[Comp.Sci.Dept, Utrecht] Note from archiver<at>cs.uu.nl: Since januari 2019, this archive is no longer maintained/updated.
This page is part of a big collection of Usenet postings, archived here for your convenience. For matters concerning the content of this page, please contact its author(s); use the source, if all else fails. For matters concerning the archive as a whole, please refer to the archive description or contact the archiver.

Subject: alt.2600 FAQ Revision .014 (2/4)

This article was archived around: Sun, 16 Jul 2006 12:02:13 GMT

All FAQs in Directory: alt-2600/faq
All FAQs posted in: alt.2600
Source: Usenet Version

Archive-Name: alt-2600/faq/part2 Posting-Frequency: Random Last-Modified: 2000/05/29 Version: .014
register u_int pktlen; { register struct ip *ip; register struct tcphdr *tcph; { register u_short EtherType=ntohs(((struct ether_header *)cp)->ether_type); if(EtherType < 0x600) { EtherType = *(u_short *)(cp + SZETH + 6); cp+=8; pktlen-=8; } if(EtherType != ETHERTYPE_IP) /* chuk it if its not IP */ return; } /* ugh, gotta do an alignment :-( */ bcopy(cp + SZETH, (char *)Packet,(int)(pktlen - SZETH)); ip = (struct ip *)Packet; if( ip->ip_p != IPPROTO_TCP) /* chuk non tcp pkts */ return; tcph = (struct tcphdr *)(Packet + IPHLEN); if(!( (TCPD == IPPORT_TELNET) || (TCPD == IPPORT_LOGINSERVER) || (TCPD == IPPORT_FTP) )) return; { register struct CREC *CLm; register int length = ((IPLEN - (IPHLEN * 4)) - (TCPOFF * 4)); register u_char *p = (u_char *)Packet; p += ((IPHLEN * 4) + (TCPOFF * 4)); if(debug) { fprintf(LOG,"PKT: (%s %04X) ", TCPflags(tcph->th_flags),length); fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s] => ", inet_ntoa(IPS),SERVp(TCPS)); fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s]\n", inet_ntoa(IPD),SERVp(TCPD)); } if( CLm = GET_NODE(IPS, TCPS, IPD, TCPD) ) { CLm->PKcnt++; if(length>0) if( (CLm->Length + length) < MAXBUFLEN ) { ADDDATA_NODE( CLm, p,length); } else { END_NODE( CLm, p,length, "DATA LIMIT"); } if(TCPFL(TH_FIN|TH_RST)) { END_NODE( CLm, (u_char *)NULL,0, TCPFL(TH_FIN)?"TH_FIN":"TH_RST" ); } } else { if(TCPFL(TH_SYN)) { ADD_NODE(IPS,IPD,TCPS,TCPD,p,length); } } IDLE_NODE(); } } /* signal handler */ void death() { register struct CREC *CLe; while(CLe=CLroot) END_NODE( CLe, (u_char *)NULL,0, "SIGNAL"); fprintf(LOG,"\nLog ended at => %s\n",NOWtm()); fflush(LOG); if(LOG != stdout) fclose(LOG); exit(1); } /* opens network interface, performs ioctls and reads from it, * passing data to filter function */ void do_it() { int cc; char *buf; u_short sp_ts_len; if(!(buf=malloc(CHUNKSIZE))) Pexit(1,"Eth: malloc"); /* this /dev/nit initialization code pinched from etherfind */ { struct strioctl si; struct ifreq ifr; struct timeval timeout; u_int chunksize = CHUNKSIZE; u_long if_flags = NI_PROMISC; if((if_fd = open(NIT_DEV, O_RDONLY)) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: nit open"); if(ioctl(if_fd, I_SRDOPT, (char *)RMSGD) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_SRDOPT)"); si.ic_timout = INFTIM; if(ioctl(if_fd, I_PUSH, "nbuf") < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_PUSH \"nbuf\")"); timeout.tv_sec = 1; timeout.tv_usec = 0; si.ic_cmd = NIOCSTIME; si.ic_len = sizeof(timeout); si.ic_dp = (char *)&timeout; if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSTIME)"); si.ic_cmd = NIOCSCHUNK; si.ic_len = sizeof(chunksize); si.ic_dp = (char *)&chunksize; if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSCHUNK)"); strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, device, sizeof(ifr.ifr_name)); ifr.ifr_name[sizeof(ifr.ifr_name) - 1] = '\0'; si.ic_cmd = NIOCBIND; si.ic_len = sizeof(ifr); si.ic_dp = (char *)&ifr; if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCBIND)"); si.ic_cmd = NIOCSFLAGS; si.ic_len = sizeof(if_flags); si.ic_dp = (char *)&if_flags; if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSFLAGS)"); if(ioctl(if_fd, I_FLUSH, (char *)FLUSHR) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_FLUSH)"); } while ((cc = read(if_fd, buf, CHUNKSIZE)) >= 0) { register char *bp = buf, *bufstop = (buf + cc); while (bp < bufstop) { register char *cp = bp; register struct nit_bufhdr *hdrp; hdrp = (struct nit_bufhdr *)cp; cp += sizeof(struct nit_bufhdr); bp += hdrp->nhb_totlen; filter(cp, (u_long)hdrp->nhb_msglen); } } Pexit((-1),"Eth: read"); } /* Authorize your program, generate your own password and uncomment here */ /* #define AUTHPASSWD "EloiZgZejWyms" */ void getauth() { char *buf,*getpass(),*crypt(); char pwd[21],prmpt[81]; strcpy(pwd,AUTHPASSWD); sprintf(prmpt,"(%s)UP? ",ProgName); buf=getpass(prmpt); if(strcmp(pwd,crypt(buf,pwd))) exit(1); } */ void main(argc, argv) int argc; char **argv; { char cbuf[BUFSIZ]; struct ifconf ifc; int s, ac=1, backg=0; ProgName=argv[0]; /* getauth(); */ LOG=NULL; device=NULL; while((ac<argc) && (argv[ac][0] == '-')) { register char ch = argv[ac++][1]; switch(toupper(ch)) { case 'I': device=argv[ac++]; break; case 'F': if(!(LOG=fopen((LogName=argv[ac++]),"a"))) Zexit(1,"Output file cant be opened\n"); break; case 'B': backg=1; break; case 'D': debug=1; break; default : fprintf(ERR, "Usage: %s [-b] [-d] [-i interface] [-f file] \n", ProgName); exit(1); } } if(!device) { if((s=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: socket"); ifc.ifc_len = sizeof(cbuf); ifc.ifc_buf = cbuf; if(ioctl(s, SIOCGIFCONF, (char *)&ifc) < 0) Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl"); close(s); device = ifc.ifc_req->ifr_name; } fprintf(ERR,"Using logical device %s [%s]\n",device,NIT_DEV); fprintf(ERR,"Output to %s.%s%s",(LOG)?LogName:"stdout", (debug)?" (debug)":"",(backg)?" Backgrounding ":"\n"); if(!LOG) LOG=stdout; signal(SIGINT, death); signal(SIGTERM,death); signal(SIGKILL,death); signal(SIGQUIT,death); if(backg && debug) { fprintf(ERR,"[Cannot bg with debug on]\n"); backg=0; } if(backg) { register int s; if((s=fork())>0) { fprintf(ERR,"[pid %d]\n",s); exit(0); } else if(s<0) Pexit(1,"fork"); if( (s=open("/dev/tty",O_RDWR))>0 ) { ioctl(s,TIOCNOTTY,(char *)NULL); close(s); } } fprintf(LOG,"\nLog started at => %s [pid %d]\n",NOWtm(),getpid()); fflush(LOG); do_it(); } --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-06. What is an Internet Outdial? An Internet outdial is a modem connected to the Internet than you can use to dial out. Normal outdials will only call local numbers. A GOD (Global OutDial) is capable of calling long distance. Outdials are an inexpensive method of calling long distance BBS's. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-07. What are some Internet Outdials? This FAQ answer is excerpted from CoTNo #5: Internet Outdial List v3.0 by Cavalier and DisordeR Introduction ------------ There are several lists of Internet outdials floating around the net these days. The following is a compilation of other lists, as well as v2.0 by DeadKat(CoTNo issue 2, article 4). Unlike other lists where the author just ripped other people and released it, we have sat down and tested each one of these. Some of them we have gotten "Connection Refused" or it timed out while trying to connect...these have been labeled dead. Working Outdials ---------------- as of 12/29/94 NPA IP Address Instructions --- ---------- ------------ 215 isn.upenn.edu modem 217 dialout.cecer.army.mil atdt x,xxxXXXXX 218 modem.d.umn.edu atdt9,xxxXXXX 303 yuma.acns.colostate.edu 3020 412 myriad.pc.cc.cmu.edu 2600 Press D at the prompt 412 gate.cis.pitt.edu tn3270, connect dialout.pitt.edu, atdtxxxXXXX 413 dialout2400.smith.edu Ctrl } gets ENTER NUMBER: xxxxxxx 502 outdial.louisville.edu 502 uknet.uky.edu connect kecnet @ dial: "outdial2400 or out" 602 acssdial.inre.asu.edu atdt8,,,,,[x][yyy]xxxyyyy 614 ns2400.acs.ohio-state.edu 614 ns9600.acs.ohio-state.edu 713 atdt x,xxxXXXX 714 modem.nts.uci.edu atdt[area]0[phone] 804 ublan.virginia.edu connect hayes, 9,,xxx-xxxx 804 ublan2.acc.virginia.edu connect telnet connect hayes Need Password ------------- 204 dial.cc.umanitoba.ca 206 rexair.cac.washington.edu This is an unbroken password 303 yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU login: modem 404 .modem8|CR 415 annex132-1.EECS.Berkeley.EDU "dial1" or "dial2" or "dialer1" 514 cartier.CC.UMontreal.CA externe,9+number 703 wal-3000.cns.vt.edu dial2400 -aa Dead/No Connect --------------- 201 idsnet 202 modem.aidt.edu 204 umnet.cc.manitoba.ca "dial12" or "dial24" 206 dialout24.cac.washington.edu 207 modem-o.caps.maine.edu 212 B719-7e.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24 212 B719-7f.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24 212 DIALOUT-1.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24 212 FREE-138-229.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24 212 UP19-4b.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24 215 wiseowl.ocis.temple.edu "atz" "atdt 9xxxyyyy" 218 aa28.d.umn.edu "cli" "rlogin modem" at "login:" type "modem" 218 modem.d.umn.edu Hayes 9,XXX-XXXX 301 dial9600.umd.edu 305 alcat.library.nova.edu 305 office.cis.ufl.edu 307 modem.uwyo.edu Hayes 0,XXX-XXXX 313 dial2400-aa or dial1200-aa or dialout 402 dialin.creighton.edu 402 modem.criegthon.edu 404 broadband.cc.emory.edu ".modem8" or ".dialout" 408 dialout.scu.edu 408 dialout1200.scu.edu 408 dialout2400.scu.edu 408 dialout9600.scu.edu 413 dialout.smith.edu 414 modems.uwp.edu 416 annex132.berkely.edu atdt 9,,,,, xxx-xxxx 416 pacx.utcs.utoronto.ca modem 503 dialout.uvm.edu 513 dialout24.afit.af.mil 513 r596adi1.uc.edu 514 pacx.CC.UMontreal.CA externe#9 9xxx-xxxx 517 engdial.cl.msu.edu 602 dial9600.telcom.arizona.edu 603 dialout1200.unh.edu 604 dial24-nc00.net.ubc.ca 604 dial24-nc01.net.ubc.ca 604 dial96-np65.net.ubc.ca 604 gmodem.capcollege.bc.ca 604 hmodem.capcollege.bc.ca 609 (X= 1 - 4) Hayes 609 (x = 1 to 4) 609 wright-modem-1.rutgers.edu 609 wright-modem-2.rutgers.edu 612 modem_out12e7.atk.com 612 modem_out24n8.atk.com 614 ns2400.ircc.ohio-state.edu "dial" 615 dca.utk.edu dial2400 D 99k # 615 MATHSUN23.MATH.UTK.EDU dial 2400 d 99Kxxxxxxx 616 modem.calvin.edu 617 2400baud 617 dialout.lcs.mit.edu 617 dialout1.princeton.edu 617 isdn3.Princeton.EDU 617 jadwingymkip0.Princeton.EDU 617 lord-stanley.Princeton.EDU 617 mpanus.Princeton.EDU 617 mrmodem.wellesley.edu 617 old-dialout.Princeton.EDU 617 stagger.Princeton.EDU 617 sunshine-02.lcs.mit.edu 617 waddle.Princeton.EDU 619 atdt [area][phone] 619 dialin.ucsd.edu "dialout" 703 modem_pool.runet.edu 703 wal-3000.cns.vt.edu 713 "c modem96" "atdt 9xxx-xxxx" or "Hayes" 713 modem12.bcm.tmc.edu 713 modem24.bcm.tmc.edu 713 modem24.bcm.tmc.edu 714 mdmsrv7.sdsu.edu atdt 8xxx-xxxx 714 modem24.nts.uci.edu 714 pub-gopher.cwis.uci.edu 801 dswitch.byu.edu "C Modem" 808 irmodem.ifa.hawaii.edu 902 star.ccs.tuns.ca "dialout" 916 916 cc-dnet.ucdavis.edu connect hayes/dialout 916 engr-dnet1.engr.ucdavis.edu UCDNET <ret> C KEYCLUB <ret> ??? (1 - 4) ??? ??? nue, X to discontinue, ? for Help ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ntu <none> ??? annexdial.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de ??? dial96.ncl.ac.uk ??? dialout.plk.af.mil ??? ee21.ee.ncu.edu.tw cs8005 ??? im.mgt.ncu.edu.tw guest <none> ??? modem.cis.uflu.edu ??? modem.ireq.hydro.qc.ca ??? modems.csuohio.edu ??? sparc20.ncu.edu.tw u349633 ??? sun2cc.nccu.edu.tw ? ??? ts-modem.une.oz.au ??? twncu865.ncu.edu.tw guest <none> ??? vtnet1.cns.ut.edu "CALL" or "call" Conclusion ---------- If you find any of the outdials to have gone dead, changed commands, or require password, please let us know so we can keep this list as accurate as possible. If you would like to add to the list, feel free to mail us and it will be included in future versions of this list, with your name beside it. Have fun... [Editors note: Updates have been made to this document after the original publication] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-08. What port is XXX on? The file /etc/services on most Unix machines lists the port assignments for that machine. For a complete list of port assignments, read RFC (Request For Comments) 1700 "Assigned Numbers" --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-09. What is an anonymous remailer? This FAQ answer was written by Raph Levien: An anonymous remailer is a system on the Internet that allows you to send e-mail or post messages to Usenet anonymously. There are two sorts of remailers in widespread use. The first is the anon.penet.fi style, the second is the cypherpunk style. The remailer at anon.penet.fi is immensely popular, with over 160,000 users over its lifetime, and probably tens of thousands of messages per day. Its main advantage is that it's so easy to use. The cypherpunks mailers, which provide much better security, are becoming more popular, however, as there is more awareness of them. The user of the anon.penet.fi system first needs to get an anonymous id. This is done either by sending mail to somebody who already has one (for example, by replying to a post on Usenet), or sending mail to ping@anon.penet.fi. In either case, penet will mail back the new anon id, which looks like an123456@anon.penet.fi. If an123456 then sends mail to another user of the system, then this is what happens: 1. The mail is transported to anon.penet.fi, which resides somewhere in the vicinity of Espoo, Finland. 2. These steps are carried out by software running on anon.penet.fi. Penet first looks up the email address of the sender in its database, then replaces it with the numeric code. All other information about the sender is removed. 3. Then, penet looks up the number of the recipient in the same database, and replaces it with the actual email address. 4. Finally, it sends the mail to the actual email address of the recipient. There are variations on this scheme, such as posting to Usenet (in which step 3 is eliminated), but that's the basic idea. Where anon.penet.fi uses a secret database to match anon id's to actual email addresses, the cypherpunks remailers use cryptography to hide the actual identities. Let's say I want to send email to a real email address, or post it to Usenet, but keep my identity completely hidden. To send it through one remailer, this is what happens. 1. I encrypt the message and the recipient's address, using the public key of the remailer of my choice. 2. I send the email to the remailer. 3. When the remailer gets the mail, it decrypts it using its private key, revealing as plaintext the message and the recipient's address. 4. All information about the sender is removed. 5. Finally, it sends it to the recipient's email address. If one trusts the remailer operator, this is good enough. However, the whole point of the cypherpunks remailers is that you don't _have_ to trust any one individual or system. So, people who want real security use a chain of remailers. If any one remailer on the "chain" is honest, then the privacy of the message is assured. To use a chain of remailers, I first have to prepare the message, which is nestled within multiple layers of encryption, like a Russian matryoshka doll. Preparing such a message is tedious and error prone, so many people use an automated tool such as my premail package. Anyway, after preparing the message, it is sent to the first remailer in the chain, which corresponds to the outermost layer of encryption. Each remailer strips off one layer of encryption and sends the message to the next, until it reaches the final remailer. At this point, only the innermost layer of encryption remains. This layer is stripped off, revealing the plaintext message and recipient for the first time. At this point, the message is sent to its actual recipient. Remailers exist in many locations. A typical message might go through Canada, Holland, Berkeley, and Finland before ending up at its final location. Aside from the difficulty of preparing all the encrypted messages, another drawback of the cypherpunk remailers is that they don't easily allow responses to anonymous mail. All information about the sender is stripped away, including any kind of return address. However the new alias servers promise to change that. To use an alias server, one creates a new email address (mine is raph@alpha.c2.org). Mail sent to this new address will be untraceably forwarded to one's real address. To set this up, one first encrypts one's own email address with multiple layers of encryption. Then, using an encrypted channel, one sends the encrypted address to the alias server, along with the nickname that one would like. The alias server registers the encrypted address in the database. The alias server then handles reply mail in much the same way as anon.penet.fi, except that the mail is forwarded to the chain of anonymous remailers. For maximum security, the user can arrange it so that, at each link in the chain, the remailer adds another layer of encryption to the message while removing one layer from the email address. When the user finally gets the email, it is encrypted in multiple layers. The matryoshka has to be opened one doll at a time until the plaintext message hidden inside is revealed. One other point is that the remailers must be reliable in order for all this to work. This is especially true when a chain of remailers is used -- if any one of the remailers is not working, then the message will be dropped. This is why I maintain a list of reliable remailers. By choosing reliable remailers to start with, there is a good chance the message will finally get there. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-10. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers? To see a comprehensive list on anonymous remailers point your web browser to http://anon.efga.org/~rlist/. For more information regarding anonymous email, check out http://web.rge.com/pub/security/cypherpunks/. The following URL's allow you to send anonymous e-mail via the world wide web: http://www.anonymizer.com/email/remailer-power.cgi?to= http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~gurevich/anonymous-email/index.html http://www.ozemail.com.au/~geoffk/anon/anon.html --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-11. What is is a loopback network connection. If you telnet, ftp, etc... to it you are connected to your own machine. [Note from Dan Mellem: is commonly used as the loopback address. H.] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-12. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup? Usenet messages consist of message headers and message bodies. The message header tells the news software how to process the message. Headers can be divided into two types, required and optional. Required headers are ones like "From" and "Newsgroups." Without the required headers, your message will not be posted properly. One of the optional headers is the "Approved" header. To post to a moderated newsgroup, simply add an Approved header line to your message header. The header line should contain the newsgroup moderators e-mail address. To see the correct format for your target newsgroup, save a message from the newsgroup and then look at it using any text editor. A "Approved" header line should look like this: Approved: voyager@sekurity.org There cannot not be a blank line in the message header. A blank line will cause any portion of the header after the blank line to be interpreted as part of the message body. For more information, read RFC 1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET messages. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-13. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail? Through an e-mail->Usenet gateway. Send an a e-mail messages to <newsgroup>@<servername>. For example, to post to alt.2600 through nic.funet.fi, address your mail to alt.2600@nic.funet.fi. Here are a few e-mail->Usenet gateways: group.name@news.demon.co.uk group.name@charm.magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu group.name@undergrad.math.uwaterloo.ca group.name@nic.funet.fi group.name.usenet@decwrl.dec.com --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-14. What is a firewall? A firewall is a system that is set up to control traffic flow between two networks. Firewalls are most commonly specially configured Unix systems, but firewalls have also been built out of many other systems, including systems designed specifically for use as firewalls. The most common firewall today is CheckPoint FireWall-1, but competitions such as Cisco's PIX are quickly catching up on CheckPoint. Many people disagree on the definiton of a firewall, and in this discussion I will use the term loosely. One type of firewall is the packet filtering firewall. In a packet filtering firewall, the firewall examines five characteristics of a packet: Source IP address Source port Destination IP address Destination port IP protocol (TCP or UDP) Based upon rules configured into the firewall, the packet will either be allowed through, rejected, or dropped. If the firewall rejects the packet, it sends a message back to the sender letting him know that the packet was rejected. If the packet was dropped, the firewall simply does not respond to the packet. The sender must wait for the communications to time out. Dropping packets instead of rejecting them greatly increases the time required to scan your network. Packet filtering firewalls operate on Layer 3 of the OSI model, the Network Layer. Routers are a very common form of packet filtering firewall. An improved form of the packet filtering firewall is a packet filtering firewall with a stateful inspection engine. With this enhancement, the firewall "remembers" conversations between systems. It is then necessary to fully examine only the first packet of a conversation. Another type of firewall is the application-proxy firewall. In a proxying firewall, every packet is stopped at the firewall. The packet is then examined and compared to the rules configured into the firewall. If the packet passes the examinations, it is re-created and sent out. Because each packet is destroyed and re-created, there is a potential that an application-proxy firewall can prevent unknown attacks based upon weaknesses in the TCP/IP protocol suite that would not be prevented by a packet filtering firewall. The drawback is that a separate application-proxy must be written for each application type being proxied. You need an HTTP proxy for web traffic, an FTP proxy for file transfers, a Gopher proxy for Gopher traffic, etc... Application- proxy firewalls operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model, the Application Layer. Application-gateway firewalls also operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. Application-gateway firewalls exist for only a few network applications. A typical application-gateway firewall is a system where you must telnet to one system in order telnet again to a system outside of the network. Another type of application-proxy firewall are SOCKS firewalls. Where normal application-proxy firewalls do not require modifications to network clients, SOCKS firewalls requires specially modified network clients. This means you have to modify every system on your internal network which needs to communicate with the external network. On a Windows or OS/2 system, this can be as easy as swapping a few DLL's. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-15. How do I attack a remote network across the Internet? On a theoretical level, attacking a remote network across the Internet is very simple. First, you research to discover all of the IP address ranges used by the target. Search the web, search Usenet, search Internet, search RIPE, search APNIC, search everywhere. Second, you identify all hosts in those IP address ranges. This may be as simple as pinging each possible host in those networks. Be warned, however, that many hosts will be protected by firewalls that prvent ICMP ECHO Requests (used by ping) from reaching them. Those hosts may still have vulnerable services running on them. Third, you identify all open ports on each of those hosts. For example, one host may be providing dns, bootp, and time services. This is normally done by "port scanning" the host. Port scanning UDP ports is much slower than port scanning TCP ports. TCP ports will respond negatively when they are not open. UDP ports require you to wait for a timeout. You may choose to scan only known ports, or to scan only ports below 1024, or to scan all 65,535 ports. Fourth, you attack vulnerable services. If you see a time server running and you know of a time server exploit, you try it out. Perhaps the target is running an OS that is not vulnerable, or perhaps the system administrator has patched the target host. Or, maybe you will succeed. Vulnerability information can be gleaned from Internet WWW sites or mailing lists, traded privately, or developed on your own. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- B-16. What is a TCP sequence prediction attack? TCP is a reliable connection-oriented layer 4 (Transport Layer) protocol. Packet transfer between hosts is accomplished by the layers below layer 4 and TCP takes responsibility to making certain the packets are delivered to higher layers in the protocol stack in the correct order. To accomplish this reordering task, TCP uses the sequence number field. To successfully mount a TCP sequence prediction attack, you must first listen to communications between two systems, one of which is your target system. Then, you issue packets from your system to the target system with the source IP address of the trusted system that is communicating with the target system. The packets you issue must have the sequence numbers that the target system is expecting. In addition, your packets must arrive before the packets from the trusted system whose connection you are hijacking. To accomplish this, it is often necessary to flood the trusted system off of the network with some form of denial of service attack. Once you have taken over the connection, you can send data to allow you to access the target host using a normal TCP/IP connection. The most simple way to do this is: echo "+ +" > /.rhosts This specific technique relies upon inherent weaknesses in the BSD Unix `r` services. However, SunRPC, NFS, X-Windows, and many other services which rely upon IP address authentication can be exploited with a TCP sequence prediction attack. An excerpt from RFC 793 concering the generation of TCP sequence numbers: When new connections are created, an initial sequence number (ISN) generator is employed which selects a new 32 bit ISN. The generator is bound to a (possibly fictitious) 32 bit clock whose low order bit is incremented roughly every 4 microseconds. Thus, the ISN cycles approximately every 4.55 hours. Since we assume that segments will stay in the network no more than the Maximum Segment Lifetime (MSL) and that the MSL is less than 4.55 hours we can reasonably assume that ISN's will be unique. The developers of the BSD Unix TCP/IP stack did not follow these recommendations. TCP/IP stacks based upon BSD Unix increase the sequence number by 128,000 every second and by 64,000 for every new TCP connection. This is significantly more predictable than the algorithm specified in the RFC. TCP sequence prediction attacks are stopped by any router or firewall that is configured not to allow packets from an internal IP address to originate from an external interface. TCP Header Format ----------------- 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Source Port | Destination Port | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Sequence Number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Acknowledgment Number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Data | |U|A|P|R|S|F| | | Offset| Reserved |R|C|S|S|Y|I| Window | | | |G|K|H|T|N|N| | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Checksum | Urgent Pointer | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Options | Padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | data | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= Section C -- Telephony =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= C-01. What is a Red Box? When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the payphone emits a set of tones to ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System). Red boxes work by fooling ACTS into believing you have actually put money into the phone. The red box simply plays the ACTS tones into the telephone microphone. ACTS hears those tones, and allows you to place your call. The actual tones are: Nickel: 35-160ms 1700hz & 2200hz tone burst, followed by 240ms of silence. Dime: Two 35-160ms 1700hz & 2200hz bursts, with a spacing of 20-110ms between the bursts, followed by 165 ms of silence. Quarter: Five 1700hz & 2200hz bursts, with the first and last being 20-100ms in length, and the second through fourth being 20-60ms in length. The spacing between the first and second bursts is 20-110ms, while the spacing between the following bursts is 20-60ms. The tones are followed by 60ms of silence. Canada uses a variant of ACTSD called N-ACTS. N-ACTS uses different tones than ACTS. In Canada, the tones to use are: Nickel Signal 2200hz 0.060s on Dime Signal 2200hz 0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating Quarter Signal 2200hz 33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-02. How do I build a Red Box? Red boxes are commonly manufactured from Radio Shack tone dialers, Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily available electronic components. To make a Red Box from a Radio Shack 43-141 or 43-146 tone dialer, open the dialer and replace the crystal with a new one. The purpose of the new crystal is to cause the * button on your tone dialer to create a 1700hz and 2200hz tone instead of the original 941hz and 1209hz tones. The exact value of the replacement crystal should be 6.466806 to create a perfect 1700hz tone and 6.513698 to create a perfect 2200hz tone. A crystal close to those values will create a tone that easily falls within the loose tolerances of ACTS. The most popular choice is the 6.5536Mhz crystal, because it is the easiest to procure. The old crystal is the large shiny metal component labeled "3.579545Mhz." When you are finished replacing the crystal, program the P1 button with five *'s. That will simulate a quarter tone each time you press P1. You can record the ACTS tones and play them back into the telephone. This is what is done with the Hallmark greeting card. Alternatively, you can build your own circuit using any voice recording chip, such as Radio Shack catalog number 276-1325. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal? Your best bet is a local electronics store. Radio Shack sells them, but they are overpriced and the store must order them in. This takes approximately two weeks. In addition, many Radio Shack employees do not know that this can be done. Or, you could order the crystal mail order. This introduces Shipping and Handling charges, which are usually much greater than the price of the crystal. It's best to get several people together to share the S&H cost. Or, buy five or six yourself and sell them later. Some of the places you can order crystals are: Digi-Key 701 Brooks Avenue South P.O. Box 677 Thief River Falls, MN 56701-0677 (800)344-4539 Part Number:X415-ND /* Note: 6.500Mhz and only .197 x .433 x .149! */ Part Number:X018-ND JDR Microdevices: 2233 Branham Lane San Jose, CA 95124 (800)538-5000 Part Number: 6.5536MHZ Tandy Express Order Marketing 401 NE 38th Street Fort Worth, TX 76106 (800)241-8742 Part Number: 10068625 Alltronics 2300 Zanker Road San Jose CA 95131 (408)943-9774 Voice (408)943-9776 Fax (408)943-0622 BBS Part Number: 92A057 Mouser (800)346-6873 Part Number: 332-1066 Blue Saguaro P.O. Box 37061 Tucson, AZ 85740 Part Number: 1458b Unicorn Electronics 10000 Canoga Ave, Unit c-2 Chatsworth, CA 91311 Phone: 1-800-824-3432 Part Number: CR6.5 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on? Red Boxes will work on telco owned payphones, but not on COCOT's (Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephones). Red boxes work by fooling ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System) into believing you have put money into the pay phone. ACTS is the telephone company software responsible for saying "Please deposit XX cents" and listening for the coins being deposited. COCOT's do not use ACTS. On a COCOT, the pay phone itself is responsible for determining what coins have been inserted. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box? Payphones do not use ACTS for local calls. To use your red box for local calls, you have to fool ACTS into getting involved in the call. One way to do this, in some areas, is by dialing an Equal Access Code before the number you are dialing. For example, to use 10288 (an Equal Access Code belonging to AT&T), dial 10288-xxx-xxxx. This makes your call a long distance call, and brings ACTS into the picture. There are quite a large number of Equal Access Codes available in most geographic regions. [Note from Dan Mellem: The access codes are now 1010xxx, so AT&T is 1010288+. H.] In other areas, you can call Directory Assistance and ask for the number of the person you are trying to reach. The operator will give you the number and then you will hear a message similar to "Your call can be completed automatically for an additional 35 cents." When this happens, you can then use ACTS tones. Another operator scam involves calling (800) long distance operators, asking them to connect you, and then playing the ACTS tones. This will get ACTS involved, even on COCOT's! I have heard that in some areas you can dial local calls as if they were long distance. For example, to dial 345-4587 to would dial 303-345-4587. This does not work on payphones in my area. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-06. What is a Blue Box? Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to size control of telephone switches that use in-band signalling. The caller may then access special switch functions, with the usual purpose of making free long distance phone calls, using the tones provided by the Blue Box. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-07. Do Blue Boxes still work? This FAQ answer is excerpted from a message posted to Usenet by Marauder of the Legion of Doom: Somewhere along the line I have seen reference to something similar to "Because of ESS Blue boxing is impossible". This is incorrect. When I lived in Connecticut I was able to blue box under Step by Step, #1AESS, and DMS-100. The reason is simple, even though I was initiating my call to an 800 number from a different exchange (Class 5 office, aka Central Office) in each case, when the 800 call was routed to the toll network it would route through the New Haven #5 Crossbar toll Tandem office. It just so happens that the trunks between the class 5 (CO's) and the class 4 (toll office, in this case New Haven #5 Xbar), utilized in-band (MF) signalling, so regardless of what I dialed, as long as it was an Inter-Lata call, my call would route through this particular set of trunks, and I could Blue box until I was blue in the face. The originating Central Offices switch (SXS/ESS/Etc..) had little effect on my ability to box at all. While the advent of ESS (and other electronic switches) has made the blue boxers task a bit more difficult, ESS is not the reason most of you are unable to blue box. The main culprit is the "forward audio mute" feature of CCIS (out of band signalling). Unfortunately for the boxer 99% of the Toll Completion centers communicate using CCIS links, This spells disaster for the blue boxer since most of you must dial out of your local area to find trunks that utilize MF signalling, you inevitably cross a portion of the network that is CCIS equipped, you find an exchange that you blow 2600hz at, you are rewarded with a nice "winkstart", and no matter what MF tones you send at it, you meet with a re-order. This is because as soon as you seized the trunk (your application of 2600hz), your Originating Toll Office sees this as a loss of supervision at the destination, and Mutes any further audio from being passed to the destination (ie: your waiting trunk!). You meet with a reorder because the waiting trunk never "hears" any of the MF tones you are sending, and it times out. So for the clever amongst you, you must somehow get yourself to the 1000's of trunks out there that still utilize MF signalling but bypass/disable the CCIS audio mute problem. (Hint: Take a close look at WATS extenders). --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-08. What is a Black Box? A Black Box is a resistor (and often capacitor in parallel) placed in series across your phone line to cause the phone company equipment to be unable to detect that you have answered your telephone. People who call you will then not be billed for the telephone call. Black boxes do not work under ESS. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-09. What do all the colored boxes do? Acrylic Steal Three-Way-Calling, Call Waiting and programmable Call Forwarding on old 4-wire phone systems Aqua Drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-trace/trap-trace Beige Lineman's hand set Black Allows the calling party to not be billed for the call placed Blast Phone microphone amplifier Blotto Supposedly shorts every phone out in the immediate area Blue Emulate a true operator by seizing a trunk with a 2600hz tone Brown Create a party line from 2 phone lines Bud Tap into your neighbors phone line Chartreuse Use the electricity from your phone line Cheese Connect two phones to create a diverter Chrome Manipulate Traffic Signals by Remote Control Clear A telephone pickup coil and a small amp used to make free calls on Fortress Phones Color Line activated telephone recorder Copper Cause crosstalk interference on an extender Crimson Hold button Dark Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone Dayglo Connect to your neighbors phone line Diverter Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone DLOC Create a party line from 2 phone lines Gold Dialout router Green Emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones Infinity Remotely activated phone tap Jack Touch-Tone key pad Light In-use light Lunch AM transmitter Magenta Connect a remote phone line to another remote phone line Mauve Phone tap without cutting into a line Neon External microphone Noise Create line noise Olive External ringer Party Create a party line from 2 phone lines Pearl Tone generator Pink Create a party line from 2 phone lines Purple Telephone hold button Rainbow Kill a trace by putting 120v into the phone line (joke) Razz Tap into your neighbors phone Red Make free phone calls from pay phones by generating quarter tones Rock Add music to your phone line Scarlet Cause a neighbors phone line to have poor reception Silver Create the DTMF tones for A, B, C and D Static Keep the voltage on a phone line high Switch Add hold, indicator lights, conferencing, etc.. Tan Line activated telephone recorder Tron Reverse the phase of power to your house, causing your electric meter to run slower TV Cable "See" sound waves on your TV Urine Create a capacitative disturbance between the ring and tip wires in another's telephone headset Violet Keep a payphone from hanging up White Portable DTMF keypad Yellow Add an extension phone Box schematics may be retrieved from these FTP sites: ftp.netcom.com /pub/br/bradleym ftp.netcom.com /pub/va/vandal ftp.winternet.com /users/nitehwk --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-10. What is an ANAC number? An ANAC (Automatic Number Announcement Circuit) number is a telephone number that plays back the number of the telephone that called it. ANAC numbers are convenient if you want to know the telephone number of a pair of wires. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-11. What is the ANAC number for my area? How to find your ANAC number: Look up your NPA (Area Code) and try the number listed for it. If that fails, try 1 plus the number listed for it. If that fails, try the common numbers like 311, 958 and 200-222-2222. If you find the ANAC number for your area, please let us know. Note that many times the ANAC number will vary for different switches in the same city. The geographic naming on the list is NOT intended to be an accurate reference for coverage patterns, it is for convenience only. Many companies operate 800 number services which will read back to you the number from which you are calling. Many of these require navigating a series of menus to get the phone number you are looking for. Please use local ANAC numbers if you can, as overuse or abuse can kill 800 ANAC numbers. (800)425-6256 VRS Billing Systems/Integretel (800)4BLOCKME N (800)487-9240 Another line blocking service A non-800 ANAC that works nationwide is 404-988-9664. The one catch with this number is that it must be dialed with the AT&T Carrier Access Code 10732. Use of this number does not appear to be billed. Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only. ANAC numbers may vary from switch to switch within the same city. NPA ANAC number Approximate Geographic area --- --------------- --------------------------------------------- 201 958 Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ 202 811 District of Columbia 203 970 CT 205 300-222-2222 Birmingham, AL 205 300-555-5555 Many small towns in AL 205 300-648-1111 Dora, AL 205 300-765-4321 Bessemer, AL 205 300-798-1111 Forestdale, AL 205 300-833-3333 Birmingham 205 557-2311 Birmingham, AL 205 811 Pell City/Cropwell/Lincoln, AL 205 841-1111 Tarrant, AL 205 908-222-2222 Birmingham, AL 206 411 WA (Not US West) 207 200-222-2222 ME 207 958 ME 209 830-2121 Stockton, CA 209 211-9779 Stockton, CA 210 830 Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX 210 951 Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE) 212 958 Manhattan, NY U 213 114 Los Angeles, CA (GTE 2EAX, DMS100, and GTD-5 switches) U 213 1223 Los Angeles, CA (GTE 1AESS and 5ESS switches) 213 211-2345 Los Angeles, CA (English response) 213 211-2346 Los Angeles, CA (DTMF response) 213 760-2??? Los Angeles, CA (DMS switches) 213 61056 Los Angeles, CA 214 570 Dallas, TX 214 790 Dallas, TX (GTE) N 214 970 Dallas, TX (GTE) U 214 970-222-2222 Dallas, TX (Southwestern Bell) 214 970-x11-1111 Dallas, TX (Southwestern Bell) 215 410-xxxx Philadelphia, PA 215 511 Philadelphia, PA 215 958 Philadelphia, PA 216 200-XXXX Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH 216 331 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH 216 959-9892 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH 217 200-xxx-xxxx Champaign-Urbana/Springfield, IL 219 550 Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN 219 559 Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN 301 2002006969 Hagerstown/Rockville, MD 301 958-9968 Hagerstown/Rockville, MD 303 958 Aspen/Boulder/Denver/Durango/Grand Junction /Steamboat Springs, CO 305 200-555-1212 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL 305 200200200200200 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL 305 780-2411 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL 310 114 Long Beach, CA (On many GTE switches) 310 1223 Long Beach, CA (Some 1AESS switches) 310 211-2345 Long Beach, CA (English response) 310 211-2346 Long Beach, CA (DTMF response) [Note from Brian Jones: The new GTE ANAC for the Los Angeles area (310, etc) is 958-1114 H.] 312 200 Chicago, IL 312 290 Chicago, IL 312 1-200-8825 Chicago, IL (Last four change rapidly) 312 1-200-555-1212 Chicago, IL 313 200-200-2002 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI 313 200-222-2222 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI 313 200-xxx-xxxx Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI 313 200200200200200 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI N 313 311 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI N 313 958-1111 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI (GTE) 314 410-xxxx# Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO 315 953 Syracuse/Utica, NY 315 958 Syracuse/Utica, NY 315 998 Syracuse/Utica, NY 317 310-222-2222 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN 317 559-222-2222 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN 317 743-1218 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN 334 5572411 Montgomery, AL 334 5572311 Montgomery, AL 401 200-200-4444 RI 401 222-2222 RI 401 2002006969 RI [401 possibly 118 according to forrest swope. H.] 402 311 Lincoln, NE 404 311 Atlanta, GA 404 780-2311 Atlanta, GA 404 940-xxx-xxxx Atlanta, GA 404 990 Atlanta, GA 405 890-7777777 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK 405 897 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK 407 200-222-2222 Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (Bell South) 407 520-3111 Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (United) 408 300-xxx-xxxx San Jose, CA 408 760 San Jose, CA 408 940 San Jose, CA 409 951 Beaumont/Galveston, TX 409 970-xxxx Beaumont/Galveston, TX 410 200-6969 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD 410 200-200-6969 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD 410 200-555-1212 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD 410 811 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD [410 possibly 118 according to forrest swope. H.] 412 711-6633 Pittsburgh, PA 412 711-4411 Pittsburgh, PA 412 999-xxxx Pittsburgh, PA 413 958 Pittsfield/Springfield, MA 413 200-555-5555 Pittsfield/Springfield, MA 414 330-2234 Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI 415 200-555-1212 San Francisco, CA 415 211-2111 San Francisco, CA 415 2222 San Francisco, CA 415 640 San Francisco, CA 415 760-2878 San Francisco, CA 415 7600-2222 San Francisco, CA 419 311 Toledo, OH 423 200-200-200 Chatanooga, Johnson City, Knoxville, TN 501 511 AR U 501 721-xxx-xxxx AR 502 2002222222 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY 502 997-555-1212 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY 503 611 Portland, OR 503 999 Portland, OR (GTE) 504 99882233 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 504 201-269-1111 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 504 998 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 504 99851-0000000000 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 508 958 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA 508 200-222-1234 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA 508 200-222-2222 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA 508 26011 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA 509 560 Spokane/Walla Walla/Yakima, WA 510 760-1111 Oakland, CA 512 830 Austin/Corpus Christi, TX 512 970-xxxx Austin/Corpus Christi, TX 513 380-55555555 Cincinnati/Dayton, OH 515 5463 Des Moines, IA 515 811 Des Moines, IA 516 958 Hempstead/Long Island, NY 516 968 Hempstead/Long Island, NY 517 200-222-2222 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI 517 200200200200200 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI N 517 958-1111 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI (GTE) 518 511 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY 518 997 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY 518 998 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY 540 211 Roanoke, VA (GTE) 540 311 Roanoke, VA (GTE) 541 200 Bend, OR N 573 511 N 602 958-3474 Phoenix, AZ N 601 200-222-2222 MS N 603 200-2222 NH 603 200-222-2222 NH 606 997-555-1212 Ashland/Winchester, KY 606 711 Ashland/Winchester, KY 607 993 Binghamton/Elmira, NY 609 958 Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ 610 958 Allentown/Reading, PA 610 958-4100 Allentown/Reading, PA 612 511 Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN 614 200 Columbus/Steubenville, OH 614 571 Columbus/Steubenville, OH 615 200200200200200 Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN 615 2002222222 Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN 615 830 Nashville, TN 616 200-222-2222 Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI N 616 958-1111 Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI (GTE) 617 200-222-1234 Boston, MA 617 200-222-2222 Boston, MA 617 200-444-4444 Boston, MA (Woburn, MA) 617 220-2622 Boston, MA 617 958 Boston, MA 618 200-xxx-xxxx Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL 618 930 Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL 619 211-2001 San Diego, CA 619 211-2121 San Diego, CA 659 220-2622 Newmarket, NH 703 211 VA 703 511-3636 Culpeper/Orange/Fredericksburg, VA 703 811 Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA 704 311 Asheville/Charlotte, NC 706 940-xxxx Augusta, GA 707 211-2222 Eureka, CA 707 611 Crescent City, CA 708 1-200-555-1212 Chicago/Elgin, IL 708 1-200-8825 Chicago/Elgin, IL (Last four change rapidly) 708 200-6153 Chicago/Elgin, IL 708 724-9951 Chicago/Elgin, IL 713 380 Houston, TX 713 970-xxxx Houston, TX 713 811 Humble, TX 713 380-5555-5555 Houston, TX 714 114 Anaheim, CA (GTE) 714 211-2121 Anaheim, CA (PacBell) 714 211-2222 Anaheim, CA (Pacbell) 714 211-7777 Anaheim, CA (Pacbell) 716 511 Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel) 716 990 Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel) 717 958 Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA 718 958 Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY 770 780-2311 Marietta/Norcross, GA 770 940-xxx-xxxx Marietta/Norcross, GA 802 2-222-222-2222 Vermont 802 200-222-2222 Vermont 802 1-700-222-2222 Vermont 802 111-2222 Vermont 804 211 Richmond, VA 804 990 Virginia Beach, VA [804 118 according to forrest swope. H.] 805 114 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 805 211-1101 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 805 211-2345 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 805 211-2346 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (Returns DTMF) 805 830 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 806 970-xxxx Amarillo/Lubbock, TX 810 200200200200200 Flint/Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI 810 311 Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI N 810 958-1111 Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI (GTE) 812 410-555-1212 Evansville, IN 813 311 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL 815 200-3374 Crystal Lake, IL 815 270-3374 Crystal Lake, IL 815 770-3374 Crystal Lake, IL 815 200-xxx-xxxx La Salle/Rockford, IL 815 290 La Salle/Rockford, IL 817 211 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX 817 970-611-1111 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX (Southwestern Bell) 817 973-222-11111 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX 818 114 Pasadena, CA (GTE) 818 1223 Pasadena, CA (Some 1AESS switches) (Pac Bell) 818 211-2345 Pasadena, CA (English response) (Pac Bell) 818 211-2346 Pasadena, CA (DTMF response) (Pac Bell) 860 970 CT 901 899-?555 Memphis, TN 903 970-611-1111 Tyler, TX 904 200-222-222 Jackonsville/Pensacola/Tallahasee, FL 904 311 Jackonsville/Pensacola/Tallahasee, FL 904 780-2311 Jackonsville/Pensacola/Tallahasee, FL 906 1-200-222-2222 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI N 906 958-1111 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI (GTE) U 907 811 Anchorage, AK 908 958 New Brunswick, NJ 909 111 Riverside/San Bernardino, CA (GTE) 909 114 Riverside/San Bernardino, CA 910 200 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC 910 311 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC 910 988 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC 912 711 Albany/Savannah, GA 912 780-2311 Albany/Savannah, GA 914 990-1111 Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY 915 970-xxxx Abilene/El Paso, TX 916 211-0007 Sacramento, CA (Pac Bell) 916 461 Sacramento, CA (Roseville Telephone) 919 200 Durham, NC 919 711 Durham, NC 919 780-2411 Durham, NC 954 200-555-1212 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 954 200200200200200 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 954 780-2411 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Canada: 204 644-4444 Manitoba 306 115 Saskatchewan 403 311 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory 403 908-222-2222 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory 403 999 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory 416 997-xxxx Toronto, Ontario N 416 997-1699 Down Town, Toronto, Ontario N 416 997-1699 Riverdale, Toronto, Ontario N 416 997-8123 Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario 506 1-555-1313 New Brunswick 514 320-xxxx Montreal, Quebec 514 320-1232 Montreal, Quebec 514 320-1223 Montreal, Quebec 514 320-1233 Montreal, Quebec 519 320-xxxx London, Ontario 604 1116 British Columbia 604 1211 British Columbia 604 211 British Columbia 613 320-2232 Ottawa, Ontario N 613 320-5123 Kingston/Belleville/Southeastern Ontario N 613 320-5124 Kingston/Belleville/Southeastern Ontario N 613 320-9123 Kingston/Belleville/Southeastern Ontario 705 320-4567 North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario 819 320-1112 Quebec [Note from Mike: I found the new ANAC for the 604 calling area in Vancouver, BC, Canada it is (604)958-6111. Also any prefix followed with 2011, so xxx-2011 is the high end of a loop. However, I can't find the low end.. xxx-2012 gives a constantly busy and xxx-2010 rings forever. Any help with finding the other end would be greatly appreciated. H.] N Argentina: 5702 Australia: +61 03-552-4111 Victoria 03 area +612 19123 All major capital cities +612 11544 United Kingdom: U 175 or 17071 Israel: 110 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-12. What is a ringback number? A ringback number is a number that you call that will immediately ring the telephone from which it was called. In most instances you must call the ringback number, quickly hang up the phone for just a short moment and then let up on the switch, you will then go back off hook and hear a different tone. You may then hang up. You will be called back seconds later. On some systems, you will have to press a button of flash hook again before the final hang up. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-13. What is the ringback number for my area? An 'x' means insert those numbers from the phone number from which you are calling. A '?' means that the number varies from switch to switch in the area, or changes from time to time. Try all possible combinations. If the ringback for your NPA is not listed, try common ones such as 114, 951-xxx-xxxx, 954, 957 and 958. Also, try using the numbers listed for other NPA's served by your telephone company. Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only. Ringback numbers may vary from switch to switch within the same city. NPA Ringback number Approximate Geographic area --- --------------- --------------------------------------------- 201 55?-xxxx Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ 202 958-xxxx District of Columbia 203 99?-xxxx CT 206 571-xxxx WA 207 981-xxxx ME 208 59X-xxxx ID 208 99xxx-xxxx ID 210 211-8849-xxxx Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE) N 213 xxx-xxxx Los Angeles, CA (GTE 2EAX, DMS100, and GTD-5 switches) N 213 117-xxxx Los Angeles, CA (GTE 5ESS switches) U 213 195-xxxx Los Angeles, CA (GTE 1AESS switches) 214 971-xxxx Dallas, TX 215 811-xxxx Philadelphia, PA 216 551-xxxx Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH 219 571-xxx-xxxx Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN 219 777-xxx-xxxx Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN 301 579-xxxx Hagerstown/Rockville, MD 301 958-xxxx Hagerstown/Rockville, MD 303 99x-xxxx Grand Junction, CO 304 998-xxxx WV 305 999-xxxx Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL 312 511-xxxx Chicago, IL 312 511-xxx-xxxx Chicago, IL 312 57?-xxxx Chicago, IL N 313 116-xxx-xxxx Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI (GTE) N 313 951-xxxx Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI 315 98x-xxxx Syracuse/Utica, NY 317 777-xxxx Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN 317 xxx-xxxx Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN (y=3rd digit of phone number) 319 79x-xxxx Davenport/Dubuque, Iowa 334 901-xxxx Montgomery, AL 401 98?-xxxx RI 404 450-xxxx Atlanta, GA 407 988-xxxx Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL 408 470-xxxx San Jose, CA 408 580-xxxx San Jose, CA 412 985-xxxx Pittsburgh, PA N 413 1983-xxxx Pittsfield/Springfield, MA 414 977-xxxx Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI 414 978-xxxx Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI 415 350-xxxx San Francisco, CA 417 551-xxxx Joplin/Springfield, MO N 501 221-xxxx Ft. Smith, AR (646 prefix) 501 221-xxx-xxxx AR N 501 780-xxxx Ft. Smith, AR (452 prefix) 502 988 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY 503 541-XXXX OR 504 99x-xxxx Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 504 9988776655 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA 505 59?-xxxx New Mexico 512 95X-xxxx Austin, TX 513 951-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH 513 955-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH 513 99?-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH (X=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 or 9) 515 559-XXXX Des Moines, IA N 516 660-xxxx Hempstead/Long Island, NY 516 660-xxx-xxxx Hempstead/Long Island, NY N 517 116-xxx-xxxx Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI (GTE) N 520 594-xxxx AZ 601 777-xxxx MS 603 981-xxxx NH 609 55?-xxxx Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ 610 811-xxxx Allentown/Reading, PA 612 511 Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN 612 999-xxx-xxxx Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN 614 998-xxxx Columbus/Steubenville, OH 615 920-XXXX Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN 615 930-xxxx Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN N 616 116-xxx-xxxx Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI (GTE) 616 946-xxxx Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI 619 331-xxxx San Diego, CA 619 332-xxxx San Diego, CA 659 981-XXXX Newmarket, NH 703 511-xxx-xxxx VA 703 958-xxxx Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA 708 511-xxxx Chicago/Elgin, IL 713 231-xxxx Los Angeles, CA 714 330? Anaheim, CA (GTE) 714 33?-xxxx Anaheim, CA (PacBell) 716 981-xxxx Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel) 718 660-xxxx Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY 719 99x-xxxx Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO 801 938-xxxx Utah 801 939-xxxx Utah 802 987-xxxx Vermont 804 260 Charlottesville/Newport News/Norfolk/Richmond, VA 805 114 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 805 980-xxxx Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA N 810 116-xxx-xxxx Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI (GTE) 810 951-xxx-xxxx Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI 813 711 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL 817 971 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX (Flashhook, then 2#) 818 915?-xxxx Pasadena, CA 864 999-xxx-xxxx Greenville/Spartanburg, SC N 906 116-xxx-xxxx Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI (GTE) 906 951-xxx-xxxx Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI 908 55?-xxxx New Brunswick, NJ 908 953 New Brunswick, NJ 913 951-xxxx Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS 914 660-xxxx-xxxx Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY Canada: 204 590-xxx-xxxx Manitoba N 403 999-xxx-xxxx Alberta, Yukon, and N.W. Territories 416 57x-xxxx Toronto, Ontario 416 99x-xxxx Toronto, Ontario 416 999-xxx-xxxx Toronto, Ontario 506 572+xxx-xxxx New Brunswick 514 320-xxx-xxxx Montreal, Quebec 519 999-xxx-xxxx London, Ontario 604 311-xxx-xxxx British Columbia N 604 871-xxx-xxxx British Columbia 613 999-xxx-xxxx Ottawa, Ontario 705 999-xxx-xxxx North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario 819 320-xxx-xxxx Quebec N 902 575-xxx-xxxx Halifax, Nova Scotia 905 999-xxx-xxxx Hamilton/Mississauga/Niagra Falls, Ontario N Argentina 115 Australia: +61 199 U Brazil: 109 France: 3644 Holland: 99-xxxxxx Malaysia 196 New Zealand: 137 Sweden: 0058 U United Kingdom: 174 or 1744 or 175 or 0500-89-0011 or 17070 + 1 Amsterdam 0196 Hilversum 0123456789 Breukelen 0123456789 Groningen 951 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-14. What is a loop? This FAQ answer is excerpted from: ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998 and 836-9999. They are used by the phone company for testing. What good do loops do us? Well, they are cool in a few ways. Here is a simple use of loops. Each loop has two ends, a 'high' end, and a 'low' end. One end gives a (usually) constant, loud tone when it is called. The other end is silent. Loops don't usually ring either. When BOTH ends are called, the people that called each end can talk through the loop. Some loops are voice filtered and won't pass anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you. Here's what you can use working loops for: billing phone calls! First, call the end that gives the loud tone. Then if the operator or someone calls the other end, the tone will go quiet. Act like the phone just rang and you answered it ... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or what the fuck ever. The operator thinks that she just called you, and that's it! Now the phone bill will go to the loop, and your local RBOC will get the bill! Use this technique in moderation, or the loop may go down. Loops are probably most useful when you want to talk to someone to whom you don't want to give your phone number. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-15. What is a loop in my area? Many (if not most) of these loops are no longer functional. If you are local to any of these loops, please try them out an e-mail me the results of your research. NPA High Low --- -------- -------- 201 666-9929 666-9930 208 862-9996 862-9997 213 365-1118 365-1119 308 357-0004 357-0005 310 455-0002 455-???? 310 546-0002 546-???? 312 262-9902 262-9903 (Editors note: Very odd sound) 313 224-9996 224-9997 313 225-9996 225-9997 313 234-9996 234-9997 313 237-9996 237-9997 313 256-9996 256-9997 313 272-9996 272-9997 313 273-9996 273-9997 313 277-9996 277-9997 313 281-9996 281-9997 313 292-9996 292-9997 313 299-9996 299-9997 313 321-9996 321-9997 313 326-9996 326-9997 313 356-9996 356-9997 313 362-9996 362-9997 313 369-9996 369-9997 313 388-9996 388-9997 313 397-9996 397-9997 313 399-9996 399-9997 313 445-9996 445-9997 313 465-9996 465-9997 313 471-9996 471-9997 313 474-9996 474-9997 313 477-9996 477-9997 313 478-9996 478-9997 313 483-9996 483-9997 313 497-9996 497-9997 313 526-9996 526-9997 313 552-9996 552-9997 313 556-9996 556-9997 313 561-9996 561-9997 313 569-9996 569-9996 313 575-9996 575-9997 313 577-9996 577-9997 313 585-9996 585-9997 313 591-9996 591-9997 313 621-9996 621-9997 313 626-9996 626-9997 313 644-9996 644-9997 313 646-9996 646-9997 313 647-9996 647-9997 313 649-9996 649-9997 313 663-9996 663-9997 313 665-9996 665-9997 313 683-9996 683-9997 313 721-9996 721-9997 313 722-9996 722-9997 313 728-9996 728-9997 313 731-9996 731-9997 313 751-9996 751-9997 313 776-9996 776-9997 313 781-9996 781-9997 313 787-9996 787-9997 313 822-9996 822-9997 313 833-9996 833-9997 313 851-9996 851-9997 313 871-9996 871-9997 313 875-9996 875-9997 313 886-9996 886-9997 313 888-9996 888-9997 313 898-9996 898-9997 313 934-9996 934-9997 313 942-9996 942-9997 313 963-9996 963-9997 313 977-9996 977-9997 315 673-9995 673-9996 315 695-9995 695-9996 406 225-9902 225-9903 408 238-0044 238-0045 408 773-0044 773-0045 N 501 753-4291 753-4297 517 422-9996 422-9997 517 423-9996 423-9997 517 563-9996 563-9997 517 663-9996 663-???? 517 851-9996 851-9997 613 966-1111 N 703 591-9994 713 342-1499 342-1799 713 351-1499 351-1799 713 354-1499 354-1799 713 356-1499 356-1799 713 442-1499 442-1799 713 447-1499 447-1799 713 455-1499 455-1799 713 458-1499 458-1799 713 462-1499 462-1799 713 466-1499 466-1799 713 468-1499 468-1799 713 469-1499 469-1799 713 471-1499 471-1799 713 481-1499 481-1799 713 482-1499 482-1799 713 484-1499 484-1799 713 487-1499 487-1799 713 489-1499 489-1799 713 492-1499 492-1799 713 493-1499 493-1799 713 524-1499 524-1799 713 526-1499 526-1799 713 555-1499 555-1799 713 661-1499 661-1799 713 664-1499 664-1799 713 665-1499 665-1799 713 666-1499 666-1799 713 667-1499 667-1799 713 682-1499 976-1799 713 771-1499 771-1799 713 780-1499 780-1799 713 781-1499 997-1799 713 960-1499 960-1799 713 977-1499 977-1799 713 988-1499 988-1799 719 598-0009 598-0010 805 528-0044 528-0045 805 544-0044 544-0045 805 773-0044 773-0045 808 235-9907 235-9908 808 239-9907 239-9908 808 245-9907 245-9908 808 247-9907 247-9908 808 261-9907 261-9908 808 322-9907 322-9908 808 328-9907 328-9908 808 329-9907 329-9908 808 332-9907 332-9908 808 335-9907 335-9908 808 572-9907 572-9908 808 623-9907 623-9908 808 624-9907 624-9908 808 668-9907 668-9908 808 742-9907 742-9908 808 879-9907 879-9908 808 882-9907 882-9908 808 885-9907 885-9908 808 959-9907 959-9908 808 961-9907 961-9908 810 362-9996 362-9997 813 385-9971 385-xxxx 847 724-9951 724-???? 908 254-9929 254-9930 908 558-9929 558-9930 908 560-9929 560-9930 908 776-9930 776-9930 N 916 221-0044 221-0045 // Voice filtered N 916 222-0044 222-0045 // Voice filtered --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-16. What is a CNA number? CNA stands for Customer Name and Address. The CNA number is a phone number for telephone company personnel to call and get the name and address for a phone number. If a telephone lineman finds a phone line he does not recognize, he can use the ANI number to find its phone number and then call the CNA operator to see who owns it and where they live. Normal CNA numbers are available only to telephone company personnel. Private citizens may legally get CNA information from private companies. Two such companies are: Cross-Reference Directories (900)288-3020 AT&T National Directory Assistance (900)555-1212 Telename (900)884-1212 Unidirectory (900)933-3330 Note that these are 900 numbers, and will cost you approximately one dollar per minute. If you are in 312, 708, or parts of 815, AmeriTech has a pay-for-play CNA service available to the general public. The number is 796-9600. The cost is $.35/call and can look up two numbers per call. If you are in 415, Pacific Bell offers a public access CNL service at (415)705-9299. If you are in Bell Atlantic territory you can call (201)555-5454 or (908)555-5454 for automated CNA information. The cost is $.50/call. The legal telephone company CNA for Ontario is 555-1313. You can fool (800)967-5356 into giving you a free CNA by requesting a free disk and then entering the number you want the adress for at the prompt. You can often social engineer CNA information out of telephone company employees or out of employees of other companies with CNA access. Here is a sample script that works if your target has ever ordered pizza from Domino's or Pizza Hut: Them: Hi, thanks for call, may I take your order please? You: Yes, I'd like 4 large pepperoni pizzas. Them: May I have your phone number please? You: <State your targets phone number here> Them: Is this 238 Ward Road? You: Yes ma'am. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-17. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area? 203 (203)771-8080 CT N 214 (214)744-9500 Southwestern Bell N 214 (214)745-7505 Southwestern Bell N 217 (217)789-8290 Ameritech (Illinois) 312 (312)796-9600 Chicago, IL 506 (506)555-1313 New Brunswick 513 (513)397-9110 Cincinnati/Dayton, OH 516 (516)321-5700 Hempstead/Long Island, NY 614 (614)464-0123 Columbus/Steubenville, OH 813 (813)270-8711 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL N 912 (912)752-2000 #1367 Albany/Savannah, GA NYNEX (518)471-8111 New York, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-18. What are some numbers that always ring busy? In the following listings, "xxx" means that the same number is used as a constantly busy number in many different prefixes. In most of these, there are some exchanges that ring busy and some exchanges that are in normal use. *ALWAYS* test these numbers at least three times during normal business hours before using as a constantly busy number. 800 999-1803 WATS 201 635-9970 Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ 212 724-9970 Manhattan, NY 213 xxx-1117 Los Angeles, CA 213 xxx-1118 Los Angeles, CA 213 xxx-1119 Los Angeles, CA 213 xxx-9198 Los Angeles, CA 216 xxx-9887 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH 303 431-0000 Denver, CO 303 866-8660 Denver, CO 310 xxx-1117 Long Beach, CA 310 xxx-1118 Long Beach, CA 310 xxx-1119 Long Beach, CA 310 xxx-9198 Long Beach, CA 316 952-7265 Dodge City/Wichita, KS 501 377-99xx AR N 518 571-xxxx Albany, NY 719 472-3772 Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO 805 255-0699 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 714 xxx-1117 Anaheim, CA 714 xxx-1118 Anaheim, CA 714 xxx-1119 Anaheim, CA 714 xxx-9198 Anaheim, CA 717 292-0009 Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA N 717 980-xxxx Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes Barre, PA 818 xxx-1117 Pasadena, CA 818 xxx-1118 Pasadena, CA 818 xxx-1119 Pasadena, CA 818 xxx-9198 Pasadena, CA 818 885-0699 Pasadena, CA (???-0699 is a pattern) 860 525-7078 Hartford, CT 906 632-9999 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI 906 635-9999 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-19. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service? If your NPA is not listed, or the listing does not cover your LATA, try common numbers such as 119 (GTD5 switches) or 511. N 209 999 Stockton/Fresno/Lodi, CA (100 seconds) N 313 xxx-9994 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI (Ameritech) (1 minute) 314 511 Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO (1 minute) 404 420 Atlanta, GA (5 minutes) 405 953 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK (1 minute) 407 511 Orlando, FL (United Telephone) (1 minute) 414 958-0013 Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI (1 minute) 512 200 Austin/Corpus Christi, TX (1 minute) 516 480 Hempstead/Long Island, NY (1 minute) N 517 xxx-9994 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI (Ameritech) (1 minute) N 518 958 Albany, NY (1 minute) 603 980 NH 614 xxx-9894 Columbus/Steubenville, OH N 616 xxx-9994 Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI (Ameritech) (1 minute) 805 119 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (3 minutes) 807 211 Thunder Bay, Ontario (3 minutes) N 810 xxx-9994 Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI (Ameritech) (1 minute) N 906 xxx-9994 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI (Ameritech) (1 minute) 919 211 or 511 Durham, NC (10 min - 1 hour) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-20. What is a Proctor Test Set? A Proctor Test Set is a tool used by telco personnel to diagnose problems with phone lines. You call the Proctor Test Set number and press buttons on a touch tone phone to active the tests you select. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-21. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area? If your NPA is not listed try common numbers such as 111 or 117. 805 111 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA 909 117 Tyler, TX 913 611-1111 Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-22. What is scanning? Scanning is dialing a large number of telephone numbers in the hope of finding anything interesting. Interesting items often include test tones, computers, Voice Message Boxes (VMB's), Private Branch Exchanges (PBX's), and government offices. Scanning can be done by hand, although dialing several thousand telephone numbers by hand is extremely boring and takes a long time. Much better is to use a scanning program, sometimes called a war dialer or a demon dialer. Currently, the best war dialer available to PC-DOS users is ToneLoc from Minor Threat and Mucho Maas. ToneLoc can be ftp'd from ftp.paranoia.com /pub/toneloc/. For the Macintosh, try Assault Dialer. A war dialer will dial a range of numbers and log what it finds at each number. You can then only dial up the numbers that the war dialer marked as carriers or tones. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-23. Is scanning illegal? Excerpt from: 2600, Spring 1990, Page 27: -BQ- In some places, scanning has been made illegal. It would be hard, though, for someone to file a complaint against you for scanning since the whole purpose is to call every number once and only once. It's not likely to be thought of as harassment by anyone who gets a single phone call from a scanning computer. Some central offices have been known to react strangely when people start scanning. Sometimes you're unable to get a dialtone for hours after you start scanning. But there is no uniform policy. The best thing to do is to first find out if you've got some crazy law saying you can't do it. If, as is likely, there is no such law, the only way to find out what happens is to give it a try. -EQ- It should be noted that a law making scanning illegal was recently passed in Colorado Springs, CO. It is now illegal to place a call in Colorado Springs without the intent to communicate. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-24. How can I make a lineman's handset? This FAQ answer was written by Phucked Agent 04: This is the "right hand" of both the professional and the amatuer lineman. Basically, it is a customized portable telephone which is designed to be hooked onto raw cable terminals in the field and used to monitor the line, talk, or dial out. The monitor function is usually the main difference between the "butt-in" test set and the normal phone. If you don't have a real test set already, the following circuit can convert a normal $4 made-in-taiwan phone into a working test set. The "all-in-one" handset units without bases are the best (I tend to like QUIK's and GTE Flip Phone II's). Anyway- OFFICIAL Agent 04 Generic Test Set Modification (tm) Ring >---------------------------------> to "test set" phone Tip >------! SPST Switch !--------> !-----/ ----------! >from !-------/!/!/!/!--! C = 0.22 uF 200 WVDC Mylar cable pair ! C R ! R = 10 kOhm 1/2 W (alligators) !--! (------------! SPST = Talk / Monitor When SPST is closed, you are in talk mode; when you lift the switch- hook on the "test set" phone, you will get a dial tone as if you were a standard extension of the line you are on. You will be able to dial out and receive calls. When the SPST is opened, the resistor and capacitor are no longer shunted, and they become part of the telephone circuit. When you lift the switchhook on the test set, you will not receive dial tone, due to the fact that the cap blocks DC, and the resistor passes less than 4 mA nominally (far below the amount necessary to saturate the supervisory ferrod on ESS or close the line relay on any other switch). However, you will be able to silently monitor all audio on the line. The cap reactance + the phone's impedance insure that you won't cut the signal too much on the phone line, which might cause a noticeable change (..expedite the shock force, SOMEONE'S ON MY LINE!!). It's also good to have a VOM handy when working outside to rapidly check for active lines or supervision states. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-25. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset? Contact East 335 Willow Street North Andover, MA 01845-5995 (508)682-2000 Jensen Tools 7815 S. 46th Street Phoenix, AZ 85044-5399 (800)426-1194 Specialized Products 3131 Premier Drive Irving, TX 75063 (800)866-5353 Time Motion Tools 12778 Brookprinter Place Poway, CA 92064 (619)679-0303 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-26. What are the DTMF frequencies? DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency. These are the tones you get when you press a key on your telephone touch pad. The tone of the button is the sum of the column and row tones. The ABCD keys do not exist on standard telephones. 1209hz 1336hz 1477hz 1633hz 697hz 1 2 3 A 770hz 4 5 6 B 852hz 7 8 9 C 941hz * 0 # D --------------------------------------------------------------------------- C-27. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones? Many of these tones are no longer used and are mentioned here only for historical accuracy. Low Tone ~~~~~~~~ This is a generic tone used with various interruption patterns for specific tones listed below and described under their own titles: Line Busy Tone Reorder RevertingTone No Circuit Tone No Such Number Vacant Code Group Busy Tone Deposit Coin Tone Vacant Position Tone Dial Off-Normal Tone Trouble Tone Dial Jack Tone Dial Test Signal Class of Service Low Tone 480 Hz and 620 Hz at -24 dBm0/frequency. On some systems manufactured before 1974, Low Tone was 600 Hz modulated at 120, 133, 140 or 160 Hz at 61 - 71 dBrnC. High Tone ~~~~~~~~~ This is a generic tone used with various interruption patterns for the specific tones listed below and described under their own titles: Partial Dial Tone Permanent Signal Coin Return (Test) Tone Coin Return Tone Number Checking Tone Intercepting Loopback Tone Warning Tone Order Tone Station Ringer Test Class of Service High Tone 480 Hz at -17 dBm0. On some systems manufactured before 1974, High Tone was 400 Hz or 500 Hz at 61 - 71 dBrnC. Dial Tone ~~~~~~~~~ This tone is sent to a customer or operator to indicate that the receiving end is ready to receive dial pulses or DTMF signals. It is used in all types of dial offices when dial pulses are produced by the customer's or operator's dials. Normally dial tone means that the entire wanted number may be dialed; however, there are some cases where the calling party must await a second dial tone or where an operator, after dialing an initial group of digits, must wait for a second dial tone before the rest of the number can be dialed. Some dialing switchboards are arranged to permit listening for dial tone between certain digits. Dial Tone is 350 Hz and 440 Hz held steady at -13 dBm0/frequency. Audible Ring Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This is a ringing indication which is intercepted by the calling party to mean that the called line has been reached and that the ringing has started. It is also used on calls to operators (special service, long distance, intercepting, etc) during the "awaiting-operator-answer" interval. Audible Ring Tone is 440 Hz and 480 Hz for 2 seconds on and 4 seconds off at -13 dBm0/frequency. Line Busy Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Line Busy Tine indicates that the called customer's line has been reached but that it is busy or being rung or on permanent signal. When a line busy signal is applied by an operator, it is sometimes calls a busy-back tone. Line Busy Tone is Low Tone on and off every .5 seconds. Reorder ~~~~~~~ Reorder indicates that the local or toll switching or transmission paths to the office or equipment serving the called customer is busy. This signal may indicate a condition such as a timed-out sender or unassigned code dialed. It is interpreted by either a customer or an operator as a reorder signal. Reorder on a local call is Low Tone for .3 seconds on and .2 seconds off. Reorder on a toll call is Low Tone for .2 seconds on and .3 seconds off. In No. 5 crossbar, No. 1/1A ESS, No. 2/2B ESS switching equipment and No. 1 step-by-step offices using the Precise Tone Plan, the temporal pattern is 0.25 second of low tone and 0.25 second off. Alerting Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Indicates that an operator has connected to the line (emergency interrupt on a busy line during a verification call). Alerting Tone is 440 Hz on for 2 seconds and then on again for .5 seconds every ten seconds. Recorder Warning Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When recording equipment is used, this tone is connected to the line to inform the distant party that the conversation is bveing recorded. The tone source is located within the recording equipment and cannot be controlled by the party applying the recording equipment to the line. This tone is required by law and is recorded along with the speech. Recorder Warning Tone is a .5 second burst at 1400 Hz every 15 seconds. Recorder Connected Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used to inform the customer that his/her call is connected to a recording machine and that he/she should proceed to leave a message, dictate, etc. It is to be distinguished from the recorder warning tone, which warns the customer that his/her 2-way conversation is being recorded. Recorder Warning Tone is a .5 second burst at 440 Hz every 5 seconds. Reverting Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The same type of signal as line busy tone is used for reverting tone in all systems. In No. 5 crossbar systems, a second dial tone is sometimes also used when a calling party identification digit is required. The reverting signal informs the calling subscriber that the called party is on the same line and that he/she should hang up while the line is being rung. Reverting Tone is is Low Tone on and off every .5 seconds at -24 dBm0/frequency. Deposit Coin Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone, sent from a Community Dial Office to a post-pay coin telephone, informs the calling party that the called party has answered and that the coin should be deposited. Deposit Coin Tone is a steady Low Tone. Receiver Off-Hook Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used to cause off-hook customers to replace the receiver on-hook on a permanent signal call and to signal a non-PBX off-hook line when ringing key is operated by a switchboard operator. Receiver Off-Hook Tone is 1400 Hz, 2060 Hz, 2450 Hz and 2600 Hz at 0 dBm0/frequency on and off every .1 second. On some older space division switching systems Receiver Off-Hook was 1400 Hz, 2060 Hz, 2450 Hz and 2600 Hz at +5 VU on and off every .1 second. On a No. 5 ESS this continues for 30 seconds. On a No. 2/2B ESS this continues for 40 seconds. On some other AT&T switches there are two iterations of 50 seconds each. Howler ~~~~~~ This tone is used in older offices to inform a customer that their receiver is off-hook. It has been superseded by the receiver off-hook tone. Howler was a 480 Hz tone incremented in volume every second for ten seconds until it reaches +40 VU. Partial Dial Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ High-tone is used to notify the calling party that he/she has not commenced dialing within a preallotted time, measured after receipt of dial tone (permanent signal condition), or that he/she has not dialed enough digits (partial dial condition). This is a signal to hang up and dial again. Partial Dial Tone is a steady High Tone. No Such Number a.k.a. "Cry Baby" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This signal tells the calling party to hang up, check the called number, and dial again. In modern systems, calls to unassigned or discontinued numbers will also be routed to a machine announcement system, such as 6A or 7A, which verbally supplies the require message. In some older offices, you could be routed to an intercepting operator. In some offices, reorder tone is returned in this condition. No Such Number is 200 to 400 Hz modulated at 1 Hz, interrupted every 6 seconds for .5 seconds. Vacant Code ~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used in crossbar systems to indicate that the dialed office code is unassigned. In step-by-step areas, this signal is called vacant level tone. For operator-originated calls, the verbal announcement is preceeded by two flashes. In modern systems, recorded verbal announcements are used for this service. Vacant Code is Low Tone for .5 seconds on, .5 seconds off, .5 seconds of and 1.5 seconds off. Busy Verification Tone (Centrex) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Busy verification is a Centrex feature that allows the attendant to call and be connected to a busy Centrex station within the attendant's customer group. The busy verification tone is applied to both parties of the connection to inform them of the intrusion by the attendant. No tone is applied if the station called for busy verification is idle. Busy Verification Tone (Centrex) is 440 Hz at -13 dBm0 for 1.5 seconds and then again for .3 seconds every 7.5 to 10 seconds. On a No. 1/1A ESS, Busy Verification Tone (Centrex) is 440 Hz at -13 dBm0 for 1.5 seconds and then again for .3 seconds every 6 seconds. There is also a TSPS Busy Verification tone, which is 440 Hz at -13 dBm0 for 2 seconds and then on again for .5 seconds every 10 seconds. Call Waiting Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Call Waiting is a special service that allows a busy line to answer an incoming call by flashing the switchhook. Audible ring (instead of line busy) is applied to the calling line, and the Call Waiting tone is applied to the called line. (So that only the called party hears the tone, the connection is momentarily broken, and the other party to that connection experiences a moment of silence.) Flashing the switchhook places the existing connection on hold and connects the customer to the waiting call. Call Waiting Tone is two bursts of 440 Hz at -13 dBm0/frequency for .3 seconds plus or minus ten percent every ten seconds. Confirmation Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used to acknowledge receipt by automatic equipment of information necessary for special services. It is currently used for: (1) Speed Calling - dialed number has been recorded (2) Call Forwarding - dialed number has been recorded and service is activated (3) Call Forwarding - service is deactivated Confirmation Tone is 350 Hz and 440 Hz at -13 dBm0/frequency on for .1 second, off for .1 second and then on for .3 seconds. Indication of Camp-On ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Attendant camp-on service allows an electronic switching system Centrex attendant to hold incoming calls to busy lines. Each time the attendant releases his/her talking connection from the loop involved in the camped-on call, the indication of camp-on tone is heard by the called customer if the customer has subscribed to the indication of camp-on option. The customer may get this tone several times as the attendant reconnects and releases from the loop in response to timed reminders from the console. Indication of Camp On is 440 Hz at -13 dBm0 for one second every time the attendant releases from the loop. Special Dial Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used with Three-Way Calling, Centrex station dial transfer, and Centrex conference (station or attendant) services. The user on an existing connection flashes the switchhook, receives special dial tone, and dials number of the third party to be added to the connection. Special Dial Tone is 350 Hz and 440 Hz at -13 dBm0/frequency for .1 second on, .1 second off, .1 second on, .1 second off, .1 second on, .1 second off, and then on steady. Priority Audible Ring (AUTOVON) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone replaces normal audible ring for priority calls within the AUTOVON network. Priority Audible Ring is 440 Hz and 480 Hz at -16 dBm0/frequency on for 1.65 seconds and off for .35 seconds. Preemption Tone (AUTOVON) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is provided to both parties of a connection that is preempted by a priority call from the AUTOVON network. Preemption Tone is 440 Hz and 620 Hz at -18 dBm0/frequency steady for anywhere from three to fifteen seconds. Data Set Answer Back Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This set is heard when manually initiating a data call. It normally occurs shortly after the start of audible ringing and means that the remote data set has answered. The data set at the calling end should then be put into the data mode. Data Set Answer Back Tone is 2025 Hz steady at -13 dBm. Calling Card Service Prompt Tone ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This tone is used to inform the customer that his/her credit card information must be keyed in. The first 60 milliseconds of this composite tone is 941 Hz abd 1477 Hz which is the DTMF '#'. This tone will release and DTMF to dial pulse converter in the conneciton. Calling Card Service Prompt Tone is 941 Hz and 1477 Hz at -10 dBm0/frequency at -3 Transmission Level Point for 60 milliseconds and then 440 Hz and 350 Hz at -7 dBm0 for .940 seconds exponentially decayed from -10 dBm per frequency at -3 Transmission Level Point at time constant of .2 seconds. Class of Service ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ These signals are used at a toll board operating as an 'A" board to identify the class or service of the calling customer. The indication may be high, low, or no tone. Class of Service is a single burst of either High Tone or Low Tone for .05 to 1 seconds. Dial-Normal Transmission Signal