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Subject: REEFKEEPERS FAQ: Organisms (2/3)

This article was archived around: 13 Sep 1998 07:16:04 GMT

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Archive-name: aquaria/reefkeeper-faq/part2 Rec-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part2 Alt-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part2 Sci-aquaria-archive-name: reefkeeper-faq/part2 Posting-Frequency: monthly
Reef Keepers Frequently Asked Questions (part 2 of 3) Note: This header is copied into all three parts (Well, more or less. Actually, this is a composite document written by many folks. It contains information each participant felt was basic information required for anyone considering maintaining a reef tank. In reality, it's turned into a bit of a reference document. Some of the information has been taken from public forums like the Internet UseNet *.aquaria groups. Credit to the authors of such information is given next to their contribution.) Note that starting with 1.12, new and/or changed items are marked with an "*" in the far left column. *Release 1.12 - 17 Aug, 1994 (more corrections and minor area expansions) Release 1.11 - 18 Apr, 1994 (some corrections and minor area expansions) Release 1.10 - 9 Sep, 1993 (Significant additions to test kit and protein skimming sections. Many spelling and grammar corrections, some style and format alterations.) Release 1.02 - September 1st, 1993 (Reorganized, split into 3 pieces) Release 1.01 - July 1st, 1993 (First Public Release) Release 1.00 - May 12th, 1993 *Copyright 1993, 1994, ReefKeepers, All Rights Reserved ReefKeepers, for purposes of the copyright, is the group of authors listed at the end of this 3-part document. Permission is granted for it to be copied (unmodified) in either electronic or hardcopy form by nonprofit organizations if it is copied in its entirety and used in stand-alone form. This document may not otherwise be published, posted, uploaded, replicated or copied by any method, electronic or physical, without the explicit permission of ALL of the listed contributors. The authors of this document have kindly spent the time to bring you their opinions. They are not liable in any form or fashion, nor are their employers, for how you use this information. Their opinions should not be construed as fact; don't blame them if your tank has problems. You may get a copy of this FAQ via FTP from the following sites: percula.acs.uci.edu (128.200.34.15) /reefkeepers/faq *ftp.cco.caltech.edu (131.215.48.151) /pub/aquaria/FAQfiles/Reefkeepers /---------------------------------------------------------------------------/ Table of Contents Basic Sections: Part 1) 1.0 Water (Filters/Additives/Test Kits) 1.1 Source Water - City Mains Water Is Not Good Enough 1.1.1 Background 1.1.2 DI Filters 1.1.3 RO Filters 1.1.4 Further Comments About Water 1.2 Additives 1.3 Testable Parameters 1.3.1 Alkalinity 1.3.2 Calcium 1.3.3 pH 1.3.4 Nitrate (NO3) 1.3.5 Phosphate (PO4) 1.3.6 Specific Gravity 1.4 Water Changes 2.0 Filtration and Equipment 2.1 Live Rock 2.2 Protein Skimmers 2.2.1 Counter Current Air Driven Protein Skimmers 2.2.2 Venturi Protein Skimmers 2.2.3 Protein Skimmer Considerations 2.3 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) 2.4 Other Chemical Filter Media (X-Whatever) 2.5 Mechanical Filtration 2.6 Under Gravel Filters (UGF) 2.7 Reverse Flow UGFs (RUGF) 2.8 Trickle Filters 2.9 Algae Scrubbers (somewhat long) 2.10 Live Sand 3.0 Lights * 3.1 General Discussion * 3.2 Detail Discussion * 3.3 Lighting Data 4.0 Cost Estimates Part 2) 5.0 Stock 5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference 5.2 Coral Aggression Chart 5.3 Corals [Cnidaria (Anthozoa)] 5.4 Shelled Things 5.5 Algae 5.6 Possible Problems * 5.7 Hermit Crabs Part 3) 6.0 General Catalogs 7.0 Questions and Answers 8.0 Book Review 9.0 Useful Tables 10.0 Credits ============================================================================ 5.0 Stock 5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference The following cross reference was originally provided by Steve Rader: Bubble coral Plerogyra sinuosa Closed Brain coral Favia sp, sometimes Diploria sp. Clubbed Finger coral Porites porites Colony anemonies Telia sp Common Star coral Montastrea annularis Cup coral Turbinaria peltata Dead brain coral Favia sp Elegance coral Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata) Elephant Ear coral Rhodactius sp Elkhorn coral Acropora palmata Fire coral Millepora alcicornis Fire coral Sinalaris sp Flower Pot coral Goniopora sp Flower coral Eusmilia fastigiata Frog's Spawn coral Euphyllia cristata, E. glabrescens Euphyllia divisa (Veron) Giant Mushroom polyps Rhodactius sp Gorgonians Gorgonacea sp Grape coral Physogyra lichensteini Hammer coral Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata Knobbed Brain coral Diploria clivosa, D. strigosa Labyrinthine Brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis Large Flower coral Mussa angulosa Large Star coral Montastrea cavernosa Leather coral Sarcophyton sp Lettuce coral Agaricia agaricites, Turbinaria sp Mat anemonies Zoanthus pulchellus, other Z. sp Moon coral Galaxea fascicalaris Mushroom anemonies Actinodiscus sp Mushroom coral Fungia actinoformis Mushroom polyps Actinodiscus sp, Rhodactius sp, Sarcophyton sp Open Brain coral Trachyphyllia geofroyi Orange cup coral Balanophyllia elegans, Turbinaria sp Pilar coral Dendrogyra cylindrus Porous coral Porites astreoides Rose coral Manicina areolata Sea Mat anemonies Ricordia sp Small Bubble coral Physosyra lichensteini Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis Star polyps Clavularia sp Strawberry anemonies Telia sp Tooth coral Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata) Torch coral Euphyllia ancora, E. glabrescens (Veron) Tree coral Sinularis sp Waving Hand coral Anthelia sp Xenia coral Xenia sp And going the other way... Acropora cervicornis Staghorn coral Acropora palmata Elkhorn coral Actinodiscus sp Mushroom anemonies Actinodiscus sp Mushroom polyps Agaricia agaricites Lettuce coral Anthelia sp Waving Hand coral Balanophyllia elegans Orange cup coral Catalaphyllia jardinei Elegance coral, Tooth coral Clavularia sp Star polyps Dendrogyra cylindrus Pilar coral Diploria clivosa Knobbed Brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis Labyrinthine Brain coral Diploria strigosa Knobbed Brain coral Euphyllia ancora Hammer coral, Torch coral Euphyllia cristata Frog's Spawn coral Euphyllia divisa Frog's Spawn coral (Veron) Euphyllia fimbriata Hammer coral Euphyllia glabrescens Torch coral (Veron), Frog's Spawn coral Eusmilia fastigiata Flower coral Favia sp Closed Brain coral, Dead brain coral Fungia actinoformis Mushroom coral Galaxea fascicalaris Moon coral Goniopora sp Flower Pot coral Gorgonacea sp Gorgonians Manicina areolata Rose coral Millepora alcicornis Fire coral Montastrea annularis Common Star coral Montastrea cavernosa Large Star coral Mussa angulosa Large Flower coral Physogyra lichensteini Grape coral, Small Bubble coral Plerogyra sinuosa Bubble coral Porites astreoides Porous coral Porites porites Clubbed Finger coral Rhodactius sp Elephant Ear coral, Giant Mushroom polyps Ricordia sp Sea Mat anemonies Sarcophyton sp Leather coral, Mushroom polyps Sinularis sp Fire coral, Tree coral Tubastrea sp Orange Cup coral Turbinaria peltata Cup coral Telia sp Colony anemonies, Strawberry anemonies Trachyphyllia geofroyi Open Brain coral Xenia sp Xenia coral Zoanthus pulchellus Mat anemonies Zoanthus sp Mat anemonies 5.2 Coral Agression chart Also provided by Steve Rader: I've typed in a useful table from SeaScope (winter, '92) in which Michael Paletta discusses coral aggression in reef aquaria. It describes the two major aggressive mechanisms of corals: the release of terpenoid compounds and the use of sweeper tentacles or mesenteric filaments. I found it useful because it includes a majority of imported live corals. The entries marked with a tilde are my additions--Telia anemonies are placed above open brain coral because I've observed them burn my red open brain coral. Both types of colonial zooanthid anemonies listed seem to release terpenoids that keep mushroom polyps at bay somewhat. Also, I've included other common names I know of in quotes. Relative Aggressiveness of Commonly Kept Reef Invertebrates MOST AGGRESSIVE... 1) Elegance Coral (Catalaphyllia jardinei, "Tooth coral") 2) Hammer Coral (Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata, "Torch coral") 3) Other Euphyllia (E. glabrescens, E. cristala., "Frog's spawn coral") 4) Bubble Coral (Plerogyra sinuosa) 5) Grape Coral (Physosyra lichensteini, "Small bubble coral") 6) Mushroom Coral (Fungia actinoformis) 7) Flower Pot Coral (Goniopora sp.) ~) Telia Anemonies (Telia sp, "Strawberry anemonies; Colony anemonies") 8) Open Brain Coral (Trachyphyllia geofroyi) 9) Cup Coral (Taxbinaria peltata) 10) Moon Coral (Galaxea fascicalaris, ) 11) Closed Brain Coral (Favia sp, "Dead brain coral") 12) Star Polyps (Clavalaria sp.) 13) Leather Coral (Sarccphyton sp.) 14) Tree Coral (Sinalaris sp., "Fire coral") 15) Gorgoniana (Gorgonacea sp.) 16) Waving Hand (Anthelia sp.) 17) Xenia (Xenia sp.) 18) Giant Mushrooms (Rhodactius sp., "Elephant ear coral") ~) Sea Mat Anemonies (Zooanthus sp., "Sea mat rock") ~) Ricordia Anemonies (Ricordia sp. "Sea mat rock") 19) Mushroom Anemonies (Actinodiscus sp., "Mushroom polyps") ...LEAST AGGRESSIVE 5.3 Key to Stock detail Key sp. - generic species description. cdf - captive difficulty 0-9 0=beginner, 5=experienced, 9=advanced fll - florescent lighting (50% tri-color white and 50% actinic) 0-9 0=1.5 watts/gal, 5=4.5 watts/gal, 9=7.5 watts/gal Multiply [fll] values with applicable inefficient factors. * non-48" tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3) * HO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3) * VHO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.7) * non-tricolor tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3) dff - distance from florescent 0-36 inches mhl - metal halide lighting 0-9 0=1 watt/gal, 5=3 watts/gal, 9=5 watts/gal dfm - distance from metal halide 0-36 inches wcu - water current level 0-9 0=stagnant, 5=medium, 9=turbulent hac - hair algae comptatability. 0-9 0=none, 5=some algae, 9=heavy algae fod - food source sym - symbiotic algae nutrients mpl - microplankton zpl - zooplankton (baby artemia) lfd - liquid coral foods chf - chunk frozen foods add - additives required str - strontium iod - iodine cal - calcium irn - iron vit - vitamins mlb - molybendium ptm - potassium note - This is not a listing of all known corals. Just those for which some data is known concerning captive requirements. Cnidaria [Anthozoa] a SubClass Zoantharia [Hexacorillia] Order Scleractinia [Madreporaria] (true stony corals) ~2,000 species. Family Poritidae Porites (pore) sp. - (xmas rocks) Encrusting growths. Extremelly small polyp. Most are brown but can be green, blue, pink and purple. Massive, branched or encrusting. cdf=6, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >10 wcu=1-6, hac=0, fod=sym, add=cal/str Goniopora (flowerpot or daisy) Goniopora are similar to Alveopora, except that Goniopora have 24 tentacles on each polyp, and Alveopora have 12. lobata - (flowerpot) Medium-polyp. Skeleton shapes are varied. Very difficult and rarely kept more then two years. Flower-like polyps extend out from base. cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30 wcu=2-6, fod=sym stokesi - (flowerpot) Medium-polyp. Longer polyps than lobata (10-15cm). Polyps extend out very far. Brown, gray, green or blue. Skeleton is spherical or half spherical in shape. cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30 wcu=2-6, fod=sym Alveopora (flower) sp. - Medium-polyp. Very similar to goniopora but polyp ten- tacles are shorter. Brown or bluish. Stung by Euphyllia and Plerogyra. Alveopora has 12 tentacles on each polyp while Gonipora have 24. cdf=7, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30 wcu=2-6, fod=sym/zpl Family Pocilloporidae Pocillopora (cauliflower stony) sp. - Very small polyp. UV pigments green, turquoise or pink. Most are arborescent, ocassionally massive or encrust- ing. Branched ecomorphs have rounded tips. cdf=9, mhl=5-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Seriatopora (bush) sp. - Small polyp. Pink, white, brown or green. Long, slender and tapered btanches. Stung by Actinodiscus and Cladiella. Can be propagated by fragmentation. cdf=5, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Family Acroporidae Acropora (finger and branch) sp. - Small-polyp. Most have branching ecomorphs. Rare massive and encrusting growths occur. Branching forms include staghorns, clusters, plates and tables. Colors include blue, green, purple, pink, cream, yellow, brown or red. Well over 100 species exist. Can be propagated by fragmentation. Stung by Actinodiscus cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str palmata - (elkhorn) Atlantic. Stout thick branches or encrust- ing. Flattened horizontally. Can be fragmented. cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str cervicornis - (staghorn) Atlantic. Long thin branches. Very rapid growth rate. cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Family Faviidae Favia (moon or star) sp. - Medium-polyp. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, white or yellow. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with tentacles or secretions. cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7, hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Favites (moon or star) sp. - Medium-polyps. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, pink or red. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with ten- tacles or secretions. cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7, hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Leptoria (closed brain) phrygia - Small polyps. Massive growths. Tentacles retracted during day. Brown or green. Patterned valleys. cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3 dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Diploria (closed brain) sp. - Massive and rounded. Can be flattened or encrusted. Yellow, brown, greenish or gray-brown. Tentacles ex- pand out at night. cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Manicina (folded) areolata - Large-polyps. Very similar to Trachyphyllia geofroyi. Tentacles extend at night. cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Caulastrea (tooth) sp. - Large-polyp. Branching coral. Each branch end has a large rounded polyp. Tentacles extend out a night. Green, brown, gray and blue. Similar to some Euphyllia species. cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Family Oculinidae Galaxea (crystal or scapel) fascicularis - (crystal or galaxy) Medium-polyps. Small rounded heads. UV pigments green. Tentacles extended during the day. cdf=7, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Family Agariciidae Pachyseris (phonograph-record) speciosa - Large-Polyp. Valleys form grooves. Green or red natural pigment. cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str Family Caryophylliidae Euphyllia (bouquet) fimbriata - (hammer or anchor or ridge) Large-polyp. Straight tentacles with u-shaped or hammer shaped tips. Can extend tentacles out very far and sting other corals. cdf=6, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str crista - (bubble-tentacled) Large-polyp. Beige or light brown. Some are green. Tentacles branch into 3 or more twigs at end. Rounded tips are white. Can extend tentacles out very far and sting other corals. cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str glabrescens - (torch) Large-polyp. Straight tentacles with white tips. Can extend tentacles out very far and sting other corals. cdf=7, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str divisa - (frogspawn or wall or vase) Large-polyp. Green or light brown.Tentacles sub-branch with numerous rounded bumps. These are white or yellow. Can extend tentacles out very far . cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Catalaphyllia (wonder or scalloped) jardinei - (elegance, meat, wonder) Large-polyp. Tentacles alway s extended. Have white or red tips. UV pigment green. Can sting very strongly. cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Plerogyra (bladder) sinuosa - (bubble or bladder) Large-polyp. Expand to bubble polyps in day and tentacles at night. Natural pigment white. Can be green or pink.Very strong sting. cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Family Mussidae Lobophyllia (umbel) sp. - Large-polyp. Fleshy mantle. Olive to dark green. Some- times pinkish or red. cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Isophyllia (atlantic folded) sp. - Large-polyp. Deep red natural pigment for deep specimens. Green, beige or turquoise for shallow water. cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Scolymia (caribbean goblet) vitiensis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out at night. UV pigments green. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Cynarina [Acanthophyllia] (goblet) lacrymalis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out at night. UV pigments green. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Family Dendrophylliidae Tubastrea (red or yellow cup) aurea - (red or yellow cup) Natural pigment yellow to shiny orange. Medium large polyp. Tentacles partially extend- ed during day and fully at night. cdf=1, fll=0-4, dff= <30, wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=zpl/chf, add=cal/str Turbinaria (dish or crater) sp. - Large-polyp. Vase shaped, leaf, fans or folds. Brownish, yellow, white or green. Tentacles partially or fully extended during the day. cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Family Trachyphylliidae Trachyphyllia (large polyp or open brain) geofroyi - (open-brain or crater or puff) Large-polyps. Natural pigment color gray-green, beige-brown, rust brown to deep red. UV pigment green, torquoise or blue. Ten- tacles extend at night. cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-6, hac=3, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Family Fungiidae Fungia (mushroom stony corals) sp. - Single large-polyp. Pale-brown, pink, purple, blue and green. Short tentacles are usually retracted during the day. Usually round but can take on different eco- morphs. Elongated forms have groved mouth. cdf=8, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-8, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Heliofungia (plate) actiniformis - Single large polyp. Gray, blue or green long tentacles always extended during the day. Paler tips. Prefers sandy substrate. cdf=7, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-4, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Polyphllia (boomerang) talpina - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extend- ed during the day and short Has central groove. Brown or paler in color. cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str Herpolitha (hedgehog) limax - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extended during the day and short Has central groove. Brown or paler in color. Very similar to Polyphyllia talpina. cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str - Order Corallimorpharia (mushroom or false corals) Family Actinodiscidae Actinodiscus (disk anemones or mushroom coral) malaccensis - (brown or fuzzy) Surface covered with small bush like forms. Light or beige brown and gray green. Brown specimens found in deeper water. Gray green will fade if light to low. cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit mutabilis - (color changing) Light to dusty brown. They are often speckled with green and with irridescent edges. Can change some color. Smooth surface with wide bumps. In nature, below 10 meters. cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit ferrugatus - (red-brown) Color is from red-brown to rust-brown. Smooth surface with wide bumps. Do not like direct metal halide. In nature exist at around 10 meters. cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit ruber - (reddish-fluorescent or mettalic red mushrooms) Pink to bright fluorescent red due to UV pigments. Do not like direct metal halide light. Radial groves and very small bumps on smooth surface. cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit nummiferus - (burled) From light pink through reddish brown to a dusty violet. Darker ones occur in shallow waters. Slightly fluorescent. Small bumps on smooth surface. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit cardinalis - (shiny red) Deep red. Darker red bumps over smooth surface. Expensive and rare. Like actinic light but not direct metal halide. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit marmoratus - (marbled or green marble mushrooms) Found in less than 5 meters. Slightly rough surface with numerous bumps of different color. Do not like direct metal halide light. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-3, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit coeruleus - (shiny blue or metallic blue mushrooms) Smooth blue surface with faint radial lines. Very small bumps can occur. Very deep dwelling > 20 meters. Never tolerates direct metal halide light. Can expand very large. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit striatus - (striped) Many different color patterns. Beige-green ones have symbiotic algae pigment dominate the uv pig- ment and assimilation pigment. Can have perfectly smooth disk or contain small bumps. All have radial brightly colored stripes. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit punctatus - (dotted) Main surface body smooth and brown. Have very large colorful bumps with uv pigment. Direct metal halide light could be fatal. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit Ricordia (caribbean disk anemones) florida - (caribbean or flower anemones) Colors range from light green to a very beautiful dark green to blue and orange. Surface is covered with short tentacles which can in- flate to become bubble-like. Usually found between 10 and 40 feet in the ocean. When tentacles on rim of disk extended will accept small peices of brine shrimp, etc. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= <36 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit Rhodactis [Discosoma] (elephant ear) viridis - (green elephant ear) Luminescent turquoise-green ten- tacle disk. Like a giant fuzzy mushroom. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36 wcu=2-6, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit neglecta - (caribbean elephant ear) Green with some surface. Radial lines and bumps along with sharp points on edge. Can become ballon shaped greedy eaters. Do not like direct metal halide light. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit maeandrinea - (large or folded elephant ear) Very large with a diameter greater than 15 cm. Can grow to 40 cm in cap- tivity. Sandy to dark brown or gray green. Smooth disk with vertical smooth tenatcles. Do not like strong current or direct metal halide light. Can catch fish or shrimps in ballon-like trap. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit plumosa - (carpet elephant ear or carpet mushrooms) Large fuzzy coral with bushy tentacles. Will eat some chunk food. Can form bubble trap. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36 wcu=2-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit - Order Zoanthiniaria [Zoantharia][Zoanthidea] ~300 species (Encrusting anemones) Family Epizoanthidae Parazoanthus (yellow polyps) sp. - Small polyps with very long thin tentacles. Bright yel- low to dark yellow. Polyps not connected. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24 wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit Epizoanthus sp. - Medium sized small colonial polyp disks with medium sized tentacles. Fedd mostly on zooplankton. Brown to cinna- mon colored. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24 wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit Family Zoanthidae Zoanthus (encrusting anemones) sp. - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of short tentacles around the rim. Shallow water species have UV pigmentation from red, green, turquoise, lemon yel- low to orange. The mouth, disk and tentacles can be of different coloration. Polyps connected at base. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24 wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit sociatus - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of short tentacles around the rim. Turquoise to yellow- green. UV coloration will remain under metal halide or actinic lighting. Polyps connected at base. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24 wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit Palythoa sp. - Larger polyp disk than Zoanthus with long pointy tentacles around the rim. Beige-brown, cinnamon to dar "milk cof- fee" brown, graygreen or shiny green. Might not tole- rate direct metal halide. Polyps connected at base. cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36 wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit SubClass Alcyonria [Octocorallia] Order Alcyonacea (leather and soft corals) Family Alcyonidae Alcyonium fulvum - (yellow encrusting leather) Encrusting beige-yellow to ivory-colored leather coral often many millimetres thick. Finger-like projections develop which have 2 to 5 cm long polyps with 8 flower tentacles. Polyps resemble Sarcophyton species polyps. cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10 wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod Sarcophyton sp. - (mushroom leather) Mushroom shaped leather coral. Grow better in fluorescent lighting. Need adaption time to tolerate long photoperiods of metal halide lighting. Can be propagated via cuttings. Long polyp stems with small flower-like tentacles. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod trocheliophorum - (trough leather) Very attractive. Folding lobes of leather coral with short polyps. Can double size in one year. May not tolerate extended metal halide photoperiods and need adaption time. Will shed skin regularly. Can be propagted via cutting from edge lobe. Lives primarily in reef pools and can reach a diameter of more than one meter. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod lobulatum - (leather) Flat, mushroomed-shaped leather. Medium brown base. Similar to mushroom leather coral with very small polyps and larger overall size. Can be propagated via cuttings of base. Will become lighter under adequate lighting. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod latum - Dish-like with thick, lobate projections. Polyps are beige- yellow to shiny green. Shallow water coral. Can be propagated via cuttings. Also similar to trocheliophorum in morphology. Will grow fast under metal halides. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12 wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod glaucum - Common mushroom shaped leather coral. Beige to sandy color- ed or olive to bottle-green. May need to be slowly acclimated to bright metal halides. Can be reproduced by cutting of entire mushroom cap. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod sp. - Mushroom based leather coral with high, upward-arching lobate edges. Long pure-white polyps. Mushroom from light beige to sandy grey or light yellow in color. Need lots of light for polyps to extend. When acclimated to metal halides, polyps will extend to 5 cm and have star shaped tentacles. Can be cultivat- ed with cuttings. cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12 wcu=3-6, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod ehrenbergi - Similar to glaucum. Mostly pure white, occasionally yellowish or greenish gray secondary polyps. Tentacles of polyps easily distinguished. Skin shed less often. Needs slow acclimation to metal halide lighting. Can be fragmented via cuttings bu is more sensitive. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod Carotalcyon sagamianum - Carrot-like leather coral. Deep water orange to crim- son red. Has a carrot like body appearance with large polyps which extend out from the body. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12 wcu=5-8, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod Sphaerella krempfi - (christmas tree) Resemble evergreen tree and lack symbio- tic algae. Brown color. Like strong current and do best on substrate. cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod Lobophytum pauciflorum - Encrusting leather with lobed, finger-shaped and occa- sionally bushy projections or folds. Can be propagated via cut- tings. Grow well under flouorescent lights. Have calcareous needle growths. cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str crassum - An encrusting leather coral similar to pauciflorum. Thick- er polyps. Very robust coral. Can also be propagated via cut- tings. cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12 wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str Sinularia sp - Branching soft coral with a flat body on a thick column 3-4 cm tall. Finger-like appendages extend from body and have polyps. Prefer to grow out horizontally. Color is ivory to light gray but under intense light will become symbiotic brown. Occasion- ally sheds skin. cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str macropodia - Branching soft coral with thick-fleshed foot and base. Thick branches rise from this base and branch into finger like projections. These are densly covered with polyps. Color is light-beige or grayish white to light brown. Shed skin once a week. Do not like direct halide lite. Can be propagated via cuttings. Contain calcareous needles. cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str notanda - This corals morphology lies between the above generic species and macropodia. Grows well but introduce to halides slowly. See sp. for info. hirta -(dark brown sea hand) Similar to generic species with stubby fingers and fat nobbed appendages. From shallow water. Grow rapidly under metal halides. Color is ivory to cream white when retracted, turn milk coffee brown when extended. cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str prodigiosa - Similar to macropodia but fingerlobes branch out twice into secondary branches. These are thickly set with polyps. See macropodia for info. frondosa - Flat crusts with nobbed extensions. Will produce finger like appendages in low current areas. Under intense light will grow long fingers with large polyps. Like metal halide. cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str dura - Solid cushion like bodies with burled to stubby finger pro- jections. See sp. for info. brassica - Colonies resemble cauliflower heads. Dark brown polyps on short stalks. Branches and base are creamy white to light beige. cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str asterolobata - Morphology that resembles macropodia. Strong polyp- less base column splits itself into two or more secondary co- lumns from which long finger like branches protrude. These branches can divide again. Branches are round and thickly covered with delicate polyps. Will shed skin. Base color from ivory, light grey or light olive. Will develop uv protection matter under halides which is yellowish to greenish and slight- ly luminescent. cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str polydactyla - (many fingered) Squat column from 20 to 50 mm tall is polypless. On upper side of column is a flat polyparywith 40-50 mm long fingers which are thickly polyped. Base color is gray-white to creamy-yellow. Polyps are light to dark brown. Under halides polyps will become darker and then symbiotic algae are released which lightens the color. Grows well under fluorescent lighting. cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str Cladiella sp - Squat column from which many branches extend and divide fur- thur upward. Base column lacks polyps while they become more dense closer to the ends of branches. Polyps are 3 to 4 cm large. Can be propagated via branch "pinching". Can be acclimat- ed to halides. Will grow very fast toward surface of captive reef. Do not shed skin but will release mucus. Not very com- patable with hexacorillia. cdf=4, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str Alcyonium sp. - Bushy or crusty short tree like soft coral. Color is bright yellow, orange or red. Shady locations. Reach 40 to 50 mm tall. cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15 wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str sp. - Encrusting orange colored bushy soft coral. Very small orange polyps on bushy orange base. Can be propagated via cuttings. cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15 wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Family Xeniidae Xenia (also Cespitularia) sp. - Large polyps with thin stems connected at the base. Polyps do not fully retract. Very tiny calcareous needles or complete- ly lack skeleton. Polyps can be up to 15 mm long under intense lighting. Tentacles are pinnated. Some will move polyps in rhythmic motion to help exchange gases. Color is beige, cream or light brown. Will develope uv protection matter under ha- lides and color will be red, green, blue or irridescent. Can be acclimated to halides well. Can do well under fluorescent if high levels used. Can overgrow stony corals. Propagated via cuttings. cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str umbellata - Mushroom shaped with seperate polyped branches up to 50 mm long. Polyps will open and close in rhythmic fashion. Tentacles are short and wide and form little cups on thin branches. Branches radiate out from base. cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str elongata - Similar to Xenia sp.. Has a more branched form. See sp. for info. Anthelia glauca - Very similar to Xenia sp.. Has large polyps. Colonies grow very fast. cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str Family Nephteidae Litophyton arboreum - Standard bushy and tree shaped soft coral. Must be acclimated to halides slowly. Will do well under fluorescents. Can be propagated via cuttings. Pale colors with symbiotic algae. May not be compatable with hexacorillia. cdf=3, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Nephthea sp. - Tall bushy like soft coral. Smooth thick base with numerous small thickly polyped smaller branches extending from main trunks. May not be compatable with hexacorillia. cdf=6, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Lemnalia sp. - Tall tree-like soft corals. Polyps are not as dense as Nephthea. Long finger branches extend out from main clolumn. Must be slowly acclimated to halides. Might not be too com- patable with hexacorillia. cdf=7, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Dendronephythya sp. - Very colorful tree-like corals. Deep water or cave corals which require low lighting and frequent feedings of zooplank- ton. Will collapse occasionally. Calcareous needles are visi- ble in branches. Thin secondary branches extend from main stem. cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str rubeola - Ployps are very thick on short secondary branches which protrude from main column. Prefer sand or silt substrates. Need frequent feedings and will open polyps if substrate stirred up. Brightly colored coral from low light areas. cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str mirabilis - Snowy white polyps exist in thick groups protruding from short secondary branches. Form similar to rubeola. No symbiotic algae. Need very low light. cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20 wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Order Gorgonacea (gorgonians) Family Plexauridae Anthoplexaura (also Euplexaura) sp. - Flexible thin branched tree-like skeleton. Composed of horny or calcareous skeletal elements. Polyps embedded in crusty layer of living material which surronds skeleton. This gorgonian species has few branches and are thickly polyped. Some species from caribbean sea contain symbiotic algae. Will shed skin. Polyps are up to 5 mm long. Only feed zooplankton when polyps are open. Can stir up sediment to entice polyps to open. cdf=6, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20 wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Family Gorgonidae Eugorgia sp. - Very similar to Plexauridae. Branches are thicker. cdf=5, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20 wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str Order Stolonifera (pipe corals) Family Tubiporidae (organ pipe corals) Tubipora musica - (red organ pipe) Flower polyps in red tube-like calcareous systems. Will do well under metal halides. Colonies should be whole and not broken off (statement questioned by some). cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10 wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str Family Clavulariidae Clavularia viridis - (green pipe, green star polyps) Encrusting colonies of small pipe shaped flower polyps. The tentacles are very bright green and a calcareous webbing connects the polyp stems. Coral is found in fist sized colonies existing in shallow water. Will maintain bright green color under metal halide lighting. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10 wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str Family Cornulariidae Cornularia sp. - (brown pipe) Encrusting colonies of small pipe shaped flower polyps. The tentacles are brown and lack the calcareous web- bing found in Clavularia viridis. A horny protective shell is built around stolon. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10 wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str Order Telestacea (branched pipe corals) Family Telestidae Coelogorgia palmosa - (branched pipe) Appears like branching gorgonian corals. Branches have short stems from which polyps extend. cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10 wcu=5-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str Order Pennatulacea (sea pens) Family Veretillidae Cavernularia obesa - (sea pen)Cylinder shaped coral from which large tentacles extend. Color can be orange, yellow, buff or white. These animals are not very compatable to reef tanks due to half- sessile existence. Require thick substrate. cdf=3, fll=3-8, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >20 wcu=2-5, hac=0, fod=zpl, add=iod/cal/str Order Coenothecalia Family Helioporidae (blue coral) Heliopora coerulea - (blue coral) Beige to olive colored coral. Smooth sur- face with small calices. Polyps are hair-thin tubes about 1 mm long. Very small tentacles. Sheds skin. Grows very well under metal halides. Shapes can consist of nobs, columns, fingers or thick lobes. Dead corals are blue colored. cdf=4, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10 wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str d Anemones 5.4 Shelled things a Clams Tridacna Maxima (expensive) Purple, blue, green, pink, or combination. cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >8 wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str Tridacna crocea Purple, blue, green, or combination. cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff <6 mhl=1-7, dfm= >5 wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str Tridacna squamosa brown, yellow, usually with green rim, black and red??. cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5 wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str Tridacna derasa brown, sometimes with green strips. cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5 wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str Tridacna gigas almost always brown with tiny blue dots, very rarely green, blue or combination. cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5 wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str Hippopus hippopus Very light cream-color mantle with many short tan lines. Shell is lighter in color and much smoother than Tridacna clams. I believe the H.h clams are at least as hardy has the hardy T. clams. They are also supposed to be tank-raised. They are certainly the cheapest costing at most 1/3 to 1/2 that of a similiar-sized Tridacna (excepting derasa which are almost as cheap). The mantle of Hippopus sp clams does not extend beyond the shell as it does in Tridacna sp (Delbeek). b Snails c Crustaceans 5.5 A LISTING OF THE MORE COMMON coralline ALGAE (Rhodophyta) FAMILY: Chaetangiaceae GenSpec: _Galaxaura marginata_ (Lamouroux) Des. Small, mounded seaweed of loosly compressed blades. Dichotomous branches often show faint cross banding near the tip. Lightly calcified . Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Galaxaura oblongata_ (Lamouroux) Des. Bushy, creamy red plant having cylindrical smooth dichotomous branches with flexible joints. Well calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Galaxaura subverticillata_ (Kjellman) Des. Cylindircal, dark red dichotomous branches ringed by minute hairlike filaments, giving the algae a fuzzy appearance. Moderatly calcified. Range: Caribbean FAMILY: Corallinaceae GenSpec: _Jania adherens_ (Lamouroux) Des: Fine, cylindrical, pink segments connected by flexible joints. Dichotomous branching. Forms small tangled clumps. Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Jania rubens_ (Lamouroux) Des: Rose red somewhat straight segments tightly connected by flexible joints. Branching is dichotomous with narrow angles (branches almost parallel). Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Haliptilon subulatum_ (Johansen) Des: Small, compressed plants, feather-like in appearance. Composed of brittle, chalky segments connected by flexible joints. Segments appear ringed. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Amphiroa fragilissima_ (Lamouroux) Des: Dense clumps of entangled, fragile, thin jointed branches. Generally yellowish pink in color. The dichotomous branches form very wide angles (broad "Y"'s) at each joint. Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Amphiroa rigida var. antillana_ Des: Open, brittle species with thin, narrow cylindrical branches. Light, off white clumps. Branches dichotomous. Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Amphiroa brasiliana_ (Decaisne) Des: Pink, joited, dichotomus, somewhat flattened branches. Highly calcified Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Amphiroa tribulus_ (Lamouroux) Des: Thin, brittle, flattened, sparse branches, forming pinkish red bushy clumps. Edges of branches are often flattened. Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Amphiroa hancockii_ (W. Taylor) Des: Irregualr to dichotomous branching. Colour is pinkish purple. Branches composed of thick, flattened segements. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon spectabile_ (Setchell and Mason) Des: Hard, stony pink plant forming knobby hemispherical clumps tighly attached to rocks. Branching is irregular to dichotomous, and segments are thick. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon strictum_ (Setchell and Mason) Des: Hard, brittle pinkish red plant with blunt branching and no joints. Branches thick, and tend to grow upright. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Lithophyllum congestum_ (Foslie) Des: Pink to purplish branched, headlike plants that look similar to coral. Branches are crowded, stout, projections, and are wafer-like. Heavily calcifed. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Mesophyllum mesomorphum_ (Adey) Des: An encrusting coralline algae. Dark red to pink over- lapping shelves or lobes. Fragil. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean, Indo-Pacific GenSpec: _Titanoderma_ sp. (Chamberlain) Des: An encrusting coralline algae found growing epiphytically on many species of algae. Forms thin, pinkish crusts. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Fosliella farinosa f. callithamnoides (Chamberlain) Des: An articualted coralline algae found growing epiphytically on many species of algae. Forms thin, dichotomously branched colonies. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Titanoderma prototypum_ (Woelkerling) Des: Cream coloured to red encrusting algae, often with a circular pattern present. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Titanoderma bermudense_ (Foslie and Howe) Des: A grayish to pale red encrusting algae consisting of overlapping layers. Often with striations or greyish lines present on the surface. Heavily calcified. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Porolithon pachydermum_ (Weber-van Bosse & Foslie) Des: Pinkish grey encrusting algae often containing holes (caused by a chiton). An important reef builder. Heavily calcifed. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Sporolithon episporum_ (Dawson) Des: A reddish brown encrusting algae, often growing in layers that overlap each other. When broken, exposed surface is white. Heavily calcifed. Range: Caribbean GenSpec: _Hydrolithon boergesenii_ (Foslie) Des: A purple/lavender knobby encrusting algae. Highly calcified. Range: Caribbean FAMILY: Squamariaceae GenSpec: _Peyssonnelia_ sp. Des: A dark red to maroon encrusting algae. Edges sometimes raised above substrate. Range: Caribbean 5.6 Possible Problems a Mantis Shrimp b bristle worms *5.7 Hermit Crabs ************BY Gregory Schiemer************************* The hermit crabs I'm listing are the ones that I know are safe inhabitants for a reef aquarium. They are all relatively small (less than one inch), eat algae, will not bother other invertebrates or fish (although they occasionally each other during molts), are mostly active at night, are generally long-lived, and definitely fun to watch. All have been offered for sale at one time or another, but never regularly. So, here they are: >From the Caribbean and Tropical Atlantic: -Red Hermit Crab (Paguristes cadenati)- A bright red body and legs with yellow eye stalks. Very pretty, but active usually after the lights go out. Found onl y on the reef as solitary individuals, never in aggregations. My personal favorite. They gently remove micro-algae from in and around corals and polyps. Gr Usually stays on the rocks, but will sift through the substrate. -Orange-Claw Hermit (Calcinus tibicen)-Has a dark red or orange body with one slightly enlarged claw. Found both on coral reefs and rocky substrates, never i n large numbers. Very good at eating micro-algae and some macro-algae. Bolder than the Red Hermit, as it will be active during the day. Grows to one inch. Spends almost all of it's time on the rocks. -Polkadotted Hermit (Phimochirus operculatus)-Has a distinctive polkadot red an d white, greatly enlarged claw, and blue eyes. Found on coral reefs. This is probably the most aggressive and active of the small hermits. Also eats algae and sifts through the substrate. Grows to about one inch. -Red-Stripe Hermit (Phimochirus holthuisi)-Similar to the Polkadotted Hermit. Found on coral reefs. Active and bold. Will eat algae and anything else it ca n gets it's claws on, but doesn't seem to bother corals. Grows to about one inch. -Red, White and Blue Hermit (Paguristes sp.?)-Blue legs with a touch of red, white and black. Found in large aggregations in the sand along the shore line. This is the crab that is being sold in quantity from Florida dealers. They are active all day, but more so at night. They will feed on detritus and micro-algae. Bolder and m not as much as the Polkadotted Hermit. They will occasionally climb on corals, but apparently cause no harm. It's strange that although they are collecin the sand, mine have spent the majority of their time on the rocks in the aquarium. Grows to about three-quarters of an inch. >From the Pacific (including Mexico): -Red-Leg Hermit (Calcinus californiensis)-Has rrange legs and a greenish black body. Found on rocky inshore substrates in large aggregations. Will eat micro-algae and other bits of food missed by the fish. More active at night, but will forage when the lights are on. Relatively bold and aggressive. Grows to about three-quarters of an inch. -Blue-Eye Hermit (Paguristes sanguinimanus)-Orange body with bright blue eyes. Found on sand flats and patch reefs in aggregations. Good micro-algae eater. Grows to about one-half inch. -Blue-Spotted Hermit (Clibanarius digueti)-Reddish-brown legs with bluish spots . Found on rocky inshore substrates where it feeds on algae. Grows to only one-half inch. *************************************************************** ================== End of ReefKeepers FAQ Part 2 of 3 ==================