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Subject: REEFKEEPERS FAQ: Catalogs, Q&A, Books, Tables, Credits (3/3)

This article was archived around: 13 Sep 1998 07:17:04 GMT

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Archive-name: aquaria/reefkeeper-faq/part3 Rec-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part3 Alt-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part3 Sci-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part3 Posting-Frequency: monthly
Reef Keepers Frequently Asked Questions (Part 3 of 3) Note: This header is copied into all three parts (Well, more or less. Actually, this is a composite document written by many folks. It contains information each participant felt was basic information required for anyone considering maintaining a reef tank. In reality, it's turned into a bit of a reference document. Some of the information has been taken from public forums like the Internet UseNet *.aquaria groups. Credit to the authors of such information is given next to their contribution.) Note that starting with 1.12, new and/or changed items are marked with an "*" in the far left column. *Release 1.12 - 17 Aug, 1994 (more corrections and minor area expansions) Release 1.11 - 18 Apr, 1994 (some corrections and minor area expansions) Release 1.10 - 9 Sep, 1993 (Significant additions to test kit and protein skimming sections. Many spelling and grammar corrections, some style and format alterations.) Release 1.02 - September 1st, 1993 (Reorganized, split into 3 pieces) Release 1.01 - July 1st, 1993 (First Public Release) Release 1.00 - May 12th, 1993 *Copyright 1993, 1994, ReefKeepers, All Rights Reserved ReefKeepers, for purposes of the copyright, is the group of authors listed at the end of this 3-part document. Permission is granted for it to be copied (unmodified) in either electronic or hardcopy form by nonprofit organizations if it is copied in its entirety and used in stand-alone form. This document may not otherwise be published, posted, uploaded, replicated or copied by any method, electronic or physical, without the explicit permission of ALL of the listed contributors. The authors of this document have kindly spent the time to bring you their opinions. They are not liable in any form or fashion, nor are their employers, for how you use this information. Their opinions should not be construed as fact; don't blame them if your tank has problems. You may get a copy of this FAQ via FTP from the following sites: percula.acs.uci.edu (128.200.34.15) /reefkeepers/faq *ftp.cco.caltech.edu (131.215.48.151) /pub/aquaria/FAQfiles/Reefkeepers /---------------------------------------------------------------------------/ Table of Contents Basic Sections: Part 1) 1.0 Water (Filters/Additives/Test Kits) 1.1 Source Water - City Mains Water Is Not Good Enough 1.1.1 Background 1.1.2 DI Filters 1.1.3 RO Filters 1.1.4 Further Comments About Water 1.2 Additives 1.3 Testable Parameters 1.3.1 Alkalinity 1.3.2 Calcium 1.3.3 pH 1.3.4 Nitrate (NO3) 1.3.5 Phosphate (PO4) 1.3.6 Specific Gravity 1.4 Water Changes 2.0 Filtration and Equipment 2.1 Live Rock 2.2 Protein Skimmers 2.2.1 Counter Current Air Driven Protein Skimmers 2.2.2 Venturi Protein Skimmers 2.2.3 Protein Skimmer Considerations 2.3 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) 2.4 Other Chemical Filter Media (X-Whatever) 2.5 Mechanical Filtration 2.6 Under Gravel Filters (UGF) 2.7 Reverse Flow UGFs (RUGF) 2.8 Trickle Filters 2.9 Algae Scrubbers (somewhat long) 2.10 Live Sand 3.0 Lights * 3.1 General Discussion * 3.2 Detail Discussion * 3.3 Lighting Data 4.0 Cost Estimates Part 2) 5.0 Stock 5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference 5.2 Coral Aggression Chart 5.3 Corals [Cnidaria (Anthozoa)] 5.4 Shelled Things 5.5 Algae 5.6 Possible Problems * 5.7 Hermit Crabs Part 3) 6.0 General Catalogs 7.0 Questions and Answers 8.0 Book Review 9.0 Useful Tables 10.0 Credits ============================================================================= 6.0 General Catalogs Here is a list of non-aquarium related catalogs that have items that may be of use to the serious aquarist and DIYer. Ayn Plastic 1-800-431-2451 A nationwide plastic supplier. They have about a dozen outlets and also ship orders. The catalog contains info and specs on many types of plastics that are useful for DIY aquarium projects. They have a $50 minimum order. C.F. Bowman & Co. 38 Addington Court East Brunswick, NJ 08816 PH (908) 390-6436 FX (908) 390-6438 C.F. Bowman & Co. I heard of by e-mail, but I later noticed their ad in FAMA. Their prices on acrylic tubing look very good, at least; a 60" long 6" od 1/8" wall clear cast acrylic tube is $35.75, which is about 60% of what I paid. I didn't find extruded tube, but they do say to call for items not listed. They are ostensibly wholesale only, so you may need to give a company name. They also have a $50 minimum order. C and H Sales Company P.O. Box 5356 2176 E. Colorado Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91117-9988 Pasadena, CA 91107 (213) 681-4925 (LA) (818) 796-2628 (Pasadena) (800) 325-9465 C & H sells a wide collection of surplus and used equipment, ranging from fans, blowers, pumps (water, air, and otherwise), electronic components, motors (ac, dc, gearhead, stepper), solenoids, laboratory glassware, chart recorders, and tools through stranger things like gyrocompasses and a bit of defense electronics. Prices vary but are often quite good. For those in Southern California, their store has lots of odd items in quantities too small to include in the catalog. Cole-Palmer 1-800-323-4340 or 708 647-7600 A huge catalog of test equipment and related industrial hardware. Like Markson, much is beyond the need and budget of a hobbiest but much is not. Grainger Industrial 1-800-323-0620 A nationwide chain of wholesalers of industrial needs. They have many stores in most states. There is probably one near you. They have a huge catalog of all sorts of things for DIYers, float-switches, ballasts, tools, you name it. They are a wholesaler so they technically won't sell to individuals. If you walk in (they have a counter just like any retail hardware store) and pay cash and give the name of a local company, they will sell to you. They just need to have the name of a company to put on the invoice because legal, they are a wholesaler. You don't need a tax number when you are paying cash. You can just go in and give them the name of the company where you work. It is probably a good idea to call ahead and see if the item you want is in stock. Hach - Products for Analysis 1-800-227-4224 A catalog of testing items. This is the next step if you want better test kits than best kits normally available to hobbiest (like Lamotte). Many of their products are not beyond the budget of a serious hobbiest. The also carry chemistry hardware like glassware. Herbach and Rademan 1-800-848-8001 A miscellaneous junk catalog with all sorts of electronic, mechanical, and pumping widgets and other gadgets. Also, surplus junk like power supplies. A catalog of a variety of scientific equipment, mostly chemistry related. Many of their items are well beyond the need and budget of hobbiest but much of it is not. The Surplus Center 1-???-???-???? Another miscellaneous junk catalog with much the same stuff as H&R. United States Plastic Corp. 1390 Neubrecht Rd. Lima, Ohio 45801 1-800-537-9724 US Plastics sells a large selection of basic materials, plus an equally large assortment of various manufactured items made of plastic and some related items like fluid pumps. A few of the less common items which come to mind are clear pvc, plastic tanks up to a few thousand gallons, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene stock, flexible impeller pumps, and plastic welders. Of special interest to the diy'er would be items like the thickened acrylic cement (IMHO required for the best and strongest watertight acrylic joints), their rod, pipe, tube, and sheet stock in pvc and acrylic (where else do you find clear sheet pvc, or 90 degree sweep fittings for lower backpressure?), and the large food- quality drums for storing RO/DI water and mixed saltwater. The fun of finding stuff you didn't know existed shouldn't be under-rated, either. 7.0 Some Questions and Answers Q: Can I do this cheaply? A: No, relative to a similar size fish-only tank. (See cost estimate section) Q: What if all I want to keep is Anemones? A: Water quality requirements drop some (Nitrates should remain under 20ppm NO3-). Q: What are good test kits? A: Tetra Hardness Hach Nitrate, Calcium, Iron, Phosphate - (303) 669-3050 LaMotte Phosphate Hach Test kit details: Calcium: Cat. No. 1457-01, Model HA-4P, $47.50, 100 test Dilute your sample 2:1 (Distilled:Saltwater). Each drop of titrant will equal 24mg/l of Ca++. Dilution saves titrant, and yields clearer results with sufficient accuracy. Iron: Cat. No. 22993-00, Model IR-21, $57.50, 100 test Very important if Macro Algae growth of primary interest. Nitrate: Cat. No. 14161-00, Model NI-14, $42.50, 50 test Suggest ordering Saltwater reagent, Cat. No. 20761-99, $18.50 for 100 test. Phosphate: Cat. No. 2248-00, Model PO-19, $54.50, 100 test This test is 2.5 times more sensitive than the LaMotte test. The Hach is rated down to 0.02ppm, the LaMotte 0.05ppm. Silica: Cat. No. 22550-00, Model SI-7, $72.50, 100 test Not tested by any of the authors of this FAQ. Mentioned due to its availability and track record of Hach kits. Q: What about cheaper kits? A: Kordon Ammonia, Nitrite, low-end Nitrate not bad for gross measurement, will need Hach Nitrate after water is in proper pollution range. Q: Which Salt Mix is best? A: Instant Ocean works for many. Reef Crystal has had reported problems. Tropic Marin recommended by some. Coralife dissolves fast, can sometimes be found cheap. Note that all 50 gallon bags of salt are not the same. Instant Ocean bags weigh in at 16lbs each, Coralife at 14.5lbs each. There is no magic here, at a given temperature, a bag of IO will make a solution of higher specific gravity (or more gallons at the same specific gravity) than a bag of Coralife will. Q: How do I get rid of algae in my reef tank? A: There are three types of undesirable "algae" that commonly grow in reef tanks: long green strands of hair algae, short fuzzy green turf algae, and brown or red slime algae. Some people also consider fleshy macro algaes, such as Caulerpa, to be a pest as they can overgrow and choke out soft corals. Desirable algaes are the calcarious ones, both encrusting coralline algae in pink, purple, white, yellow, maroon and brown, and larger calcarious algae such as halimeda. Some believe that any Macroalgae (Caulerpa, Halimeda, etc.) do not belong in Reef tanks. "Slime" algae is actually cyanobacteria, not an algae. While its growth is often a sign of poor water quality, it grows in some tanks with fairly good water quality. Too much iodine and too little current are known to encourage its growth. Nothing is known to eat it. The best thing to do is to siphon this out as soon as it appears. If it threatens to overgrow everything, it can be treated chemically with a light dose of Maracyn, which has not been seen to harm the biofilter or hardy inverts. Treat once with one 200mg table per 15-20 gallons, leaving your skimmer off for 24 hours. When you turn the skimmer back on, it will foam like crazy and remove the remaining medication very quickly. This will clear the tank, although if water conditions are not otherwise improved, it may return in a few weeks. Others have found cyanobacteria surviving, and sometimes blooming, in tanks that have excellent water quality. They used a somewhat different schedule of Maracyn treatment to eradicate the infestation: One 200 mg tablet per 50 gallons total water capacity (don't forget the sump and skimmers) dosed daily for 5 days. Their experience is that this will permanently cure the problem, without any return. Of course, if the bacteria is re-introduced to the tank, all bets are off. They also disable the skimmer during the treatment, and siphon off all dead and dying material after day 3. The best way to deal with hair and turf algae is not to let it grow to begin with. Keep the tank dark while it is initially cycling. Keep nitrates and phosphates as low as possible, and siphon out detritus. Keep herbivores in the tank. Snails (as many as 1 for every 2-3 gallons) will eat turf algae, and hair algae before it gets long. Tangs (especially Kole, Sailfin, and Yellow) and many small blennies will eat many forms of algae. If the tank does become overgrown, pull as much as possible out by hand. Reduce the light cycle, or if there is nothing light sensitive in the tank, leave it in darkness for a couple of weeks. Get more herbivores. Be sure to siphon out their droppings, which if left in the tank make great algae fertilizer. I have found that urchins can help recover an overgrown tank, although they will knock things over and eat any kind of algae, including desirable calcarious algaes. 8.0 Book Review and Comments: "The Marine Aquarium Handbook, Beginner to Breeder" by Martin A. Moe, Jr. 1982. Norns Publishing Company ISBN 0-939960-02-08 Best way to learn the very basics, and an excellent first reference on many topics afterwards. Not reef oriented. A must buy for the beginner. "The Marine Aquarium Reference, Systems and Invertebrates" by Martin A. Moe, Jr. 1989. Green Turtle Publications, Florida ISBN 0-939960-05-2 The place to begin looking for almost every topic. Discussion of filtration is exhaustive, though a bit spare on modern Berlin practice (is this still true in the new edition?). A must buy for every reefkeeper. "Advanced Reef Keeping I, A Comprehensive Guide to Setting up Your Reef Tank." by Albert J. Thiel 1989. Aardvark Press ISBN 0-945777-01-9 "Small Reef Aquarium Basics, The Optimum Aquarium for the Reef Hobbyist" by Albert J. Thiel 1989. Aardvark Press ISBN - 0945777-02-7 Some good information buried among dubious advice and the most wretched editing ever conceived. His filtration ideas are rather old-fashioned. This guy sold the expensive equipment that he recommends, so Caveat Emptor should be your motto. Thiel advocates one particular way of maintaining reef aquaria. It's not the only way, and it may not be the best way, but it does work. The usual advise is for people to read his books, but to do so skeptically. "Corals of the World, Biology and Field Guide" by Dr. Elizabeth M. Wood 1983. T.F.H. Publications ISBN 0-87666-809-0 TFH# H-1049 A good reference for anyone who intends to keep stony corals. Like other books not specifically written for the hobbyist, it does not discuss the care of corals. May be out of print. Adey and Loveland Dynamic Aquaria An attempt at designing reef (and other) aquaria on sound ecological principles. The hobby remains very sceptical of the use of algal scrubbers with stony corals; see the scrubber section of this FAQ. However, much of the book is devoted to a discussion of ecology that any dedicated aquarist will benefit from, if read warily. Again, Caveat Emptor. "The Reef Tank Owner's Manual" by John H. Tullock October 10, 1990. Aardvark Press ISBN 0-945777-06-x Discussion of filtration is old-fashioned, similar to Thiel's books but somewhat more grammatical. Good discussions of individual animals and animal choices aimed at the beginning and intermediate reefkeeper. "Invertebrates: Tube-, Soft-, and Branching Corals" by Peter Wilkens / Johannes Birkholz 1986, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal ISBN 3-921677-14-9 "Invertebrates: Stone and False Corals, Colonial Anemones" by Peter Wilkens 1990, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal ISBN 3-921677-15-7 The only books available which discusses the care of individual species of corals. The authors' experience and reputation is vast. Unfortunately the production quality of the English translation is poor, but there is no other comparable reference. A must buy for anyone intending to keep corals. These may be out of print, so finding them may be very difficult. "Fishes for the Invertebrate Aquarium, 3rd ed." by Helmut Debelius 1989. Aquarium Systems "Armored Knights of the Sea" Absolutely fantastic shrimp book. Out of print, gold if you can get your hand on it. Helmut Debelius. (An absolutely fascinating speaker, BTW. If you ever get a chance to hear him speak, do so!) Quite a lot of good information on reef-compatible fishes. Veron Corals of Australia and The definitive reference book for the Indo-Pacific stony corals. The original is out of print and very difficult to find. A reprint run has recently been done. "Living Corals" by Douglas Faulkner & Richard Chesher 1979, Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-53854-7 This is one of those big picture books of corals, but it's the best one I've ever seen. The photos are all top-notch, most show large groupings of a single species. The descriptions are not with the pictures, which can be disconcerting until you get used to it. I believe this book is out-of-print, though I often find used copies (fairly cheap!) at a local bookstore. "Marine Plants of the Caribbean, A Field Guide from Florida to Brazil" by Diane Scullion Littler, Mark M. Littler, Katina E. Bucher,& James N. Norris 1989. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. ISBN 0-87474-607-8 Quite a good reference book describing various species of algae that are found in the waters of the Caribbean. "Seaweeds of Hawaii, A photographic Identification Guide" by William H. Magruder and Jeffrey W. Hunt 1979. The Oriental Publishing Company ISBN 0-932596-12-6 Another excellent reference identifying algae found around Hawaii. Out of print. "The Manual of Marine Invertebrates" by Martyn Haywood and Sue Wells 1989. Salamander Books Ltd., London ISBN 0-86101-474-X I'd recommend the Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward. While this does not go into a great deal of detail on anything, it covers every class of inverts and is good for learning about what's on your live rock and the basics of care for different kinds of creatures. Yes! I'd forgotten about this one. It contains quite a few mistakes, but is a good reference book nonetheless. Walls, Jerry, "Encyclopedia of Marine Inverts", (TFH, Neptune, NJ: 1988) ISBN 0-86622-141-7. <Compared to Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward> and found that the later (Wall's book) appeared to have a lot more info. It isn't a great book from the aquarium point of view but does cover the basics of all the Phyla. It has a lot of color plates. I was able to identify a number of Live-Rock ReefCritters(tm) with it. "Dr. Burgess's Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes" by Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, & Raymond E. Hunziker III 1988. T.F.H. Publications TFH# H-1100 "The big picture book of fishes." Considered the first book to look marine fish up in. Second edition has been published. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 9.0 Useful Tables ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Temperature C F 20.00 68.00 20.20 68.36 20.40 68.72 20.60 69.08 20.80 69.44 21.00 69.80 21.20 70.16 21.40 70.52 21.60 70.88 21.80 71.24 22.00 71.60 22.20 71.96 22.40 72.32 22.60 72.68 22.80 73.04 23.00 73.40 23.20 73.76 23.40 74.12 23.60 74.48 23.80 74.84 24.00 75.20 24.20 75.56 24.40 75.92 24.60 76.28 24.80 76.64 25.00 77.00 25.20 77.36 25.40 77.72 25.60 78.08 25.80 78.44 26.00 78.80 26.20 79.16 26.40 79.52 26.60 79.88 26.80 80.24 27.00 80.60 27.20 80.96 27.40 81.32 27.60 81.68 27.80 82.04 28.00 82.40 28.20 82.76 28.40 83.12 28.60 83.48 28.80 83.84 29.00 84.20 29.20 84.56 29.40 84.92 29.60 85.28 29.80 85.64 30.00 86.00 Alkalinity meq/l ppm KH CaCO3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 2.50 0.14 0.10 5.00 0.28 0.15 7.50 0.42 0.20 10.00 0.56 0.25 12.50 0.70 0.30 15.00 0.84 0.35 17.50 0.98 0.40 20.00 1.12 0.45 22.50 1.26 0.50 25.00 1.40 0.55 27.50 1.54 0.60 30.00 1.68 0.65 32.50 1.82 0.70 35.00 1.96 0.75 37.50 2.10 0.80 40.00 2.24 0.85 42.50 2.38 0.90 45.00 2.52 0.95 47.50 2.66 1.00 50.00 2.80 1.10 55.00 3.08 1.20 60.00 3.36 1.30 65.00 3.64 1.40 70.00 3.92 1.50 75.00 4.20 1.60 80.00 4.48 1.70 85.00 4.76 1.80 90.00 5.04 1.90 95.00 5.32 2.00 100.00 5.60 2.10 105.00 5.88 2.20 110.00 6.16 2.30 115.00 6.44 2.40 120.00 6.72 2.50 125.00 7.00 2.60 130.00 7.28 2.70 135.00 7.56 2.80 140.00 7.84 2.90 145.00 8.12 3.00 150.00 8.40 3.10 155.00 8.68 3.20 160.00 8.96 3.30 165.00 9.24 3.40 170.00 9.52 3.50 175.00 9.80 3.60 180.00 10.08 3.70 185.00 10.36 3.80 190.00 10.64 3.90 195.00 10.92 4.00 200.00 11.20 4.20 210.00 11.76 4.40 220.00 12.32 4.60 230.00 12.88 4.80 240.00 13.44 5.00 250.00 14.00 (1) (50) (2.8) Nitrogen as Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate N N NH3 NO2 NO3 ppm uM/l mg/l mg/l mg/l 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.357 0.006 0.016 0.022 0.010 0.714 0.012 0.033 0.044 0.015 1.071 0.018 0.049 0.066 0.020 1.429 0.024 0.066 0.089 0.025 1.786 0.030 0.082 0.111 0.030 2.143 0.036 0.099 0.133 0.035 2.500 0.043 0.115 0.155 0.040 2.857 0.049 0.131 0.177 0.045 3.214 0.055 0.148 0.199 0.050 3.571 0.061 0.164 0.221 0.055 3.929 0.067 0.181 0.244 0.060 4.286 0.073 0.197 0.266 0.065 4.643 0.079 0.214 0.288 0.070 5.000 0.085 0.230 0.310 0.075 5.357 0.091 0.246 0.332 0.080 5.714 0.097 0.263 0.354 0.085 6.071 0.103 0.279 0.376 0.090 6.429 0.109 0.296 0.399 0.095 6.786 0.115 0.312 0.421 0.100 7.143 0.121 0.329 0.443 0.15 10.71 0.18 0.49 0.66 0.20 14.29 0.24 0.66 0.89 0.25 17.86 0.30 0.82 1.11 0.30 21.43 0.36 0.99 1.33 0.35 25.00 0.42 1.15 1.55 0.40 28.57 0.49 1.31 1.77 0.45 32.14 0.55 1.48 1.99 0.50 35.71 0.61 1.64 2.21 0.55 39.29 0.67 1.81 2.44 0.60 42.86 0.73 1.97 2.66 0.65 46.43 0.79 2.14 2.88 0.70 50.00 0.85 2.30 3.10 0.75 53.57 0.91 2.46 3.32 0.80 57.14 0.97 2.63 3.54 0.85 60.71 1.03 2.79 3.76 0.90 64.29 1.09 2.96 3.99 0.95 67.86 1.15 3.12 4.21 1.00 71.43 1.21 3.29 4.43 1.50 107.14 1.82 4.93 6.64 2.00 142.86 2.43 6.57 8.86 2.50 178.57 3.04 8.21 11.07 3.00 214.29 3.64 9.86 13.29 3.50 250.00 4.25 11.50 15.50 4.00 285.71 4.86 13.14 17.71 4.50 321.43 5.46 14.79 19.93 5.00 357.14 6.07 16.43 22.14 5.50 392.86 6.68 18.07 24.36 6.00 428.57 7.29 19.71 26.57 6.50 464.29 7.89 21.36 28.79 7.00 500.00 8.50 23.00 31.00 7.50 535.71 9.11 24.64 33.21 8.00 571.43 9.71 26.29 35.43 8.50 607.14 10.32 27.93 37.64 9.00 642.86 10.93 29.57 39.86 9.50 678.57 11.54 31.21 42.07 10.00 714.29 12.14 32.86 44.29 (1) (1000/14)(17/14)(46/14)(62/14) Calcium Ca CaCO3 dH mg/l ppm 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 12.50 0.70 10.00 25.00 1.40 15.00 37.50 2.10 20.00 50.00 2.80 25.00 62.50 3.50 30.00 75.00 4.20 35.00 87.50 4.90 40.00 100.00 5.60 45.00 112.50 6.30 50.00 125.00 7.00 55.00 137.50 7.70 60.00 150.00 8.40 65.00 162.50 9.10 70.00 175.00 9.80 75.00 187.50 10.50 80.00 200.00 11.20 85.00 212.50 11.90 90.00 225.00 12.60 95.00 237.50 13.30 100.00 250.00 14.00 110.00 275.00 15.40 120.00 300.00 16.80 130.00 325.00 18.20 140.00 350.00 19.60 150.00 375.00 21.00 160.00 400.00 22.40 170.00 425.00 23.80 180.00 450.00 25.20 190.00 475.00 26.60 200.00 500.00 28.00 210.00 525.00 29.40 220.00 550.00 30.80 230.00 575.00 32.20 240.00 600.00 33.60 250.00 625.00 35.00 260.00 650.00 36.40 270.00 675.00 37.80 280.00 700.00 39.20 290.00 725.00 40.60 300.00 750.00 42.00 320.00 800.00 44.80 340.00 850.00 47.60 360.00 900.00 50.40 380.00 950.00 53.20 400.00 1000.00 56.00 420.00 1050.00 58.80 440.00 1100.00 61.60 460.00 1150.00 64.40 480.00 1200.00 67.20 500.00 1250.00 70.00 (1) (100/40)(56/400) 10.0 Credits: The original document was created by the joint effort of many individual people, sharing a common interest in "Reef Keeping". Those who allowed their names published were: Patti Beadles Craig Bingman *Kevin Carpenter (editor) Gary Dudley Frank M. Greco Ken Koellner *Dustin Laurence (FTP site sponser) Teresa Moore David O'Brien Paul Prior Keith Rogers Mark Rosenstein Greg Smith Spass Stoiantschewsky Anthony Tse Steve Tyree *John Ward (FTP site sponser) ============= End of ReefKeepers FAQ Part 3 of 3 =================