======== - By Sherlock Consulting (Jason Watton) - A 'universal' floppy disk reader, writer, and tester for the IBM PC or compatible which can handle alien floppy disk formats not normally supported by DOS, Windows and Linux. - OmniFlop on its own transfers disks between systems. If you want to access files, for example, on these disks then you need more - you will need to use OmniFlop to image the disk, then other software to interpret the filing system. OmniFlop alone only handles whole disks. - Features include: - Read, write, and format Atari 8-bit format (90KiB). (Charles Doty) - First released in December 2004. - Runs under Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7; - Earlier title OmniDisk runs under DOS and Windows 95 through to Windows Me - Available: http://www.shlock.co.uk/ ------------------------------ Subject: 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari? Several 3rd-party hardware upgrades add the capability of working with MS-DOS diskettes to your Atari system: Happy 1050 Enhancement upgrade for the Atari 1050 -- Read/write 180KiB 5.25" MS-DOS floppies with IBMXFR IBM Transfer Program CSS XF Single Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551 -- Replace the 5.25" mechanism with a 3.5" mech. -- Read 720KiB 3.5" MS-DOS disks See http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm CSS XF Dual Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551 -- Add 3.5" drive without losing the 5.25" drive -- Read 720KiB 3.5" MS-DOS disks See http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm CSS Floppy Board, for the CSS Black Box -- Adds support for PC 720KiB and 1440KiB 3.5" drives to your Atari system -- Adds support for PC 1200KiB and 360KiB 5.25" drives to your Atari system -- Read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks in your PC drives with your Atari See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm ------------------------------ Subject: 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable? This section by Russ Gilbert. Q: How do I connect two computers using a null modem cable? A: You need a term program and RS-232 ports on both computers. The RS-232 ports need to be connected together using a 'null modem cable'. For up to 4800 baud, no flow control lines need be connected. Just cross the transmit and receive lines and join the grounds together. Transmit is pin #2, receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25 pin port. 25 pin #2 goes to Atari #4 (XMT to RCV), 25 pin #3 goes to #3 on Atari (RCV to XMT) and #5 of 850 goes to #7 of 25 pin (GND to GND). The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D' connector is #1. There are 13 holes on this 'long' side, 12 holes on the 'short' side. The numbers go to the left 1 to 13 then #14 is under #1 and left again so that #25 is under #13. Most term programs allow a null connection, without a carrier detect. Notably, '850 Express!' does not. I have only used 'Procomm 2.4.3' (the last shareware version of Procomm) on the PC and BobTerm on the Atari, but other term programs may work. To check your null modem connection, start both PC and Atari term programs, set baud to 2400 or 4800 on both computers. No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit on the PC. Be sure to use the correct COM port on the PC. Go to 'terminal' mode and you should now be able to type on either computer and see it on the other screen. To accomplish a file transfer, use Y-modem probably from BobTerm, rather than X-modem. X-modem will often append bytes to a file transfer, an undesirable event. There is also a very nice Z-modem receive program for the Atari, called ATAR-Z-MODEM by Larry Black for the Atari. A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about 30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors (Radio Shack) some three or more conductor cable. Using the two DB25 female connectors allows unplugging your modems and plugging in the null modem cable into the two modem cables. This also avoids the confusion of variations in the computer ports. Most computers connect into the modem end via a standard RS-232 DB25 connection. With this both ends 25 pin cable, you would cross pins 2 and 3 and connect the #7s together to make a null modem cable. The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly. An 850, P:R: Connection, MIO, Black Box or similar device that provides an RS-232 port must be used. Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS-232-C port. 1. Protective Ground 12. Select Alternate Rate 2. Transmit Data 15. Transmit Clock (sync) 3. Receive Data 17. Receive clock (sync) 4. RTS (Request to Send) 20. Data Terminal Ready 5. CTS (Clear to Send) 22. Ring indicator 6. Data Set Ready 23. Select Alternate Rate 7. Signal Ground 24. Transmit Clock 8. Carrier Detect For higher speed connections, above 4800 or 9600, you need the flow control lines and Atari term software that has flow control built in. You also need an MIO or Black Box, which uses the PBI (parallel bus). A high speed cable would need not only XMT, RCV, and GND, but also flow control lines. I suggest a commercial null modem from computer store to ensure correct lines. A null modem is a small adapter with the correct lines already crossed. I don't know how to correctly connect the CTS, RTS, DTR, DSR, CRX lines for a high speed null modem. With a null modem, you just plug it into the 25 pin connectors of the two modem cables you might already have connected to your Atari and PC or Mac. You may need a straight thru 25 pin gender changer also. Following is in this FAQ elsewhere, but I summarize here: (Figure out or look for pin numbers on the ports.) Note that these are pin assignments, and NOT null modem connections with the XMT, RCV crossed and GND straight thru. Atari 8-bit PC AT 25 PC AT 9 pin ------------------------------------- 1. DTR 20 4* 2. CRX 8 1* 3. XMT 2 3 4. RCV 3 2* 5. GND 7 5 6. DSR 6 6 7. RTS 4 7 8. CTS 5 8 9. No connect? shield RI 22 RI Note: * above indicates the difference between an AT 9 pin and a Atari 8-bit 9 pin cable connector, e.g., if you check continuity from pin 3 of 25 pin end and it goes to pin 4 of nine pin end, you have an Atari serial cable. If pin 3 of 25 pin goes to pin 2 of 9 pin end, you have a PC serial cable. (updated 3/1/99) (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment, i.e., your computer. DCE = Data Communications Equipment, i.e., your modem.) ------------------------------ Subject: 10.6) How can my other computer utilize my Atari disk drive? ==> 1050-2-PC, by Nick Kennedy A device used to allow the PC to communicate directly with an Atari disk drive. It requires hardware which is very similar to the SIO2PC but configured differently. It allows direct sector I/O with the Atari drive and can be used to create disk images which will emulate copy protection schemes when run on SIO2PC. More 1050-2-PC information: http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/1050.txt SIO2PC home page: http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm ==> APE ProSystem, by Steven Tucker Two components: - The ProSystem hardware is a cable designed to allow connection of a stock 1050 disk drive directly to a PC's serial port for use by the companion ProSystem software. - The ProSystem software program is used to create (protected or unprotected) .PRO format disk images. These disk images can then be accessed by the Atari using Steven Tucker's Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE) cable/software. http://www.atarimax.com/ Additional ProSystem cable design: - Atarimax Universal SIO2PC/ProSystem interface (Steven Tucker) USB or RS232/Serial versions http://www.atarimax.com/sio2pc/documentation/ ==> AtariSIO driver and utilities V0.30, by Matthias Reichl AtariSIO requires a 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 or 3.x series Linux kernel (with enabled module support) and a serial port with a 16550 or 16C950 compatible chip. Consists of: - A kernel module to handle the low-level part of the Atari SIO protocol - atarixfer Used to read/write disk images from/to a Atari drive connected to your Linux box with an 1050-2-PC cable. An APE ProSystem cable will also work, but you have to add the command-line switch "-p". - atariserver An SIO-server, like SIO2PC or APE for MSDOS-machines. - adir List the directory of an image - dir2atr Create a disk image from a directory of files on your PC AtariSIO supports the following interfaces: - One chip SIO2PC (with MAX232), command connected to RI - One chip SIO2PC, command connected to DSR - One chip SIO2PC, command connected to RTS - 1050-2-PC (with MAX232), command connected to RTS - Ape ProSystem cable (with 14C89), command connected to DTR http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ ------------------------------ Subject: 11.1) What is the history of Atari's 8-bit computers platform? Information presented here has been collected by MC from primarily from public sources, such as magazine and newspaper articles, press releases, corporate annual reports, and SEC filings. I have no special access to inside information. Credit to Tomasz Krasuski for finding sales figures in Polish periodicals: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/183619-total-number-of-a8-units-sold- worldwide/page__st__75__p__2311754#entry2311754 For a broader Atari history may I suggest: http://mcurrent.name/atarihistory/ 1977 February 17: Earliest recorded engineering discussions between Synertek/Atari engineer Jay Miner and Atari engineer Joe Decuir regarding "New Machines." Atari (Consumer) programmer Larry Kaplan would contribute to the early concept as well. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 446) Atari Inc. was a Warner Communications Inc. (WCI) company. Spring/Summer: The Miner/Decuir "New Machines" concept at Atari evolved into "Stella A/N" ("Stella Alpha Numeric"; "Stella" had been the Atari VCS project name) and then into: "Home Computer" (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 447) Summer: John Vurich, previously with National Semiconductor, joined Atari (Consumer) as new products manager (replacing Kerry Crosson in the role). August 9: The "Home Computer" Atari VCS successor concept was designated the "Colleen" project at Atari. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 449) August 12-16: At Atari's Cyan Engineering, Atari engineer Joe Decuir, Cyan senior engineer Steve Mayer and Cyan engineer Ron Milner (reuniting the three original designers of the Atari VCS) worked on the overall "Colleen" system design. (http://www.atarimuseum.com/articles/joedecuir.html and Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 451) August 22: Atari "Colleen" major specifications were accepted by Atari engineering and marketing decision makers including Synertek/Atari engineer Jay Miner, Atari (Consumer) VP Engineering M. John Ellis, Atari VP engineering Al Alcorn, Atari (Consumer) director of research & development Bob Brown, and Atari (Consumer) new products manager John Vurich. Two products were envisioned: a 'serious work' machine and an 'entertainment machine'. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 450-451) Jay Miner would be chief system architect and chip designer for the Atari "Colleen" home computer project (as he had been for the Atari VCS project). Team members under Miner would include: Joe Decuir, Francois Michel, George McCleod, Doug Neubauer, Scott Shiffman, Alan Miller, Howard Bornstein. Mike Albaugh of Atari (Coin-Op) would have significant influence with Miner and Decuir on certain design considerations as well. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 454) Fall?: Atari and Dorsett Educational Systems reached a licensing agreement that would bring Dorsett's Talk & Teach Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) System to Atari personal computer systems. November 29: The Atari "Colleen" project consisted of three design variations: o "Colleen" - the 'serious' machine (would ship as: 800) o "Candy" - new name for the 'entertainment' machine (would ship as: 400) o "Elizabeth" - same as "Colleen" but with a built-in 13 inch color monitor (never shipped) (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 453) December: "Several other new personal computers, in the PET/TRS-80 price range, are coming soon...Atari (another video game manufacturer), and a European and Japenese [sic] company are also expected to enter the competition." (Micro #2 Dec77 p18; reprinted from "Northwest Computer Club News" Oct77) 1978 January: "Other manufacturers are also looking at TV games as the way to enter the home-computing market. Atari is said to be working on a programmable unit featuring color graphics; it will use either custom chips or a 6502 micro." (ROM v1n7 Jan78 p60) Winter: Atari purchased a copy of the source for Microsoft 8K BASIC May/June: Atari "Colleen" housing and case designs were largely finalized, and prototype development systems now physically resembled what would ship as the 800. Key specifications for "Candy" including whether it would have a keyboard or the SIO port, and whether it would be RAM-expandable, remained in flux. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 460) Summer?: Atari pre-announced that the Atari computer would debut at the January 1979 Consumer Electronics Show. September: At Atari (Consumer), programmers David Crane, Alan Miller, and Larry Kaplan were temporarily allocated by director of software development George Simcock to home computer project chief architect Jay Miner to take over the creation of the operating system and a BASIC for the "Colleen" project. (http://www.digitpress.com/library/interviews/interview_alan_miller.html) (http://www.gooddealgames.com/interviews/int_David_Crane.html) October 1: Steve Bristow, previously Atari VP Engineering and Plant Manager Pinball Production, became Atari VP Engineering, Consumer and Home Computer Division, replacing M. John Ellis who departed the company. October 6: Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI, headed by Bob Shepardson) to create both a version of BASIC and a File Management System (FMS) for the upcoming Atari personal computers. The contract called for delivery by April 6, 1979. Atari planned to take an early, 8K Microsoft BASIC to the CES (in Las Vegas) in January, 1979, and then switch BASICs later. November: The Atari "Colleen" computer was named the 800 (now to ship with 8KiB RAM), and the "Candy" machine was named the 400 (to ship with 4KiB RAM). The 400, which did not yet have a final case design, would not have a keyboard, but would support an external keyboard connected through controller ports 3-4. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 460) December 6: "Last week Atari...disclosed that it was on the verge of introducing its first home computers." (NYT p.D4) December: SMI delivered working versions of BASIC and a disk FMS to Atari. 1979 January 1?: Atari Engineer Joe Decuir departed the company. January 1?: Atari (Consumer) manager, product planning (home computers) John Vurich departed the company. January 6-9: Warner Communications announced, and Atari previewed, the Atari- 400 Personal Computer and the Atari-800 Personal Computer at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. (While the 800 was shown production- ready, the 400 shown was pre-production mock-up Model No. C7000, see: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro400.htm.) The 400 would come with 8KiB of RAM and was expected to retail for approximately $500. The 800 ship with 8KiB of RAM, expandable to 48KiB, and would sell for approximately $1,000. Peripherals announced/previewed: custom tape cassette recorder (410), high speed floppy disc (810), 40-column printer (820). Software applications promised: "personal financial management, income tax preparation, household and office record keeping, computer aided instruction in over 20 subject areas including math, English, history, literature, economics, psychology, auto mechanics, and many others." Games promised: Basketball, Chess (would ship as: Computer Chess), Life (would ship as: Video Easel), Kingdom, Lemonade Stand (would ship from APX as: Lemonade), Fur Trader (never shipped), Stock Market (never shipped). Programming language promised: BASIC. Availability dates were not announced. Atari (Consumer) programmer Larry Kaplan served as the face/voice of the Atari computers presentation at the show. Don Kingsborough was Atari (Consumer) Director of Sales & Marketing. Emanuel Gerard represented the Office of the President, WCI. Coverage of the introduction of the Atari 400/800 from Creative Computing magazine: http://mcurrent.name/atari1979/. (see also The Intelligent Machines Journal Issue 2, 79 Jan 17) January: Atari ran an advertisement for the 400/800 on pp. 54-55 of Merchandising, vol. 4, no. 1, January 1979. See: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/gallery.htm for these and other early Atari computer print ads from 1979-1981. January: Dale Yocum joined Atari (Consumer) as manager of applications software development for the personal computer division. February: Synertek/Atari engineer Jay Miner departed the companies. (Atari Inc.: Business is Fun, p. 386) February: Ted M. Kahn began working with Atari as a consultant. Kahn would initiate and co-develop the educational marketing strategy for the 400/800. Spring: Peter N. Rosenthal joined Atari (Consumer) as Director of Marketing, Personal Computer Systems. May 11-13: At the 4th West Coast Computer Faire, held in San Francisco's Civic Auditorium & Brooks Hall, in a booth as elaborate as those seen at Consumer Electronics Shows, Atari demonstrated its new 400 and 800 series computers. This was Atari's first public display of their new computer product lines. (Intelligent Machines Journal 79 Jun 11 p8) In addition to business & household management software, educational applications promised: Algebra (would ship as: Basic Algebra), Economics (would ship as: Principles of Economics), Auto Mechanics (never shipped), Sociology (would ship as: Basic Sociology), U.S. History, Zoology (never shipped), Counseling Procedures, Vocabulary Builder (never shipped), Basic Psychology, Spelling, Spanish (never shipped), Accounting (would ship as: Principles of Accounting), Carpentry (never shipped), Great Classics, Statistics (never shipped), Basic Electricity, World History. Entertainment applications promised: Chess (would ship as: Computer Chess), Backgammon (never shipped), business simulations, Stock Market Simulation (never shipped), space adventure, strategy games, Four-Player Basketball (would ship as: Basketball), Superbug Driving Game (never shipped), Game of Life (would ship as: Video Easel), Super Breakout. Also promised: Atari BASIC June 3-6: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari promised that the 400/800 base units would ship fall 1979, and featured a firmed 400/800 product line including suggested retail prices. 400 system with BASIC cartridge and Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide): $549.99; 800 system with BASIC cartridge, Education System Master Cartridge, Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide), 410 Program Recorder, and Guide to BASIC Programming cassette: $999.99; 810 Disc Drive: $749.99; 820 Printer: $599.99; 410 Program Recorder: $89.99; 8K RAM Memory Module: $124.99; 16K RAM Memory Module: $249.99; Driving Controller Pair: $19.95; Paddle Controller Pair: $19.95; Joystick Controller Pair: $19.95; ROM cartridges: Education System Master Cartridge (would ship as: Educational System Master Cartridge), Basketball, Life (would ship as: Video Easel), Super Breakout, Super Bug (never shipped), Atari BASIC, Assembler Debug (would ship as: Assembler Editor), Music Composer, Computer Chess, Home Finance (later: Personal Finance; never shipped); Educational System cassette programs: U.S. History, U.S. Government, Supervisory Skills, World History (Western), Basic Sociology, Counseling Procedures, Principles of Accounting, Physics, Great Classics (English), Business Communications, Basic Psychology, Effective Writing, Auto Mechanics (never shipped), Principles of Economics, Spelling, Basic Electricity, Basic Algebra; BASIC game and program cassettes: Guide to BASIC Programming (would ship as: An Invitation to Programming 1: Fundamentals of BASIC Programming), BASIC Game Programs (never shipped); diskettes: Blank Diskettes (would ship as: 5 Diskettes), Disk File Manager (would ship as: Master Diskette). Don Kingsborough remained director of sales and marketing for Atari (Consumer). June 15: Atari announced Federal Communications Commission Type I approval for the Atari 400 and Atari 800 personal computer systems, along with the Atari Program Recorder (410). The Atari 400/800 were the only home computers to ever comply with the stringent FCC Type I requirement against RF interference, before the FCC subsequently relaxed the rules. June: Crane/Miller/Kaplan/Whitehead finished their work on the Operating System for the Atari 400/800 computers (400/800 OS Rev.A). June: Atari (Consumer) hired LO*OP Center executive director Liza Loop as a consultant (computers in education) and technical writer, personal computer systems. She would write the Operator's Manuals for the 400/800 computers, printer, and serial peripherals. Month?: Tandy Trower joined Atari (Consumer) as personal computers product manager (replacing the departed John Vurich in the role). July: Robert A. Hovee joined Atari (Consumer) as VP Marketing & Sales for personal computers. Peter Rosenthal would remain director of marketing for personal computers. Don Kingsborough, previously Atari (Consumer) Director of Sales & Marketing, departed the company. August: "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on August 29th 1979. These were hand-built pilot run units to Sears that needed to be in stock by Sept. 1 so they could be placed in the big fall catalog. The units were placed in the Sears warehouse and then immediately returned to Atari after the "in stock" requirement had been met." --Jerry Jessop September 4: The New York Times reported on p. D7, "Atari Inc., the maker of home video games, will introduce two new personal computer systems in the fall. The inaugural ad campaign, created by Doyle Dane Bernbach, will break in October in 12 national publications. TV commercials will also be aired in Los Angeles in November and December." September: An Atari computer running Star Raiders was shown by Ludwig Braun at an "education-and-computers" conference. (cc 6/80 p34) WHAT CONFERENCE???? September: Chris Crawford joined Atari (Consumer) as a VCS game designer. October: Programmer Lane Winner joined Atari. October: "Atari's production lines were stalled for about a week in October due to yield problems at one of its chip suppliers, Synertek. The low yields at the semiconductor manufacturer resulted in significantly reduced delivery of the MPU to Atari, resulting in about a 3-week delay in getting the computers into the marketplace." Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83. November: Conrad Jutson, previously of Texas Instruments, joined Atari (Consumer) as VP Sales & Marketing, Personal Computers, replacing Robert Hovee who departed the company. (Compute!s 1st Book p2 for date) Peter Rosenthal remained Atari (Computer) director of marketing. November: "The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of '79 and were 400s to Sears followed very shortly by 800s." --Jerry Jessop November: Atari shipped the 400 personal computer system. November/December: Atari shipped the 800 personal computer system (with 410 program recorder). December: Dave Stubben, previously Atari VP engineering, Coin Operated Games, would become VP engineering for the new Atari Computer division (replacing Bristow in the role). December: "Atari is funneling large quantities of its 400 and 800 personal computers and software to Sears, Roebuck, while retail computer stores have been faced with late hardware deliveries and received very little, if any, software. Sears is offering the Atari 400, priced at $549.99, through its catalog, and is spot-marketing the machine in its retail stores throughout California and the Chicago area. In addition, the firm is selling the Atari 800, priced at $999.99, in its California stores, but not through the catalog, a Sears spokesman said." Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83. 1980 January 5-8: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced the 825 printer, 830 modem, and 850 interface. Software titles introduced: 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe, Star Raiders, Personal Finance (earlier: Home Finance; never shipped). Also, list prices for the 400 and 800 packages increased to US$630 and US$1,080 (up from US$550 and US$1,000). Atari announced a licensing agreement to market eight computer investment-application programs designed by Control Data Corp for use with Atari personal computer systems. January?: Atari shipped 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe and Star Raiders January: Chris Crawford, previously Atari (Consumer) VCS game designer, transferred to the Atari (Personal Computer) Applications group (under manager of applications software development Dale Yocum). Winter: Atari shipped the 810 disk drive (with DOS I) and the 820 printer (US$449.95). March?: Atari shipped Music Composer. March: Science Research Associates (SRA) and Atari announced that SRA would develop educational computer courseware in reading, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, intended for Atari personal computers used in the home; Atari would have the right to market this software. Additionally, SRA would have primary responsibility for the sale of Atari personal computers and services to the educational community (public and private, pre-school through university level). April?: Atari shipped the Assembler Editor. April: LO*OP Center executive director Liza Loop concluded her work as a consultant (computers in education) and technical writer for Atari (Personal Computer). June 15-18: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced: 815 dual disk drive with DOS 2.0D (never shipped), 822 printer, and Light Pen (CX70), and again featured the 825 printer, 830 modem, and 850 interface. Atari also announced 34 new software packages, including: TeleLink I (previously: Terminal Emulator), The Atari Accountant series (by Arthur Young & Co.)--General Accounting System (never shipped); Accounts Receivable System (never shipped); Inventory Control Program (never shipped), the Investment Analysis series (by Control Data)--Bond Analysis; Stock Analysis; Stock Charting; Mortgage & Loan Analysis, Conversational French, Conversational German, Conversational Spanish, Space Invaders (title by Taito)(SoftSide Aug80). More: Biorhythm, Hangman, Kingdom, Blackjack, Mailing List, Energy Czar, Calculator, Touch Typing, Graph It. Previewed: Missile Command Also, Atari modified the 800 computer package. The computer would now ship with 16KiB RAM (up from 8KiB); the 410 program recorder and Educational System Master Cartridge were removed from the package; the BASIC Reference Manual was added to the package. The retail price remained US$1,080. July: Engineer Tim McGuinness joined Atari (Computer) as Hardware Design Engineer. Summer: Atari shipped the 825 printer (US$999.95), 830 modem, and 850 interface (US$219.95). September: Roger H. Badertscher joined Atari as the first president of the new division, Atari (Computer). Badertscher was previously VP and general manager of the microprocessor division of Signetics, an electronics semiconductor manufacturer. (InfoWorld 7/26/82p29 for date) October: Personal Software introduced VisiCalc (Atari version). October: Jose A. Valdes joined Atari as development engineer. Fall?: Brenda K. Laurel, previously of Cybervision, joined Atari (Computer) as Manager, Software Strategy (educational software designer; essentially replacing the departed consultant Liza Loop) Fall?: Keith E. Schaefer joined Atari (Computer) as National Sales Manager. Conrad Jutson remained Atari (Computer) VP Sales & Marketing. Fall: Atari shipped the 822 printer (US$449.95). December: At Atari (Computer), Applications group programmer Chris Crawford (having completed Energy Czar and SCRAM) was promoted to supervisor of the Software Development Support Group. Atari reportedly lost $10 million on sales of computer equipment of $13 million in 1980 (InfoWorld 9/14/1981) Atari had sold 35,000 400/800 computers through 1980. (source?) 1981 January/February: First issue of A.N.A.L.O.G. 400/800 Magazine, published by Lee Pappas and Mike DesChenes. 4000 copies printed. January 8-11: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari announced that the 400 would now ship in two versions: original 8KiB RAM version at the new list price of US$499.95 (previously: US$630), or new 16KiB RAM version for US$630. Also introduced: Asteroids, Astrology (ultimately released via APX), Atari Word Processor, An Invitation to Programming 2, An Invitation to Programming 3, Missile Command, Personal Financial Management System, Personal Fitness Program (ultimately released via APX), PILOT, SCRAM (A Nuclear Reactor Simulation), Conversational Italian Winter: Atari released DOS II version 2.0S. February 2: Atari announced that Rigdon Currie, previously of Diablo, had joined Atari (Computer) as VP marketing, replacing Conrad Jutson as head of computer marketing. Barry Berghorn, previously Memorex VP for consumer and media products, would join Atari (Computer) as sales & ___, replacing Conrad Jutson as head of computer sales. (WeeklyTVDigest) Mark A. Lutvak would join Atari (Computer) as director of product marketing, replacing Tandy Trower who departed the company. Peter Rosenthal, previously Atari (Computer) director of marketing, would become Atari (Computer) vp business planning. February: Atari created the Atari Program Exchange (APX) unit. Dale Yocum, previously Atari (Computer) manager of applications software development, had proposed the concept and would be APX manager. Paul Laughton, previously Staff Engineer (contract engineer) with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI), joined Atari (Computer) as Manager, Software Development (replacing Yocum in the role). Fred Thorlin remained Atari (Computer) Manager of the Atari Software Acquisition Program (ASAP). February 25: The source code to Atari BASIC, the FMS component of Atari DOS 2.0S (DOS.SYS), and the Atari Assembler Editor were purchased from Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by former SMI employees Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters. March?: Bruce W. Irvine joined Atari as VP software, Atari Computer Division. Spring: First issue of The Atari Connection, the glossy magazine published by the Atari Computer Division in support of the 400/800. April 3-5: Atari Software Acquisition Program (ASAP) staff attended the 6th West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco, offering a grand prize of US$25,000 in cash and US$75,000 in Atari products to runners-up for Atari computer software authors. In order to qualify for the awards, programs would have to be accepted and sold through the soon-to-be-launched Atari Program Exchange. Bruce W. Irvine was VP software, Atari Computer Division. April 3-5: Also at the West Coast Computer Faire, Optimized Systems Software (OSS) introduced BASIC A+, CP/A (would ship as: OS/A+), and EASMD (enhanced, disk-based versions of Atari BASIC, Atari DOS 2.0S and Atari Assembler Editor, respectively). April: Paul Cubbage joined Atari (Computer) as Acquisition Manager (under ASAP manager Fred Thorlin). April 23-24: An Atari Seminar for developers. The Atari Software Development Support Group included: Chris Crawford (graphics), Lane Winner (BASIC, cassette), Mike Ekberg (OS, DOS), Kathleen Armstrong (Kathleen Pitta), Jim Cox (graphics & utilities), Gus Makreas (assembly language), John Eckstrom (pascal) May 1-August 31: Atari offered a free CX853 16K RAM Module with purchase of an Atari 800 personal computer. May 4-7: At the National Computer Conference in Chicago, Atari announced that the 8KiB Atari 400 was being discontinued and that the price on the 16KiB version was being reduced to US$399 (was US$630); also, the Atari BASIC cartridge and Atari BASIC (Wiley Self-Teaching Guide) book would no longer be included with the now "mass market packaged" 400. Other price reductions: CX852 8KiB RAM module now US$49.95 (was US$124.95), CX853 16KiB RAM module now US$99.95 (was US$199.95), 820 printer now US$299.95 (was US$449.95). Also introduced: Dow Jones Investment Evaluator, Atari Microsoft BASIC, Macro Assembler and Program-Text Editor May: Atari launched the Atari Program Exchange (APX), a user-written Atari 400/800 software distribution unit. Dale Yocum was APX Manager. See http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/ June: At Atari (Home Computer), Leslie Wolf joined the division as Software/Hardware Product Manager (educational products). Brenda Laurel, previously Manager, Software Strategy (educational software designer), became mangaer, software marketing. Bruce Irvine remained VP software. Summer: Through their first Catalog, APX introduced: Newspaper Route Management Program, The Computerized Card File, Text Formatter (FORMS), Lemonade, Mugwump, Avalanche, Outlaw/Howitzer, Preschool Games, Roman Checkers, Space Trek, Castle, Wizard's Gold, Sleazy Adventure, Alien Egg, Chinese Puzzle, Sultan's Palace, Anthill, Centurion, Tact Trek, Comedy Diskette, Graphics/Sound Demonstration, FIG FORTH (this version never shipped), Sound Editor, BASIC Program Compressor (MASHER), BASIC Cross- Reference Utility (XREF), BASIC Renumber Utility (RENUM), Disk Fixer (FIX), Variable Changer, Character Set Editor, Extended WSFN, Supersort. APX also introduced several hardware products: DE-9S with DE51218 Shell (controller plug), 5-pin DIN connector, 13-pin I/O plug, 13-pin I/O socket, DA-15P with DA110963-2 Shell (850 printer plug), DE-9P with DE110963-1 Shell (850 serial plug), 2716 EPROM cartridge Summer?: Atari created the Atari Institute for Educational Action Research, which began awarding major grants of Atari home computer products, cash stipends, and/or consulting services to selected individuals and non-profit institutions or organizations interested in developing new educational uses for computers in schools, community programs, or in the home. Founded and directed by Dr. Ted M. Kahn, Ph.D. More than US$250,000 would be awarded in the program's first year. Summer: By mid-1981 Atari had sold over 50,000 400/800 computers to date. (InfoWorld 9/14/1981) July: Larry Plummer, previously General Manager, Computer Products at Heathkit, joined Atari (Home Computer) where he would be Director of hardware Engineering. (Dave Stubben remained Atari (Home Computer) VP engineering.) August 26: Date of the internal Atari document "Z800 Product Specification, Revision 1" reflecting early work on successors to the 400/800 computers. See: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/1200xl/1200xl.html Summer/Fall: Atari shipped the kits: The Communicator, The Entertainer, The Programmer, The Educator. Summer/Fall: The Atari 400/800 arrived in the UK, along with the 410, 810, 822, and 850. (Your Computer, June/July 1981 p5) September 1: New production Atari 810 disk drives would contain an External Data Separator Board. (810 FSM p.1-9) September 10-12: Maplin Electronic Supplies exhibited the Atari 400/800 at the Personal Computer World Show at the Cunard Hotel, Hammersmith, London. Fall: APX Catalog introduced: Data Management System, Financial Asset Management System, Decision Maker, Banner Generator, Personal Fitness Program, Blackjack Tutor, Mapware, Video Math Flashcards, Dice Poker, 747 Landing Simulator, Eastern Front (1941), CodeCracker, Domination, Terry, Bumper Pool, Reversi, Minotaur, Lookahead, Babel, Wizard's Revenge, Chameleon CRT Terminal Emulator, Diskette Librarian, Disk Fixer (FIX) Rev. 2, BASIC Utility for Renumbering Programs (BURP), BASIC Utility Diskette, Screen Dump Utility, Load 'n Go, BLIS, Developer's Diskette. APX also announced their full software product line for sale via download from CompuServe MicroNET. One hardware product was modified: DE-9S with DE110963-1 Shell (controller plug). Dale Yocum was APX manager. Fall: K-Byte, Division of Kay Enterprises Co., released K-Razy Shoot-Out, the first third-party ROM cartridge for the Atari 400/800. (SoftSide Mar82p71) October: Dr. Alan Kay, previously a Xerox Fellow at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), joined Atari (Corporate) in the new position of VP/Chief Scientist (InfoWorld 5/21/84 for date). Kay would be responsible for the new Atari Corporate Research unit. November 1: New production Atari 810 disk drives would ship with the Revision C ROM and with DOS II version 2.0S (replacing the original Atari DOS I). (Antic Oct.82) November: The Atari 400/800 would now all ship with the GTIA chip rather than CTIA as in earlier machines, increasing the palette of displayable colors from 128 to 256 and adding 3 new graphics modes. (Antic Oct.82) November: The Atari 400/800 began shipping with the 400/800 OS Rev.B, improving peripheral I/O control routines. (Antic Oct.82) December: At Atari (Home Computer), Keith Schaefer was promoted from National Sales Manager to sales VP. (WeeklyTVDigest p.dcclxv 12/28/81) (replacing the departed Barry Berghorn) December: Chris Crawford, previously Atari (Home Computer) Software Development Support Group supervisor, became Atari (Corporate) Manager, Games Research Group, Atari Corporate Research. December 30: Atari said that it would cut the retail price for the 800 home computer (with 16KiB RAM and newly "mass market packaged") to US$899 from US$1,080. Other prices were increased: The Entertainer to US$110 and The Educator to US$166. Atari claimed to have sold 300,000 400/800 computers in 1981. (InfoWord 6/14/82 p.57) 1982 January 6: Atari announced the publication, Atari Special Editions, a catalog of more than 400 products for the Atari computers from 117 vendors. January 7-10: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced Pac-Man (title by Namco)($44.95), Centipede ($44.95), The Bookkeeper, and The Home Filing Manager. Space Invaders, previously released on cassette, was now re-released on cartridge. The APX title, Caverns of Mars would be the first APX title to be transferred into Atari's standard product line ($39.95 disk). Following the 400 packaging theme introduced in 1981, the 800, 810, and 410 would now ship in silver/full color packaging. Previewed at the show: the Atari Supergame System / Video System "X" (would ship as the 5200). January 16: At the first Atari Star Awards banquet, held at San Francisco's Maxwell's Plum restaurant in Ghiradelli Square, the Atari Softare Acquisition Program (ASAP) awarded the Star Award Grand Prize and US$25,000 to Fernando Herrera for his APX title, My First Alphabet. Star Award of Merit winners: Ronald Marcuse & Lynn Marcuse, Sheldon Leemon, Greg Christensen Winter: Brenda Laurel, previously Atari (Home Computer) Manager, Software Marketing, became a member of the research staff at the Atari Sunnyvale Research Lab. Winter: APX Catalog introduced: Bowler's Database, Family Cash Flow, Weekly Planner, Enhancements to Graph It, Hydraulic Program (HYSYS), Keyboard Organ, Morse Code Tutor, Player Piano, Atlas of Canada, Hickory Dickory, Letterman, Mathematic-Tac-Toe, My First Alphabet, Number Blast, Presidents of the United States, Quiz Master, Stereo 3-D Graphics Package, Attank!, Blackjack Casino, Block 'Em, Caverns of Mars, Dog Daze, Downhill, Memory Match, Pro Bowling, Reversi II, Solitaire, Source Code for Eastern Front (1941), Space Chase, Atari Program-Text Editor, Dsembler, Extended fig-FORTH, Insomnia (A Sound Editor), Instedit, Supersort Rev. 3, T: A Text Display Device, Ultimate Renumber Utility, Word Processing Diskette. APX sales via CompuServe MicroNET had been discontinued. Winter: Ted Richards' name first appeared as editor of The Atari Connection magazine. March: Atari announced Atari Computer Camps. Linda Gordon was Atari VP of special projects (reporting directly to Atari chairman Ray Kassar). March: Thomas M. McDonough joined Atari as SVP of sales and marketing in Atari's home computer division (NYT 12/19/82), replacing Rigdon Currie who had departed the company. March 19-21: Percom introduced the RFD40-S1, the first 3rd party disk drive for the Atari, at the 7th West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. Spring: New production Atari 810 disk drives would ship in the significantly- revised "810 Analog" design. Spring: APX Catalog introduced: Family Budget, Diskette Mailing List, Isopleth Map-Making Package, RPN Calculator Simulator, Advanced Musicsystem, Sketchpad, Cubbyholes, Musical Computer--The Music Tutor, Starware, Wordmaker, Block Buster, Atari Pascal Language System, Extended fig-FORTH Rev. 2, GTIA Demonstration Diskette, Instedit (Microsoft BASIC version), Keypad Controller, Speed-O-Disk. APX also introduced the book, De Re Atari, written by staff in the Atari Software Development Support Group: Chris Crawford wrote Sections 1- 6 and Appendices A & B; Lane Winner wrote Section 10 and Appendix D with assistance from Jim Cox; Amy Chen wrote Appendix C; Jim Dunion wrote Sections 8-9; Kathleen Pitta (Kathleen Armstrong) wrote Appendex E; Bob Fraser wrote Section 7; Gus Makreas prepared the Glossary. Dale Yocum remained APX Manager. Spring: Fred Thorlin, previously Atari (Home Computer) ASAP manager, became APX General Manager. Dale Yocum, previously APX Manager, became Atari (Corporate) Research Engineering Manager. Paul Cubbage, previously Atari (Home Computer) acquisition manager, became APX Product Review manager. Bruce Irvine remained Atari (Home Computer) VP software. April 7: Date of first draft of the Atari Sweet-16 Home Computer Product Specifications document (earlier project name: Z800). Specific computer models planned: "1000" (16KiB; later: "1200"; never shipped) and "1000X" (64KiB; later: "1200X"; would ship as: 1200XL) See: http://www.landley.net/history/mirror/atari/museum/sweet16.html April: First issue of Antic, The Atari Resource magazine, published by James Capparell. June 6-9: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced Atari Speed Reading (by Learning Multi-Systems; US$74.95), Music Tutor I (would ship as: AtariMusic I), Juggles' House (by The Learning Co.), Juggles' Rainbow (by The Learning Co.), TeleLink II (US$79.95; would ship as part of Communicator II only), and three new kits: Bookkeeper (including new CX85 Numerical Keypad), Communicator II (new 835 c with TeleLink II)(US$279.95), Home Manager. The APX title, My First Alphabet would be re-released as part of Atari's standard product line. Atari also twice announced new suggested retail prices for the 400 (previously: US$399) at the show: first US$349 (CC Oct82 p180), then US$299 (Merch Jul82 p43). Keith Schaefer was VP of sales for Atari's Home Computer division. June 8: At the Summer CES in Chicago, Atari introduced the 5200 Home Entertainment System (later dubbed the SuperSystem). While the 5200 required unique game cartridges and controllers, the internal hardware was very closely related to that of the 400/800 computers. June: Roger Badertscher resigned from his position as president of Atari's Home Computer Division. (Atari VP research and product development Steve Mayer would serve as acting president of the division.) Summer: APX Catalog introduced: Bowler's Database Rev. 2, Data Base/Report System, Family Vehicle Expense, Recipe Search 'n Save, Calculator, Astrology, Blackjack Tutor Rev. 1.1, Going to the Dogs, Algicalc, Elementary Biology (by MECC), Frogmaster, Instructional Computing Demonstration (by MECC), Metric and Problem Solving (by MECC), Music I--Terms & Notation (by MECC), Polycalc, Three R Math System, Block 'Em Rev. 2, Castle Rev. 1.1, Checker King, Galahad and the Holy Grail, Jax-O, Jukebox #1, The Midas Touch, Pushover, Rabbotz, Salmon Run, Seven Card Stud, BLIS Rev. 1.1, Cosmatic Atari Development Package, Insomnia (A Sound Editor) Rev. 1.1, Instedit Rev. 1.1, Microsoft BASIC Cross-Reference Utility, Player Generator, Utility Diskette II Summer: First year of Atari Computer Camps, held at 3 locations: The University of San Diego (CA), The Asheville School (Asheville, NC), and East Stroudsburg State College (PA). (Camp was cancelled at the fourth announced site of Lakeland College in Sheboygan WI.) The camps were managed for Atari by Specialty Camps, Inc. Curriculum developed by Robert A. Kahn at Atari. Program overseen by Linda Gordon, Atari VP for special projects. July 14: In what was believed to be the largest single order for home computers by a school system, Dade County, Fla., had placed an order for 426 Atari 800 Home Computers and peripherals. "This order brings the total number of Atari Home Computers in use in Dade County schools to approximately 650," said Thomas McDonough, SVP of sales and marketing for Atari's Home Computer Division. July: The Atari Corporate Research division established the Atari Cambridge Research Laboratory in Cambridge MA. The lab's Director would be Cynthia Solomon, previously VP, Research & Development/Founder of Logo Computer Systems, Inc. July: Chris Horseman joined Atari as VP for Software Engineering, Home Computer Division (replacing Bruce Irvine who departed the company). July 26: InfoWorld estimated between 250,000 and 300,000 Atari 400/800 computers had been sold to date. August 11: Approximately 1,370 Atari Home Computers and peripherals, valued at more than $3 million, had been ordered by the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) under a competitive Request for Proposal, it was announced by Thomas M. McDonough, SVP of sales and marketing for Atari's Home Computer Division. August 24: John C. Cavalier was named president of Atari's Home Computer Division (replacing the departed Roger Badertscher). Cavalier was previously VP and general manager of American Can's Dixie and Dixie/Marathon unit, makers of consumer paper products. August 29-December 31: With the purchase of a 400/800, Atari offered a rebate of $10 for each purchase of up to six additional Atari computer products, for a total rebate of up to $60. September 3-5: Atari exhibited in the Technology Exposition at the 'US' Festival held at Glen Helen Regional Park, CA. (SoftSide #36p14-16) September: At Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, the 80 freshmen in Science and in Systems Planning were required to purchase an Atari 800. (SoftSide #43p26) September 29: Date of a late draft of the internal Atari document, "Sweet-16 Product Specification". Specific computer models indicated: "1200" (16KiB; earlier: "1000"; never shipped) and "1200X" (64KiB; earlier: "1000X"; would ship as: 1200XL), with both models now sharing the same case design. Plans now called for manufacture of only the "1200X". http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/1200xl/1200xl.html October: Atari shipped the 5200 SuperSystem. October: Atari announced that as of October 22, new 800 computer systems would be sold with two "free" 16KiB RAM modules for a total of 48KiB, for the unchanged list price of $899. The new 800 systems would no longer ship with Atari BASIC, the BASIC Reference Manual, nor the Atari BASIC (Wiley Self- Teaching Guide) book. Keith Schaefer remained VP sales for the home computer division. Fall: APX Catalog introduced: Family Cash Flow Rev. 2, Message Display Program, Stock Management, Text Analyst, Calculus Demon, Counter, Easygrader, Flags of Europe, Math*UFO, Spelling Genie, Word Search Generator, Cribbage, Dog Daze Rev. 1.1, Mankala, Snark Hunt, Dunion's Debugging Tool (DDT), FORTH Turtle Graphics Plus, fun-FORTH, Keypad Controller Rev. 2, Mantis Boot Tape Development System, Mapmaker November: Atari began producing new 810 disk drives with the "center flip door" drive mechanism by Tandon, instead of the "push button, sliding door" mechanism by MPI used in the original design. (Antic May 83) Technical documentation would refer to the new design as the "810T Analog". November 15: Atari announced Donkey Kong and Donkey Kong Junior (titles by Nintendo). Keith Schaefer remained Atari (Home Computer) VP sales. November 18-20: At the Amusement & Music Operators Association (AMOA) show in Chicago, Atari introduced the Atari Coin Executive coin accounting system (ACE; incorporating an Atari 800; never shipped). December 13: Atari introduced the 1200XL home computer at a press conference at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. "We believe that the Atari 1200XL will set the standard for a new generation in home computing and, once again, positions Atari on the leading edge of electronic technology and creative computing," Atari chairman Ray Kassar said. he list price for the 1200XL would be "well under $1,000." 400/800/1200XL peripherals introduced: 1010 program recorder, 1020 printer/plotter, 1025 printer. In 400/800/1200XL software Atari introduced Galaxian (title by Namco) and Defender (title by Williams) (both already shipping for the holiday shopping season); announced Qix (title by Taito), E.T. Phone Home!, Dig Dug (title by Namco), Family Finances (enhanced combination of the two APX titles, Family Cash Flow and Family Budget), Timewise, AtariWriter, and AtariMusic I (previously: Music Tutor I); and again promoted: Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Junior, Juggles' House, and Juggles' Rainbow. Keith Schaefer was VP of sales and John Cavalier was president of Atari's Home Computer Division. December: Atari shipped Galaxian (title by Namco) and Defender (title by Williams) in time for the holiday shopping season. December: Atari (Home Computer) SVP of sales and marketing Thomas M. McDonough departed the company. (NYT 12/19/82) Following McDonough's departure, Keith Schaefer would be promoted from VP sales to SVP sales. December: Sherwin Gooch joined Atari (Home Computer) as Manager, Telecommunications Products Group. He was previously Associate Director, Center for Music Research, Florida State University. December/January: First issue of Page 6 magazine, the U.K.'s first Atari computer magazine. Published by Les Ellingham. Atari sold 400,000 of its 400 and 800 computers in 1982, according to The Yankee Group, a Boston-based computer consulting firm, accounting for 17 percent of all home computer sales. (Washington Post 5/24/1983 pD7) 1983 January 6-9: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari featured the 1200XL, 1010, 1020, and 1025, introduced revised versions of the Programmer and Entertainer kits, featured Qix, E.T. Phone Home!, Dig Dug, Donkey Kong, Family Finances, Timewise, AtariWriter, Galaxian, Defender, and AtariMusic I, and introduced the first title in the Disney Educational Series, Mickey in the Great Outdoors. Caverns of Mars would be re-released on cartridge (previously: disk). The APX title, Eastern Front (1941), would be re-released in the main Atari product line (on cartridge). The retail price for the 1200XL was announced at $899; the new suggested retail price for the 800 was $679 (previously: $899). For the 2600, Atari introduced: Pro-Line Trak-Ball Controller (CX22), Pro-Line Joystick (CX60; would ship as CX24), Remote Control Wireless Joysticks (CX42); each would later also be marketed for use with Atari home computers. January 15: At the 2nd Atari Star Awards banquet, held at San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel, Atari awarded the Star Award Grand Prize and US$25,000 to David Buehler for his APX title, Typo Attack. Star Special Award of Merit winners: Douglas Crockford, Harry Koons & Art Prag, Lee Actor. Keith Schaefer remained Atari (Home Computer) SVP sales. January: Atari began production of the 1200XL (made in the USA). January 20: Logo Computer Systems, Inc. (LCSI) and Atari jointly announced Atari Logo for the 400/800/1200XL. (It would ship fall 1983.) January 31: Atari announced the appointment of Marcian E. Hoff Jr. (Ted Hoff), previously of Intel and "father of the microprocessor," as VP of research and development (replacing the departed Steven Mayer). In addition to oversight for the Atari Corporate Research unit (which would remain headed by Atari VP/chief scientist Alan Kay), Hoff would establish a new Atari Advanced Computer Technologies Design Center, home for the new Atari Advanced Engineering Group, which would include: Donald Teiser as Director of Advanced Engineering (previously: an Atari (Consumer) manager of software development), Jim Tittsler (previously of Atari (Consumer), Richard O'Keefe (previously of Atari (Consumer)) Winter 82/83: First issue of I/O, later known as Input/Output, the magazine of the Atari Home Computer Club (Atari International (U.K.)). Winter: APX Catalog introduced: FOG Index, Real Estate Cash Flow Analysis, Text Analyst Rev. 2, Astrology Rev. 1.1, Earth Science (by MECC), Easygrader Rev. 1.1, Geography (by MECC), I'm Different!, The Magic Melody Box, The Market Place (by MECC), Monkey Up a Tree, Music II--Rhythm & Pitch (by MECC), Music III--Scales & Chords (by MECC), Prefixes (by MECC), Typo Attack, Air- Raid!, Game Show, Gridiron Glory, Melt-Down, Phobos, Pushky, Quarxon, Rabbotz Rev. 1.1, Yahtman, BASIC/XA, Deep Blue C Compiler, Deep Blue Secrets, Disk Fixer/Load 'n Go, Diskmenu, Music Player. Fred Thorlin was APX Director (previously: APX General Manager). Winter: Atari shipped the AtariWriter cartridge. AtariWriter was programmed by William V. Robinson (author of DataSoft's Text Wizard) with Mark Rieley for DataSoft, in fulfillment of the 300-page "AtariWriter Internal Design Specification" developed by Gary Furr, a product manager at Atari. Winter?: Jeffrey A. Heimbuck, previously of Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, joined Atari (Home Computer) as SVP marketing, replacing the departed Thomas McDonough. February: Atari announced that they were now shipping Visicalc (by Visicorp; previously released by Personal Software/Visicorp). Winter/Spring: "Computers: Expressway to Tomorrow" was an Atari-produced assembly program for junior and senior high schools in the U.S., offering both entertainment and computer education using films, slides, music, and a live host to explore the role of computers in society. (MC's note: I remember that this came to my school!) March?: Atari (Home Computer) Director of hardware Engineering Larry Plummer departed the company. (Dave Stubben remained Atari (Home Computer) VP engineering.) March: Atari shipped the 1200XL, suggested retail price US$899. (Kassar quote, acb 6/83) March 18-20: At the 8th Annual West Coast Computer Faire at the Brooks Convention Hall and Civic Center in San Francisco, Atari featured Dig Dug, E.T. Phone Home!, Qix, and AtariWriter, and introduced Atari Logo. Atari announced a $50 rebate for the purchase of a 400 computer, and hinted that the machine was soon to be replaced by a new model (600XL). March?: Atari featured the Atari Coin Executive (ACE) at the Amusement Operators Expo '83 (AOE '83) at the O'Hare Expo Center in Chicago. Spring: APX Catalog introduced: Atspeller, Typit, Fingerspelling, Escape to Equatus, Math Mission, My Spelling Easel, Teasers by Tobbs, Three R Math Classroom Kit, Catterpiggle, Diggerbonk, Getaway!, Impact, Microsailing, Chameleon CRT Terminal Emulator (New Version), Hex-A-Bug Spring?: Atari shipped the 1010 program recorder, 1020 printer/plotter (US$299), and 1025 printer (US$549). April: Atari (Home Computer) Software Development Manager Paul Laughton departed the company. Sherwin Gooch, previously (Home Computer) Telecommunications Products Group Manager, would become Manager, Applications Software and Telecommunications Products Group (replacing Laughton as manager of applications software development). April/May: Production of the 1200XL shifted from the USA to Taiwan. April/May?: Atari (Home Computer) director of product marketing Mark Lutvak and Atari (Home Computer) VP business planning Peter Rosenthal both departed the company. May: Production of Atari 400/800 computers and the 810 disk drive ended. June 1: Atari announced the (re-)consolidation of the businesses of the Home Computer Division with the Consumer Electronics (home video games) Division. June 5-8: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced the 600XL, 800XL, 1400XL and 1450XLD home computers (the 1400XL/1450XLD never shipped). The 400/800 were announced discontinued. The 600XL/800XL would retail for US$199/$299. Also introduced: 1050 disk drive with DOS III (later: DOS 3), 1027 printer, 1030 modem with ModemLink, Touch Tablet (CX77) with graphics tablet cassette program (would ship as: AtariArtist on cartridge), Trak-Ball controller (CX80), featured the Remote Control Wireless Joysticks, and previewed/announced: CP/M Module with CP/M 2.2 (or: CP/M Add-On module; later: 1060; never shipped), Expansion Box (later: 1090 XL Expansion System; never shipped), Light Pen (CX75), Super Controller (home computer and international name for CX60 Pro-Line Joystick; would ship as CX24). All-In-One-Pak kits introduced/previewed: Programming System, Entertainment System (never shipped), Writing System (shipped as: AtariWriter System), Atari Accountant (never shipped), Home Manager (never shipped), Arcade Champ, BASIC Tutor I. Software introduced: Paint (SuperBoots Software from Capital Children's Museum via Reston), Microsoft BASIC II, Tennis, Soccer (never shipped), Football, Pole Position (title by Namco), Joust (title by Williams), Donkey Kong Junior (title by Nintendo), Ms. Pac-Man (title by Namco), Pengo (title by Sega), AtariMusic I: Notes and Steps, AtariMusic II: Major Scales and Keys. Software announced/previewed: Robotron: 2084 (title by Williams), Superman III (never shipped), Battlezone (title would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1988), Tempest (never shipped), Xevious (title by Namco; never shipped), Peter Pan's Daring Journey (Disney; alternate: Peter Pan's Daring Escape; later: Captain Hook's Revenge; never shipped), Mysteries of Wonderland (Disney; never shipped). Atari also introduced Alan Alda as spokesperson for Atari computers, in an arrangement to extend for the next 5 years. The 600XL had been known as "Surely" and the 800XL had been known as "Surely Plus" inside Atari. Earlier internal names at Atari for the 1400XL: "1201", then "1200XLS", then "1200XLT". Earlier internal names at Atari for the 1450XLD: "1251", then "1250XLD". New list price for the close-out 400 computer: $199 (previously: $299), with the $50 rebate offer continuing as well. Atari would also now additionally offer a $100 rebate for the purchase of an 800 or 1200XL computer. Atari also announced the Atari Instructional Material Service (AIMS; later: Atari Learning Systems). Under AIMS, in the new AtariLab (earlier: ScienceLab) series (developed by Dickinson College) Atari introduced the Starter AtariLab (would ship as: AtariLab Starter Set with Temperature Module), and announced: the Math Arcademics series (Arcademic Skill Builders series by DLM; never shipped), Atari Sentences (never shipped), AtariLab Light Module (would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1984), AtariLab Timekeeper Module (never shipped), AtariLab Lie Detector Module (never shipped), AtariLab Reaction Time Module (never shipped), AtariLab Heartbeat Module (never shipped), AtariLab Biofeedback Module (proposed; never shipped), AtariLab Mechanics Module (proposed; never shipped), and a multi-program Trigonometry and Algebra course from CONDUIT (University of Iowa; would consist of: Conduit Algebra, Green Globs and Other Trig Diversions; both never shipped). Atari Products Co. SVP education Linda Gordon was head of AIMS. June 11-Sept 10: Atari co-sponsored the Punta Cana Club Med/Atari Computer vacation getaway on the island of Hispaniola in the Dominican Republic. June 27: Atari opened their first Atari Center, an educational computing concept, at The Oaks Shopping Center in Cupertino, CA. Atari Centers were operated by the Picodyne Corporation (Dean Brown, president) with Atari providing funding and advertising. Alan O'Neill was the contract manager of Atari Centers. Sara Armstrong, director of the Terra Nuova Montessori School in Hayward CA, would be director of the Cupertino Atari Center. Summer: APX Catalog introduced: Home Inventory, Home Loan Analysis, Strategic Financial Ratio Analysis, Drawit, Piano Tuner, Video Kaleidoscope, Circuit Lab, Morsecode Master, Punctuation Put-on, Three R Math Home System, Wordgo, The Bean Machine, Bootleg, Can't Quit, Dandy, Ennumereight, Smasher. APX also introduced the 48K RAM Expansion Kit (for the 400 computer, 8KiB or 16KiB versions); $110, or $130 installed at Atari Regional Repair Centers. Jack Perron was APX product review manager (replacing Paul Cubbage in the role at APX). Fred Thorlin remained APX director. Summer: Second year of Atari Computer Camps, held at seven sites nationwide (U.S.): Greenfield MA, Faribault MN, East Stroudsburg PA, Asheville NC, Glencoe MD, Danville CA, and San Diego CA. The curriculum included programming in Atari Super PILOT (unreleased for the general public). Summer: Atari shipped the 1050 disk drive, with DOS II version 2.0S. July 2: The second Atari Center opened at the corner of Fifth Ave. and 48th St. in Manhattan. Educator Seth Greenberg would be manager of the Manhattan Atari Center. July: Production of the Atari 1200XL computer ended. July: Atari released the Pro-Line Trak-Ball Controller (CX22). Sept83-June84: The "Catch On to Computers" program, a joint effort between Atari and General Foods' Post Cereals, offered Atari computers, equipment, and educational software to schools for collecting Post cereal proof-of-purchase points over the 1983-1984 school year. September: Ted Kahn stepped down as executive director of the Atari Institute for Educational Action Research. More than US$1 million worth of computers, software, and cash stipends had been awarded to over 100 nonprofit organizations since the program's founding in 1981. September: Atari International (U.K.) announced The Lone Raider. September 23: The two Atari Center locations both closed at the end of the 90- day trial period for the program. Fall: APX Catalog introduced: Atspeller Rev. 2, AtariWriter Printer Drivers, Color Alignment Generator, Advanced Fingerspelling, Excalibur, Musical Pilot, Puzzler, Ringmaster, Spelling Genie Rev. 2.0, Ion Roadway, Kangaroo (GCC; title by Sun Electronics), Moon Marauder, Saratoga, Space War, Cartoonist, Eastern Front (1941) Scenario Editor, Eastern Front Scenarios 1942/1943/1944, Mathlib for Deep Blue C Fall: Atari shipped the Communicator II kit (with the new 835 modem) and the 1027 printer. Fall: An Atari TV ad promoted the 400 for $69.95 after $50 Atari rebate, indicating a new/final list price of $119.95 (previously: $199). (http://www.atarimania.com/videos/atari-400-commercial-50-usd-rebate.flv) October 10: Atari announced the appointment of Fred Simon as Atari Products Co. SVP of computer marketing (hardware and software). October: Atari shipped the 600XL, retail price US$199. October: The Atari Learning Systems division (previously: Atari Instructional Material Service or AIMS) published Review: A Catalog of Atari Learning Systems. Announced/promoted: Spelling in Context 1, Spelling in Context 2, Spelling in Context 3, Spelling in Context 4, Spelling in Context 5, Spelling in Context 6, Spelling in Context 7, Spelling in Context 8, Math Facts and Games, Concentration, Division Drill, Atari Sentences (never shipped), AtariLab Starter Set with Temperature Module, AtariLab Light Module (Feb. '84; would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1984), Atari PLATO (March '84; later: The Learning Phone; would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1986), U.S. Geography/Check Marc (Geo Terms series by Marc Ed), U.S. Geography/High Marc (Geo Terms series by Marc Ed), Atari Pascal (Version 2.0) (Jan. '84; never shipped), Secret Formula elementary (by Mind Movers), Secret Formula intermediate (by Mind Movers), Secret Formula advanced (by Mind Movers), Introducing--Peter and the Wolf (never shipped), Screen Maker, Player Maker, Alien Addition (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Meteor Multiplication (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Demolition Division (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Alligator Mix (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Minus Mission (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Dragon Mix (Arcademics by DLM; never shipped), Atari Super PILOT (April '84; never shipped), Phone Home (never shipped), Name Rondo (never shipped), Create a Rondo (never shipped), Instructional Computing Demonstration (previously released by APX), Music I (Terms & Notations) (by MECC; previously released by APX), Music II (Rhythm & Pitch) (by MECC; previously released by APX), Music III/Scales & Chords (by MECC; previously released by APX), Elementary Biology (by MECC; previously released by APX), Earth Science (by MECC; previously released by APX), Geography (by MECC; previously released by APX), Prefixes (by MECC; previously released by APX), Metric & Problem Solving (by MECC; previously released by APX), The Market Place (by MECC; previously released by APX), Basic Arithmetic (by MECC), Graphing (by MECC), Pre-Reading (by MECC), Counting (by MECC), Expeditions (by MECC), Spelling Bee (by MECC), Word Games (by MECC). Also announced/promoted for future release: AtariLab Biofeedback Module, AtariLab Timekeeper Module, AtariLab Lie Detector Module, AtariLab Mechanics Module, AtariLab Curriculum Modules: Temperature and Light (later: LabMate; never shipped), AtariWriter Curriculum Guide (never shipped), Conduit Algebra (never shipped), Green Globs and Other Trig Diversions (later: Green Globs; never shipped), Swarthmore Trig (never shipped). Atari Products Co. SVP education Linda Gordon was head of Atari Learning Systems. October: Atari France launched the "L'Atarien" magazine, issue 0 (pilot ?), the "magazine of the Atari Club". In its first issues, the magazine was mostly centered on the 2600 VCS and 400/800 computers, but the focus quickly shifted to the XL computers in the next issues. Officially the magazine was issued by "Rive Ouest - Cato Johnson France" on behalf of "PECF Atari France" (Issue #0, Page 3). "PECF" was the nickname of the company "Productions et Editions Cinematographiques Francaises", a company 100% owned by Warner Communications. October 21: Atari said that it was delaying the making and marketing of its two higher-priced computer models, the 1400XL and the 1450XLD. The machines would not ship until late December, after the Christmas selling season, and then only in limited quantities. (WSJ 10/24/1983 p.5) October 21-23: TariCon '83, "the world's first Atari-only computer convention," was scheduled by MACE, Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts, at the Southfield Civic Center Pavillion, Southfield, Michigan. The even did not come together as planned, but TariCon '84 was successfully held August 1984. October 24: Report that plans at Atari to introduced a new computer model, the Atari 1600, had recently been canceled by Atari CEO James Morgan. (WSJ 10/24/1983 p.5) Inside Atari the 1600 had previously been known as the 25601; it was to be the resulting product from the Shakti project (never shipped). See: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/aed/chap7.htm October-December: "Catch on to Computers" computer literacy training programs for children, adults, and teachers, sponsored by Atari and General Mills' Post Cereals, ran in 10 cities across the U.S. November 2: Report that Atari announced that because of production snags in Hong Kong, it would be able to fill only 60 per cent of its Christmas orders for the 600XL and the 800XL. Atari also reiterated that it would ship the 1400XL and the 1450XLD in limited quantities in late December and more widely after the first of the year. (WSJ 11/2/1983 p.2) November 9: Atari said it would raise the prices of its home computers and video game consoles by between 17 percent and 29 percent, effective Jan. 1, 1984. The increases would raise the dealer price on the 600XL to $180, from $140. The dealer price of the 800XL would rise to $280, from $240. Atari also said it would raise prices of its 1027 printer and 1050 disk drive by about $15 each. November: Atari opened their third "Adventure" location, the "first" Atari Adventure family entertainment center at the Northwest Plaza shopping center located in St. Ann MO (suburban St. Louis MO). The 8,000 square foot location was planned as the corporate prototype for a nationwide roll-out of 12-15 facilities. Store design by Bill Poon & Company Architects. The location combined a traditional video game arcade (about 40 machines), a new video game technology display area, and a Computer Learning Center: a hands-on public computer classroom/lab featuring Atari 1200XL computers and a full-time instructor. November: Atari shipped the 800XL, retail price US$299. November/December?: Dorothy K. Deringer, previously a program officer at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), joined Atari Learning Systems as VP product development. Linda Gordon remained Atari Products Co. SVP education and head of Atari Learning Systems. December 13: In an open letter posted to the Atari SIG on CompuServe, addressed to Atari users from Atari Chairman and CEO Jim Morgan, Morgan described the Atari he had inherited as being "in way over its head with a computer product line as inclusive as the 600XL, 800XL, 1400XL, 1450XLD, and 1600." Morgan announced the formation of "a group led by Ted Hoff and Alan Kay which is chartered to define our next generation of computers...In the meantime, we will have to keep our product line rather restricted to broadly saleable products." (M.A.C.E. Journal v4n2/3 Feb/Mar 1984 p.2; see also CC May84p193) "Atari sold roughly 250,000 of its 800 series computers last year" - Time magazine, July 16, 1984 1984 January 1: The retail price for the Atari 600XL was increased from $199 to $239, and the retail price for the Atari 800XL was increased from $299 to US$339. January 1: Steve Bristow, previously Atari VP Engineering, AtariTel Division, became Atari VP Engineering Computer Division and Atari Fellow. (Dave Stubben, previously Atari VP engineering computer division, would be promoted to Atari SVP engineering, home computers and home video games, and Atari Fellow.) January 7-10: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari featured the Touch Tablet with AtariArtist, featured the Light Pen (CX75) with AtariGraphics, and introduced the 1064 memory module for the 600XL. The unshipped 1450XLD computer and the 1090 XL Expansion System were again shown, but Atari confirmed that the unshipped 1400XL computer and 1060 CP/M Module were both cancelled. Entertainment titles introduced/featured: Millipede (would be shipped by Atari Corp.), Joust, Dig Dug, Jungle Hunt (title by Taito), Pole Position, Moon Patrol (title by Irem; would be shipped by Atari Corp.), Pengo, Crystal Castles (would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1988), Donkey Kong Junior, Mario Bros. (title by Nintendo; would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1988), Robotron: 2084. Other software introduced or announced: DOS 3 (for the 1050 disk drive; previously: DOS III), Atari Translator, Sky Writer, SynFile+ (by Synapse; introduced by Synapse June 1983; never shipped by Atari; would be shipped by Synapse fall 1984), SynCalc (by Synapse; introduced by Synapse June 1983; never shipped by Atari; would be shipped by Synapse fall 1984), SynTrend (by Synapse; consisting of SynGraph and SynStat; introduced by Synapse June 1983; never shipped by Atari; would be shipped by Synapse fall 1984), Legacy (Atari Advanced Games Group; later: Final Legacy; would be shipped by Atari Corp.), Typo Attack (previously released by APX), Captain Hook's Revenge (by Disney; never shipped), Berzerk (title by Stern; never shipped), Pop'R Spell (never shipped), and in the Atari Music Learning Series: AtariMusic I, AtariMusic II. The AtariLab Starter Set with Temperature Module ("ready to ship now") and the Atari Lab Light Module were featured, and Atari Learning Systems announced: AtariLab Robotics Module (proposed; never shipped), AtariLab Nuclear Radiation Module (proposed; never shipped) January 14: At San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel, Atari awarded the third annual Atari Star Award and US$25,000 to Mark Reid for his APX title, Getaway!. Other Finalists: James Burton, R. Stanley Kistler, Gregor Novak. Fred Simon remained Atari SVP of computer hardware and software marketing. January: Atari opened their fourth "Adventure" location, the second Atari Adventure family entertainment center, at Crestwood Plaza in Crestwood MO (suburban St. Louis MO). A 2-story location, using the same concept as the area's Northwest Plaza Atari Adventure location. Winter: APX Catalog introduced: Equestrian, Mastermatch, Atspeller (for AtariWriter), Bellum, Burgers!, Chambers of Zorp, Character Fun, Dragon Quest or A Twist in the Tail, Numberland Nightwatch, Raid on Graviton, Rush Hour, Weakon, National Flags, Dog Daze Deluxe Winter: Atari shipped the Touch Tablet (with AtariArtist and DOS 2.0S), and began shipping the 1050 disk drive with DOS 3 (replacing DOS 2.0S). February: Atari 5200 production ended. February 1?: Atari VP Engineering Computer Division and Atari Fellow Steve Bristow departed the company. (Dave Stubben remained Atari SVP engineering, home computers and home video games.) March: APX director Fred Thorlin departed the company. March 22-25: At the 9th West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco, Atari's exhibit included the APX title, Equestrian. (ROM #6) APX also introduced what turned out to be their last release, Bumpomov's Dogs. See: http://graychang.megabyet.net/cnc/bumpomov/broderbund_letter.shtml March 24: Atari said it had decided to cease its direct-mail software sales operations (APX). March-April: The Atari Corporate Research unit, including both the Atari Sunnyvale Research Lab and the Atari Cambridge Research Lab, was shut down. ASRL director Kristina Hooper, ACRL director Cynthia Solomon, and Atari VP/chief scientist and Atari Fellow Alan Kay would all depart the company. April 2: Atari Products Co. and Ted Hoff announced the promotion of Chris Jeffers to VP, product development (previously: manager of administration for corporate research). (Update) Spring: I/O Issue Five turned out to be the final issue of Input/Output, the magazine of the Atari Home Computer Club (Atari International (U.K.)). Spring: Atari shipped the CX75 Light Pen with AtariGraphics. May 1: "Hearing on Computer Education" held before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, included testimony by Atari Learning Systems VP product development Dorothy Deringer. May 8: In an elaborate press event, Atari/Lucasfilm introduced Ballblazer and Rescue on Fractalus!, both developed by Lucasfilm Games, to be published by Atari for the 5200 and on cartridge for Atari XL computers. (Atari/Commodore computer disk versions would be shipped by Epyx (U.S.) and Activision (UK) in 1985; 5200 versions would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1986; XE cartridge versions would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1988) At Lucasfilm Games: Peter Langston was Games Group Leader, David Levine was Ballblazer project leader, David Fox was Rescue on Fractalus! project leader. Fred Simon remained Atari SVP of computer hardware and software marketing. May: Atari Products Co. Applications Software and Telecommunications Products Group Manager Sherwin Gooch departed the company. May 21: Atari disclosed that the 5200 was no longer in production. More than 1 million 5200s had been sold to date. (Washington Post, May 22, 1984, C3) June 1: Atari said it was withdrawing from a joint manufacturing venture in Hong Kong with Wong Electronics, which was 51 percent owned by the company. Atari said Wong would end production of the 800XL home computer, which it had supplied to Atari. Company officials said that the move was an effort to consolidate operations in Taiwan. June 3-6: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced the MindLink System; packages would include: headband, two infrared sensors, and a software package. 3 initial software packages for the unit were planned: an adventure game, a new version of Breakout, and a relaxation biofeedback program. Atari announced that they would introduce a new, un-named, high-end computer ("1650XLD"; never shipped), reportedly for under $1000, to ship fall 1984. The machine would resemble the canceled 1450XLD; it would have 64KiB RAM, modem, speech synthesis chip, and built-in double-sided, double density 352KiB disk drive; it would be fully compatible with the Atari 600XL/800XL, and would also be "70 to 80 percent compatible" with the IBM PC; telecommunications software and a mini-database called The Grapevine would be built in. Also again featured: the 1090 XL Expansion System. Atari introduced: Proofreader (for AtariWriter; would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1985), Track & Field (with Track & Field Arcade Controller; title by Konami; would be shipped by Atari Corp.), The Last Starfighter (would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1986 as: Star Raiders II), Jr. Pac-Man (title by Bally-Midway; never shipped), Hobgoblin (Atari Advanced Games Group; never shipped), Elevator Action (title by Taito; never shipped), Gremlins (never shipped), Pole Position II (title by Namco; never shipped), Letter Tutor (never shipped), Word Tutor (never shipped), and in the new Futuremakers series: This Is Ground Control (never shipped), Through the Star Bridge (never shipped). Also again featured: Crystal Castles, SynFile+, SynCalc, SynTrend, Final Legacy (previously: Legacy), Ballblazer, Rescue on Fractalus! Atari Learning Systems introduced: Find It! (never shipped), Green Globs (never shipped), Yaacov Agam's Interactive Painting (never shipped), First Aid... The ABC of CPR (never shipped), Simulated Computer II (never shipped), Telly Turtle (never shipped), Wheeler Dealer (never shipped), LabMate Home Edition Ages 9-13 (book for AtariLab Starter Set; never shipped), LabMate Home Edition Ages 14-15 (book for AtariLab Starter Set; never shipped), LabMate School Edition Elementary (books for AtariLab Starter Set; never shipped), LabMate School Edition Jr. High (books for AtariLab Starter Set; never shipped), LabMate School Edition High School (books for AtariLab Starter Set; never shipped), The Learning Phone (previously: Atari PLATO; would be shipped by Atari Corp. in 1986), Escape ("interpreting graphs the fun way"; never shipped) June: Atari France announced the SECAM model of the 800XL. (The SECAM 600XL was also announced, but this never made it into production.) List prices: 600XL PAL: 2200 FRF ; 600XL SECAM: 2500 FRF ; 800XL PAL: 3200 FRF ; 800XL SECAM: 3500 FRF ; 1010: 890 FRF ; 1050: 3690 FRF ; 1020: 2590 FRF; 1027: 3490 FRF ; Atari Touch Tablet: 890 FRF Month?: Exidy released the Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system, along with four games for the system, all developed by First Star Software: Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop. The Exidy Max-A-Flex utilized an embedded Atari 600XL system. See: http://www.myatari.co.uk/issues/jan2003/maxaflex.htm July 1-August 25: Third and final year of Atari Computer Camps. Camps were held at two locations: "Camp Atari-Poconos" (East Stroudsburg State College) in East Stroudsburg PA, and "Camp Atari-New England" (Stoneleigh-Burnham School) in Greenfield MA. Patricia Tubbs was Project Manager at Atari. July 2: In a deal consummated in New York City at 5:30 a.m. Monday morning, July 2, effective Saturday June 30, the assets of the Atari 600XL/800XL home computer business were sold by Warner Communications Inc (WCI) to Tramel Technology Ltd (TTL). July 11: Tramel Technology Ltd. filed a Certificate of Amendment of Articles of Incorporation, changing its corporate title to: Atari Corporation July 23: Business week reported, "In just two weeks [Tramiel] has fired 700 people at Atari's Sunnyvale offices and has axed several of Atari's current products, including the 7800 video game system and the $150 600XL home computer." August: Atari engineers completed the prototype "800XLF" motherboard design, to be used in new-production 800XL computers. The new 800XL machines would include the new FREDDIE memory management chip (previously developed at Atari, Inc.), the new Revision C of Atari BASIC, and a reinstated chrominance video signal on the Monitor port (missing on the 1200XL/600XL/800XL produced by Atari, Inc.). The new 800XL machines would be produced in PAL and (for the first time, France-specific) SECAM versions, but not the NTSC version due to ample existing supply of NTSC 800XL machines. August: Atari reduced the retail price for the 800XL from US$250 to US$179. August 25-26: TariCon '84, the first Atari-only computer fair, was held at Southfield Civic Centre near Detroit Michigan. Sponsored and organized by two User Groups - CHAOS (Capitol Hill Atari Owners Society) and MACE (Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts). August 27: Atari issued their first major statement. Atari planned to introduce a range of new 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit computers in January 1985. Atari would still pursue the home video game market as well, and would continue to manufacture and sell the 800XL through 1984. Summer/Fall?: The Atari Adventure at the Northwest Plaza in St. Ann MO was closed. October 9: Date of Atari internal draft specification document for a "900XLA" computer (would be announced as: 65XEM). The document contrasted the "900XLA" with the forthcoming "900XL" computer (would be introduced as: 65XE). October: In the new Atari software division (AtariSoft), John Skruch would be product manager, 8-bit computers. Fall: Atari produced and shipped new revisions of the 800XL computer for Europe (updated PAL version and new SECAM version). Fall: Atari shipped (titles developed but not shipped by Atari, Inc.): AtariLab Light Module, Sky Writer, Millipede, Moon Patrol, Track & Field (with Track & Field Arcade Controller), Final Legacy. In the UK, the Atari Software Products Division shipped: The Pay-Off November 13: Atari held a press conference at company headquarters in Sunnyvale, CA in which they outlined their basic marketing strategy for 1985. The U.S. price for the 800XL was reduced from US$179 to US$119. December 6: It was reported that Atari would make an immediate 23 per cent reduction to DM 499 (US$160) in the price of its 800XL home computer in West Germany and similar cuts in the UK and Italy. Atari estimated the company's share of the West German home computer market at 8%, compared with 2% in 1983. In the UK, the 800XL price cut was from 169 to 129 pounds. December 8: Atari participated in the Children's Holiday Celebration, a fund raising event for the Scholarship Fund of the Children's Health Council (CHC). Atari loaned 24 800XL computers to the event's coordinators. The systems were then rented to participants, proceeds to the Scholarship Fund. Two of the 800XLs and 1,000 T-shirts were donated by Atari to the organization. December: Atari France announced the new prices of the XL computers range: 600XL PAL: 1599 FRF ; 800XL PAL: 2199 FRF ; 800XL SECAM: 2499 FRF; 1010: 449 FRF ; 1050: 2699 FRF ; 1020: 899 FRF ; 1027: 3399 FRF; Atari Touch Tablet: 649 FRF December: Atari France resumed L'Atarien magazine with issue #5. (It had been on hold since issue #4, June 1984.) December: Atari engineers completed the prototype "900XLF" motherboard design, to be used in the forthcoming "900XL" computer. (would be introduced as: 65XE) "The 800XL has sold almost 500,000 units through 1984" --Atari's Sigmund Hartmann, Atari Explorer magazine, Summer 1985, p. 33. "By the end of 1984, the Atari 800XL will have sold more than 600,000 units since its introduction more than a year ago, according to Kenneth Lim of Dataquest, a market research firm in San Jose." InfoWorld January 7/14, 1985 1985 January 5-8: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced the 130XE computer ($149), the 65XE computer ($99), and the 65XEP computer ($399; never shipped), and announced the 65XEM computer ($149; never shipped). Atari previewed/announced: XC1411 monitor (never shipped), XM128 monitor (never shipped), XF521 5.25" disk drive (130KiB; never shipped) with DOS 2.5, XTM201 printer (never shipped), XTC201 printer (never shipped), XMM801 printer, XDM121 printer, XM301 modem. The 130XE/65XE/65XEP/65XEM would run the Atari OS as found in the Atari 800XL which would now be phased out. New software by Atari would include: Infinity (by Matrix Software; never shipped), Silent Butler (by Atari/Silent Butler Software), Shopkeeper (never shipped), AtariWriter Plus, Song Painter (by Atari/Carousel Software; would ship as: Music Painter), Atari Tutorial (never shipped), and several titles previously introduced by Atari, Inc.: The Learning Phone (access software for the PLATO Homelink Service), Proofreader, Crystal Castles, Mario Bros. Also featured: AtariLab Light Module, Sky Writer, Millipede, Moon Patrol, Track & Field, Final Legacy February: The new "L'Atarien" magazine was now issued by "Pressimages" on behalf of "PECF Atari France" (Issue #6, Page 3). February: Retail prices from Atari France: 800XL SECAM: 1700 FRF ; 1050: 2600 FRF ; 1027: 2600 FRF March 5: At the San Leandro Computer Club, regarding the 65XEP and 65XEM, Atari announced that they had "postponed plans to produce an 8-bit portable computer, due to lack of interest." Also, "plans for an XEM 8-bit music computer have been postponed indefinitely due to problems with finalizing the AMY sound chip." (The AMY chip had been developed at Atari, Inc. Atari Corp. now owned the technology, but had not retained the original design team. Thus, the new plan to integrate AMY into the XE system, as the announced 65XEM computer, turned out to be prohibitively expensive. Atari ultimately sold the AMY chip and technologies to a Milwaukee based audio design house called Sight & Sound. See: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html ) John Skruch was introduced as software product manager for the XE line. (CN, Apr85, p. 19) March 5: At the San Leandro Computer Club, Atari pledged the XE would ship in April. Regarding the 65XEP, Atari had "postponed plans to produce an 8-bit portable computer, due to lack of interest." Regarding the 65XEM, "plans for an XEM 8-bit music computer have been postponed indefinitely due to problems with finalizing the AMY sound chip." (CN, Apr85, p. 19; SPACE Apr85) March 30: At the first meeting of the Atari Worldwide User Network (WUN), held at the office of Antic magazine in San Francisco, Atari announced that the 130XE had just shipped in the U.S. ($149), the 65XE was currently being shipped in Canada, and that DOS 2.5 (OSS) was now shipping with 1050 disk drives (replacing DOS 3) and would be also be distributed as freeware. March 30-April 2: At the 10th West Coast Computer Faire at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco, The San Leandro Computer Club (SLCC) and the Atari Bay Area User's Computer Society (ABACUS) both displayed 130XE units supplied by Atari, their first showing to the general public. April: Atari introduced the 130XE computer to Germany at the Hannover Messe (Hanover Trade Fair), West Germany. (The 65XE was not shown.) April: Atari France announced the availability of the Atari 1029 printer. The price was not announced. April: Atari released DOS 2.5 as freeware via the CompuServe Atari SIG. May: First issue of the U.K.'s Atari User magazine, published by Database Publications. June 2-5: At the Summer CES in Chicago, Atari featured the XM301 modem, introduced The Professional (VIP Software; never shipped), GEM Desktop (VIP Software; never shipped), and Home Astronomer (by Atari/Deltron; would ship as: Atari Planetarium), and featured AtariWriter Plus and Silent Butler. Also at the CES, DataSoft re-introduced 3 titles previously shipped by Atari: Pole Position, Pac-Man, Dig Dug June: Atari France retail price for the 130XE SECAM: 1990 FRF Months?: In the UK, using the Atarisoft label, the Atari Software Products Division released on diskette: Software Pack (The Home Filing Manager + The Pay-Off / Paint), and re-released on cassette: The Lone Raider, Chess, Eastern Front (1941), European Countries and Capitals, An Invitation to Programming Months?: Using the Atarisoft label, Atari France S.A. released: Cameleon, L'Enigme du Triangle, Nostradamus, Promoteur September 4: Atari introduced the 130XE to the UK at the Personal Computer World (PCW) show in London. November: Atari shipped AtariWriter Plus, which was designed and programmed from scratch by William Robinson (the core word processor), Ron Rosen (Mail Merge module), and R. Stanley Kistler (Proofreader module) for Micro Fantasy, for Atari. Manual by Jeffrey D. Bass. Package included a version for 48KiB/64KiB Atari computers as well as a version supporting the 128KiB RAM of the 130XE. November 20-24: At the 7th annual Computer Dealers Exposition (COMDEX/Fall) in Las Vegas, Atari exhibited the 130XE. Notably, Atari presented a display consisting of an Atari 520ST, a Commodore Amiga, an Apple Macintosh, and an Atari 130XE, all running versions of the famous Amiga Boing Ball demo program. Atari promoted: the XM301 modem, The Learning Phone, AtariWriter Plus, Proofreader, Silent Butler, Music Painter (previously: Song Painter) December: Atari shipped the XM301 modem. Atari's 8-bit user base in the UK has now reached 400,000...close to 100,000 of the [discontinued 800XL] are believed to have been sold during the run up to Christmas alone. (Atari User Feb 1986 p.9) 1986 January 9: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari announced the XC11 program recorder, previewed Star Raiders II (disk), and featured: Silent Butler, Music Painter, Home Astronomer (to ship as: Atari Planetarium), AtariWriter Plus. Also, both the 130XE and 65XE were to be marketed in the U.S. in bundles; the $399 130XE bundle would include: mouse (STM1), printer (1027), disk drive (1050) and five software titles: Silent Butler, Star Raiders, Music Painter, Paint, AtariWriter. January/February: Atari shipped The Learning Phone (Access Software cartridge for the PLATO Homelink Service from Control Data Corporation), designed at Atari by Vincent Wu. The Atari PLATO project had been in development at Atari, Inc. since 1981. February: Cover date of Issue #10, the final issue of L'Atarien magazine from Atari France. February: Atari France retail prices: 130XE SECAM: 1490 FRF ; 1010: 490 FRF ; 1050: 1490 FRF ; 1029: 1490 FRF March 7-9: At the (first) Atari Computer Show (ACE) sponsored by Atari User magazine at the Novotel, Hammersmith, London (the first Atari-specific exhibition to be held anywhere in the world), Atari previewed an "80-column adapter" (would ship as: XEP80) and introduced the XC11 program recorder. March 12-19: At CeBIT '86 in Hanover, West Germany (this was the first year that CeBIT was held separately from the Hannover Messe (Hanover Trade Fair), Atari again previewed an 80 column card (XEP80), previewed a 3.5" floppy disk drive (XF351; never shipped), and previewed a new DOS (later: ADOS; would ship as: DOS XE). March: Atari shipped the 65XE (U.S. release; $99.95) and shipped: Proofreader, Silent Butler, Music Painter April 28-May 1: At the Spring COMDEX show in Atlanta Atari showed the XMM801 printer, again previewed an 80 column card (XEP80), again previewed a 3.5" floppy disk drive (XF351), and showed software including Star Raiders II. Atari also previewed a 1200 bit/s modem for XE or ST (would ship as: SX212). Spring: Atari shipped the XMM801 printer and Atari Planetarium. June 1: Atari announced that David H. Ahl was the new editor of Atari Explorer magazine. June 1-4: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced the XEP80 interface, introduced Star Raiders II, and also featured the XMM801 printer, Atari Planetarium, and Silent Butler. Atari also announced/showed a Hayes-compatible 1200 bit/s modem for ST/PC/XE ("XM 1200"?; would ship as: SX212) to ship by late summer 1986. (InfoWorld June 16 p.22) July: Atari shipped Star Raiders II. Summer: Atari shipped the XC12 program recorder (Europe). Sept/Oct: First issue of Atari Explorer magazine produced by the new subsidiary, Atari Explorer Publications Corp. of Mendham, NJ, headed by David H. Ahl, founder and former editor of Creative Computing magazine. Sept/Oct: John Skruch, previously Atari XE line product manager (software development management), became Atari Associate Director for Computer Software (software development management). November 10-14: At the Fall COMDEX in Las Vegas Atari introduced the SX212 modem (ST/XE/PC) and featured the XEP80. German Atari chairman Alwin Stumpf reported at CeBit 1987 in Hannover that Atari was surprised to sell 92,000 Atari XL computers in West Germany in 1986. (Happy Computer - 2. Atari XL/XE Sonderheft, p. 3, as quoted/translated by Andreas Koch) 1987 January 8-11: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari previewed the XE game system and a 3.5" disk drive (XF351; never shipped), introduced the XC12 program recorder to the U.S. (never shipped in the U.S.), featured the XEP80, and announced 80-column XEP80 versions of Silent Butler (later: Silent Butler 80; upgrade for Silent Butler; never shipped) and AtariWriter Plus (would ship as: AtariWriter 80), and also featured the SX212. January: Alex Leavens joined Atari as Technical Support Manager (online support). His assignments would specificially include support for the 8-bit computers. February 15-18: Atari introduced the XE game system at the American International TOY FAIR in New York. The system would include console, keyboard, joystick (CX40), and video gun (XG-1 light gun), and would be bundled with "a sophisticated computer game requiring keyboard interaction" (Flight Simulator II), "a fast-action arcade-style game" (Missile Command), and "a new shooting game for the video gun" (Troubleshooter; later: Blast 'Em; would ship as: Bug Hunt) March 4-7: At CeBIT '87 in Hanover, West Germany, Atari introduced the XE video game system to Europe, announced BattleZone XE (previously announced/previewed by Atari, Inc. in 1983), and also announced a new XE- styled replacement for the recently fast-selling-out 800XL (would ship as: 800XE). March 24: Atari announced that technical support manager Alex Leavens was no longer with the company. May 29: Atari announced the appointment of Clifford Slobod as director of national sales for its entertainment division. Slobod's experience included 13 years with Mattel. Slobod would be responsible for domestic sales of video game systems and software, and would manage the introduction of the new Atari XE game system. May 30-June 2: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari announced that, in addition to keyboard, joystick, and video gun (light gun), the XE game system would be bundled with Flight Simulator II (previously released by SubLOGIC), Missile Command (previously released on cartridge), and Blast 'Em (previously: Troubleshooter; would ship as: Bug Hunt). Atari introduced 14 XE cartridges: Hardball! (previously released by Accolade), Fight Night (previously released by Accolade), Touchdown Football (previously released by Electronic arts; XE cartridge never shipped), One-on-One Basketball (previously released by Electronic Arts), Archon (by Free Fall Associates; previously released by Electronic Arts), Ballblazer (by Lucasfilm; previously released by Epyx), Rescue on Fractalus! (by Lucasfilm; previously released by Epyx), Lode Runner (previously released by Broderbund), Blue Max (by Broderbund; previously released by Synapse), David's Midnight Magic (previously released by Broderbund), Crossbow (title by Exidy), plus Atari's own Food Fight, BattleZone, and Star Raiders II (previously released on disk). Atari said they were additionally developing "two new shooting games" as well (would ship as: Barnyard Blaster, Crime Buster). Also, Atari introduced the XF551 disk drive with ADOS (would ship as: DOS XE), featured the SX212 and introduced/announced SX Express!, featured the XEP80, and featured Atari Planetarium. Summer: Atari shipped the XDM121 printer. August: Newspaper wire story on Las Vegas attractions: Atari Adventure Center, Caesars Palace and Riviera Hotels. Designed for the hotels by Atari and featuring more than 50 games...charge for most games. Atari 800 computers may be played at no charge for those who want to test geography and spelling skills. Open 24 hours daily. September: Atari shipped the SX212 modem. September/October: Atari shipped the XEP80 interface. September/October: Atari shipped the XE game system in late September, and it reached most dealer shelves by mid-October, retail price US$150. XES4001 package included: Missile Command and Atari BASIC on ROM, keyboard, Joystick (CX40), Light Gun (XG-1), Bug Hunt (previously: Blast 'Em) cartridge, Flight Simulator II cartridge Fall: Atari shipped: Rescue on Fractalus!, Ballblazer, Star Raiders II, Blue Max (Sculptured Software), Lode Runner (Chuck Peavey), David's Midnight Magic, Hardball! (Sculptured Software), Fight Night (Sculptured Software), Barnyard Blaster (K-Byte), Archon, One-on-One Basketball (Sculptured Software) Fall: Atari announced (via a new 2600/7800/XE Video Game Catalog): Desert Falcon, Choplifter! (previously released by Broderbund), Commando (title by Capcom via Data East; never shipped), GATO (title by Spectrum Holobyte) October 23: Nintendo of America Inc. requested a preliminary injunction against Atari Corp. in U.S. District Court, protesting that two Atari television commercials were false and misleading. The first commercial claimed the XE played hundreds of games while Nintendo's NES played only 80. Nintendo said the Atari claim was inflated because it was based in part on older games now hard to find. The second commercial stated the XE played both disk and cartridge games while the Nintendo played only cartridge games. While the commercial acknowledged the disk drive for the XE must be purchased separately, Nintendo said the claim was misleading because the disk drive was expensive and hard to find. December 15: The Honorable Robert P. Aguilar, United States District Judge, Northern District of California, denied the October 23, 1988 request by Nintendo of America for a preliminary injunction against the Atari television ads comparing Atari's XE game system with the Nintendo Entertainment System. The court ruled that the advertisements did not violate the Lanham Act. December?: Atari shipped the XF551 disk drive (with DOS 2.5). December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "In Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, and Poland the Atari 800XE and 65XE computers have gained brand dominance and are among the most popular systems being sold in these countries." Atari sold 100,000 XE Game Systems in the U.S. at Christmas and did not meet demand (Antic magazine, May 1988, p. 39) Atari "claims more than 2 million XE game systems sold in 1987." (Compute! magazine, May 1988: http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue96/news.php) 1988 January 7-10: Atari did not exhibit at the Winter CES in Las Vegas, but instead occupied a suite away from the show floor and sponsored ads in the daily show magazines for its Atari game systems. (Compute! Mar88p4) January: Optimized Systems Software (OSS) was merged into ICD. February 8-17: Atari featured the 2600, 7800 and XE video game systems at the 85th American International Toy Fair in New York City. Winter: Atari shipped BattleZone (Ken Rose). Spring: Atari shipped the SX Express! disk software package for use with the SX212. June 4-7: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari promoted 19 new XE cartridges (increasing the total XE game library from Atari to 52) including, available 2nd Qtr: Ace of Aces (previously released by Accolade), Desert Falcon, Gato, Necromancer (by Bill Williams; previously released by Synapse); 3rd Qtr: Choplifter!, Commando (never released), Crime Buster, Crossbow, Crystal Castles, Into the Eagle's Nest (by Pandora), Karateka (previously released by Broderbund), Mario Bros., Mean 18 (never released), Summer Games (previously released by Epyx), Thunderfox (by Aztec Design); 4th Qtr: Airball (by MicroDeal), Dark Chambers, Jinks (by Softgold; never released), Nebulus (title by U.S. Gold; later: Tower Toppler; never released). Atari announced the XE/7800/2600 "Atari's Winning Package for '88" advertising and promotion campaign featuring a World Series Sweepstakes endorsed by Ozzie Smith, a Superbowl Sweepstakes endorsed by Doug Williams, an NBA Championship Sweepstakes endorsed by Spud Webb, and the Atari Advantage collectors' program. (The 65XE/130XE were not shown.) June/July: Atari shipped GATO (Xanth F/X) August/September: Atari shipped: Desert Falcon (Ken Rose), Ace of Aces, Mario Bros. (Sculptured Software) October 1, 1988 through September 30, 1989: "Atari Advantage" promotion program by Atari (U.S.) for the 2600, 7800, and XE. Collect 5 cartridges for a free Atari T-shirt; 15 cartridges for a free cartridge; or 25 cartridges for a 7800 for $25 or for an XE game system or XE disk drive for $50, and "enter an essay writing contest to win an expense-paid 7-day/6-night trip for you and a guest to California. Visit some of California's top tourist attractions including a day at Atari headquarters (near San Francisco) to see how video games are designed." October/November: Atari shipped: Food Fight (The Softworks Factory), Necromancer November: Final issue of the U.K.'s Atari User magazine. The name would be sold to rival U.K. magazine publisher Page 6. November: Atari (U.S.) announced the availability of the XES2001 Light Gun + Bug Hunt package. November/December: Atari (U.S.) offered a $50 consumer rebate on the purchase of the XE game system. December: Atari shipped: Crystal Castles (The Softworks Factory), Into the Eagle's Nest December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "Our XE line of 8-bit computer systems is extremely popular throughout Eastern Europe, and most recently, has begun to appear on retail shelves in the Soviet Union." Atari sold 500,000 Atari 800XL units in West Germany in 1988. (Bajtek 2/1989, p.7; thanks Tomasz Krasuski) 1989 January 7-10: Atari's Entertainment division exhibited in a suite of rooms at the Dunes Hotel near the Winter CES in Las Vegas. (ST World Feb89) Atari announced 6 new titles planned, including: Commando (never shipped), Into the Eagle's Nest, Airball. This would bring the total library to 41 "active" game cartridge titles. (CN Mar89p13) January: Atari shipped DOS XE (earlier name: ADOS). New production XF551 disk drives would also ship with DOS XE (replacing DOS 2.5). February/March: New name for Page 6 magazine: Page 6 Atari User March: Atari shipped: Choplifter! (Sculptured Software), Dark Chambers (Sculptured Software), Crime Buster Spring: Atari shipped: Crossbow (Sculptured Software), Karateka (Sculptured Software), Summer Games, Airball (The Softworks Factory), Thunderfox. These would be the last game cartridges released by Atari for the XE. May: Atari shipped AtariWriter 80, programmed by William Robinson and Ron Rosen for Micro Fantasy. The package included Proofreader (programmed by R. Stanley Kistler) and Mail Merge modules, and required the XEP80 interface. Like AtariWriter Plus, the package included a version for 48KiB/64KiB Atari computers as well as a version supporting the 128KiB RAM of the 130XE. This would be the last release by Atari for the XE. May/June: Premier issue of Atarian magazine, "the official magazine of the Atarian Video Game Club sponsored by Atari (U.S.) Corp." Published by Atari Explorer Publications, David H. Ahl, Publisher/Editor, in support of the 2600, 7800, and XE game systems. New/upcoming games previewed: Commando (never shipped), Ikari Warriors (never shipped), Xenophobe (never shipped) June 3-6: At the Summer CES in Chicago, upcoming titles were promised by Atari: Commando (never shipped), Tower Toppler (previously: Nebulus; never shipped), Deflektor (never shipped), Xenophobe (never shipped), MIDI Maze (never shipped), Super Football (never shipped) June/July: New name for Page 6 Atari User magazine: New Atari User. August: Issue of Atarian previewed new/upcoming games: Mean 18 (never shipped), Xenophobe (never shipped), MIDI Maze (never shipped) October: Third and final issue of Atarian magazine. New/upcoming games previewed: Deflektor (never shipped), Ninja Golf (never shipped) October: Atari senior software engineer Lane Winner, with Atari since October 1979, departed the company. December: Final issue of ANALOG Computing magazine December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "sales of games products such as the 2600 and 7800 game systems and the range of older XE 8 bit computers decreased by 35% to $101.6 million, or 24% of total net sales for the year ended December 31, 1989, from $155.5 million, or 34%, of total net sales in 1988." From the Atari 10-K: "The Company's traditional video game offerings include the 2600 VCS, the 7800 ProSystem, and the XE Game System." 1990 March 15: Atari Explorer Publications was shut down, and Atari Explorer magazine went on hiatus. May?: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that last year, 250,000 XE computers were sold. In Poland, the XE sold 70,000 units, making it the most popular computer in Poland. (Atari Interface, June/July 1990, p. 6) June/July: Final issue of Antic, The Atari Resource magazine. Antic would continue as a section of the publisher's STart magazine. 1991 Jan/Feb: Return of Atari Explorer magazine, now headed by John Jainschigg and published in-house at Atari. March/April: LDW had imported about 250-270 thousand Atari 8-bit computers into Poland to date (since 1985)...Currently about 20% of the global production of 8-bit Atari computers is sent to Poland (Moje Atari 4/1991, pp. 8-9; thanks Tomasz Krasuski) April/May: Final issue of STart magazine (which had incorporated Antic magazine). May: "Atari Canada's General Manager Geoff Earle announces a new trade up program for owners of Atari 8-bit computers to a 520STFM for $250. The 8-bit computer line is admitted to be discontinued." (AtariUser Jan'92, p. 20) May 14: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE was still in production, being sold in South America, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. (Atari Interface magazine, June 1991, p. 10) November 23-24: Chicago Computerfest by Atari / Lake County Atari Computer Enthusiasts (LCACE), Ramada Hotel O'Hare, Rosemont, Illinois. Atari (U.S.) brought substantially all of their remaining inventory of 8-bit computer products for clearance sales. December: "..as of Christmas 1991, Atari decided to discontinue the XEgs, 2600, and 7800 systems." --Tim Duarte, AtariUser magazine, July 1992, p. 22. December 28: From the Atari 10-K SEC filing: "Atari's XE series computers are targeted for the price conscious markets. The 65XE and 130XE have 64k and 128k of internal RAM, and generally retail for less than $100 and $150, respectively. Both are supported by a variety of peripheral equipment and a variety of software titles including entertainment software. This computer line retains compatibility with the Company's previous generation 8-bit computer systems, i.e., the 400 and 800XL computers." 1992 Atari announced that support for all 8-bit products was discontinued as of the beginning of this year, according to Atari Classics magazine. (Dec. 1992, p.4) June 2: At the Atari stockholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE line of computers was still being made. Though not available in the U.S. market, XE systems were being made for sale in Mexico, South America, Eastern Europe and Germany. (Atari Interface magazine, Fall 1992, p. 19) Fall?: The Atari Adventure center at Crestwood Plaza in Crestwood MO, which had featured 800XL computers until at least 1991, was shut down. December: First issue of Atari Classics magazine, published by Unicorn Publications, Ben Poehland managing editor. December 31: For the first time, the XE was not mentioned in Atari's Annual Report to Shareholders. 1993 Jan/Feb: Final issue of Atari Explorer magazine. November?: Rights to ICD (including OSS) products for the 8-bit Atari were purchased by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe / Mike Hohman) 1994 January 1: From the Atari Annual Report: "The Company also has some inventory of its older 16-bit computer products and 8-bit game products, namely ST and TT series of computers, 2600 and 7800 video games systems and XE computer and Portfolio products. As a result of these inventories being technologically obsolete and noncompetitive, the Company has written off these inventories. The Company is expecting minimal sales from these products in the future." 1996 July 30: Atari Corp. merged with JT Storage, Inc. into a new company, JTS Acquisition Corp. The merged company immediately adopted the new name, JTS Corp. The prior business of Atari would now be conducted through the Atari Division of JTS; however "the Atari Division was not expected to represent a significant portion of JTS business," JTS said. 1997 July: Final issue of Atari Classics magazine. 1998 February 23: JTS sold substantially all of the assets of its Atari Division, consisting primarily of the Atari intellectual property rights and license agreements, to HIAC XI Corp., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hasbro Interactive (itself a unit of toy company Hasbro, Inc.), for US$5 million. HIAC XI was then renamed Atari Interactive, Inc. Fall: Final issue of Page 6 Publishing's New Atari User magazine. 2001 January 29: Infogrames Entertainment announced completion of its acquisition of Hasbro Interactive from Hasbro, renaming the subsidiary Infogrames Interactive, Inc. Atari Interactive was included in the transaction. 2003 May 7: Infogrames Entertainment folded its Infogrames Interactive (the former Hasbro Interactive) subsidiary into its Atari Interactive subsidiary. 2009 May 29: The name of Infogrames Entertainment was changed to Atari. TODAY: The Atari copyrights/trademarks/patents associated with the 400/800/XL/XE 8-bit Atari computer line are owned by Atari Interactive, Inc., a subsidiary of Atari, SA of Lyon, France. http://corporate.atari.com/ =================================================================== End of atari-8-bit/faq ===================================================================